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The Challenge of Problem-Based Learning

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... Soon after, medical schools around the world began to adopt the McMaster model. In these cases, PBL is an approach to structuring the curriculum that involves confronting students with problems from practice which provide a stimulus for learning (Boud and Feletti, 1991). However, there are many possible forms that a curriculum and process for teaching and learning might take and still be compatible with this definition (Boud and Feletti, 1991). ...
... In these cases, PBL is an approach to structuring the curriculum that involves confronting students with problems from practice which provide a stimulus for learning (Boud and Feletti, 1991). However, there are many possible forms that a curriculum and process for teaching and learning might take and still be compatible with this definition (Boud and Feletti, 1991). For example, educational and professional schools also began to feel many of the same needs as medical schools, so they began to adopt the approach as well, although in different forms, such as hybrid PBL and traditional curricula and course-by-course models; again the approach spread to institutions around the world. ...
... They also wanted students who could think critically, solve problems, and work in teams. PBL has been applied globally in a variety of professional schools (Boud and Feletti, 1991;Gijselaers, Tempelaar, Keizer, Blommaert, Bernard andKasper 1995;Wilkerson and Gijselaers, 1996), such as architecture (Donaldson, 1989;Maitland, 1998), business administration (Merchand, 1995), chemical engineering (Woods, 1996), engineering studies (Cawley, 1989), law schools (Boud and Feletti, 1991;Kurtz et al., 1990;Pletinckx and Segers, 2001), leadership education (Bridges and Hallinger, 1996;Cunningham and Cordeiro, 2003), nursing (Barnard et al., 2005;Higgins, 1994). Also PBL has been applied in social work (Bolzan and Heycox, 1998), and teacher education (Oberlander and Talbert-Johnson, 2004). ...
Thesis
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The traditional instructional strategies employed by most physics teachers in teaching the subject has consistently led to low student achievement. Hence there is need to employ new instructional strategies such as problem-based learning (PBL) and inter�active invention (IIS) instructional strategies, particularly, among the NCE pre-service teachers in Nigeria. The two strategies have been proved in the literature to help in alleviating the problem of low student achievement in physics, but they have not been adopted in the teaching of physics in Nigerian Colleges of Education. This study, therefore, ascertained the effects of problem–based learning and interactive invention instructional strategies on NCE pre-service teachers‘ achievement in physics and acquisition of science process skills. A pretest-posttest, control-group, quasi–experimental research design with a 3x3x2 factorial matrix was used. Three state and three federal colleges of education from South-western Nigeria were purposively selected. Ninety eight female and 94 male final year NCE physics students with high, medium and low self-efficacy constituted the sample. One state and one federal college of Education were used for each of the two experimental groups and the control group. The Instruments used were: Physics Achievement Test (r=0.875), Students‘ Physics Self–Efficacy Questionnaire (r=0.956), Science Proces Skills Worksheets (SPSW), Classroom Activities Rating Scale (r=0.820), Teachers‘ Instructional Guides for Problem-Based Learning Strategy (PBLS), Interactive Invention Strategy (IIS) and Conventional Lecture Method (CLM). Three research questions were answered and seven null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data were analysed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), Multiple Clasification Analysis (MCA) and Scheffe post hoc analysis. Treatment had a significant main effect on pre-service teachers’ achievement in physics concepts (F(2,174) = 43.44, P <.05) and science process skills acquisition (F(2,175) = 183.80, P <.05). In achievement in physics concepts, students exposed to problem�based learning obtained a higher achievement score ( =51.98) than those exposed to interactive invention instructional strategy ( =40.32) and the conventional lec�ture method ( =30.23). Those exposed to problem-based learning instructional strategy obtained higher science process skills scores ( =73.67) than those exposed UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN LIBRARY to interactive invention instructional strategy ( =60.21) and conventional lecture method ( =26.73). There was no significant main effect of gender on pre-service teachers’ achievement in physics (F (1 174) = .026 P > .05) and acquisition of science process skills (F (1,175) = .361, P >.05). The three-way interactions of treatment, self�efficacy and gender showed a significant interaction effect for achievement in physics (F (3,174) = 3.27, P<.05) and for science process skills acquisition (F(3,175) = 2.92, P <.05). There was no significant effect of self-efficacy and gender on achievement and science process skills acquisition; the two-way interactions showed no significant effect. Problem–based learning and interactive invention instructional strategies improved student achievement in physics and science process skills acquisition. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers, curriculum developers and textbook writers should adopt these two instructional strategies for the improvement of students‘ learning outcomes in physics.
...  different approaches and technologies in teacher training both in the world and European educational space as a whole are depicted by the following researchers: Boud and Feletti (1991), Hargreaves (1994), Hillman (2003) ...
... If we turn to more recent definitions, we must remember that in European pedagogical literature a learning problem "is a description of phenomena or situations that need an explanation, often presented in textual format, sometimes with illustrations, diagrams, video material, and modeling" (Schmidt, 1993: 423). A review of the literature showed that the basis for the formulation of educational problems has traditionally been the principles of cognitive theories and experimental knowledge (Boud & Feletti, 1991). ...
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Nowadays every European knowledge-based society demands a highly qualified, competent workforce being able to adjust to modern innovative production. To educate such specialists is the aim of contemporary teachers. So efficient and innovative pedagogic education becomes an integral part of the European education system. The article deals with the analysis of problem-based technology in the modern system of Danish teacher training in pedagogical higher educational institutions. Analyzing works of European scientists and problem-based model of teacher education in Denmark, working with university and college programs and documents we came to the conclusion that principles of problem-based technology in professional teacher training are similar in the whole European educational environment and in general they may be described as an approach to learning and instruction that has the following characteristics: 1) the use of problems as the starting point for learning, 2) small-group collaboration, 3) flexible guidance of a tutor, 4) student-initiated learning, 5) time availability for self-study. The findings imply that well-designed problem-based learning may lead to better educational results. Multiple sources in Ukrainian, European, and Danish educational environments at various time points from 1990 till 2020 have been used in data collection for this study. Pedagogic education in Ukraine requires a substantial adjustment at the legislative, structural, and technological levels. European experience in this sphere of teacher education modernization can become a valuable asset of the comparative pedagogic science. This practice will lead to effective technological change in teacher professional training in Ukraine.
... Several African colleges and universities have recently implemented PBL into their curricula with good results [3]. Its benefits and the ever-changing higher education landscape attract many schools, particularly those with low resources [4]. Using problem-based learning encourages students to be more reflective and cooperative [5]. ...
... Flexible, reflective, and evaluative. Achieving these goals will help instil attributes like collaboration and sellability [4]. ...
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Globalization complicates West African higher education. Problem-based learning (PBL) works in many developed nations. Scholars comprehend determination difficulties better than content or thinking. Scholars work together to find the solution. Problem-based learning describes how unprofessional management students achieve these goals. West African samples were surveyed. Students, teachers, founders, and others were interviewed, read, and given questionnaires to assess their awareness, challenges, and future of PBL in higher education, particularly business schools. PBL implementation is hindered by colonized curriculum, no access limit, insufficient research funds and infrastructure investments, resource shortages, inexperienced faculty, and curricular concerns, according to data analysis. West African management education is still developing, requiring a diverse, cutting-edge approach. PBL requires community members and dedicated, trained staff. Global competitiveness seems unavoidable. West Africa will lag if it does not. Thus, the study begins the process of understanding and resolving challenges.
... Παράλληλα, η Μάθηση Βασισμένη στο Πρόβλημα πράγματι αυξάνει τα κίνητρα και την κριτική-δημιουργική σκέψη, αλλά είναι γνωστό ότι οι μαθητές δεν μπορούν πραγματικά να γνωρίζουν τι είναι σημαντικό για αυτούς να μάθουν, ειδικά σε τομείς που δεν έχουν προηγούμενη εμπειρία (Boud & Feletti, 1997). Ως εκ τούτου, οι εκπαιδευτικοί, ως διευκολυντές, θα πρέπει να είναι προσεκτικοί, ώστε να αξιολογήσουν και να λάβουν υπόψη τις πρότερες γνώσεις των μαθητών. ...
... Ως εκ τούτου, οι εκπαιδευτικοί, ως διευκολυντές, θα πρέπει να είναι προσεκτικοί, ώστε να αξιολογήσουν και να λάβουν υπόψη τις πρότερες γνώσεις των μαθητών. Επίσης, ο εκπαιδευτικός που υιοθετεί μια τέτοια προσέγγιση υπάρχει πιθανότητα να μην μπορεί να καλύψει τη ίδια ποσότητα διδακτικής ύλης όπως θα έκανε σε ένα συμβατικό μάθημα χρησιμοποιώντας τη διάλεξη (Boud & Feletti, 1997). Έτσι, η μάθηση βασισμένη στο πρόβλημα μπορεί να είναι πολύ δύσκολο να υλοποιηθεί, καθώς απαιτεί πολύ προγραμματισμό και σκληρή δουλειά από τον εκπαιδευτικό. ...
... PBL can be referred to as a learning and teaching approach through the use of projects based on a highly attractive and motivating question, task, or problem [3] . PBL has been explored in various education levels and institutions [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] . The use of the PBL refers to a teaching method that divides the object to be taught into various groups based upon the characteristics of students' physical and mental development and separates the subject knowledge into several projects to maintain the teaching requirements as well as to meet the actual needs of the society for students. ...
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This paper describes how the PBL approach is integrated into English writing courses in colleges and focuses on the process of designing and implementing a writing project via PBL. This allows for the promotion of innovation in the English writing curriculum as well as the active participation among college students, thereby strengthening the cultivation of students’ self-learning ability and improving their ability to apply knowledge flexibly in real-life settings.
... These activities had to integrate the learning of science content and processes, and include ongoing student reflection and discussion (e.g. National Research Council, 1996), while adopting an inquiry-based approach (Boud and Feletti, 2013). It was also considered that critical thinking can be elicited when students are asked to plan an experiment using provided information and criteria for a good experimental design during a chemical inquiry practical (Brederode et al., 2020). ...
Article
The results of an earlier four-year longitudinal research study on the development of experimental design skills led to the conclusion that 12–13 year old students probably need more help to design experiments than had been offered to them in that project. This paper reports the findings of the first year of a further four-year empirical research project. Its aim is to modify ‘step-by-step’ instructions for practical activities in a way that may enable the development of experimental design skills. Nine hundred and thirty-one (931) students have been involved. All were 12–13 years old in the beginning of the study (September 2021). Each year students spend six lessons (some or all of each) doing practical activities using worksheets we provide. The students were divided into three groups. Group 1 (control group) follow step-by-step instructions. Groups 2 and 3 are experimental groups. Group 2 follow the same instructions as Group 1 but also complete a scheme (a series of questions) on their worksheets concerned with the design of the experiment. Group 3 is required to design the experiments, guided by the scheme. The scheme asks indirect questions about the identification of the independent variable, the dependent variable and the constants. The impact of the intervention on the students’ experimental design skills (focusing on the identification and control of variables) and disciplinary content knowledge is measured by structured tests. After the first school year of the project it was clear that the applied type of instruction had a significant positive effect on the results of the Group 3 students’ experimental design skills (Cohen's d effect size: −0.28). However, no significant effect of the intervention could be detected on the changes in the Group 2 students’ experimental design skills (Cohen's d effect size: −0.11). ANCOVA analysis showed that these effects were due to a combination of several factors (mainly the intervention, school ranking and prior knowledge). This paper provides the interesting details of the results of the first year of the research and discusses the minor changes to the approach that have been made for the remaining three years of the project.
... Originates in the health education to prepare students better for their later professional practices, PBL has been commonly and successfully used by many medical schools in different countries [34]. Since its very beginning stage, PBL has been introduced as an educational strategy to other areas, such as business administration, science and engineering studies [35,36]. ...
Article
How to improve inventive competency of engineers in workplace plays a significant role in competitive advantages of companies. This paper presented and validated a PBL-based TRIZ training approach for engineers in workplace aiming at enhancing their inventive competency using the integration of TRIZ and PBL-based educational techniques. To do so, after a systematic review of related studies, a new TRIZ training approach is fabricated with seven specific steps built on the framework of PBL. Subsequently, research data collected from 95 participants is used to validate the practical proposed TRIZ training approach. Statistical analysis is conducted based on pre-training, during-training and post-train inventive outcomes of the research sample that are measured by a set of patent-based indicators. Comparing analysis results have indicated that the proposed TRIZ training approach has evidently increased the inventive outcomes of participating engineers. Moreover, regression results revealed that the position closeness to the new product development and the patent applying experience are two most significant positive influencing impactors on the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Lastly, this paper also highlights several implications for educating TRIZ to engineers in workplace and limitations to initialize studies in the future.
... Posteriormente, para complementar las sesiones más teóricas se ha aplicado la metodología del challenge based learning, considerado un nuevo método de aprendizaje basado en el uso de retos o desafíos como foco de la actividad educativa (Boud y Feletti, 1998). ...
Article
El presente artículo describe un proyecto de innovación educativa de aprendizaje de competencias, realizado en el Curso Propio de Liderazgo de la Universidad San Pablo CEU, transversal a toda su oferta educativa. Se trata de nuevo proyecto basa- do en una docencia híbrida, donde las masterclass más teóricas se han complemen- tado con un aprendizaje basado en retos vinculados a materias de comunicación y sostenibilidad, aplicando la metodología Design Sprint. De esta forma, se consigue formar al alumno en las llamadas habilidades blandas, cada vez más demandadas por el entorno laboral.
... esim. Boud & Feletti, 1991;Harland, 1998;Poikela, 1998), jossa opetus ei rakennu oppiainekohtaisesti, vaan käytännöllisistä ongel-mista käsin. Samantapainen pedagoginen ratkaisu on projektioppiminen, jossa opiskelijaryhmät tekevät etukäteen määritellyn aikataulun puitteissa jonkin projektityön (esim. ...
Article
Tiedon oppiminen ja tiedon käyttäminen eivät ole erillisiä, vaan yhtä ja samaa prosessia. Oppiminen on tilannesidonnaista ja sitä tapahtuu työssä ja työn kautta osallistumalla aitoihin toimintakäytäntöihin. Nykyisin suositellaankin sellaisia pedagogisia järjestelyjä, joissa opiskelijat kohtaavat todellisen elämän ongelmat jo opiskelun alkuvaiheissa ja opiskelevat teoriaa kytkettynä näihin aitoihin arkielämän tilanteisiin.
... Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogical innovation where real-life problems rather than content trigger learning (Boud & Feletti, 1996). The experience of solving authentic problems engages students in an interactive cycle of collecting, connecting and communicating information (Chua et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
Problem-based learning (PBL) is an inquiry-based approach to learning that requires students to be engaged with a real-world problem. PBL is underpinned by constructivist learning principles whereby learners will be intrinsically motivated as they are challenged and given autonomy to direct their own learning. In the COVID-19 pandemic teaching and learning landscape, there is an increasing need to harness the affordances of technology to engage students in their learning. In this chapter, preservice teachers are immersed in either a traditional PBL environment (tPBL) or an technology-enhanced PBL environment (ePBL). The focus of this study is to examine the effects of PBL (tPBL and ePBL) on preservice teachers’ motivational orientations. The understanding of the changes in preservice teachers’ motivational orientations after PBL (tPBL and ePBL) will inform teacher educators on how to improve on its implementation to enhance preservice teachers’ motivation to learn. An understanding of how a constructivist pedagogical approach impact on preservice teachers’ motivation to learn is pivotal as teachers role model and design learning environment to inculcate in their learners the motivation and passion to learn and become lifelong learners.
... PBL is intended to support medical students to acquire professional acumen and facilitate the transition through collaborative group work, in which complex authentic real-life problems are solved as an approach to integrating Johansson et al Videnskabelig artikel, fagfaellebedømt Årgang 17, nr. 33, 2022 disciplinary knowledge and skills with educational and clinical applications (Barrows, 1996;Billet, 2009;Boud & Feletti, 1998;Bowen, 2011;Stentoft, 2019). Barnett (2012) argues that this work-integrated approach to learning is only a part of the equation and does not necessarily focus on how medical students learn and understand their relationship to the 'clinical' world in a time of transition and uncertainty. ...
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Medical education programs are responsible for educating medical students to meet the demands of a complex and fast-changing healthcare system, that requires competent, reflective, robust, and engaged students who can collaborate in interdisciplinary settings. In this article, we examine and discuss how social identities affect medical students’ learning approaches regarding how, what, and why they learn in clinical problem-based medical education. We conducted an ethnographic study at Aalborg University Hospital, involving 7 medical students for 240 hours of participant observation and 8 hours of semi-structured interviews. During the analysis, we found that medical students’ social identities as well as the clinical problem-based practice were strongly associated with how, what, and why they learn. We highlight that there is a very fine balance to be found between the assumed and assigned social identities in clinical problem-based medical education if a learning outcome of high quality is to be ensured.
... The conventional teaching approach is a kind of teaching in which students only absorb knowledge from the teacher without developing an interest in the subject being taught (Boud & Feletti, 1999). This is the least practical, most theoretical strategy available, and results in memorisation (Teo & Wong, 2000). ...
Article
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of context-based and conventional approach in genetics. The explanatory sequential mixed-methods approach was used in this study. Multi-staged sampling was used to select the sample for the study. In all, 205 learners participated in the study. The experimental group (those taught with context-based approach) were 107 learners and the control group (those taught with the conventional approach) were 98 learners. Genetic content knowledge test (GCKT) and focus group interview were the instruments used to collect data for the study. The results indicate that students in the context-based approach outperformed those in the conventional approach. The experimental group's students seemed to like the teaching approaches adopted. However, the control group did not like the teaching method adopted. It is recommended that biology teachers teaching genetics must use context-based teaching approach since it has been proven to be effective in improving students’ performance in genetics.
... This form allows students the choice of what they may study within the curriculum (O'Neill & McMahon, 2005). PBL encourages students to develop their own learning goals and to fill in the gaps in their knowledge or understanding (Boud & Feletti, 1997;Toohey, 2000). Weimer (2002a, b) describes today's college and university students as anxious and tentative, rather than empowered, confident, and self-motivated. ...
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Student-centered learning assessment (SCLA) constitutes a major component of current educational initiatives at the University of Technology and Applied Sciences (UTAS). However, little research has been conducted on English teachers’ understanding and practices of SCL assessment. Therefore, this study seeks to explore English teachers’ understanding and practices of SCL assessment at UTAS in Oman. The findings could provide information regarding teachers’ understanding and practices of SCLA. The findings may contribute to how English teachers define SCLA, what SCLrelated activities they conduct, and how often these are conducted. Sixty-one teachers participated in the study with an average of 24 years of experience. A series of interviews and questions were used to elicit data from the participants. A questionnaire was used to explore teachers’ understanding of SCLA. Interviews were used in conjunction with the questionnaires to obtain more detailed information from the participants. The findings of this study showed that each of the English teachers has their definitions and understandings of SCLA; however, it was difficult to understand teachers’ definitions of SCLA due to the lack of a common definition for this term in the literature. Teachers should be encouraged to empower students by working in mixed groups on the basis that the advanced students each head up separate groups. The implication is to allow less able students to mimic and imitate their peers and improve their comprehension, pronunciation, and vocabulary in and out of the classroom. Future research could be enhanced by other stakeholders, such as students and administrators, involvement.
... Mampu membuat siswa untuk mengembangkan kemampuan berpikir kristis dan keterampilan memecahkan masalah, yang dapat mereka temukan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari (Asyari, Muhdhar, Susilo, & Ibrahim, 2016;Dewiyani, 2015;Jonassen, 2011;Kumar, 2009). Lebih lanjut, PBL berperan untuk mengaktifkan siswa dalam belajar dan memecahkan masalah secara individu maupun kelompok (Arends & Castle, 2012;Boud & Feletti, 2013;Sujatmika, 2016). PBL menekankan pendekatan saintifik, keterampilan berpikir dan kerja ilmiah (Rosita, Sudarmin, & Marwoto, 2014). ...
Article
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Abstrak: Penelitian pengembangan (design research) dengan model 4D (define, design, develop, disseminate) ini bertujuan untuk 1) mengembangkan media pembelajaran interaktif berbasis Problem Based Learning (PBL) untuk siswa SMP kelas VII, 2) mengetahui kelayakan media pembelajaran interaktif berbasis PBL untuk siswa SMP kelas VII. Penelitian dibatasi sampai pada tahap develop. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan instrumen penilaian untuk beberapa ahli. Teknik analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif kualitatif, dan kuantitatif berdasarkan kategori penilaian ideal. Berdasarkan hasil penilaian ahli media diperoleh skor rata-rata 64, dengan persentase keidealan 80%, termasuk kategori baik. Hasil penilaian ahli materi diperoleh skor rata-rata 59, dengan persentase keidealan 81,94%, termasuk kategori sangat baik. Hasil penilaian peer reviewer diperoleh skor rata-rata 72, dengan persentase keidealan 90%, termasuk kategori sangat baik. Hasil penilaian guru IPA diperoleh skor rata-rata 117, dengan persentase keidealan 81,38%, termasuk kategori sangat baik. Hasil penilaian respon siswa diperoleh skor rata-rata 68,55, dengan persentase ideal 81,68%, termasuk kategori sangat baik. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa media pembelajaran interaktif yang dikembangkan sangat layak digunakan dalam pembelajaran. Kata Kunci: Media Pembelajaran Interaktif, Problem Based Learning
... Experts collaboratively share knowledge and expertise via clarifying questions, experience and research based feedback, and didactic education on a previously selected topic. Problem Based Learning (PBL) (Boud & Feletti, 1997), is the pedagogical approach that undergirds the Tele-ED framework. In PBL, participants become engaged through an identified, case-based, problem that drives both motivation and learning. ...
... Experts collaboratively share their expertise via asking clarifying questions, providing experience and research-based feedback, and presenting didactic lessons on a variety of topics based on participant needs. Problem Based Learning (PBL) (Boud & Feletti, 1997) is the pedagogical approach that undergirds the Tele-ED framework. PBL is driven by complex, challenging, openended cases that lack a specific "right" answer. ...
... Pembelajaran berbasis masalah (PBL) merupakan suatu inovasi yang paling signifikan dalam pendidikan yang telah berlangsung selama bertahun-tahun (Boud & Feletti, 1997). PBL juga mampu meningkatkan keterampilan berpikir siswa dan juga kreativitas siswa untuk memecahkan suatu permasalahan yang diberikan guru (Rosiyanah, 2021) ...
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Pada hakikatnya pembelajaran IPS sangat penting diajarkan kepada siswa sejak mereka menempuh pendidikan dasar. Hal ini dapat terlihat dari banyaknya siswa yang masih belum memahami sepenuhnya setiap materi yang diajarkan pada pelajaran IPS Pada era revolusi 4.0 diharapkan pendidik dapat menfasilitasi peserta didik untuk dapat berpikir kritis terhadap masalah sosial dan kehidupansosial, kreatif dalam menanggapi hal-hal yang berhubungan dengan kehidupan sosial, pendidik mampu mengarahkan peserta didik untuk berdiskusi terhadap sesama dan juga melakukan kerja sama untuk menanggapi hal-hal dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat. Pembelajaran IPS pada tingkat sekolah dasar (SD) harus dibelajarkan kepeserta didik secara kontruktivis.terdapat 5 (lima) metode yang dapat diajarkan pada pembelajaran IPS antara lain cooperative based learning, design based learning, inquiry based learning, project based learning, dan problem based learning. Metode yang digunakan pada penilitian ini berupa kajian pustaka.
... This collaborative learning methodology in which students acquire an active role favors academic motivation [27,28] is increasingly common. This approach favors complex problem solving, interdisciplinary communication, collaborative management, and teamwork [29,30]. ...
Article
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Engineering and architecture education deals with a great challenge, to develop students’ spatial abilities. Although there is an innumerable list of three-dimensional CAD software that seems to overcome this need, the ability to mentally visualize their ideas allows providing solutions faster and in greater detail. At the same time, graphic subjects need to adapt teaching to favor skills such as teamwork and problem solving, while students face how to understand theoretical content that is abstract to them. This research explores a collaborative graphic simulation proposal through Project-Based Learning that responds to the set of needs to determine if the graphic simulation of a real object can improve the spatial skill. The quasi-experimental research involved 29 undergraduate engineering students. The CoGraphS scale was designed and validated to measured student perception towards their involvement in a collaborative graphic simulation and MRT and DAT tests were applied to measure pre and post spatial and mental rotation skills. Descriptive analysis and Student’s t statistic were applied to define the sample perception and to verify the improvement of spatial abilities. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to examine correlations among PBL variables and students’ satisfaction with the process, result, motivation and communication. The results provide evidence of a positive relationship between the experience and the improvement of spatial skills. The manuscript contributes and discusses the influence of a series of variables that have not yet been widely discussed in the PBL in engineering.
... Here is the foundation and rationale for a problem-based approach to learning and teaching (Boud and Feletti 1998). What is also appealing about Dewey's theory of learning through experience is that it acknowledges a certain degree of emotion, discomfort and challenge necessary as a lever for change in the learner. ...
Thesis
p>The contribution of online learning environments to learning in higher education is examined by investigating what pedagogib approaches work and under what conditions, through comparative analysis of students' and tutors' experiences in six online learning initiatives selected as case studies, using interviews with tutors (N=7), and focus groups, nominal group technique and a questionnaire with students (N=121), to illuminate congruence and disjuncture associated with agential, practical and structural factors. A synergy between two distinct theoretical fields, Dewey's (1933, 1938) classical pragmatist approach to education and Archer's (1982, 2000a,) more contemporary critical realist approach in social theory is combined, to propose a theory of learning as transformation of experience through praxis and reflexivity, addressing the wholeness of human beings operating with their senses, emotions and cognitions in real and challenging situations. b Findings highlight praxis differences between learning as discursive knowledge and transformational learning through experience, between ontological security and risk, reflection and reflexivity, time-space distanciation and time-space compression, and between learning as product or process (Bruner 1966, Giddens 1984, 1991, Harvey 1990, Lash 2002). The scope of online learning is challenged by the tension between learning as a "quick fix" information commodity (Lash 2002) and as a purposeful human process (Dewey 1933) with structural implications through the radicalisation of time and space. The study reveals the significance of Archer's work as a powerful methodological framework for understanding the complexities of e-learning but also contends it is a model for understanding the learning process and enhancing educational practice. Archer's approach provides the ontological foundation for learning theories situated in practical action and reflexivity, with practice placed at the centre of learning supported by reflexivity as a key component of learning. This stance acknowledges the influence of prior experiences, situating learning in its social context and suggesting benefits of a systems approach to understanding learning where significant natural, practical and social order factors interplay, giving equal precedence to individual and structural enablements and constraints influencing morphostasis and morphogenesis in pedagogical praxis.</p
...  a tananyag átstrukturálásának, ahol a tanulást a probléma megoldása motiválja (BOUD -FELETTI, 1991),  oktatási módszernek, mely során a tanuló kritikai gondolkodása fejleszthető életszerű probléma megoldásával (DUCH, 1996). A problémát kontextusként alkalmazzák a problémamegoldó gondolkodás fejlesztésében és az új ismeretek megszerzésében. ...
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A jó nyelvtanár meghatározásának számos formája, definíciója azonosítható a nyelvpedagógiával, az idegen nyelvek tanításával foglalkozó szakirodalomban, valamint megtalálhatók a nyelvtanári profilok standardizált formában való leírásai is, amelyek lehetőséget nyújtanak a hallgatók képzés során fejlesztett és a gyakorló nyelvtanárok kompetenciáinak azonosítására, fejlettségi szintjének meghatározására. Jelen tanulmány keretében kísérletet teszünk olyan tudás- és képességelemek azonosítására, melyek az uralkodó idegennyelv-tanítási trendektől függetlenül minden korszakban kimutathatók, ezen túlmenően vizsgáljuk egyrészt, hogy ezek kimutathatók-e a jelenleg érvényben lévő idegennyelv-tanári szakok képzési és kimeneti követelményeiben és az Európai Nyelvtanári Profilhálóban, másrészt az idegennyelv szakos modelltantervek elemzése alapján feltárjuk arányukat a nyelvtanárképzés tartalmában.
... It is neither specific to CAAD teaching nor to architectural education. This assumption actually stems from the broader movement of problem-based learning, PBL, which started more 30 years ago in medical schools of North America and spread into many professional fields (Boud and Feletti, 1997). ...
... Learning continues after graduation, through a lifelong learning process. In such context, the role of university classes becomes providing guidelines on -an approach of 'learn[ing] how to learn' (Boud & Feletti, 1999) and teachers become moderators in learning process, like scaffolding for a new building (Niemi, 2009). ...
... Resumen: En el proceso de la enseñanza, en alumnos universitarios se tiene como objetivo la aplicación de la estrategia ABP en curso en línea de aprendizaje de la Programación Lineal. El aprendizaje basado en problemas (ABP) se inicia en las Escuelas de Medicina de la Universidad de Case Western Reserve (EEUU) en la década de los 50 (Boud y Feletti, 1991) y en la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de McMaster en Canadá con John Evans (1965) decano fundador de la Escuela de Medicina, junto con un grupo de médicos, lograron trabajar de forma colaborativa e interdisciplinaria logrando establecer una metodología exitosa para el aprendizaje significativo. El aprendizaje basado en problemas (ABP) cae en el dominio de las pedagogías activas, en el que se desarrolla la metodología por descubrimiento y construcción del pensamiento matemático. ...
... Ini membantu siswa menjadi pembelajar aktif dengan mengontekstualisasikan pembelajaran dalam masalah kehidupan nyata dan membuat siswa bertanggung jawab atas pembelajaran mereka. Dalam PBL, masalah yang tidak terstruktur bertindak sebagai stimulus dan fokus untuk aktivitas dan pembelajaran siswa (Boud D, 1997). ...
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Sistem imunitas menjadi isu sentral infeksi virus COVID-19 yang berkembang di masyarakat, tidak lain adalah agar masyarakat memiliki sistem daya tahan tubuh yang kuat. Akan tetapi, tanpa pemahaman yang baik tentang sistem imun, sebuah informasi yang keliru dapat saja menyesatkan masyarakat. Pemahaman yang baik sebuah materi dapat dilatihkan melalui pembelajaran, salah satunya menggunakan model Problem based Learning (PBL). Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan penelitian eksperimen, dengan desain one group pretest-posttest. Populasi penelitian ini diambil dari salah satu SMA negeri yang ada di kabupaten Karanganyar. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan November sampai dengan Desember 2021. Hasil analisis statistik menunjukkan bahwa nilai rerata pada pre-test sebesar 37,42 (ST-DEV 11,32) dan post-test 78,03 (ST-DEV 6,11). Rata-rata nilai gain sebesar 0,626 berada pada kategori sedang. Sebaran skor yang diperoleh sebelum menggunakan model PBL terdapat 24,2% siswa yang memperoleh skor 30 dan 35, sedangkan setelah penerapan model PBL dilakukan terdapat 30,3% siswa yang memperoleh skor 75, dan 27,3% siswa yang memperoleh skor 80. Perubahan ini menunjukkan bahwa penerapan model PBL dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa.
... Una vez se ha propendido por asegurar un problema con múltiples opciones de respuesta, se debe considerar la forma en el que el mismo es planteado a los estudiantes (Boud y Feletti, 1997;Bigelow, 2004). Los problemas pueden ser escritos, videos, representaciones, entre otras múltiples posibilidades. ...
... Hence traditional chalk & talk method of teaching is not that much effective method, which could enhance the confidence level of students, so that they would be able to make analysis about the concepts they have learnt or they could correlate the information obtained previously with practical situations or real time scenarios (Teo & Wong, 2000). Problem-based learning is proven as an effective method in order to teach students in a more appropriate manner, with the help of real-life problems and implement solutions (Boud & Feletti, 1999).Multimedia facilitates the instructor to present the information in a better and significant means, with the help of various elements of media, so that the interest of the students could be developed and their academic performance and their retention rate could be enhanced. South Asian Journal of Management Sciences ...
... Nesta medida surge a importância de se implementarem diferentes metodologias de aprendizagem ativa. Existem várias, podendo-se enumerar algumas: a aprendizagem baseada na resolução de problemas (RBL) (Boud & Feletti, 1997), aprendizagem baseada em projetos (PBL) (Larmer & Mergendoller, 2010), aprendizagem baseada na investigação (inquiry-based learning), gamificação Contudo a implementação do RBL implica algo mais. Implica a aprendizagem através de experiências baseadas em recursos, integradas no currículo e planeadas de modo cooperativo. ...
... As Michael in our sample stressed, it is important to "really put yourself in somebody's shoes" to better understand the challenges and barriers associated with living in poverty. Problem-based learning, specifically, working through a problem in a small group, has also been shown to be valuable in encouraging effective learning (Boud & Feletti, 1997). The poverty simulation offers a space for such group learning. ...
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This study explores two poverty training curricula, namely Bridges Out of Poverty (‘Bridges’) and a community-developed curriculum dubbed Rethink Poverty, intended to educate people about the causes, impacts and outcomes of poverty. The research questions posed in the study explore: (a) how are the poverty curricula assessed by participants; and (b) what can we learn about the ways in which poverty training materials are designed and/or delivered that might enhance their relevance and efficacy for community audiences? Employing a thematic analysis of qualitative interviews with participants, several themes emerged, including the importance of workshop facilitation that excludes the ideas surrounding Bridges (a theme dubbed ‘More of the same?); targeting poverty training to populations outside typical health and social service audiences (a theme entitled ‘Going beyond preaching to the choir’); themes related to ‘Observations on the evidence of poverty curricula’ and ‘Perceptions of poverty and debunking myths’; addressing the current ‘(Limited) motivation for action’ on poverty; and how to engage people to increase poverty awareness and advocacy (‘What’s missing’ in poverty training curricula). The discussion outlines key points, based on adult learning theory, for community providers to consider when offering poverty training for community audiences.
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In the most effective learning environments, undergraduates go beyond memorization to become more deeply engaged with the material. Active learning approaches, in which students participate in activities that result in improved learning, promote this sort of deep experience. Educational theories such as constructivism and recent research in cognitive and learning sciences demonstrate the importance of allowing students opportunities to confront misconceptions, reason out solutions, work collaboratively, and construct their own understandings of key concepts. Numerous studies have documented improved learning in classes using active learning approaches when compared to traditional class formats. Various obstacles to implementing active learning strategies exist, such as student and faculty resistance to such practices and the academic reward structure, which penalizes faculty who invest time in innovative teaching. These obstacles, however, are not insurmountable—effective communication of the benefits of active learning for improving student learning outcomes and the recruitment and retention of STEM majors can help. Paleontology instructors have a wide variety of active learning techniques to choose from, including some that make use of our field's uniquely visual and temporal characteristics (e.g., concept sketches, timelines), current research areas (e.g., textual analysis, case studies, guided inquiry), and classic controversies (e.g., role-playing, debates, and panel discussions). New technologies, such as classroom response devices and Web 2.0 tools, can facilitate many of these activities both in and out of the classroom. Incorporating active learning approaches into paleontology courses can help instructors clarify their course goals and learning outcomes while empowering students to succeed.
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In the study programme of chemical technology at Centria University of Applied Sciences, project studies have been designed since 2011, and evaluation of the progress was done for the first time in spring 2012. Chemistry Project course is based on the methods of Problem Based Learning (PBL) and Project Oriented Problem Based Learning (POPBL). The aim is to train self-directed experts of the field with teamwork and collaboration skills.
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Background. In today’s dynamic world a multitude of challenges call for reforms in the medical education with the aim of increasing its efficiency, quality, and accountability. The quality of education and training has always been a focal point in the medical education in Bulgaria. Objectives. To present the development of quality assurance (QA) in medical education in Bulgaria, and to study the structure and organisation of quality management systems in the Medical Universities at the moment. Methods. Quality assurance in Bulgarian medical education over the period 1995–2020 was explored. Content analysis was used to study official documents of national authorities in higher education and accreditation, as well as internal documents of the Medical Universities. A questionnaire was developed to elicit information on quality assurance and accreditation. Results. Medical Universities in Bulgaria introduced comprehensive Quality Assurance System and formulated Quality Policy with accordance to their mission in the late 1990s. They established operating Quality Management Systems (QMS) based on ISO and EFQM model. Results of the quality assessment are publicly available and performance indicators are shared with key stakeholders. Internal audits and reviews of the QMS are conducted annually. Audit teams include certified auditors from the main structural units of the University. Essential element of the education QA are the surveys among students. Regular attestation of the teaching staff is conducted, and the results are taken into account in determining the individual remuneration. Conclusions. Quality of education has always been a part of the medical academic tradition in Bulgaria. Quality assurance is a challenging area of action and scientific exploration for the Medical Universities in Bulgaria. Although a high homogeneity in the institutional norms, organisational structure, and processes concerning quality assurance in medical education has been observed, systemic research on these aspects of quality assurance in the national context is still insufficient. Key Words: Quality assurance; accreditation, medical education, Quality management system; internal audits.
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The biggest challenge for current education system is to use technology blended teaching in a innovative way. As per current advancement in technology the teachers should be well acquainted to integrate technology in teaching and learning along with traditional way of teaching. New technology helps students to observe and understand the topic in a much easier way. All streams of education have now ingress of technology and now it is the turn of teachers to make optimal utilization of technology to enhance the learning capacity of the students and groom the young minds to become good citizens and play a vital role in nation building. Now a days technology has reached everybody’s home. It is the main component of infrastructural facilities that an institution should provide for teachers and student community for sustenance of quality education and make them competent enough to face global challenges.
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This chapter provides an overview of playful learning, in the context of adults, as both a suite of approaches to teaching and a philosophy of education. I will draw on two of my own pieces of recent thinking to explore these different ways of conceptualising playful learning in Higher Education: the practical and the political. The growing use of evaluation metrics throughout Higher Education, in the UK and globally, is indicative of a wider culture of increased instrumentalism and performativity. I believe that this focus on the measurement of performance impacts negatively on both academics and students. Playful learning offers a way to counter this by creating inclusive magic circles of learning that support learning through failure, intrinsic motivation, and deep engagement with possibilities through the adoption of a lusory attitude. I discuss the role of assessment and failure in relation to learning and present a model of failure-based assessment along with an exploration of what assessment designers might learn from game designers. The chapter concludes with a discussion of playful universities and playful leadership.
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The tentativeness of the people lies in the fear of adjudging the quality of a product/service. That becomes even more apprehensive when it comes to the educational environment. The standards set in the impartation of higher education determine the future of our country. The quality of higher education is evaluated from major dimensions as set by the National Board of Accreditation (NBA). Their should be a proper balance between quantity and quality of education. Crooning about the failure in the education system in India can be attributed to few factors namely poor infrastructure of the colleges, lackluster facilities and above all the non-committal attitude of the college management is leading to a dismal performance and deteriorating quality of higher education. The poor eco-system of quality surveillance has led to an exaggeration of knowledge and in the pursuit of Excellency many institutions are propagating the need of quality without actually understanding the genesis of the quality. Has a result thousands of students though meritorious still land themselves unoccupied. The eco-system of quality higher education has rather derailed and many students have paid the price of it and we can see the consequences of it sluggishness in setting a start-up, no innovations and hence the education abroad has become a decent option for the future aspirants. This paper is mainly written in the context of the present scenario underlining the plight of the higher education at the same time it will also elevate the role and the responsibility of the bodies involved in the Accreditation of higher education.
Article
Problem based learning (PBL) has been used for many years and it is one of the effective educational methodologies applicable for distinguished engineering disciplines. It is a widely used student-centric approach through which students get engaged to solve real world problems by research, continuous study, and regular practices along with knowledge utilization during implementation. This study explores the PBL with an advanced computer engineering course of pre-final year students. This study centers around the implementation of a system to solve one of the real-life problems and distinguishes a portion of the difficulties that lie ahead for PBL. Here, to examine the impact of PBL approach for the specified subject, the result of B.Tech. (CE and IT branches) sixth semester students (A.Y. 2019-20 and 2020-21) are considered with various known parameters. Students' feedback is taken at the end of course study. Problem title, hook of the problem, background or history of the problem, clarifying/providing constraints, list of deliverables, strategy to solve the problem, assessment criteria/rubric etc. are provided well in advance to the students to be comprehensible for the problem. Learning sequence sessions are also arranged on a regular basis during problem solving by the facilitator to fill out the gap. As a result, the PBL approach is found to be intended more strongly for engineering students than for other students; in contrast, with traditional MCQ based examination students mostly focus on mug up of concepts rather than implementation and critical thinking. Engineering students are able to work smartly along with hard work, and as a result students have developed their technical skills, collaborative skills, self-learning approach with advanced computer engineering courses. Assessment pattern has changed into advancement with the proposed PBL approach over a traditional MCQ based approach. Continuous assessment is performed on covering all segments of the exam. Results found with traditional approach are contrasted with results found with PBL approach and tracked down that a more prominent number of students had secured more than over average score (>=60%) with the proposed PBL approach and statistically proven for the same. This correlation shows that students are more noticeable and curious about the PBL approach as opposed to robbing up hypothetical ideas and choosing the appropriate answers with a traditional MCQ based approach. In Addition, student’s feedback is observed to be very satisfactory. It has been seen that through PBL, students' retaining level has extremely increased and their learning abilities and understanding level too has improved altogether. PBL plays out a fundamental role for achieving the student's involvement and commitment towardslearning. Logical, critical thinking, teamwork, technical etc. skills for engineering students can be developed effectively with the PBL approach. Keywords— Problem-based learning, Continuous assessment, PBL, self-regulated learning, self-directed learning
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This updated, retitled, and reorganized version of the bibliography provides references to journal articles, books, book chapters, conference papers, and dissertations, beginning with background information on the case method followed by sections on writing cases, teaching with cases, facilitating case discussions, assessing student case work, cooperative learning/small groups, problem-based learning, and guided design.
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page:423 Big Data Analytics for Large Scale Wireless Body Area Networks; Challenges, and Applications
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This study aims to explore the implementation of collaborative problem-based learning (PBL) into a teaching practicum for in-service teachers to understand students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of the practicum is to deliver a field-based mode of training so teachers cab have hands-on experiences in testing learned strategies. A collaborative PBL setup is created for teachers to try out learning strategies studied in a course and to apply the skills in a teaching practicum. Furthermore, the goal of the practicum is to form a community of practice to provide participants a chance to collaborate with one another to generate enquiries, engage in knowledge creation of ASD and improve their practices.
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This study investigates the differences between in-place and online project-based learning carried out over the years at the University of Macerata in the course of Economics and Marketing of Agri-food (an undergraduate degree in Cultural Heritage and Tourism). The study aimed to investigate the key elements to consider to implement online project-based learning with strong links with the place in rural settings. It reports about expectations from the teaching group about the learning experience implemented online for the first time, crossed with the outcomes of the students’ evaluation questionnaires and discussed in a focus group among the teacher and the tutors. The conclusions highlight successful aspects and critical issues between the place-based and online-based experiences.
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Currently, sustainability is still often treated as a distinct topic separate from the design process or even its desired outcome. This thesis aims to identify approaches for the integration of sustainability in architecture education and by extension, architects’ work. This theme is observed through the perspectives of learning, interaction and the design process. Architecture is complicit in the climate emergency, with the built environment and its construction accounting for nearly 40% of global energy-related carbon emissions, and the impact of architects’ work extending far beyond carbon-related issues to other social, societal, and environmental consequences, the “embodied injustices” of architecture. The foundation of architects’ values, beliefs and professional practises is established during education. By continuing to teach and practice architecture through the same unsustainable pracices we always have, we will only further contribute to the climate emergency and enforce the vast social and ecological consequences of architects’ work. Hence, architecture education has the responsibility to critically evaluate and radically rethink its current unsustainable practices, pedagogies, and values. This thesis is based on an interdisciplinary literature review combining research from the fields of design, management, systems thinking and formal- and non-formal learning. Insights from the literature review are then mirrored against the status quo of architecture education, especially the design studio, and best practices for learning and integrating sustainability. It was discovered that integrating sustainability in the design studio calls for both, tackling the values and behaviour of students (and teachers) and delivering sustainability knowledge and concrete tools. Deep learning, i.e., self-reflective and critical learning, is necessary for the integration of sustainability. It can be supported by dismantling the current hierarchies between teachers and learners and the transmissive teaching methods that promote individual designer capabilities and creativity over collaboration, and external validation over self-motivation and critical thinking. For students to think beyond the status quo, the development of critical thinking skills should be at the heart of all learning and doing. To help students understand their own values and behaviours and to introduce and integrate new, sustainable approaches to their praxis, the focus of architecture education should shift from product to process, with more room for reflective discussions. Holistic thinking for sustainability requires deeply questioning the system one operates in. Hence, this thesis also raises the question of the fundamental purpose of architecture education in the era of the climate emergency. If architecture education truly aims to allow for students to be critical of the status quo and become transformational in their work, and to promote a new paradigm for practicing architecture, architecture education needs to break out from its outdated traditions what are unfit to promote sustainability. Instead of simply teaching students how to design certain types of buildings, students should be allowed to explore and define whether, for example, it is relevant to build anything at all, or what existing structures could be preserved. Students should be supported and given enough tools and possibilities for discovering, pursuing and celebrating alternative approaches.
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Models of teaching are critical pieces to instructional planning and delivery. In general, models of teaching are helpful in designing meaningful instructional activities and experiences for students. For any teacher it is essential to gain the needed insights into why some instructional methods work with some learners, while others do not. Quite a number of educationists and psychologists have conducted researches on this aspect, as a result of which the teaching models or paradigms have been developed. In this article, concepts related to models of teaching are presented in a very concise way in order to understand their classroom implication. This article describes meaning, functions and types of teaching model. The components of basic teaching model are discussed with reference to the instructional procedures to be adopted for different domains of learning. The saying 'necessity is the mother of invention' holds good for every teaching-learning activity. A teacher has to be concerned about how learning can be made more effective and efficient and this is where the different types of instructional methods can be of great help. It is an attempts to establish the need to use the most suitable instructional method or technique in formal teaching-learning situations consciously and purposefully from a plethora of instructional methods that are available.
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Learning programming is typically regarded as a challenging task by both educators and learners. The face-to-face learning method alone is likely insufficient to promote effective teaching and learning solutions. Thus, having a suitable teaching method can be useful in various situations and encourages learners to actively and effectively participate in programming classes. Likewise, having appropriate formation of different programming learning methods and environments to influence learners’ computational thinking is something significant. As such, this paper presents an analysis and comparison of the related works on any promising methods that are able promote a better and efficient way of learning programming. In the meantime, it suggests any possible direction for future work by conducting a comparative evaluation. As far as this study is concerned, several methods of teaching programming such as visualization, game-based, robotics, problem-solving, code tracing, simulation and pair programming have been analyzed and compared. Results of this study indicated that visualization and game-based method are the most effective formation methods. Using visualization and games-based methods in teaching programming can help to enhance learners’ programming concepts in terms of enhancing the learners’ cognitive ability to develop a mental model, increase their engagement and stimulate their abstract thinking in cognitive development.KeywordsTeaching and learning programmingVisualizationCode tracingGame-basedRoboticProblem-basedSimulation and pair programming
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This paper analyses prior literature that identify adoption model for smart wearable healthcare devices. This assessment aims to contribute and identify factors that enable users to adopt wearable devices in the Internet of Things (IoT) based healthcare to monitor blood glucose measuring. This study has set off in quest of research in IoT smart healthcare focusing on blood glucose monitoring based on previous studies on wearable devices for smart healthcare. The key aim of this paper is to provide a summary of published articles and to find the current factors leading to the adoption of wearable devices for smart healthcare. The authors guided a systematic review of wearable devices in smart healthcare to explore the factors of adopting smart healthcare devices. 55 studies were analyzed where 21 studies directly address wearable devices, adoption models, and also IoT systems. Most of the studies covered a few factors; namely Interpersonal Influence, Self-efficiency, Individual Innovativeness, Attitude toward wearable devices, Self�interest, Perceived Expensiveness, and Perceived Usefulness in a wearable fitness tracker or monitoring. Findings show that the effect of trustworthiness has a very extensive potential to be explored to improve the model prediction to measure the adoption of IoT wearable devices in smart healthcare as well as blood glucose monitoring.
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With the development of technology and connectivity, it is has become easier to gather data regarding a necessity, and use that to analyze, observe and provide solutions to day-to-day problems. The development of science and technology has brought immense benefit and comfort to human society allowing us to venture further with ease. The same applies to Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), the system that measures the medical parameters of a human subject to treat his or her ailments. The data gathered from various patients can be collected and provided to the medical authority and doctors accordingly. This is used to generate patterns from a definitive source and provide clarity of the patient’s disease and/or any condition to the doctors. However, doing that for many patients and hospital records requires an immense amount of time and people. This is where big data analytics comes into play, a cloud based analytics technology that scans extraordinarily large amounts of data, identifies similarities and differences, and observes the patterns to help doctors solve their patients’ diseases or conditions. Using this technology prevents unnecessary deaths of patients. This paper will explain the implementation process of big data analytics in large scale WBAN, the difficulties and challenges that may occur, and its applications and benefits.KeywordsBig data analyticsLarge scale WBANCloudWireless sensor network
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