Effects of zinc levels on activities of gastrointestinal enzymes in growing rats
The Key Laboratory of Molecular Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. J Anim Physiol a Anim Nutr
(Impact Factor: 1.41).
11/2008; 93(5):606-12. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2008.00843.x
The present study investigated the effect of different zinc (Zn) levels on activities of gastrointestinal digestive enzymes of growing rats. Four diets including Zn-adequate (ZA; 46 mg/kg, control), Zn-deficient (ZD; 3 mg/kg), high Zn supply (ZH; 234 mg/kg) and pair-fed in which animals received the ZA diet at restricted amounts reflecting feed intake of the ZD group were fed to rats for 5 weeks. Dietary Zn was supplemented with ZnO. The results showed that Zn deficiency resulted in decreases in body weight, while ZH supply stimulated growth. The activities of sucrase, lactase and lipase were unaffected by dietary Zn levels. Maltase activity, however, was reduced in ZD group and elevated in ZH group. Amylase and protease activities were depressed by zinc deficiency. However, rats fed the Zn-repletion diet displayed higher activity of pepsin, pancreatic amylase and protease. In particular, ZH supply did have no effect on intestinal hydrolases activities. The present study suggested that zinc deficiency impaired the activities of digestive enzymes and growth of animals. However, ZH supply might improve the digestion of nutrients via increasing activities of gastrointestinal hydrolase and probably enhanced animal health.
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- "Our results also demonstrated a lack of effect of Zn supplementation on the growth performance of rats, which was in agreement with the report by Szabó et al.  who found Zn supplementation had no impact on body weight gain in rats. However, others have reported slightly enhanced growth of rats under relatively long period of feeding of Zn-sufficient diets . Overall, this study showed that Hcy metabolism was affected by Zn deficiency when rats were in a feed restricted state, as evident by the significantly higher serum Hcy concentrations in ZD vs. PF. "
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ABSTRACT: Methionine synthase (MS) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) are both zinc (Zn)-dependent methyltransferases and involved in the methylation of homocysteine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary Zn supply on homocysteine levels and expression of the two enzymes in growing rats. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly to four dietary groups (n = 8/group) for 3 weeks: Zn deficient (ZD; <1 mg Zn/kg); Zn control (ZC; 30 mg Zn/kg); Zn supplemented (ZS; 300 mg Zn/kg); pair fed (PF; 30 mg Zn/kg) to the ZD group. Serum and femur Zn concentrations were 83% and 58% lower in ZD, and 49% and 62% higher in ZS compared to ZC (P < 0.001), respectively. The ZD rats had lower feed intake (37%), body weight gains (45%), liver (43%) and kidney (31%) weights than those of ZC (P < 0.001), but these parameters in ZD were not significantly different from the PF controls. Serum homocysteine concentrations were 65% higher in ZD compared to PF (P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference in serum folate levels between ZD and PF groups. The mRNA expression of liver and kidney MS was 57% and 38% lower in ZD than PF (P < 0.001), respectively. Hepatic and renal BHMT mRNA levels were not altered in ZD compared to controls. The aforementioned measurements were not significantly different between ZS and ZC groups, except Zn levels. These results demonstrated that homocysteine homeostasis appeared to be disturbed by Zn deficiency but not Zn supplementation, and elevated serum homocysteine might be due to reduced expression of MS during Zn deficiency.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine whether zinc (Zn) deficiency augmented the frequency of micronuclei, an indicator of chromosome aberration, and the induction of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of cellular DNA damage derived from oxidative stress, in rat bone marrow cells or not. Both the frequency of micronuclei and the induction of 8-OHdG were significantly increased in rats fed with a Zn-deficient versus a standard diet for 6 weeks (p < 0.005). The supplementation of Zn with a standard diet for 4 weeks to rats fed with a Zn-deficient diet for 6 weeks restored the enhanced induction of micronuclei and 8-OHdG to levels comparable to those seen in rats fed with a standard diet for 10 weeks, indicating that the shortage of Zn in the body is involved in the induction of micronuclei and 8-OHdG. Again, the membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic superoxide scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl, treatment (100 μmol/kg, twice a day) for 10 days prior to the termination of dietary treatment reduced the induction of micronuclei and 8-OHdG in rats fed with a Zn-deficient diet for 6 weeks to levels comparable to those in rats fed with a standard diet for 6 weeks, indicating that superoxide radical participates in the induction of micronuclei and 8-OHdG. In fact, the endogenous superoxide scavenger, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, was significantly reduced in the bone marrow cells of rats fed with a Zn-deficient diet for 6 weeks when compared to those of rats fed with a standard diet for 6 weeks (p < 0.005). These observations demonstrate that Zn deficiency elevates the frequency of micronuclei and the induction of 8-OHdG through an increase in the biological action of the superoxide radical. This suggests an increase in carcinogenic initiation resulting from Zn deficiency-induced oxidative stress.
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