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What is Usability?

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Article

What is Usability?

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The paper relates different approaches to usability based on the product, the user, ease-of-use, actual usage and the context of use; and proposes that usability should be defined as the ease of use and acceptability of a product for a particular class of users carrying out specific tasks in a specific environment. Criterion levels for measure- ments of attitude and user performance determine whether the design of the product is successful in achieving usability. Diagnostic evaluation of usability problems may be based on analysis of user interaction or comparison of product attributes with guidelines.

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... Four different views on human computer interaction to measure interactive qualities currently exists (cf. [1], [17]). (1) The interaction-oriented view: usability quality is measured in terms of how the user interacts with the product ("usability testing"). ...
... [1], [17]). (1) The interaction-oriented view: usability quality is measured in terms of how the user interacts with the product ("usability testing"). This view is the most common one. ...
... Tab. 1): (1) nominal scale (to classify or grouping interfaces), (2) ordinal scale (to compare different types of interfaces and to put categories in order), (3) interval scale (meaningful measure of the distance between categories), and (4) rational scale (interval scale with an absolute null) (cf. [12]). ...
... A method is made on this issue is that they experiment the user's behaviour when user search for According to this research usability issues overcome by replacing website according to user friendly design and by measuring the usability. Usability measure in three terms, first to determine what will be the attribute of the website, second usability measured by determining what will be user behavior and mental effort when use the website third usability checked how the user interact with the website,what will user perceive when using a website (Bevan, Kirakowski, & Maissel, 1991).To improve the usability of the website , regarding this research observers try to analyze the behavior of the user . ...
... A website cannot be consider best before it is evaluated by the user but have some features that determine the behavior of the user, including all the features that imagine useful for the user within the website design. Quality of the website is the key point for the user in best usable websites (Bevan, Kirakowski, & Maissel, 1991). ...
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In this research we identify the usability issues, website does not meet the user need it is not best approach of web usability. Website that contain the structure of a particular domain, business but does not fulfil the user's objective it is major usability issue of website. These websites will also not fulfil the organizations need. For web usability first of all the website must be user friendly. The objectives of the website must be clearly define. Short links given for user to easily access the website. Website contain some features, to use the website and their features some key points must be clearly define to reduce the usability issue. Navigation bar must contain some common links that the user fined in all websites .All links must be cover their title which provide the user access to fulfil the needs. Website establishment must provide guidelines for writing styles, for navigation bar, page design and for short links that provide the better usability to user. In all website criteria maintenance is very important for better usability. Also monitoring helps to reduce the usability issues of a website
... There are many scholars gave their thought in defining the term of usability in the system design. Usability is originally derived from the word "user-friendly" [55] however, the term had gained a large group of vague and subjective intentions and accordingly the expression of "usability" was recommended to supplant this term [56]. Recently, the term of "usability" has been defined as the quality of use [57] which it can rather be measured as the result of interaction in a context that the resources, for example, time, cash or mental exertion that must be exhausted to accomplish the objectives (effectiveness) and the extent to which user finds the whole system worthy (satisfaction) [58]. ...
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Recent years we have witnessed major advancements in technologies that support the children that have been diagnosed with the autism by the increasing number of the application to enhance their ability in communication, understanding and interface with others. There are increasing numbers of a new mobile application that can be found on the market today, unfortunately, many of them are difficult to use and learn by the autistic children. This is due to the lack of usability guidelines for mobile application and relatively unexplored and unproven. This research will propose usability guidelines for interface design of mobile application for autism. The objectives of this research are to identify existing usability factors that have been currently used to design the interface of mobile application for autism and to review the usability guideline to design the interface of mobile application for autism. This project will be conducted in three phases and mixed method involving observation and interview will be applied. The finding of this study is to identify compatible usability elements for designing mobile application user interface for autistic children.
... Part 11 gives the following definition of usability: ,,Usability is measured by the extent to which the intended goals of use of the overall system are achieved (effectiveness); the resources that have to be expended to achieve the intended goals (efficiency); and the extent to which the user finds the overall system acceptable (satisfaction)." For a more detailed discussion of the term usability see (Bevan 1995). Effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction can be seen as quality factors of usability. ...
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User interface design is a central issue for the usability of a software product. In this chapter, general requirements referring to the international software ergonomics stan-dardization and specific design features for the user interface of learning systems are pre-sented. Orientation and feedback for the learner are the most relevant issues of interface design of learning systems. Information presentation methods appropriate for learning are proposed. Contextualization of learner support by individualized interfaces, by active and sit-uated learning means, and contextual on-line help are proposed. Reflection during and after the design and development of an interface are recommended.
... The application of usability to computer-mediated environments has primarily focused on users' ease of use, ease of navigation, efficiency and effectiveness in the computer-mediated environment (Nielsen, 2000). There has been considerable research done on identifying measures for evaluating the usability of websites and software products (Nielsen, 2000;Bevan et al., 1991;Chin et al., 1988;Lewis, 1995;Tullis and Stetson, 2004). ...
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This paper reports on an exploratory study that examined the impact of patients' sociability and usability experience in an online health community and their impact on their attitude towards the healthcare organisation (HCO) that runs the online community. The study data was collected from the online community of a healthcare programme called Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS) run by the Centre for Health Enhancement Support Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The study results validate the hypotheses and show that it is important for any HCO to evaluate patients' sociability and usability experience in its online health community since the experience can impact patients' attitudes towards the HCO and its services.
... Los términos usabilidad y calidad en uso han estado empleándose como sinónimos en la comunidad de Ingeniería de Software y Web por un largo período. En una encuesta donde se repasa el uso del término usabilidad bajo distintos enfoques Folmer et al [6] afirman, citando a Bevan et al [2], que el término usabilidad tiene su origen en el concepto de "user friendly", pero que esta frase fue adquiriendo un sentido vago y subjetivo, sugiriéndose el término usabilidad para reemplazarla. Luego usabilidad fue definida como una característica principal de la calidad de un producto de software en el estándar 9126 [10] y fue ampliada también en el estándar 9126-1, esta vez con calidad en uso, que ofrece una idea más amplia y completa de calidad que usabilidad. ...
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En el artículo se propone un enfoque cuantitativo para medir y evaluar calidad en uso, o sea la calidad percibida por los usuarios en contextos reales de uso, para aplicaciones software/Web. La propuesta metodológica está guiada por un marco de medición y evaluación, que a su vez se basa en una ontología de métricas e indicadores. Se ilustra la propuesta con un caso de estudio de evaluación de calidad en uso para una aplicación e-Learning. Se analizan los datos obtenidos y se arrojan conclusiones finales.
... The usability of the mouse systems was assessed in terms of objective device efficiency and subjective user satisfaction based on the European ESPRIT MUSIC performance metrics method [3,15] and the recommendations outlined in the ISO 9241 Part 11 'Guidance on Usability' International Standard [ 19]. These metrics were defined as follows: ...
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This paper quantifies the benefits and usability problems associated with eye-based pointing direct interaction on a standard graphical user interface. It shows where and how, with the addition of a second supporting modality, the typically poor performance and subjective assessment of eye-based pointing devices can be improved to match the performance of other assistive technology devices. It shows that target size is the overriding factor affecting device performance and that when target sizes are artificially increased by 'zooming in' on the interface under the control of a supporting modality then eye-based pointing becomes a viable and usable interaction methodology for people with high-level motor disabilities.
... The usability of the two pointing devices was assessed in terms of objective device performance and subjective device satisfaction based on the European ESPRIT MUSiC performance metrics method [3,11] and the recommendations outlined in the ISO 9241 Part 11 'Guidance on Usability' International Standard [18]. From these, performance was defined as 'The quality of interaction with the device and the time taken to perform that interaction' and satisfaction was defined as 'The subjective acceptability of the device, expressed in terms of user workload and comfort when using the device and the ease of use of the device'. ...
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This paper examines and compares the usability problems associated with eye-based and head-based assistive technology pointing devices when used for direct manipulation on a standard graphical user interface. It discusses and examines the pros and cons of eye-based pointing in comparison to the established assistive technology technique of head-based pointing, and illustrates the usability factors responsible for the apparent low usage or 'unpopularity' of eye-based pointing. It shows that user experience and target size on the interface are the predominant factors affecting eye-based pointing and suggests that these could be overcome to enable eye-based pointing to be a viable and available direct manipulation interaction technique for the motor-disabled community.
... The Star Tree showed even the tendency of advantages at larger data structures. The finding, that the subjective appraisal went the inverse way and subjects tended to assess the Tree Browser slightly better than the Star Tree is remarkable, since the subjective appraisal is seen as an important part of usability (Bevan, Kirakowski & Maissel, 1991). Amazing is also the finding, that experts did not show significantly better results than novices. ...
... One of the main problems of standards (e.g., DIN 66234, ISO 9241 Part 10) to quantify software quality of usability is, that they can not be measured in product features [11] . Four different views on human computer interaction to measure interactive qualities currently exists (cf. [1], [17]). (1) The interaction-oriented view: usability quality is measured in terms of how the user interacts with the product ("usability testing"). ...
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... De même, nous voulons tester l'utilisabilité (Bevan et al., 1991) du système parce que si celle-ci n'est pas assurée dans le jeu, les efforts des joueurs porteront sur la manière d'utiliser l'interface et ne seront plus concentrés sur le contenu du jeu (Olsen et al., 2011). Pour tester l'utilisabilité, nous nous baserons sur un questionnaire distribué aux joueurs après avoir participé aux expériences (Brooke, 1996). ...
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By examining the interface between consumer behavior and new product development, People and Products: Consumer Behavior and Product Design demonstrates the ways in which consumers contribute to product design, enhance product utility, and determine brand identity. With increased connectedness and advances in technology, consumers and marketers are more closely connected than ever before. Yet consumer behavior texts often overlook the application of the subject to product design, testing, and success. This is the first book to explore this interface in detail, exploring such issues as: • the attributes and qualities that consumers demand from products and services, and social and cultural forces to be aware of; • design and form and how they facilitate product usage; • technological developments and the ways they have changed how consumers interact with products; • product disposal and sustainability; • emerging and future trends in consumer behavior and product development and design. This exciting volume is relevant to anyone interested in marketing, consumer behavior, product development, technology, engineering, design, and brand management.
Article
The smartphone market is nowadays highly competitive. When buying a new device, users focus on visual esthetics, ergonomics, performance, and user experience, among others. Assessing usability issues allows improving these aspects. One popular method for detecting usability problems is heuristic evaluation, in which evaluators employ a set of usability heuristics as guide. Using proper heuristics is highly relevant. In this paper we present SMASH, a set of 12 usability heuristics for smartphones and mobile applications, developed iteratively. SMASH (previously named TMD: Usability heuristics for Touchscreen-based Mobile Devices) was experimentally validated. The results support its utility and effectiveness.
Article
Full-text available
This study identified practitioner-reported barriers to and enablers of usability in the development of electronic consumer products. Barriers and enablers are properties, situations, or conditions in the product development process, team, or context that negatively or positively influence the usability of a product. Based on a review of literature on user-centered design (UCD) and exploratory expert interview, central concepts for studying usability in practice were identified. This was used as input for the case study, which was conducted at 5 product development groups in large multinationals, making 1) portable audio/video players, 2) personal navigation devices, 3) cellphones, 4) laundry care products, and 5) home control products. Data were primarily collected through interviews with 31 product development practitioners. Based on the data collected, case descriptions were created and more than 1500 barriers and enablers were identified, categorized, and analyzed. The results of the study are 23 sets of barriers and enablers, of which it is indicated in which of the cases they occur, and accompanied with illustrative quotations from the interviewees. In barriers and enablers, a predominantly “outside-in” relation was observed, from the more external properties of companies (market, company organization) to the more internal (process, team, project). This seems to indicate that the user-centeredness of a product development process is highly influenced by the context in which it is executed. The results also lead to the conclusion that if the goal is to make usable products, one cannot only address activities that are generally considered typical of UCD, such as conducting user research and user testing. One also has to take into account how these activities are integrated with and supported by the rest of the product development process, which in turn has to be supported by the product development organization.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the evaluation results from evaluation of the Espírito Santo Federal University - Ufes Student’s Portal, regarding the Usability and Information Quality. It was analyzed 900 answers obtained through an electronic questionnaire given to 18,473 users, answered during the steps of application and adjustment of registration for the semester 2014/1. In the proposed research model, the Usability is composed of six dimensions (Learnability, Memorability, Efficiency, Satisfaction, Errors Support and Utility). It was found that all dimensions, except for Learnability, affect the respondents’ perception in regards to Information Quality of the Portal. The Satisfaction was the most influential dimension. Respondents were classified into three distinct groups, according to the evaluation of the Usability of Portal, aiming to understand and meet to different demands of these users. It was concluded that the Ufes Student’s Portal, although still has opportunities for improvement, was rated above average as the Information Quality and Usability. Among the dimensions of Usability, the Satisfaction dimension obtained good evaluation, which indicates that the Portal has fulfilled its function to meet the information needs of students.
The analysis of software use can be applied to improve the design of new software applications. The orientation adopted is to analyse constraints of use through direct observations in real work situations. Problems of observation and protocol analysis are discussed. In order to give input to the design process as early as possible, analysis is conducted in existing situations, on prototypes and then on the new software. Three examples of ergonomics input to design projects are presented.
Book
This report offers guidelines for design of user interface software in six functional areas: data entry, data display, sequence control, user guidance, data transmission, and data protection. This report revises and extends previous compilations of design guidelines (cf. Smith and Mosier, 1984a). If you are a teacher, a student, a human factors practitioner or researcher, these guidelines can serve as a starting point for the development and application of expert knowledge. But that is not the primary objective of this compilation. The guidelines are proposed here as a potential tool for designers of user interface software. If you are a system analyst, you can review these guidelines to establish design requirements. If you are a software designer, you can consult these guidelines to derive the specific design rules appropriate for your particular system application. That translation from general guidelines to specific rules will help focus attention on critical user interface design questions early in the design process. If you are a manager responsible for user interface software design, you may find in these guidelines a means to make the design process more efficient. Guidelines can help establish rules for coordinating individual design contributions, can help to make design decisions just once rather than leaving them to be made over and over again by individual designers, can help to define detailed design requirements and to evaluate user interface software in comparison with those requirements. The design of user interface software will often involve a considerable investment of time and effort. Design guidelines can help ensure the value of that investment.
Article
A survey was conducted of people who had received a report on guidelines for designing user interface software. Analysis of questionnaire responses indicates that respondents considered guidelines useful, that they have used guidelines in various stages of design, and that they plan to use guidelines again. However, respondents also reported significant problems in the practical application of guidelines. Respondents had difficulty locating relevant guidelines within the report, choosing which guidelines would actually be used, establishing priorities among the selected guidelines, and translating generally worded guidelines into specific design rules.
Article
This chapter discusses the user's experience and evolution of usability engineering. Usability engineering starts with a commitment to action in the world. It seeks to capture user experience within a context situated in user work and in a form useful for engineering. Usability engineering provides operationally defined criteria so that usability objectives can be used to drive an efficient and productive engineering effort, and it can lead to production of systems that are experienced by users as usable and that serve as a basis for the next generation of systems. When a system is built and delivered to users, interaction with it would affect user experience and would shift the background against which users evaluate that system in comparison with other systems. Therefore, as systems are built that provide new functionality with new levels of usability, the expectations of users would shift so that the whole cycle should begin again.
Techniques for predicting usability
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Bösser T (1991) Techniques for predicting usability. In: Bullinger (1991).
Standards relevant to European Directives for display terminals
  • N Bevan
Bevan N (1991) Standards relevant to European Directives for display terminals. In: Bullinger (1991).
Evaluation of dialog systems
  • R Oppermann
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Oppermann R, Murchner B, Paetau M, Pieper M, Simm H, Stellmacher I (1989) Evaluation of dialog systems. GMD, St Augustin, Germany.
Indicators of usability based on performance
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Rengger (1991) Indicators of usability based on performance. In: Bullinger (1991).
The value of psychophysiological measures in humancomputer interaction
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Wiethoff M, Arnold AG, Houwing EM (1991) The value of psychophysiological measures in humancomputer interaction. In: Bullinger (1991).
Software product evaluation -Quality characteristics and guidelines for their use
ISO (1991b) Software product evaluation -Quality characteristics and guidelines for their use, ISO DIS 9126.
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals, ISO 9241. ISO (1991b) Software product evaluation -Quality characteristics and guidelines for their use
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ISO (1991a) Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals, ISO 9241. ISO (1991b) Software product evaluation -Quality characteristics and guidelines for their use, ISO DIS 9126.
Evaluating the usability of human-computer interfaces. Ellis Horwood, Chichester. Rengger (1991) Indicators of usability based on performance
  • R Oppermann
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Oppermann R, Murchner B, Paetau M, Pieper M, Simm H, Stellmacher I (1989) Evaluation of dialog systems. GMD, St Augustin, Germany. Ravden and Johnson (1989) Evaluating the usability of human-computer interfaces. Ellis Horwood, Chichester. Rengger (1991) Indicators of usability based on performance. In: Bullinger (1991).
Usability engineering: our experience and evolution
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Whiteside J, Bennett J, Holzblatt K (1988) Usability engineering: our experience and evolution. In: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, M Helander (ed). Elsevier.