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Probiotic Efficiency of Spirulina platensis - Stimulating Growth of Lactic Acid Bacteria

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Abstract

Viability and metabolic activities are important characteristics of probiotics microorganisms. They give rise to therapeutic benefits as well as increase in physiological activity of cultured products. The stimulatory effect of Spirulina platensis was studied on three lactic acid bacteria. The addition of dry biomass of S.platensis at various concentrations of 1mg, 5 mg, 10 mg/ml promoted growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus up to 171.67% and 185.84% respectively at pH 6.2.The growth of other strains were also enhanced. Simultaneously the antibacterial activity of S. platensis was done against three gram negative and three gram positive bacteria. A maximum activity was shown against Proteus vulgaris. Other pathogenic bacterial growth was also inhibited. The results show the probiotic efficiency of S.platensis for lactic acid bacteria and also a potent antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria.

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... Additionally, these discrepancies may be a consequence of cells settling to the bottom of the culture plate, despite shaking the culture during incubation (results not shown). In the work of Bhowmik et al. (2009), the stimulatory effect of Spirulina platensis dry mass was studied on three lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus casei MTCC 1423, Lactobacillus acidophilus MTCC 447, Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 1938. The addition of dry biomass of S. platensis at concentrations of 10 mg·mL −1 promoted the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus to 171.67% and S. thermophilus 185.84%, respectively. ...
... The addition of dry biomass of S. platensis at concentrations of 10 mg·mL −1 promoted the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus to 171.67% and S. thermophilus 185.84%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg·mL −1 , growth stimulation of 63.93% was observed for Lactobacillus casei MTCC 1423 after 10 h of incubation [57]. Prebiotic effects of tested extracts of biochemically different biomasses of P. nurekis on growth Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 could be observed at lower concentrations of water extracts-100 µg·mL −1 by 73% and 10 µg·mL −1 by 51% respectively after 12 h of incubation. ...
... The addition of dry biomass of S. platensis at concentrations of 10 mg·mL −1 promoted the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus to 171.67% and S. thermophilus 185.84%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg·mL −1 , growth stimulation of 63.93% was observed for Lactobacillus casei MTCC 1423 after 10 h of incubation [57]. Prebiotic effects of tested extracts of biochemically different biomasses of P. nurekis on growth Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 could be observed at lower concentrations of water extracts-100 μg·mL −1 by 73% and 10 μg·mL −1 by 51% respectively after 12 h of incubation. ...
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As microalgae are producers of proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, pigments, vitamins and unique secondary metabolites, microalgal biotechnology has gained attention in recent decades. Microalgae can be used for biomass production and to obtain biotechnologically important products. Here, we present the application of a method of producing a natural, biologically active composite obtained from unicellular microalgae of the genus Planktochlorella sp. as a modulator of the growth of microorganisms that can be used in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries by exploiting the phenomenon of photo-reprogramming of metabolism. The combination of red and blue light allows the collection of biomass with unique biochemical profiles, especially fatty acid composition (Patent Application P.429620). The ethanolic and water extracts of algae biomass inhibited the growth of a number of pathogenic bacteria, namely Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus PCM 458, Streptococcus pyogenes PCM 2318, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli PCM 2209 and Candida albicans ATCC 14053. The algal biocomposite obtained according to our procedure can be used also as a prebiotic supplement. The presented technology may allow the limitation of the use of antibiotics and environmentally harmful chemicals commonly used in preparations against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli or Candida spp.
... In comparison to the numerous studies on algae fermentation Nguyen et al. 2012;Talukder et al. 2012;Uchida and Miyoshi 2013), those on cyanobacteria are limited and focus particularly on Arthrospira spp. Bhowmik et al. (2009) added spirulina biomass to cultures of different Lactobacillus and Streptococcus strains and performed 10h fermentations, observing an increase in the bacterial number with increasing biomass concentrations. Parada et al. (1998) added the filtrate from A. platensis cultures to various lactic acid bacteria cultures, which were allowed to ferment for 24 h. ...
... This indicates that the indigenous microbiota of A. platensis F&M-C256 biomass did not significantly affect bacterial number enumeration and the values found by plate count in the inoculated broth were essentially due to LAB 8014. In accordance with the results obtained in the present study, Bhowmik et al. (2009) found that the addition of A. platensis (up to 10 g L −1 ) to different Lactobacillus cultures promoted growth up to a maximum of 9 log CFU mL −1 after 10 h, starting from a concentration of 2-3 log CFU mL −1 . The positive effects of A. platensis on the growth of lactic acid bacteria can be attributed to the highly accessible and nutritious substances it contains, which stimulate bacterial metabolism (Beheshtipour et al. 2013). ...
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The first objective of this study was to evaluate the use of lyophilised biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis F&M-C256 as the sole substrate for lactic acid fermentation by the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014. After 48 h of fermentation, the bacterial concentration was 10.6 log CFU mL⁻¹ and lactic acid concentration reached 3.7 g L⁻¹. Lyophilised A. platensis F&M-C256 biomass was shown to be a suitable substrate for L. plantarum ATCC 8014 growth. The second objective of the study was to investigate whether lactic acid fermentation could enhance in vitro digestibility and antioxidant activity of A. platensis biomass. Digestibility increased by 4.4%, however it was not statistically significant, while the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content did increase significantly after fermentation, by 79% and 320% respectively. This study highlights the potential of A. platensis F&M-C256 biomass as a substrate for the production of probiotic-based products.
... to a continuous research of new natural ingredients to be used in food formulations. [15]. Some studies reported that A. platensis stimulated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) growth in vitro condition [15][16][17] moreover, in milk products such as yogurt and ayran, Spirulina contributed to preservation of LAB viability during storage [18][19][20]. ...
... [15]. Some studies reported that A. platensis stimulated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) growth in vitro condition [15][16][17] moreover, in milk products such as yogurt and ayran, Spirulina contributed to preservation of LAB viability during storage [18][19][20]. ...
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Arthrospira platensis, commercially known as Spirulina, is a fresh-water cyanobacterium that has been gaining increasing attention in recent years due to its high biological and nutritional value. For this reason, it has been employed in several food applications, to obtain or enhance functional and technological properties of cheese, yogurt, bread, cookies or pasta. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential boosting effect of two di�erent concentrations (0.25% and 0.50% w/v) of A. platensis on the fermentation capability of several starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, 1 probiotic and 4 commercial mix culture. These strains were used to ferment three different substrates and their fermentation behaviors were evaluated by impedance analyses together with rheological and color measurements. In tryptic soy broth (TSB), the A. platensis boosting effect was significantly higher if compared to yeast extract for all the starter LAB strains except for Lb. casei, which was equally stimulated. Different results were found when the same LAB strains were cultivated in SSM. The most evident boosting effect was found for S. thermophilus and Lb. casei. LAB growth was promoted by A. platensis, confirming that it could be a useful tool in the production of novel functional fermented dairy foods. The potential boosting effect was evaluated on four commercial mix cultures used to produce milk and soy fermented beverages. It was demonstrated that the booster effect took place, but it was variable and dependent not only on the mix culture used, but also on the substrate and A. platensis concentration. Also, rheological and color modifications were found to be dependent on these factors.
... One of the most famous species of probiotic microorganisms is Lactobacillus (3). The effect of S. platensis on the viability of starter and probiotic bacteria has been investigated in fermented milk (7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12), yogurt (5,13,14), probiotic yoghurt containing spinach (15), UF feta cheese (16), Doogh (17), cookies (18), and media (3,19). However, to our knowledge, the influence of microalgae on the viability of Lactobacillus (L.) acidophilus in doogh has not been studied yet. ...
... The maximum viability of L. acidophilus was related to the samples containing 0.8% S. platensis and the minimum viability belonged to the control samples at the end of shelf life. The number of L. acidophilus in the day 14th was reduced in compare to 7th day which may be due to competing of bacteria to obtain nutritional resource and production of secondary metabolites.The reduction was more significant in the control, and was rarely observed when S. platensis was added (due to buffering property and nutritional enrichment by free amino acids, peptone, hypoxanthine, adenine, etc (13,19). Similar results are reported on acidophilus milk (13), acidophilus milk containing Bifidobacterium, milk (7), and yoghurt (14). ...
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The plenty of biologically important compounds in the algae, provide a new opportunity for producing functional dairy products. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of some incorporation variables on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-5). So, Spirulina platensis powder (0, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 % w/v) was incorporated to doogh containing 0.5 and 1% w/v mint powder. Chemical properties (e.g. iron, protein, pH and acidity) as well as sensorial characteristics of the product were investigated. The results showed that viability of L. acidophilus remained at the standard amount in all samples containing Spirulina during 21 days of storage (p< 0.05). Incorporation of microalgae increased the iron and protein content of the samples. The increase in the concentration of Spirulina platensis induced a significant decrease in the sensory acceptability. According to chemical and sensorial analyzes and economical characteristics samples with 0.3%, w/v Spirulina were chosen as the best treatment.
... Several authors (de Caire et al., 2000;Varga et al., 2002;Bhowmik et al., 2009;Guldas and Irkin, 2010;Beheshtipour et al., 2013;Mazinani et al., 2016;Yamaguchi et al., 2019;Martelli et al., 2020b) evaluated the effect of Arthrospira spp. ...
... In accordance with the results obtained by Martelli et al. (2020b) we have demonstrated that A. platensis can promote LAB growth. Similar results have also been reported by Bhowmik et al. (2009), where the addition up to 10 g L −1 of A. platensis to MRS broth media containing different Lactobacillus cultures promoted the growth until 9 log CFU mL −1 (after 10 h), starting from a concentration of about 2.5 log CFU mL −1 . Fermentation with four Lactobacillus strain (L. ...
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The main objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Arthrospira platensis F&M-C256 (spirulina) biomass in a vegetal soybean drink or in water, as substrate for lactic acid fermentation by the probiotic bacterium Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ATCC8014 (LAB8014) and to evaluate the fermented products in terms of bacteria content and organic acids content, biochemical composition, total phenolics, and phycocyanin content, in vitro digestibility, in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. After 72 h of fermentation, a bacterial concentration of about 10.5 log CFU mL−1 in the broths containing the soybean drink + spirulina + LAB8014 (SD + S + LAB8014) or water + spirulina + LAB8014 (W + S + LAB8014) was found. Lactic acid concentration reached similar values (about 1.7 g L−1) in the two broths, while a different acetic acid concentration between SD + S + LAB8014 and W + S + LAB8014 broths was observed (7.7 and 4.1 g L−1 , respectively). A. platensis biomass was shown to be a suitable substrate for LAB8014 growth. After fermentation, both broths contained a high protein content (>50%). In both broths, total phenolics, in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity increased after fermentation (+35, +20, and +93% on average, respectively), while phycocyanin content decreased (−40% on average). Digestibility of W + S + LAB8014 broth statistically improved after fermentation. This study highlights the potential of A. platensis F&M-C256 biomass as a substrate for the production of new functional lactose-free beverages.
... Positive results have also been obtained using this cyanobacterium as a prebiotic for lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Indeed, it was able not only to preserve LAB viability in food matrixes [17,18] but also to stimulate their growth in broth [19][20][21]. The effect of A. platensis biomass on LAB could be exploited for the production of probiotic food supplements or ingredients in particular. ...
... However, to meet the definition of probiotic products, microorganisms must be viable for the entire shelf life of the product, and in such quantities to be able to multiply and integrate the intestinal flora. The activity of A. platensis to enhance LAB vitality, such as that of L. casei, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lacticaseibacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacteria, has been documented [3,[19][20][21]. There is no consensus regarding the minimum quantity of probiotic microorganisms to be ingested to guarantee their functionality in the human intestine. ...
Article
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Arthrospira platensis is a cyanobacterium widely used in food formulation and mainly consumed as a food supplement because of its high amount of proteins, vitamins and minerals. Different probiotic food supplements are present in the market, and a lactic acid fermented food product like dried spirulina could be useful not only to introduce lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with beneficial effects to the diet of consumers, but also to improve or change the aromatic profile of the substrate. Therefore, the aim of this study was the evaluation of lactic acid fermentation of A. platensis biomass, focusing on the consequent changes in the aromatic profile. For this purpose, two different stabilization treatments (UV light treatment and sterilization) were applied prior to fermentation with two LAB strains, Lacticaseibacillus casei 2240 and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG. The biomass proved to be a suitable matrix for solid-state fermentation, showing a LAB growth of more than 2 log CFU/g in 48 h. The fermentation process was also useful for off-flavor reduction. In particular, the fermentation process significantly influenced the concentration of those compounds responsible for aldehydic/ethereal, buttery/waxy (acetoin and diacetyl), alkane and fermented aromatic notes (isoamyl alcohol). The heat treatment of the matrix, in addition to guaranteed safety for consumers, led to an improved aroma after fermentation. In conclusion, a fermented spirulina powder with a different aromatic profile was obtained with the applied heat treatment. Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria can be an interesting tool to obtain cyanobacterial biomasses with more pleasant sensory properties for potential use in food formulations.
... Most of the research focuses on microorganisms and algae that are used as biomass beneficial to bacteria (Figure 3). Often, microalgae are added to probiotic bacteria in the form of powder or extracts to improve bacterial growth and composition [144][145][146][147]. A. platensis is the most studied photosynthetic cyanobacteria in terms of dry biomass usage in food additives. Its dry biomass has been extensively studied to determine its effect on the growth of various lactic acid strains, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. ...
... Its dry biomass has been extensively studied to determine its effect on the growth of various lactic acid strains, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Bhomwik et al. [144] studied the effect of dry biomass of A. platensis on three lactic acid bacteria. The growth of L. casei MTCC 1423, L. acidophilus MTCC 447, and S. thermophilus MTCC 1938 was stimulated by the dry biomass of algal products derived from the late log phase of growth. ...
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The diversity of algal species is a rich source of many different bioactive metabolites. The compounds extracted from algal biomass have various beneficial effects on health. Recently, co-culture systems between microalgae and bacteria have emerged as an interesting solution that can reduce the high contamination risk associated with axenic cultures and, consequently, increase biomass yield and synthesis of active compounds. Probiotic microorganisms also have numerous positive effects on various aspects of health and represent potent co-culture partners. Most studies consider algae as prebiotics that serve as enhancers of probiotics performance. However, the extreme diversity of algal organisms and their ability to produce a plethora of metabolites are leading to new experimental designs in which these organisms are cultivated together to derive maximum benefit from their synergistic interactions. The future success of these studies depends on the precise experimental design of these complex systems. In the last decade, the development of high-throughput approaches has enabled a deeper understanding of global changes in response to interspecies interactions. Several studies have shown that the addition of algae, along with probiotics, can influence the microbiota, and improve gut health and overall yield in fish, shrimp, and mussels aquaculture. In the future, such findings can be further explored and implemented for use as dietary supplements for humans.
... acids, minerals, pigments, carotenoids, and vitamins (Abdel-Moneim et al., 2021b;Mendiola et al., 2007). Spirulina was found to act as a probiotic and antioxidant agent (Abdel-Moneim et al., 2021b;Abdelkhalek et al., 2015;Bhowmik et al., 2009). Therefore, Spirulina is supplemented to human food and animal diets to prevent gut dysbiosis and pathogens colonization and improve antioxidant status. ...
... Despite the strong antioxidant activity of polyphenols and flavonoids, the total carotenoid content showed a higher positive correlation with the antioxidant activity than the total phenolic and flavonoid content in some extracts of Spirulina products (Park et al., 2018). Besides, Spirulina act as a probiotic (Abdel-Moneim et al., 2021b;Bhowmik et al., 2009) (Bermejo-Bescós et al., 2008). Furthermore, evidence from in vivo studies reported a positive correlation between the antioxidant activity of Spirulina and the anti-inflammatory effect (Abdel-Daim et al., 2016). ...
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This study investigated the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of three Spirulina extracts (methanol, acetone, and hexane) and the biological selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) fabricated by Bacillus subtilis AL43. The results showed that Spirulina extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens. Besides, Spirulina extracts significantly scavenged ABTS and DPPH radicals in a dose-dependent manner. The methanolic extract had higher total phenolic content, antimicrobial activity, and antioxidant activity than other extracts. The selenium nanoparticles were synthesized by Bacillus subtilis AL43 under aerobic conditions and were characterized as spherical, crystalline with a size of 65.23 nm and a net negative charge of - 22.7. We evidenced that SeNPs possess considerable antimicrobial activity against three gram-positive, three gram-negative bacteria, and three strains from both Candida sp. and Aspergillus sp. Moreover, SeNPs were able to scavenge ABTS and DPPH radicals in a dose-dependent manner. An association was found between the total phenolic content of Spirulina and SeNPs and their biological activities. Our results indicate that Spirulina and SeNPs with significant antimicrobial and antioxidant activities seem to be successful candidates for safe and reliable medical applications.
... However, some researchers reported the positive impact of S.platensis on growth metabolism in animals (Grinstead et al., 2000;Peiretti and Meineri, 2008;Moreira et al., 2011). The mechanism of S.platensis on growth and feed efficiency was explained by its inhibiton effect on harmful microorganism in intestinal mucosa (Bhowmik et al., 2009). ...
... So, it was neccessary to analyse these parameters by handled method for future researches. In addition, S.platensis may inhibit the harmful bacteria in intestine (Bhowmik et al., 2009) and thereby inflammatory agents that secreted by enteric bacteria may affect on globulin synthesis of liver. Some researchers reported different results about effects of Spirulina on protein values. ...
... The addition of S. platensis could support the growth of L. acidophilus due to its unique source of nutrients and amino acid in it [31]. Bhowmik et al. [38] reported that the probiotic qualification of S. platensis promoted the growth of lactic acid bacteria. ...
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The aim of this study was to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium lactis) by the addition of Spirulina platensis into ayran. The effects of S. platensis at 0 %, 0.25 %, 0.5 %, and 1 % concentrations on the growth of probiotic bacteria were studied before and after fermentation and on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days of storage. The S. platensis had a significant effect on the growth of S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus and B. lactis and the biochemical variables. The addition of S. platensis, significantly increased the growth of probiotics compared to the control after fermentation and within storage. Samples containing S. platensis had significantly higher titratable acidity levels compared to the control during the study period. The mixing of S. platensis at 1 % gave the highest total solid and protein content compared to the control samples. Viscosity values of samples having S. platensis decreased during storage time. The addition of algal biomass at 0.25 %, 0.5 %, and 1 % significantly decreased Hunter color parameters; L* and b* values compared to the control. Spirulina platensis has great potential for enhancing the growth of probiotic bacteria and the nutritional content of ayran.
... and Lactobacilli spp [13,62]. Previous studies have demonstrated that the microalgae Spirulina platensis can promote the growth of beneficial bacteria, such as L. casei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus [63,64]. In addition, it has been documented that microalgae may positively impact the host metabolism [34,65]. ...
Article
The humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis) is a commercially valuable species of the family Epinephelidae; however, its marketization suffers from slow growth speed, low survival rate, and various pathogenic diseases. Lactococcus lactis and Schizochytrium limacinum are commonly used as immunostimulants due to their health benefits for the aquatic organisms. In the present study, we assessed the effects of dietary supplementation with L. lactis HNL12 combined with S. limacinum algal meal on the growth performances, innate immune response, and disease resistance of C. altivelis against Vibrio harveyi. The results showed that fish fed with a combination diet of L. lactis and S. limacinum exhibited significantly higher final weight, percent weight gain, and specific growth rate compared with groups fed with them alone. A bacterial challenge experiment indicated that the group fed with the L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet achieved the highest relative percent of survival value (68.63%), suggesting that L. lactis and S. limacinum significantly improved the disease resistance against V. harveyi after a 4-week feeding trial. Moreover, the respiratory burst activity of macrophages of fish fed with a L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet was significantly higher than that of fish fed the control diet after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of feeding. The serum superoxide dismutase of fish fed with a L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet significantly increased compared to those fed the control diet after 1 and 2 weeks of feeding, while the serum alkaline phosphatase of fish fed with a L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet after 2 and 4 weeks was significantly increased, compared to the control group. The serum lysozyme activities of fish fed with a L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet significantly increased compared to the control group after 2 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, transcriptome sequencing of the C. altivelis head kidney was conducted to explore the immune-regulating effects of the L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet on C. altivelis. A total of 86,919 unigenes, annotated by at least one of the reference databases (Nr, Swiss-Prot, GO, COG, and KEGG), were assembly yielded by de novo transcriptome. In addition, 157 putative differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the L. lactis combined with S. limacinum group and the control group. For pathway enrichment, the DEGs were categorized into nine KEGG pathways, which were mainly related to infective diseases, antigen processing and presentation, digestive system, and other immune system responses. The findings of this study suggest that the L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet can induce positive effects on the growth, immunity, and disease resistance of C. altivelis against V. harveyi. This study expands our understanding of the synergistic combinations of probiotics and prebiotics in aquaculture.
... In addition, extracts of SP have shown antibacterial effect by inhibiting the growth of harmful microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach 1884, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter 1872) Migula 1900, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (Schroeter 1886) Trevisan 1887 (Kaushik and Chauhan 2008). Bhowmik et al. (2009) suggested the prebiotic potential of the microalgae because 10 mg mL −1 SP supplementation promoted growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus (Moro 1900) Hansen and Mocquot 1970. In the present study, no effects were observed on E. coli counts in feces with SP diets. ...
Article
The present experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary Spirulina (SP) supplementation in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc, 25.32 ± 1.36 kg] were randomly distributed to one of four treatments: control, basal diet; treatment 1, basal diet + 0.025% SP; treatment 2, basal diet + 0.050% SP; and treatment 3, basal diet + 0.100% SP. Growing pigs fed 0.050% SP diet had greater (P < 0.05) body weight and fecal Lactobacillus counts compared with pigs fed basal diet. Average daily gain and gain to feed ratio were greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed 0.050% and 0.100% SP diets as compared with pigs fed basal diet. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity for pigs fed 0.050% SP diet tended to increase compared with pigs fed basal diet (P < 0.10). Pigs fed 0.025%, 0.050%, and 0.100% SP had a higher (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity than pigs fed basal diet. In conclusion, SP supplementation improved growth performance and ATTD of DM, increased the SOD and GPx activity, and enhanced the fecal Lactobacillus counts in growing pigs.
... Spirulina contains improving its microbial balance. The probiotic efficiency of S. platensis is for lactic acid bacteria and also a potent antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria [30]. ...
... The potential role of SPA can also be attributed to their role in increasing feed consumption and utilization by increasing diet palatability. The enhanced feed efficiency can be explained by evaluating the impact of SPA on the intestinal morphometry indices (Bhowmik et al., 2009). The obtained results illustrated that chickens fed both SPA doses displayed beneficial effects on the intestinal villi length and width as well as the number of goblet cells. ...
Article
Spirulina platensis algae (SPA) is a natural feed supplement with 40 to 45% crude protein, 2.44% Ca, and 6.27% P. It contains substances (e.g., β-carotene and zeaxanthin, and high Fe, vitamins and phycocyanin). These substances reveal potential biological properties such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic contain. The effects of dietary supplementation of SPA on growth performance, antioxidative, immune status, and intestinal histology were investigated. A total of 540 broiler chickens were randomly assigned into 3 treatments of 18 breeding pens each housed in 6 replicates per each experimental treatment (30 birds per pen). Three diets were formulated to contain 0, 3, and 6% of SPA and fed from d 7 to 35. Body weight and body weight gain at 5 wk of age were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in the diet containing 6% SPA compared with the 0% SPA. The supplementation of SPA to a broiler chickens diet improved (P = 0.008) the feed conversion ratio. The obtained results of the experiment showed that broiler chickens fed with 3 and 6% of feed SPA increased (P ≤ 0.05) RBC, Hb, WBC, and lymphocyte values compared to the 0% SPA. Serum total lipid, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations in the diet containing 3 or 6% SPA decreased compared with the 0% SPA. Furthermore, the concentration of high-density lipoprotein was increased (P = 0.001), while the opposite is observed with low-density lipoprotein concentration. Serum Ca and P concentrations had greater (P ≤ 0.05) in the diet containing 3 or 6% SPA compared to the 0% SPA. Broiler chickens with both treated groups of SPA had the best antioxidative and immune status. Moreover, the content of Ca and P in tibia ash increased (P ≤ 0.05) in both broiler chickens fed the diets containing 3 and 6% SPA compared with those fed the diet containing 0% SPA. In comparison to the control treatment, all experimental chickens had increased villus height, goblet cells per 100 enterocytes and villus height per crypt depth in the jejunum histology examination. The inclusion of SPA in broiler chicken fed the diet containing of 6% had a considerably positive effect on growth performance and gut health status. In addition, it is a good source of Ca and P to increase tibia strength.
... Measurements were performed to assess how Spirulina could stimulate the growth of Lb. casei in the MRS medium according to the method described by Bhowmik et al. (2009). Spirulina was used at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0% (w/v). ...
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Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) addition were evaluated on probiotic Lactobacillus casei growth in bacteriologically acidified feta-type (BAF) cheese. The chemical, textural, and sensorial characteristics of cheese were measured. After 60 days of storage, there were significantly higher viable counts of Lb. casei (9.10–9.35 log CFU g⁻¹) in Spirulina samples in comparison with the control (8.68 log CFU g⁻¹). The viable counts of Lb. casei were maintained more successfully in the probiotic BAF cheese which contained Spirulina. The values of titratable acidity, dry matter, and protein contents of Spirulina samples were higher than the control. Furthermore, samples with Spirulina exhibited softer textures which led to an easier disintegration and chewing of the BAF cheese. Based on the results of the sensorial evaluation, no significant difference was observed between the control and the samples with 0.5 or 1.0% Spirulina. In conclusion, Spirulina is deemed a satisfactory nutritional source which can be added to BAF cheese without having any adverse effects on its characteristics. Graphical abstractEffect of Spirulina powder on probiotic BAF cheese
... In this respect, it has been found that Spirulina biomass increase the rate of in vitro development of several strains of microorganisms present in fermented dairy products (Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bifidobacterium) and in parallel, it expresses beneficial effect on their survival. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that Lactobacillus population in the human gastrointestinal tract is increased by Spirulina consumption [12]. Knowing their physicochemical characteristics is fundamental for the selection of the most suitable microalgae [13] to specific food technology applications and consequently successful novel food development. ...
... In contrast to several reports about stimulated growth of lactic acid bacteria by Spirulina meal in humans [67] [68] [69], no significant effect on the count of lactic acid bacteria was observed in the current study. Further studies are required to evaluate the possible effects of alternative proteins on microbial parameters in gastrointestinal tract of growing chickens in more detail. ...
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Insects or algae are considered future solutions to substitute imported feed proteins like soybean meal (SBM) in animal nutrition. The objective of this research, as part of the multidisciplinary project “Sustainability transitions”, focused on replacing 50% SBM by partly defatted larvae meal from black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens) or the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis in meat type chicken diets. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects on body composition, protein quality, apparent precaecal digestibility (apcD) and parameters of intestinal microbiota. In total, 288 one-day-old male growing chickens (Ross 308) from a commercial hatchery were randomly allotted to 48 pens (6 birds per pen) across five diets, which were fed at a free choice level. The control diet utilized SBM, wheat and corn as main ingredients, and experimental diets replaced 50% of SBM by the alternative proteins under study. Amino acid (AA) supplementation of the final diets was conducted both at a basic level (diets HM, SM; Lys and Met added equal to the control diet) and an extended level of AA fortification (diets HM+, SM+; extended supplementation of Lys, Met, Thr, Arg). After finishing the growth study, 4 individual birds per diet were slaughtered for whole body analyses to derive nutrient utilization and dietary protein quality parameters. Additionally, pooled chyme samples from 16 birds per diet (control, HM and SM) were analyzed to assess apcD and microbial parameters. Diets HM and SM with a basic level of AA fortification led to significant depressions in nutrient deposition and dietary protein quality. However, HM+ and SM+ diets with an extended level of AA supplementation led to significantly improved responses; however these were still generally not on par with the control diet. The HM+ diet provided superior CP deposition and dietary protein quality, as compared to the SM+ diet, but equal to the control diet. Results of gut microbiology yielded no significant effects due to feeding the alternative protein sources under study.
... Kaushik and Chauhan (2008) demonstrated that the extracts of Spirulina have shown antibacterial effects by inhibiting the growth of harmful microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Klebsiella pneumonia. The addition of dry Spirulina at 10 mg/mL into de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium-promoted growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus by 186%, suggesting prebiotic potential of the microalgae (Bhowmik et al., 2009). Rania and Hala (2008) also suggested that Spirulina extract had antibacterial activities against E. coli because of the presence of alkaloids and lipopolysaccharides. ...
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This study examined the effects of dietary Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant enzyme activity, nutrient digestibility, cecal microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, organ weight and breast meat quality in broiler chickens. In total, 800 Ross 308 male broiler chickens (1-d-old) were randomly divided into 5 dietary treatments with 10 replicate cages (16 birds/replicate) per treatment for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were a control basal diet without Spirulina or with 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0% Spirulina. Body weight gain, feed conversion, and/or European production efficiency index improved linearly with supplementation of Spirulina during d 8 to 21, 22 to 35, and overall d 1 to 35 (P < 0.05). Dietary Spirulina supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (linear, P < 0.05). Apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen showed a linear increase in Spirulina supplementation (P < 0.05). Cecal Lactobacillus count linearly increased and excreta ammonia gas emission linearly decreased, as dietary Spirulina supplementation increased (P < 0.05). There were no significant effects on relative organ weight and breast meat quality of broilers fed with Spirulina diets; however, 7 d drip loss linearly decreased in treatment groups fed with Spirulina (P < 0.05). These results indicate that adding Spirulina to the diet of broilers can improve antioxidant enzyme activity, dry matter and nitrogen digestibility, cecal Lactobacillus population, excreta ammonia gas emission, and 7 d drip loss of breast meat. In addition, dietary inclusion of 1.0% Spirulina powder might provide a good alternative to improve broiler chicken production.
... S. platensis merupakan alga yang sering dimanfaatkan sebagai suplemen untuk mencukupi kebutuhan protein manusia. S. platensis memiliki kandungan protein berkisar antara 70 -78 % [1]. Pola hidup manusia juga menciptakan suatu manipulasi lingkungan sehingga muncul berbagai pencemaran yang berakibat pada tingginya radikal bebas yang masuk pada tubuh manusia. ...
... Indeed, several compounds, including γlinolenic acid, active fatty acid lauric and palmitoleic acid, have been attributed to the antimicrobial activities of S. platensis (El-Sheekh et al., 2014). With its prebiotic properties (Beheshtipour et al., 2013;de Jesus Raposo et al., 2016), S. platensis is known to possess a stimulating effect on the growth of LAB (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus thermophilus) (Bhowmik et al., 2009). In broiler chickens, S. platensis administration has been associated with the increased intestinal population of LAB (Shanmugapriya et al., 2015b), while in Japanese quails, feeding such algae tended to increase the count of intestinal lactobacilli (Yusuf et al., 2016). ...
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Spirulina platensis is a good candidate as an in-feed antibiotics substitute for broilers. However, its use seems impractical owing to its high price, especially when being administered throughout the whole rearing period. This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding duration of S. platensis on growth, haematological parameters, intestinal microbial population, and carcass traits of broiler chicks. A total of 288 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to one of four groups, including control (basal diet with 0.04% zinc bacitracin) (CONT) and birds receiving basal diet supplemented with 1% of S. platensis for the first seven days (SP-7), for 21 days (SP-21), and for 35 days (SP-35). In this study, treatments had no significant effect on the growth performance of broilers. The caecum relative weight was significantly higher in SP-35 than in CONT and SP-21 birds. The values of haemoglobin, erythrocytes, and haematocrit were significantly lower in SP-35 than in other birds. Compared with CONT, SP-35 birds had significantly lower numbers of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and a lower number of eosinophils. The numbers of coliform were significantly lower in the ileum of SP-21 than in CONT and SP-7 birds. In the caecum, coliform tended to be lower in SP-21 than in other birds. There was no significant difference in the carcass traits of broilers across the groups. In conclusion, the administration of S. platensis for the first 21 days of broilers' life resulted in similar or even better responses than administration of S. platensis or in-feed antibiotics throughout the rearing period.
... It has been reported that Spirulina could improve the quality of fermented dairy products via increasing the rate of in vitro development of several strains of microorganisms present in them (Bhowmik et al., 2009) and due to its complex composition it might be used for supplementation in synbiotics formulations (Finamore et al. 2017). Charalampopoulos et al., (2002) developed a functional weaning food using novel cereal components as substrates and developed dietary fibre, prebiotics and probiotics. ...
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For alleviating child malnutrition, functional food from natural resources such as microalgae predominantly cyanobacteria came into existence as consumers today are more health conscious. No work of technological or scientific significance has been reported on standardized method for development of pearl millet weaning food supplemented with Spirulina maxima. Therefore, feasibility trials were done on the basis of sensory attributes analysis. Spirulina powder grown in optimized laboratory conditions was screened for its phytochemical constituents. The standardized product consisted of one part of pearl millet grounded for 5 min cooked with eight parts of water, 5% salt and 0.8% of cumin powder. Cooked weaning food mixed with 1% curd culture, 1.5% Spirulina powder and incubated for 12 h (fermentation). Standardized product consisting of this formulation scored 8.13, 7.93, 7.88, 7.94, 7.30, 8.14 for colour and appearance, flavour, consistency, mouthfeel, acidity and overall acceptability, respectively on 9 points hedonic scale. Keywords: Spirulina, weaning food, sensory attributes, fermentation, hedonic scale
... Study by Martins et al., (2008) found that the aggressiveness in term of activeness of catfish influence by its efficiency in term of nutrient use, and the healthy fish usually associated with higher activeness level. (Vonshak, 1997;Bhowmik et al., 2009;Promya and Chitmanat, 2011). ...
Article
This study determines the effects of spirulina supplementation on the physical activeness level in cultured catfish. Five experimental diets containing different percent of spirulina (0% (control), 1%, 3%, 5% and 7%) were fed daily to a total of 30 catfish fry/cage (in triplicate) at 5% body weight, for a period of 105 days. The level of physical activeness was determined by giving a score during daily feeding for 90 consecutive days, fortnight handing for total body weight and length measurement, and feeding during Aeromonas hydrophila challenge experiments.At daily feeding and handling for body weight and length measurement, groups of catfish supplemented with spirulina scored very active level of physical activeness, while the control group catfish score was normal. The physical activeness level during A. hydrophila challenge showed that the catfish with spirulina supplementation scored better physical activeness compared to catfish with control diet. This study concludes that supplementation of spirulina as low as 1% in feed will improves physical activeness level of the catfish. Moreover, spirulina helps in the motivation for feeding during non-infection and infection by bacterial pathogen.
... Study by Martins et al., (2008) found that the aggressiveness in term of activeness of catfish influence by its efficiency in term of nutrient use, and the healthy fish usually associated with higher activeness level. (Vonshak, 1997;Bhowmik et al., 2009;Promya and Chitmanat, 2011). ...
Article
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This study determines the effects of spirulina supplementation on the physical activeness level in cultured catfish. Five experimental diets containing different percent of spirulina (0% (control), 1%, 3%, 5% and 7%) were fed daily to a total of 30 catfish fry/cage (in triplicate) at 5% body weight, for a period of 105 days. The level of physical activeness was determined by giving a score during daily feeding for 90 consecutive days, fortnight handing for total body weight and length measurement, and feeding during Aeromonas hydrophila challenge experiments.At daily feeding and handling for body weight and length measurement, groups of catfish supplemented with spirulina scored very active level of physical activeness, while the control group catfish score was normal. The physical activeness level during A. hydrophila challenge showed that the catfish with spirulina supplementation scored better physical activeness compared to catfish with control diet. This study concludes that supplementation of spirulina as low as 1% in feed will improves physical activeness level of the catfish. Moreover, spirulina helps in the motivation for feeding during non-infection and infection by bacterial pathogen
... S. platensis memiliki kandungan oligosakarida berupa mannosa dan rhamnosa yang diketahui dapat menstimulasi pertumbuhan mikroba nonpatogenik (Gupta et al., 2017). Bhowmik et al. (2009) melaporkan bahwa S. platensis dapat menstimulasi pertumbuhan bakteri asam laktat (BAL) dan menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri patogen sehingga status kesehatan ayam menjadi lebih baik. Dari sisi produktivitas, Lokapirnasari dkk. ...
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The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of duration feeding of Spirulina platensis as a prebiotic in ration on the red blood cells of broiler chickens. The material used in this study was 240 day old chick (DOC) with average of initial weight 42.015 ± 0.219 g. The experiment was designed based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treated treatments were T0 (Feed Basal + 0.04% Zinc Bacitracin), T1 (Basal diet + 1% Spirulina platensis for 7 days administration), T2 (Basal diet + 1% Spirulina platensis for 21 days of administration) and T3 (Feed Basal + 1% Spirulina platensis for 35 days of administration). Measured variables include total erythrocytes, hemoglobin, percentage of hematocrit, and erythrocyte index values (MCV, MCH, MCHC). Data were analyzed by variance test (F test) and if there was a significant difference then continued with Duncan’s multiple range test. The results showed that there was significant differences (P 0.05) between treatments on hemoglobin levels, hematocrit percentage, and erythrocyte index values (MCV, MCH, MCHC). It concluded that the feeding of Spirulina platensis for 35 days in ration can reduce total broiler erythrocytes and feeding S. platensis as a prebiotic given for 7 or 21 days of administration gives the same result as giving AGPs (Antibiotics Growth Promoters) seen from the broiler's red blood profile.
... The results show no significant difference between the two treatments. This coincides with the work of Verga et al., (2002) and Dola Bhowmik et al., (2009). Table 4 presents the pH and acidity values of Probiotic Yoghurt and Spirulina enriched probiotic yoghurt on the 7 th day. ...
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An attempt has been made in the present study to explore the potential of Spirulina, a cyanobacterium, photoautotrophic microorganism in initiating a stimulatory effect on the microflora of Probiotic yoghurt. Probiotic yoghurt was prepared by adding 1 percent inoculum of probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum to yoghurt cultures viz., Streptococcus. salivarius ssp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. Spirulina enriched functional Probiotic yoghurt was prepared by using 1 gram of Spirulina per litre of mix.The pH and acidity of probiotic yoghurt and Spirulina enriched Probiotic yoghurt on 0 day was 4.31± 0.007, 0.96± 0.002 and 4.31± 0.009, 0.96± 0.005 respectively. On the 3rd it was 4.30 ± 0.003, 0.96 ± 0.004 and 4.31 ± 0.004, 0.96± 0.005 respectively. There was no significant difference in the pH and acidity of Probiotic and Spirulina enriched yoghurt between these 2 sampling periods. The pH and acidity of probiotic yoghurt and spirulina enriched probiotic yoghurt on the 7th day was 4.28 ± 0.001, 1.11 ± 0.030 and 4.31 ± 0.004, 1.02 ± 0.023 respectively. Significant difference was noticed in pH and acidity in these two treatments on 7th day. The Spirulina enriched sample was less acidic than Probiotic yoghurt. There was virtually no difference in viable numbers of S. salivarius ssp. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Bifidobacterium bifidum on 0 and 3rd day. However the growth of the three lactic acid bacteria used was higher in Spirulina enriched yoghurt than in Probiotic yoghurt on the 7th day. The addition of cyanobacterial bio mass to Bifidobacterium bifidum, S. salivarius ssp. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus had beneficial effect on their viability. No spoilage organism was detected at any sampling time, indicating the high degree of sanitation during processing and packaging products. Thus the abundance of bioactive substances in Spirulina is of great importance from a nutritional point of view as it provides new opportunity for the manufacture of functional dairy foods.
... The enhanced feed efficiency can be explained by evaluating the impact of SP/BA on the intestinal morphometry indices (Bhowmik et al., 2009). The obtained results illustrated that fish fed both SP/BA displayed beneficial effects on the intestinal villi length and width as well as the number of goblet cells. ...
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Probiotics and herbals are highly recommended in aquaculture; however, little is known about their combined effects. Therefore, the present study evaluated the possible synergistic impacts of Spirulina platensis (SP) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) on the growth performance, histomorphology, and immune response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A control and three test diets were enriched with SP, BA, or both SP and BA and fed for tilapia for 60 days. The obtained results displayed higher final body weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate in fish fed SP or/and BA with respect to the control with the highest being in fish fed both SP and BA (P<0.05). The feed conversion ratio was lower in fish fed SP or/and BA with the lowest being in fish fed both SP and BA (P<0.05). In the three intestinal segments, the mucosal length, villi length, and number of goblet cells were increased by dietary SP or/and BA (P<0.05). The histological structure of the intestinal villi revealed increased length and regular structure which confirm that the tilapia intestine is out of inflammation. The biochemical variables displayed non-significant differences among the groups with normal values. The blood total protein and immunoglobulin M were significantly higher in fish fed BA alone or both SP and BA than fish fed the control (P<0.05). The mRNA level of TNF-α gene was significantly increased by dietary SP or/and BA with respect to the control group while HSP70 was decreased (P<0.05). The transcription of SOD was higher in fish fed both SP/BA than the other groups (P<0.05). The obtained results revealed the importance of including both SP and BA in tilapia diets to enhance the growth rate, intestinal histomorphology, and health status.
... As feed for animals, S. platensis helped absorb metal ions in the animal gut to restore gut disorders due to imbalance of insulin and adipose distributions (21), and improved lactic acid bacteria viability and activity. They suppressed the growth of pathogenic bacteria, thus improving the host's adsorption (22). A marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum improved the animal immune system and increased intestinal adsorption (23) and Dunaliella tertiolecta improved the immune system. ...
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Euglena gracilis, a single-celled microalga with various trophic growth styles under different cultivation conditions, contains nutrients, such as ß-1,3-glucans, essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. It has recently attracted attention as a new health food. Among them, ß-1,3-glucans, paramylon of Euglena, is an insoluble dietary fiber and is well known as an immune booster, attenuator of obesity and diabetes, reducer of acute liver injury, and suppressor of atopic dermatitis, and other chronic inflammatory disorders. Recently, evidence has appeared for the positive health effects of foods, food ingredients, or biochemical compounds derived from several other microalgae, such as Chlorella, Spirulina, Dunaliella, Phaeodactylum, and Pavlova. Until most recently, the prebiotic activity of Euglena and paramylon was reported. Emerging prospects of microalgae as prebiotics were well summarized, but the mechanisms behind the bacterial growth promotion by microalgae are not elucidated yet. Thus, we evaluated the prebiotic prospects of both autotrophic and heterotrophic Euglena on six different Lactobacillus. What’s more, the stimulated mechanism was revealed by bacterial culture medium metabolomic analysis. This study could widen the knowledge about the prebiotic activity of Euglena as a next-generation prebiotic and other microalgae-derived compounds as potential health foods.
... Spirulina microalgae is not only used as a raw material for animal and aquatic feed, but it also has microbial-modulating activities, both for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (40)(41)(42). Moreover, spirulina also has beneficial effects on metabolic disease in clinical trial and alleviates adverse impacts due to high ambient temperature that reduces immunity function and increases production of free radicals in broilers (15,43) which implies spirulina's potential as a nutraceutical in animals and humans. ...
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Gut inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) links to animal medicinal feed and antibiotic-resistance are fueling major economic impacts in the agricultural livestock industry. New animal feeds that promote livestock gut health and control of IBDs without antibiotics are needed. This study investigates the effects of mesobiliverdin IXα (MBV)-enriched microalgae spirulina extracts on the growth performance, blood parameters, intestinal morphology, and gut microbiota of broilers. A total of 288 1-day-old broiler chicks (Arbor Acres) were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments (4 pens/treatment and 12 birds/pen). The dietary treatments comprised a basal diet as control (CON), basal diet plus 0.05 and 0.1% microalgae extract as low and high dose, respectively (SP1 and SP2), basal diet plus 0.05 and 0.1% MBV-enriched microalgae extract as low and high dose, respectively (MBV-SP1 and MBV-SP2), and basal diet plus 0.1% amoxicillin (AMX). All treated animals showed no significant differences in live weight, average daily gain, and feed efficiency compared to control animals. Histological examination showed that AMX treatment decreased the villi lengths of the duodenum and ileum below control villi length ( P < 0.05) while MBV-SP1 and particularly MBV-SP2 increased villi lengths in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum above AMX -treatment lengths ( P < 0.05). The Firmicutes / Bacteroidetes ratio increased in the cecum of broilers fed AMX ( P < 0.05) while SP2, MBV-SP1, and MBV-SP2-fed animals showed (in order) increasing ratios up to the AMX level. The abundance of bacterial species of the genus Lactobacillus increased in MBV-SP1 and MBV-SP2-fed groups including a striking increase in Lactobacillus salivarius abundance with MBV-SP2 ( P < 0.05). Feeding MBV-SP1 and MBV-SP2 decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in plasma of broilers to a greater extent than SP1 and SP2. These results reveal that MBV-enriched microalgae extracts improve the intestinal health and beneficial microflora composition of broilers.
... Compared to many other species of cyanobacteria, Spirulina sp can produce many compounds of antimicrobial agents that are considered suitable organisms for utilization as a biocontrol agent of the pathogen. Antimicrobial compounds in Spirulina microalgae extract include polyphenols, fatty acids, glycolipids, terpenoids, and alkaloids that have been proven to have antimicrobial effects on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (Bhowmik et al. 2009). According to the results, the algal extract's antimicrobial activity in the nanoliposome was higher than in the free form in both the tested strains. ...
... Our traditional fermented dairy product, Dahi, can be used as a source of probiotics because the microbial isolates included strains of S. thermophilus, which is identified as a probiotic bacteria (Bhowmik et al., 2009;Mahmood et al., 2013). In addition to the primary role of their milk acidification, these bacterial strains of S. thermophilus produce secondary metabolites such as antibacterial peptides and possess other probiotic features. ...
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Dahi is a very common and traditional fermented dairy product in Pakistan and its neighboring countries, it represents a rich source for the isolation of many new strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The major objective of this study was to evaluate the probiotic potential of novel exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strains of S. thermophilus isolated from Dahi, sold in the local markets of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. In this study, 32 isolates of S. thermophilus were initially isolated from Dahi and out of these, 10 identified strains were further screened for their EPS-producing ability. Maximum EPS production was estimated for RIY strain (133.0 ± 0.06), followed by RIH4 strain (103.83 ± 0.76) and RIRT2 strain (95.77 ± 0.22), respectively. Thereafter, in vitro studies revealed that these newly identified EPS-producing strains of S. thermophilus fulfilled the basic requirements for probiotic functions; including resistance to harsh conditions of GIT, good cell surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation, and co-aggregation, especially against L. monocytogenes. Finally, the safety assessment displayed that these strains were also sensitive to clinical antibiotics, including vancomycin. Thus, these selected EPS strains of S. thermophilus act as potential candidates for biostabilizers in the preparation of consumer-friendly fermented probiotic milk products.
... In addition to satisfying human food needs, Spirulina has other valuable properties. Studies by Mathur (2018) Albicans [11][12][13][14]. The antibacterial property of Spirulina has been applied to create biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles that have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive organisms [15]. ...
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Humans primarily consume microalgal products due to their nutritional and immunostimulatory properties. However, these products may not benefit all persons since specific microalgae may not be compatible with all humans. While consuming micro-algal products in autoimmune diseases and their coadministration with drugs (anticoagulants, hypoglycemics, and certain herbal products), a medical specialist should closely monitor their use in patients. Hence, individuals should consult with medical experts regarding their intake of Spirulina instead of relying wholly from cyberspace. Also, in some circumstances, specific algae can be a significant source of toxins. Although Spirulina is not intrinsically toxic, it can accumulate toxins or contaminants from the environment that enter the human system when it is consumed. Mass cultivation in open ponds and open photobioreactors is prone to contamination. Also, other toxic cyanobacteria may contaminate the culture medium. The various photobioreactors designs-utilized to increase yield and reduce manufacturing cost-inadvertently provide pathways that adulterate the culture. These dangers must be addressed during the manufacturing and processing of microalgae. With the increasing demand for natural supplements and the growing scientific evidence supporting Spirulina, efforts must be made to boost their production and availability. Moreover, comprehensive research on the safety of these products and possible adverse interactions with medicines, and should be undertaken and supported by the medical and research communities. This review highlights conditions that require careful monitoring before Spirulina consumption, discusses Spirulina's interactions with specific medicines, and outlines the various sources of contaminants that may enter the algal system at any stage during the organism's life cycle.
... DHA rich oil from Chlorella sp. are approved for human consumption as well as Carotene from Dunaliella sp. and Haematococcus algae color are also approved to be used as food additives in Japan [130]. The PS discussed in the above section for probiotic growth promotion, however its biodegradability and bioconversion are also tied to the huge variability of activities they encompass, which make them a promising material [29,121] Oligo/PS in Isochrysis biomass Lactic acid bacteria - [122] as pharmaceutics, therapeutics, and regenerative medicine [90]. Number of desirable activities were confirmed in PS and their derivatives both in vitro and in vivo, such as immunomodulatory, anticoagulant, antithrombotic, antitumor and anticancer activities. ...
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Macro- and microalgae-based foods are becoming popular due to their high nutritious value. The algal biomass is enriched with polysaccharides, protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins and minerals. However, the most promising fraction is polysaccharides (PS) or their derivatives (as dietary fibers) which are not entirely fermented by colonic bacteria hence act as potential prebiotic. Primarily, algae become famous as prominent protein sources. Recently, these are widely adopted as functional food (e.g., desserts, dairy products, oil-derivatives, pastas etc.) or animal feed (for poultry, cattle, fish etc.). Besides prebiotic and balanced amino acids source, algae derived compounds implied as therapeutics due to comprising bioactive properties to elicit immunomodulatory, antioxidative, anticancerous, anticoagulant, hepato-protective, and antihypertensive responses. Despite the above potentials, broader research determinations are inevitable to explore these algal compounds until microalgae become a business reality for broader and specific applications in all health domains. However, scale up of algal bioprocess remains a major challenge until commercial affordability is accomplished which can be possible by discovering their hidden potentials and increasing their value and application prospects. This review provides an overview of the significance of algae consumption for several health benefits in humans and animals mainly as prebiotics, however their functional food and animal feed potential are briefly covered. Moreover, their potential to develop an algal-based food industry to meet the people's requirements not only as a sustainable food solution with several health benefits but also as therapeutics is inevitable.
... While fish fed on SP displayed high SOD and GSH with reduced MDA concentration reflecting activated antioxidative response. The dietary SP is well known by the increased antioxidative role, which is correlated to the high content of polyphenols and carotenes that are considered as antioxidant substances (Bhowmik et al., 2009). The proposed mechanisms underlying the protective effects of SP against AFB1 toxicity are summarized in Fig. 7. ...
... The lack of significant effects of algae addition to the diets of rabbits might be partially due to the inclusion of premix component in the diets where it was contained an important packages of vitamins and trace minerals those rendered the blood metabolites to be in the S. platensis and Chlorella vulgaris are used as a supplement because of their protein, vitamin and mineral contents. However, addition of SP may inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria in intestine (Bhowmik 2009) because harmful enteric bacteria secretes inflammatory agents and lead to increase in globulin synthesis of liver or of other tissues such as lymphatic tissue or plasma cells. On the other hand, Heidarpour et al.(2011) studied on albumin, globulin and their assigned ratio in calves fed diets with S. platensis in levels of 0, 2, 6 and 25 g/ day, and found no significant effect on serum albumin and globulin levels among treatment groups. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of microalga Spirulina platensis (SP) and Chlorella vulgaris (CV) as feed additives in balanced diets formulated for growing rabbits on digestibility, growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters of rabbits. Sixty New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (five weeks old with an average initial live body weight (626.85 g) were divided into five experimental groups (12 in each) for the feeding trail where rabbits in control group was fed 100% complete feed diet without algae supplements (T1), while both kinds of algae were added at 0.75 or 1.5g/Kg diets as T2 and T3 for spirulina diets and at the same two levels T4 and T5 for chlorella supplement, respectively. Rabbits fed the experimental diets till twelve weeks old and then digestibility trail was carried out using three animals for each group. Slaughtered test for carcass characteristics evaluation was done in addition some blood parameters were determined as well. Results indicated that the final LBW was significantly higher with both levels of SP supplement (T2&T3) than that of control (T1), but the other two levels of CV supplement (T4 &T5) were insignificantly higher than of control, with the highest value being occurred with T3. Similarly , total body weight gain was significantly higher with both levels of SP during the whole experimental period than that of control group , while the value of the two levels of CV were insignificant higher than that of control one. The highest value was associated with T3 followed in descending order by T2, T4, T5 and lastly the lowest value with control (T1). Only feed intake was significant affected by the addition of high level of SP, while the other tested dietary treatments did not significantly influenced, over the whole experimental period , compared with control. Feed conversion was improved significantly due to all algae treatments except that of the high level of CV supplement (T5) which nearly equal to that of control group. Non significant differences among treatments were found in respect of digestion coefficients of DM, OM, CP, CF, EE and NFE nutrients. Concerning the results of slaughter test , slaughter weight for the two levels of SP-diets had significant higher values than those of CV-diets and control one. 414 HANAN HASSANEIN et al. Similar trend was observed respecting hot carcass weight among experimental treatments. However, both weights and percentages of liver, kidney, heart and total giblet, didn't significant affected by dietary treatments. Also no significant differences among treatments respecting the dressing percentage was found. The lowest significant (P≤0.05) cholesterol value (37.64 mg/dl) was obtained by rabbits fed diet with high level of SP compared with the control (52.74 mg/dl). Rabbit fed diets supplemented with both levels of SP and also the low CV-diet had performed more economically than the other treatments. Conclusively, results indicated that both levels of Spirulina-diets markedly improved growth performance of growing rabbits and in addition reduced liver enzyme activities, cholesterol and total lipids concentration in blood compared with control and the chlorella algae supplement
... It also contains vitamins, pigments, i.e. chlorophylla (Chl-a), phycobiliproteins and carotenoids (Cohen 1997), trace elements and minerals that give it different biological properties (El-Baky et al. 2008). Studies and experiments conducted on A. platensis have shown multiple therapeutic effects that include immunomodulation (Abdel-Daim et al. 2015;Wu et al. 2016;Finamore et al. 2017), anticancer (Abu Zaid et al. 2015;Oh et al. 2011;Shanb et al. 2012), antioxidant (Abu Zaid et al. 2015;Wu et al. 2016;Finamore et al. 2017), antiviral (Hernandez-Corona et al. 2002), antibacterial (Ozdemir et al. 2004;Kaushik & Chauhan 2008;Finamore et al. 2017) and probiotic activity (Dola et al. 2009) as well as beneficial effects on wound healing (Syarina et al. 2015;Bari et al. 2017), malnutrition (Kazuya et al. 2014), hyperlipidaemia (Iwata et al. 1990;Ponce-Canchihuamán et al. 2010) and diabetes (Ponce-Canchihuamán et al. 2010). Arthrospira platensis has also been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a food, or food supplement, without risk to human health. ...
Article
2021): Alternative culture media and cold-drying for obtaining high biological value Arthrospiraplatensis (Cyanobacteria), Phycologia, ABSTRACT Arthrospira platensis is a source of proteins, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids (in tiny amounts) and phenolic components that give it different biological properties. The type of nutrients present in the culture medium can influence the microalga metabolism and, consequently, the growth, composition and content of nutrients, bioactive compounds and biological properties. In this work, A. platensis was cultivated in the laboratory using six culture media (Zarrouk as a standard medium, and Media 1-5), containing different nitrogen sources, and subsequently harvested and dried by freeze-drying or cold-drying. Medium 4, with KNO 3 as nitrogen source, proved to optimize the productivity of A. platensis (with a maximum yield of 1.34 ± 0.08 g l-1 , better than the Zarrouk medium), to maximize protein synthesis (up to 70% w/w) and to increase the antioxidant activity. Conversely, Medium 3, containing KNO 3 and NH 4 NO 3 , was the best to optimize carbohydrates and lipids (up to 30% w/w and 2% w/w, respectively). Both Media 3 and 4 were able to increase chlorophyll-a and carotenoid synthesis compared to the other tested media. Cold-drying has proved to be an excellent alternative to the more expensive lyophilization: the content of carotenoids and antioxidant components was better preserved. This research has shown that low-cost media and cold-drying can be a promising strategy for obtaining a high biological value product, usable in both the pharmaceutical and food sectors, reducing production times and costs. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Dietary fiber is believed to prevent IR through maintaining balanced gut microbiota (prebiotic effect) and its direct action on epithelial and immune cells that regulate the intestinal barrier and immune function [35]. Spirulina (A. platensis) biomass has been shown to promote the growth of putatively beneficial microorganisms (e.g., Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus, Saccharomyces thermophilus, and Bifidobacterium spp.) and to reduce the populations of putatively harmful bacteria in vitro [36][37][38]. In healthy male mice, spirulina (1.5-3.0 g of spray-dried A. platensis powder/kg body weight daily for 24 days) was found to modify the cecal populations of microbiota at the genus level (Clostridium XIVa, Desulfovibrio, Eubacterium, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, and Flavonifractor). ...
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Marine and freshwater algae and their products are in growing demand worldwide because of their nutritional and functional properties. Microalgae (unicellular algae) will constitute one of the major foods of the future for nutritional and environmental reasons. They are sources of high-quality protein and bioactive molecules with potential application in the modern epidemics of obesity and diabetes. They may also contribute decisively to sustainability through carbon dioxide fixation and minimization of agricultural land use. This paper reviews current knowledge of the effects of consuming edible microalgae on the metabolic alterations known as metabolic syndrome (MS). These microalgae include Chlorella, Spirulina (Arthrospira) and Tetraselmis as well as Isochrysis and Nannochloropsis as candidates for human consumption. Chlorella biomass has shown antioxidant, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, antihypertensive, and antihyperlipidemic effects in humans and other mammals. The components of microalgae reviewed suggest that they may be effective against MS at two levels: in the early stages, to work against the development of insulin resistance (IR), and later, when pancreatic-cell function is already compromised. The active components at both stages are antioxidant scavengers and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators such as carotenoids and-3 PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid; EPA/DHA), prebiotic polysaccharides, phenolics, antihypertensive peptides, several pigments such as phycobilins and phycocyanin, and some vitamins, such as folate. As a source of high-quality protein, including an array of bioactive molecules with potential activity against the modern epidemics of obesity and diabetes, microalgae are proposed as excellent foods for the future. Moreover, their incorporation into the human diet would decisively contribute to a more sustainable world because of their roles in carbon dioxide fixation and reducing the use of land for agricultural purposes.
... This antagonistic activity of S. platensis towards to fungal pathogens may be due to the competitive exclusion in which the strain competes with the pathogen for nutrition and prevention of colonization (Saulnier et al, 2009). The extracellular and intracellular secondary metabolites produced by the blue green algae might have been helpful in suppressing the growth of pathogenic fungi (Bhowmik et al, 2009). Introducing the *Data are presented as mean ± SD of zone of inhibition (mm); inhibition zones are the mean of 5 replicates; Ef = E. floccosum, Ma = M. audouinii, Tr = T. rubrum, Tc = T. concentricum, T t = T. tonsurans, Ca = C. albicans use of algae and its products to control pathogenic fungi to improve human and animal health is gaining attention. ...
... The lack of significant effects of algae addition to the diets of rabbits might be partially due to the inclusion of premix component in the diets where it was contained an important packages of vitamins and trace minerals those rendered the blood metabolites to be in the S. platensis and Chlorella vulgaris are used as a supplement because of their protein, vitamin and mineral contents. However, addition of SP may inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria in intestine (Bhowmik 2009) because harmful enteric bacteria secretes inflammatory agents and lead to increase in globulin synthesis of liver or of other tissues such as lymphatic tissue or plasma cells. On the other hand, Heidarpour et al.(2011) studied on albumin, globulin and their assigned ratio in calves fed diets with S. platensis in levels of 0, 2, 6 and 25 g/ day, and found no significant effect on serum albumin and globulin levels among treatment groups. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of microalga Spirulina platensis (SP) and Chlorella vulgaris (CV) as feed additives in balanced diets formulated for growing rabbits on digestibility, growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters of rabbits. Sixty New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (five weeks old with an average initial live body weight (626.85 g) were divided into five experimental groups (12 in each) for the feeding trail where rabbits in control group was fed 100% complete feed diet without algae supplements (T1), while both kinds of algae were added at 0.75 or 1.5g/Kg diets as T2 and T3 for spirulina diets and at the same two levels T4 and T5 for chlorella supplement, respectively. Rabbits fed the experimental diets till twelve weeks old and then digestibility trail was carried out using three animals for each group. Slaughtered test for carcass characteristics evaluation was done in addition some blood parameters were determined as well. Results indicated that the final LBW was significantly higher with both levels of SP supplement (T2&T3) than that of control (T1), but the other two levels of CV supplement (T4 &T5) were insignificantly higher than of control, with the highest value being occurred with T3. Similarly , total body weight gain was significantly higher with both levels of SP during the whole experimental period than that of control group , while the value of the two levels of CV were insignificant higher than that of control one . The highest value was associated with T3 followed in descending order by T2, T4, T5 and lastly the lowest value with control (T1). Only feed intake was significant affected by the addition of high level of SP, while the other tested dietary treatments did not significantly influenced, over the whole experimental period , compared with control . Feed conversion was improved significantly due to all algae treatments except that of the high level of CV supplement (T5) which nearly equal to that of control group. Non significant differences among treatments were found in respect of digestion coefficients of DM, OM, CP, CF, EE and NFE nutrients. Concerning the results of slaughter test , slaughter weight for the two levels of SP- diets had significant higher values than those of CV-diets and control one. Similar trend was observed respecting hot carcass weight among experimental treatments. However, both weights and percentages of liver, kidney, heart and total giblet, didn't significant affected by dietary treatments. Also no significant differences among treatments respecting the dressing percentage was found. The lowest significant (P≤0.05) cholesterol value (37.64 mg/dl) was obtained by rabbits fed diet with high level of SP compared with the control (52.74 mg/dl). Rabbit fed diets supplemented with both levels of SP and also the low CV- diet had performed more economically than the other treatments. Conclusively, results indicated that both levels of Spirulina – diets markedly improved growth performance of growing rabbits and in addition reduced liver enzyme activities, cholesterol and total lipids concentration in blood compared with control and the chlorella algae supplement
... Regarding beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillus), improvement in Lactobacilli counts was recorded in broilers fed 5-and 10g/kg diet of Sp and Am during the current study. With its prebiotic properties (de Jesus Raposo et al. 2016), Sp stimulates the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Streptococcus thermophilus (Bhowmik et al. 2009). In broiler chickens, Sp administration has been associated with an increased intestinal population of Lactobacillus (Shanmugapriya et al. 2015b); in Japanese quails, feeding such algae tended to increase the count of intestinal Lactobacilli (Yusuf et al. 2016). ...
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Spirulina platensis (Sp) or Amphora coffeaeformis (Am) are good candidates as an in-feed antibiotic substitute for broilers. This work was performed to investigate the effects of Sp and Am on the growth performance, intestinal microbial population, physiological responses, and blood biochemical constituents in broiler chickens. Fifty-one-day old Cobb broilers (with initial body weights 50–55 g) were allocated to five groups. Each treatment group had five replicate pens with two birds each. The experiments lasted for 35 days. The 1st group had basal diet (control group). The 2nd and 3rd groups received basal diet, along with 5- or 10-g/kg Sp as a feed ingredient, respectively. While the 4th and 5th groups received basal diet, along with 5- or 10-g/kg Am as a feed ingredient, respectively. Data analysis revealed significantly higher body weight gains (P ≤ 0.05) with higher Sp or Am levels and, in turn, linear improvements (P ≤ 0.05) in feed conversion values. In addition, intestinal Lactobacillus sp. was increased, and Escherichia coli populations were decreased by both dietary Sp levels or Am levels. Furthermore, the liver (% body weight) was significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) and the heart (% body weight) was significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) with higher Sp or Am levels in comparison with untreated control. In conclusion, dietary inclusion with 10 g/kg of Sp and Am could improve the growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and intestinal microbial population in broiler chickens.
... L'activité antimicrobienne des composants intracellulaires de la Spiruline et de la Chlorelle a été analysée in vitro en milieu de culture bactérienne (Ozdemir et al., 2004 ;Mendiola et al., 2007 ;Kitada et al., 2009). Un certain nombre de composés extraits de la Spiruline (Spirulina Cherng et al., 2010Bhowmik et al., 2009 ;Sarada et al., 2011 ;El-Sheekh et al., 2014). Le potentiel antimicrobien de la Chlorelle est quant à lui peu référencé. ...
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Au sevrage, la séparation de la mère, le changement d’environnement et la transition d’un régime lacté à un régime solide et complexe déstabilisent les fonctions de digestion et de défense du porcelet. Le sevrage entraîne l’apparition de diarrhées nécessitant souvent l’utilisation d’antibiotiques pour contrôler les infections digestives. L’émergence de souches bactériennes antibiorésistantes est devenue un enjeu de santé publique majeur. Développer des méthodes alternatives aux antibiotiques pour promouvoir la santé du porcelet sevré est une nécessité. L’objectif de la thèse est d’évaluer le potentiel de deux microalgues –la Spiruline et la Chlorelle– pour promouvoir la santé digestive du porcelet au sevrage.Deux essais ont été effectués chez des porcelets sevrés dans des conditions d’hygiène contrastées –standard ou dégradées– recevant ou non 1% de Spiruline ou de Chlorelle dans l’aliment. En conditions d’hygiène standard, la supplémentation en Spiruline ou en Chlorelle a amélioré la digestibilité des nutriments et la morphologie intestinale sans impact sur la croissance du porcelet sevré. En conditions d’hygiène dégradée, la supplémentation en Spiruline ou en Chlorelle a altéré les performances de croissance sans affecter sensiblement les indicateurs de la santé digestive. Dans un troisième essai, une administration orale en microalgues en amont et en aval du sevrage a été testée afin d’évaluer la capacité de la Spiruline ou de la Chlorelle à limiter la déstabilisation précoce du système digestif au sevrage. L’administration orale de Spiruline a favorisé la croissance e
Chapter
The health of the digestive system is important in order for it to perform its physiological functions appropriately. The physiological parameters of the digestive system depend on the types of food ingested and the presence of bioactive compounds therein. Ingested foodborne bioactive compounds, or phytochemicals, can play an important role in the mediation of the pathophysiology of the digestive system. Pathological conditions are mostly treated with different drugs, and almost all the drugs have undesirable effects. Therefore, adverse effects and toxicity of drugs led scientists to consider alternatives, functional foods, safer bioactive compounds, or nutraceutical-based approaches for the management of gastrointestinal (GI) conditions. In the last few decades, many nutraceuticals with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, fatty acid, probiotic, and prebiotic properties have been discovered that ameliorate the signs of GI disease. More preclinical and clinical studies will lead us into a new era of nutraceuticals for the management of gut health and conditions in animals.
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This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of microencapsulated Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) powder on performance, carcass characteristics and intestinal microflora of broiler chicken. A total of 360 one-day old broiler chicks (male sex) Ross 308 strain was divided in 9 treatments, 4 replicates and 10 chicks in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Experimental treatments include: basal diet, basal diet + antibiotic, basal diet + vitamin E, basal diet + 0.33 % Spirulina, basal diet + 0.66 % Spirulina, basal diet + 1 % Spirulina, basal diet +0.33 % microencapsulated Spirulina, basal diet + 0.66 % microencapsulated Spirulina, basal diet + 1 % microencapsulated Spirulina. Results showed that during grower period the feed intake of group fed with 0.33 percent Spirulina was higher than control group (P<0.05). The control group had the lowest weight gain among other groups (P<0.05). The groups fed with microencapsulated Spirulina at the levels of 0.33 and 0.66 percent had lower feed conversion ratio compared to control group (P<0.05). During finisher and also whole period of rearing, groups fed with diets containing different levels of Spirulina algae and micro-encapsulated Spirulina at the levels of 0.33 and 0.66 percent had lower FCR compared to control group (P<0.05). Carcass yield of broilers fed with different levels of Spirulina algae and 1 percent of microencapsulated Spirulina were higher than other groups (P<0.05). Feeding treatments contain microencapsulated Spirulina at the levels of 0.66 and 1 percent and treatment contained 1 percent Spirulina caused higher breast yield (P<0.05). Broilers fed with treatments contained 1 percent spirulina or microencapsulated Spirulina had lower abdominal fat pad (P<0.05). Coliforms population of broilers fed with treatments contained antibiotic, 1 percent Spirulina or microencapsulated Spirulina was lower than control group (P<0.05). The highest lactobacillus population was related to broilers fed with diets contained 0.66 and 1 percent of Spirulina or microencapsulated Spirulina (P<0.05).
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Microalgae can be regarded as an alternative and promising ingredient for food fortification or enrichment. Due to their nutritional composition, especially protein-high composition, they considered as a sustainable protein source for food. The aim of this work was to evaluate the Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina) dry biomass which is knowns as the greater protein and amino acid source in blue-green microalga, as innovative ingredient for newly formulated and produced biscuits and chocolates, for baby and children diets. All samples with Spirulina biomass showed significantly higher protein and amino acid content.
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Microalgae are being promoted as a superior alternative feedstock for sustainable biofuel production and recently they are also being increasingly recognized as phytoremediation agents in bioremediation. Other than these, microalgae have been utilized as a sustainable feed in aquaculture for many years. The success of microalgae as a feed is based on the nutritional quality of microalgae, which are rich in protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial biologically active components such as carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Standards for the evaluation of microalgae include the assessment of various qualities such as digestibility, bioavailability, and toxicity analysis. This review provides comprehensive information regarding the current status and desirable characteristics of microalgae as a feed ingredient. Feed quality assessments such as protein quality, toxicological and microbiological analysis for microalgae are discussed. The techno-functional components of microalgae are presented in the feed perspective. The utilization of microalgae in various animal husbandry sectors and aquaculture are summarized. The advantages – disadvantages of microalgae as a feed is also presented, along with future research prospects. In short, this review will provide an overall view of the nutritional quality of microalgae and its beneficial application as a sustainable feed ingredient.
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Recently, fermented milk industry comprehensive probiotic bacteria are a popular and universal issue with trade significance. There are various products are obtainable in public markets. The viability of probiotic bacteria in final product of fermented milk and yogurt products up to the time of utilization is the most important object of search in milk industry. Spirulina is the most vastly famous microalgae utilized for enriching fermented milk products. That incorporation of Spirulina into probiotic fermented products along with promoting viability of probiotic bacteria will grow their functional properties due to their critical nutrient quality which is beheld as "functional food". Addition of microalgae especially Spirulina into fermented milk for promoting viability of probiotics and impacts on their acidification characteristics is a topic of this discussion.
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Background Nowadays, growing attention was being given to the alternative ways to prevent or treat diseases. Nutraceuticals are used increasingly for this purpose. Many of these are being used as alternative therapy. Classic therapy with synthetic drugs, although very effective, has many side effects. The term “nutraceuticals” refers to the link between the nutritional and pharmaceutical domains. Also, lately, many studies have been done to investigate the role of microbiota in maintaining health. There is the hypothesis that some of the health benefits of nutraceuticals are due to their ability to change the microbiota. The aim of this review was to emphasize the link between the most commonly used nutraceuticals, the microbiota and the health benefits. Methods We selected the articles in PubMed, published up to July 2017, that provided information about most used nutraceuticals, microbiota and health benefits. In this review, we incorporate evidence from various types of studies, including observational, in vitro and in vivo , clinical studies or animal experiments. Results The results demonstrate that many nutraceuticals change the composition of microbiota and can interfere with health status of the patients. Discussion There is evidence which sustains the importance of nutraceuticals in people’s health through microbiota but further studies are needed to complete the assessment of nutraceuticals in health benefit as a consequence of microbiota’s changing.
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This reprint presents a print version of the Special Issue of the journal {Foods} dedicated to new insights into food fermentation. Food fermentation has been used for thousands of years for food preservation. At present, fermented foods remain appreciated by consumers thanks to the high-quality standards achieved and the improvements in terms of nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. The production processes, type of raw material, microbial cultures, etc., can affect these products’ quality and safety characteristics. A vast array of microorganisms can be found in fermented foods, and microbial succession during fermentation, as well as during ripening, contributes to the desired properties of these foods. In addition to the sensory and safety aspects, microorganisms present in fermented foods can positively affect people’s health due to their potential probiotic nature and the production of benefcial metabolites such as vitamins and antioxidant compounds. The goal of this Special Issue was to broaden the current knowledge on advanced approaches concerning food fermentation, gathering studies on conventional and unconventional food matrix fermentation, functional compounds obtained through fermentation, fermentations increasing quality and safety standards, as well as papers presenting innovative approaches shedding light on the microbial community that characterizes fermented foods. In the 13 papers collected in this volume, interested readers will fnd a collection of scientific contributions providing a sample of the state-of-the-art and forefront research in food fermentation. Among the articles published in the Special Issue, the geographic distribution of the studies is wide enough to attract the interest of an international audience of readers. The editors would like to thank the authors for their collaboration and commitment to publishing their high-quality scientifc articles.
Article
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Great attention has been given to Spirulina platensis for consideration as the superfood of the future due to its high bioactive compounds and nutritional values. Boosting effects of S. platensis and whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) on the growth of probiotics in ayran, a fermented milk product, through the fermentation and storage periods were investigated in this study. This study aimed to enhance the growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. acidophilus with the addition of S. platensis and WPH added or not probiotics into ayran. Effects of S. platensis and WPH (at 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%) on the growth of probiotic culture were studied before and after the fermentation and at seventh, 14th, and 21st days of storage. S. platensis and WPH had significant boosting effects (P < .05) on the growth of St. thermophilus (9.22 log cfu/mL), L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (6.85 log cfu/mL), L. acidophilus (5.39 log cfu/mL), and B. lactis (7.96 log cfu/mL) and biochemical variables. The highest total solid level (0.99) and protein content (25.16 mg/L) were observed by mixing of S. platensis and WPH at 1% into ayran. The encountered variability in the boosting effect of S. platensis and WPH depended on their addition to ayran. S. platensis and WPH had great potentials for enhancing the nutritional value of ayran and the growth of the probiotic culture. Effects of Spirulina platensis and whey protein hydrolysates on the probiotic culture in fermented milk through the fermentation and storage periods were investigated in this study. This study aimed to assess the activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus with the addition of Spirulina platensis and whey protein hydrolysates with/without probiotics into ayran.
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Probiotics appear to be useful in the prevention or treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders, including infectious diarrhea, antibiotic diarrhea, and traveler's diarrhea. Results of preliminary human and animal studies suggest that patients with inflammatory diseases, and even irritable bowel syndrome, may benefit from probiotic therapy. Probiotics represent an exciting therapeutic advance, although much investigation must be undertaken before their role in gastroenterology is clearly delineated. Questions related to probiotic origin, survivability, and adherence are all important considerations for further study. More important, each probiotic proposed must be studied individually and extensively to determine its efficacy and safety in each disorder for which its use may be considered.
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Diarrhea is common in oncology patients; if it becomes chronic and relapsing, it can be debilitating, hinder planned management, and be difficult to treat. The authors describe two patients, one with leukemia who developed recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis and another who developed chronic diarrhea after bone marrow transplantation. In both patients, administration of antibiotics was suspected as the cause. In one patient, relapsing diarrhea resolved after probiotics were given with a 2-day course of metronidazole, and in the other patient, chronic diarrhea resolved after probiotics were given; resolution was maintained after the probiotics were stopped. Probiotics may offer a way to bring about resolution in antibiotic-associated chronic diarrhea.
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In this study we evaluated the ability of commercial strains (L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus LC705, and P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS) in combination with B. breve 99 or B. lactis Bb12 to inhibit, displace and compete with model pathogens in order to test their influence on the adhesion of selected pathogens to immobilized human intestinal mucus. Our results demonstrate that specific probiotic combinations are able to enhance the inhibition percentages of pathogens adhesion to intestinal mucus when compared to individual strains. This suggests that combinations of probiotic strains are useful and more effective in inhibition of pathogen adhesion than individual strains. Such combinations should be assessed in clinical studies in subjects where the intestinal microbiota aberrancies have been identified.
The therapeutic effects of various cultures- an overview
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Alm, L., 1991. The therapeutic effects of various cultures- an overview. In Therapeutic properties of Fermented Milks, ed. R.K. Robinson, Elsevier Applied Science, London, U.K., pp: 45-64