ArticleLiterature Review

Delirium in the Intensive Care Unit

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Abstract

Delirium is a common condition in the intensive care unit (ICU). Between 16-89% of all ICU patients experience an episode of delirium during admission. Several detection tools have been developed for use specifically in the ICU. The Confusion Assessment Method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU) and the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) combine high sensitivity with high specificity. Treatment consists of treatment of underlying disorders, nonpharmacological measures and symptomatic drug therapy. The prognosis for ICU patients who experience delirium is worse than for those who do not. Delirious patients are more likely to develop complications, spend longer in hospital and have a higher mortality rate. In view of the high frequency, poor prognosis, high costs and lack of studies into the treatment of ICU delirium, research into the possibilities for prevention, early detection and treatment of the condition is essential.

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... Prevalence deliria v běžné populaci činí kolem 1-2 %, výskyt se zvyšuje u hospitalizovaných pacientů. U pacientů na jednotkách intenzivní péče (JIP) je popisován výskyt deliria v rozmezí 16-90 %, u specifické populace po kardiochirurgických operacích je prevalence 10-73 % [2][3][4][5]. Široký rozptyl výskytu je dán především různou populací nemocných, variabilitou klinického sledování a rozdílnými screeningovými metodami. Delirium se v intenzivní péči (IP) vyskytuje častěji u starších nemocných [6] s maximem výskytu do prvních 48 hod od přijetí [7]. ...
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