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Phytochemical and Antibacterial Studies of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) - A Multipurpose Medicinal Plant

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Abstract

Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) belongs to the family Asteraceae and it is a small aromatic biennial or perennial herb. The whole plant contains a number of medicinally important compounds such as inulin , esculin, volatile compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes), coumarins, flavonoids and vitamins. In the present study, we evaluated the phytochemical analysis for the presence of various secondary metabolites and antibacterial activity of the root extracts of chicory against pathogenic bacteria like gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi) bacteria by in vitro agar well diffusion method. The hexane and ethyl acetate root extracts of chicory showed pronounced inhibition than chloroform, petroleum ether and water extracts. Root extracts showed more inhibitory action on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi than Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli.
Advances in Biological Research 1 (1-2): 17-21, 2007
ISSN 1992-0067
© IDOSI Publications, 2007
Corresponding Author: Dr. B.D. Ranjitha Kumari, Stress Physiology and Medicinal Plant Biotechnology Unit, Department of
Plant Science, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University,
Tiruchirappalli - 620 024, Tamil Nadu, India
17
Phytochemical and Antibacterial Studies of Chicory
(Cichorium intybus L.) - A Multipurpose Medicinal Plant
S. Nandagopal and B.D. Ranjitha Kumari
Stress Physiology and Medicinal Plant Biotechnology Unit, Department of Plant Science,
School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-620 024, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract: Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) belongs to the family Asteraceae and it is a small aromatic biennial
or perennial herb. The whole plant contains a number of medicinally important compounds such as inulin,
esculin, volatile compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes), coumarins, flavonoids and vitamins. In the
present study, we evaluated the phytochemical analysis for the presence of various secondary metabolites and
antibacterial activity of the root extracts of chicory against pathogenic bacteria like gram positive (Bacillus
subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella
typhi) bacteria by in vitro agar well diffusion method. The hexane and ethyl acetate root extracts of chicory
showed pronounced inhibition than chloroform, petroleum ether and water extracts. Root extracts showed more
inhibitory action on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi than Micrococcus luteus
and Escherichia coli.
Key words: Cichorium intybus L.
antibacterial activity root extracts zone of inhibition volatile
compounds
INTRODUCTION arthralgia, lumbago, asthma and general debility [4, 5].
Higher and aromatics plants have been used
traditionally in folk medicine as well as to extend the shelf
life of foods, showing inhibition against bacteria, fungi
and yeasts [1]. Biologically active compounds from
natural sources have always been a great interest for
scientists working on infectious diseases [2]. Cichorium
intybus L. is a medicinally important plant that belongs to
the family Asteraceae. The tuberous root of this plant
contains number of medicinally important compounds
such as inulin, bitter sesquiterpene lactones, coumarins,
flavonoids and vitamins [3]. The plant root is used as
antihepatotoxic, antiulcerogenic, antiinflammatory,
appetizer, digestive, stomachic, liver tonic, cholagogue,
cardiotonic, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue,
febrifuge, alexeteric and also as tonic. It is useful in
vitiated conditions of kapha and pitta, cephalalgia,
heapatomegaly, inflammations, anorexia, dyspepsia,
flatulence, colic, gout, burning sensation, allergic
conditions of skin, jaundice, splenomegaly, hyperdipsia,
skin diseases, leprosy, strangury, amenorrhoea, chronic
and bilious fevers, ophthalmia, pharyngitis, vomiting,
This plant is also used to treat AIDS, cancer, diabetes,
dysmenorrhoea, impotence, insomnia, splenitis and
tachicardia [6]. Inulin is used to replace fat or sugar and
reduce the calories of food. It is suitable for consumption
by diabetics [7] and is also used in inulin clearance test
to measure glomerular filtration rate-GFR [8]. Recent
pharmacological investigation of the root extract of
this plant revealed immunomodulator, antitumor and
anticancer properties [9, 10]. The root is rich in alkaloids,
which forms an ingredient or adulterant in coffee. The
deep purple flower heads yield blue dye. The flowers
are also used in floral clocks by Linnaeus [11]. The
sesquiterpene lactones such as lactucin and lactucopicrin
were isolated from chicory and reported for its
antibacterial and antimalarial activity [12]. The antifungal
activity of chicory was also reported [13-16]. Based on the
studies carried out in chicory, world wide report shows
that the roots and leaves of this plant possess strong
antibacterial and nematicidal effect [17]. However, to the
best of our knowledge, very few reports are available on
antibacterial properties of chicory root against the
important human pathogenic bacteria so far. In the
Advan. Biol. Res., 1 (1-2): 17-21, 2007
18
present study we reported the antibacterial activity of Determination of antibacterial activity: The antibacterial
Cichorium intybus L. against pathogenic bacteria. The activity of the root extracts was determined using
study confirms that both aqueous as well as organic agar well diffusion method by following the published
solvent root extracts possess strong antibacterial procedure with slight modification [22]. Nutrient agar was
properties against various pathogens such as gram inoculated with the given microorganisms by spreading
positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and the bacterial inoculums on the media. Wells (8 mm
Micrococcus luteus) and gram negative (Escherichia diameter) were punched in the agar and filled with plant
coli and Salmonella typhi) bacteria. extracts. Control wells containing neat solvents (negative
MATERIALS AND METHODS control) viz., chloromphenicol (50 and 100 µg ml
)
Preparation of root extracts: Apparently healthy plant were incubated at 37°C for 18 h and the antibacterial
roots were collected, washed thoroughly in tap water and activity was assessed by measuring the diameter of
dried in room temperature for 15 days. The dried 25 g root the zone of inhibition. The relative antibacterial potency
was powdered and soaked separately in 100 ml petroleum of the given preparation was calculated by comparing
ether, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water by its zone of inhibition with that of the standard drug
keeping it in a shaker for 3 days. The extracts were filtered chloromphenicol.
through cheesecloth and the extracts were reduced to
10% of its original volume. The organic solvent filtrates Statistical analysis: The resultant clear zones around
were concentrated in vacuum using a rotary evaporator, the discs were measured in mm. The antibacterial
while aqueous extract was dried using water bath. activity of chicory root extracts was indicated by clear
Phytochemical screening of root extracts: The experiments represented by five replicates from each
phytochemical components of the chicory roots were experiment were subjected to statistical analysis
screened by using the methods of Brindha et al. [18] (Mean±SE), according to New Duncan’s Multiple Range
and Harbone [19]. The components analysed were Test [24].
alkaloids, volatile oils, fatty acids, emodins, flavonoids,
triterpenoids, antharacene glycosides, tannins, phenolics RESULTS
and saponins.
Separation of the compounds: The compounds present preliminary phytochemical screening of the root extracts
in chicory root extracts were qualitatively analyzed by using different solvents was reported (Table 1). All the
using thin layer chromatography which is commercially
available; TLC aluminum sheets with silica gel 60F were
254
used. The isolation and separation of monoterpenes
and sesquiterpenes was done by using the procedure
of Brindha et al. [18] and Janusz Malarz [20].
Inoculums: The test microorganisms, gram positive
(Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and
Micrococcus luteus) and gram negative (Escherichia
coli and Salmonella typhi) bacteria were obtained from
culture repository of Best Biotech culture collection,
Bangalore, India. The organisms were inoculated into
NB (Nutrient Broth) medium, (0.5% Peptone, 0.5%
Sodium Chloride, 0.15% Yeast extract; pH 7.4) and
incubated at 37°C for overnight. The bacterial cells were
harvested by centrifuging at 5000g for 15 min. The pellet
formed was washed twice with PBS (Phosphate Buffer
Saline), (10 mM Sodium Chloride, pH 7.4) and the cells
were counted by hemocytometer. The bacterial cells were
diluted to approximately 10 CFU ml
before use [21].
51
control) or standard antibiotic solution (positive
1
were also run parallel in the same plate [23]. The plates
zones of growth inhibition. Data of three independent
Phytochemical screening of root extracts: The
Table 1: Preliminary phytochemical analysis of chicory root extracted with
different solvents
Name of the
S. No. compound PE C H EA W
1 Alkaloids - - - + +
2 Volatile oils + + + + -
3 Fatty acids + + + + -
4 Emodins - - - - -
5 Flavonoids - - - - +
6 Triterpenoids - - + - -
7 Antharacene glycosides - - - - -
8 Tannins - - - - +
9 Phenolics - - - - -
10 Saponins + + - + +
+ Present, -Absent, PE-Petroleum ether, C-Chloroform, H-Hexane, EA-
Ethyl acetate, W-Water
Advan. Biol. Res., 1 (1-2): 17-21, 2007
19
Table 2: Antibacterial activity of root extracts of chicory at 50 µl concentration
Zone of inhibition in mm (Mean±SD)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gram(+) Gram(-)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------
Solvent B. subtilis S. aureus M. luteus E. coli S. typhi
Petroleum ether 6.8±0.17 5.8±0.21 4.2±0.13 4.7±0.41 3.5±0.31
cd c d d e
Chloroform 4.1±0.25 3.6±0.23 2.6±0.28 3.0±0.28 5.4±0.32
ef d e e c
Hexane 12.3±0.21 9.8±0.03 8.0±0.41 9.6±0.32 7.5±0.44
a a a aa
Ethyl acetate 10.5±0.28 2.0±0.27 6.8±0.30 6.3±0.41 3.0±0.25
b e b bc ef
Water 4.8±0.25 2.8±0.23 3.3±0.23 1.9±0.35 4.5±0.33
e de de ef d
chloromphenicol 8.4±0.23 9.6±0.23 6.0±0.14 7.5±0.29 7.3±0.30
c ab bc b ab
The negative control wells were exposed with the neat solvent and the positive control was chloromphenicol (50 µg ml ). Each value represents the
1
mean±standard error (SE) of five replicates per treatment in three repeated experiments. Means within a row followed by the same letters are not significant
at p = 0.05 according to DMRT
Table 3: Antibacterial activity of root extracts of chicory at 100 µl Concentration
Zone of inhibition in mm (Mean±SD)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gram(+) Gram(-)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------
Solvent B. subtilis S. aureus M. luteus E. coli S. typhi
Petroleum ether 14.3±0.39 10.10±0.16 5.8±0.33 8.0±0.33 5.7±0.32
c c d cd de
Chloroform 10.5±0.21 8.20±0.22 4.8±0.32 3.2±0.30 14.0±0.31
d cd de f b
Hexane 18.2±0.47 18.23±0.18 15.2±0.04 14.5±0.22 19.2±0.43
a a a aa
Ethyl acetate 15.0±0.17 3.60±0.20 13.6±0.29 10.1±0.26 10.7±0.30
bc e ab c c
Water 8.0±0.27 6.70±0.28 10.3±0.56 5.6±0.23 5.8±0.28
e d c ed
chloromphenicol 16.0±0.18 17.30±0.37 13.0±0.33 13.5±0.37 14.0±0.23
b ab b ab b
The negative control wells were exposed with the neat solvent and the positive control was chloromphenicol (100 µg ml ). Each value represents the
1
mean±standard error (SE) of five replicates per treatment in three repeated experiments. Means within a row followed by the same letters are not significant
at p = 0.05 according to DMRT
four organic solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform Micrococcus luteus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli
hexane and ethyl acetate showed positive result for the and Salmonella typhi) bacteria. At 50 µl concentration,
presence of volatile oils and fatty acids which were absent the hexane extract showed pronounced inhibition against
in the water extract. The ethyl acetate and water extracts all the tested organisms, the maximum inhibition was
showed the presence of alkaloids. Only in the hexane observed on B. subtilis (12.3±0.21 mm), S. aureus
extract presence of triterpenes was observed. In the water (9.8±0.03 mm) and E. coli (9.6±0.32 mm) and moderate
extract, flavonoids, tannins and saponins were present inhibition was observed on M. luteus (8.0±0.41 mm) and
which were absent in the organic solvent extracts. S. typhi (7.5±0.44 mm). The other solvents extracts did
Antibacterial activity of different solvent extracts: We concentration except ethyl acetate against B. subtilis
used both polar as well as non-polar solvents for the (10.5±0.21 mm) (Table 2). The growth of B. subtilis was
extraction of active components from the roots of chicory inhibited by all the root extracts at 100 µl concentration
plant. The antibacterial activity of the chicory roots was and maximum inhibition was observed with hexane
assessed using the agar well diffusion method by extract as 18.2±0.47 mm zone of inhibition, which was
measuring the diameter of growth inhibition zones with higher than the zone of inhibition caused by the standard
50 and 100 µl of different solvent extracts (Table 2 and 3). drug chloromphenicol (16.0±0.18 mm). Similarly, hexane
The results showed that all the five solvent extracts root extract produced maximum inhibition (18.0±0.18 mm)
possesses antibacterial activity against the tested gram to the growth of S. aureus than chloromphenicol
positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and (17.3±0.37 mm) whereas other extracts showed less
not actively inhibit the growth of the bacteria at 50 µl
Advan. Biol. Res., 1 (1-2): 17-21, 2007
20
inhibitory activity than chloromphenicol. The hexane Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus) and
(15.0.04 mm) and ethyl acetate (13.6±0.29 mm) extracts gram negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi)
were effective against M. luteus and the water extract bacteria. The present report indicates that increased
(10.3±0.56 mm) showed less inhibition than the standard lipophillic compounds are extracted using the petroleum
drug whereas the other two extracts showed very ether, chloroform and hexane increased the suspended
minimum inhibition on the growth of M. luteus. The higher compounds in the above solvents as stated [26].
hexane (14.5±0.22 mm) and ethyl acetate (10.1±0.26 mm) Chicory plant was active against gram positive and gram
root extracts showed maximum inhibition and petroleum negative bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi [17]. The
ether extract (8.0±0.33 mm) showed moderate inhibition antibacterial activity of water, ethanol and ethyl acetate
and the water (5.6±0.23 mm) and chloroform (3.2±0.30 mm) extracts of chicory was reported against Agrobacterium
extracts showed less inhibition on E. coli. S. typhi was radiobacter, Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas
inhibited by all the root extracts and the maximum fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [27]. The
inhibition was observed with hexane (19.2±0.43 mm), present work shows that the compounds from chicory
chloroform (14.0±0.31 mm) and ethyl acetate (10.7±0.30 possess potent antimicrobial activity and suggesting that
mm) whereas petroleum ether (5.7±0.32 mm) and water the chicory root extracts contains the effective active
(5.0.28 mm) extracts showed least inhibition at 100 µl constituents responsible for eliminating the bacterial
concentration (Table 3). We found that both aqueous pathogens. Finally, it can be concluded that the active
as well as organic extracts of the roots were successful chemical compounds present in chicory (Cichorium
in inhibiting the bacteria in a dose dependent manner. intybus) should certainly find place in treatment of
Besides the 50 µl concentration of root extracts, the various bacterial infections. The results of this study are
100 µl concentration of root extracts were found to very encouraging and indicate that this herb should be
possess maximum inhibition (Table 2 and 3). studied more extensively to explore its potential in the
DISCUSSION
We used both the aqueous and organic solvents
for the extraction of active components from roots of 1. Hulin, V., A.G. Mathot, P. Mafart and L. Dufosse,
the chicory plant. The result of the study reveals that 1998. Les proprietes anti-microbiennes des huiles
the non-polar and polar solvent extracts were active essentielles et composes daromes. Sci. Aliments, 18:
against the strains of the bacteria that are common cause 563-582.
of infections. Chicory shows significant antibacterial 2. Perumal Samy R. and S. Ignacimuthu, 2000.
activity that may be due to the presence of many Antibacterial activity of some medicianal plants
potent compounds such as inulin, bitter sesquiterpene from Eastern Ghats, South India. Solai Bull.
lactones, coumarins, flavonoids etc. The biologically Ethnopharmacol., 72: 39-41.
active compounds are screened by dissolving the crude 3. Varotto, S., M. Lucchin and P. Parrin, 2000. Immature
powder on various compound specific solvents confirmed embryos culture in Italian red Chicory (Cichorium
by the TLC (data not shown). The antibacterial activity intybusc). Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult., 62: 75-77.
was expressed at varying degrees which was being both 4. Nadkarni, A.K., 1976. Indian Materia Medica popular
strain and dose dependent. The various crude extracts of Prakasam Pvt. Ltd., Bombay.
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tested. Similar to our results, the biological activity of of Indian Medicinal Plants. Rastogi, R.P. (Eds.).
Mentha piperita against the pathogenic bacteria was Orient Longman Ltd., Madras, pp: 74.
reported [25]. We used five different solvent extracts of 6. Duke, J.A., 1983. Medicinal Plants of the Bible.
chicory roots which showed activity against all bacterial (Illustrated by Peggy K. Duke) Out of print Trado-
species tested at all the dosages. The root extracts of Medic Books Buffalo and NY., pp: 233.
chicory exhibited antibacterial activity on hexane, ethyl 7. Niness, K.R., 1999. Inulin and Oligofructose: What
acetate, petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous extracts Are They? J. Nutr., 129: 1402S-1406S.
against the bacteria tested at 50 µl-100 µl concentrations 8. Vasudevan, D.M. and S. Sreekumari, 1995. Text
by following the method of Valsaraj et al. [23]. We Book of Biochemistry for MedicalStudents. 2nd Ed.
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against the tested gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Delhi, India.
treatment of many infectious diseases.
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... It is a preserved carbohydrate contains upto 22-60 fructose molecules in a chain, having glucose molecule at the tail. Chicory roots have been used to extract fructans (Nandagopal and Kumari , 2007). The seeds are rich in volatile compounds and other bioactive compounds, while the corola provide a glucoside that is colourless until it is washed with alkalies giving a golden yellow colour. ...
... The existence of various beneficial chemicals in different sections of chicory is confirmed by phytochemical research. Sesquiterpene lactones, some derivatives of caffeic acid, inulin, sugars, proteins, hydroxycoumarins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, oils, volatile compounds, coumarins, vitamins and polyynes (Fleming, 2000;Nandagopal and Kumari, 2007;Mushtaq et al., 2013;Shad et al., 2013).The compounds 18 alpha, 19 beta-20(30)-taraxasten-3beta, 21alpha-diol (cichoridiol) and 17-epi-methyl-6-hydroxyangolensate (intybusoloid), lupeol, friedelin, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, betulinic acid, betulin, betulinaldehyde, syringic acid, vanillic acid) 6,7-hydroxycoumarin, and methyl-alpha-Dgalactopyranoside were obtained from the methanolic extract of seeds of C. intybus (Zareen et al., 2008;Ahmed et al., 2008). ...
... According to previous assumptions, the Mediterranean diet and different natural remedies rich in flavonoids and antioxidants can promote the elimination of pollutants and hinder oxidative stress and testicular damage through different mechanisms [28][29][30][31]. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) and Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) are edible Egyptian plants that belong to the family Portulacaceae and Asteraceae, respectively [32][33][34]. P. oleracea leaves are a rich source of dietary antioxidants, including flavonoids (flavonol glycosides, such as kaempferol and quercetin), glutathione, omega-3 fatty acids, alkaloids, and vitamins, as well as dietary minerals [35]. Phytochemical analysis of Chicory root indicated that it contains inulin, alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, sesquiterpene lactones, vitamins, minerals, and volatile oils [36]. ...
... Dried powdered root (500 g) was soaked in 500 mL water for 4 days. The extract was decanted, filtered through cheesecloth, and was reduced to 10% of its original volume [34], then lyophilized to get the final powder (CWE) that was stored at −20 °C until used (CWE, yield of 9%). ...
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... Chicory is a perennial herb of the family Asteraceae, widely distributed in Asia and Europe [11,12], commonly used industrially as a raw material for extracting inulin because of a high content of inulin and biologically active compounds. All parts of this plant possess great medicinal importance due to the presence of a number of medicinally important compounds such as alkaloids, inulin, sesquiterpene lactones, coumarins, vitamins, chlorophyll pigments, unsaturated sterols, flavonoids, saponins and tannins [13][14][15][16]. According to Meehye and Shin (1996) [17], fresh chicory typically contains 68% inulin, 14% sucrose, 5% cellulose, 6% protein, 4% ash, and 3% other compounds, while dried chicory contains approximately 98% inulin and 2% other compounds. ...
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Chicory (Chicorium intybus L.) is a perennial herb of the family Asteraceae, widely distributed in Asia and Europe, commonly used industrially as a raw material for extracting inulin because of a high content of inulin and biologically active compounds. Light conditions and plant growth regulators (PGRs) are two of many factors that affect the growth and inulin content of chicory callus. The aim of this work is to study the effect of PGRs and light conditions on proliferation and accumulation of inulin of chicory callus in vitro. In this study, we used semi-solid MS medium supplemented with different auxins (including Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), naphthylacetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)) at a concentration of 5.5-9.5 mg/L in combination with 2.0 mg/L 6 benzylaminopurine (BA) to determine induction and proliferation of callus. The increasing value of callus fresh weight was used to assess the growth of the callus in treatments. The results showed that a steady increase in callus fresh weight and inulin content in callus cells was obtained when they were cultured on MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2.0 mg/L BA with 7.5 mg/L IAA in lighting conditions with radiation equalized by the flux density of photosynthetic photons and ratios of radiation levels in the region of FR-far red > R-red. Increasing demand for organic inulin sources in production practice can be met by our finding.
... The presence of secondary compounds in petroleum ether extract might be responsible for greater inhibitory effect against certain microbes 2,38 . Similar findings were recorded in Hyptis spiciger and Crotalaria quartiniana 30 , leaf of Galinsoga ciliate 33 and roots of Cichorium intybus 24 . ...
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A study was designed to determine the phytochemical constituents and antidermatophytic potentiality of traditional medicinal plants Acalypha indica L (whole plant and leaves) and Cassia alata L (leaves). The preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed by standard phytochemical procedures whereas antidermatophytic activity was carried out by agar disc diffusion method against fungal pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum) and bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Among the selected plants, presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins and phenols was registered invariably in different solvent extracts of plant parts. Of which, C.alata leaves recorded highest amount of 9.87 mg/g and 8.38 mg/g flavonoids and carbohydrates respectively. In antidermatophytic activity, the maximum inhibition zone of 11.54±0.39 mm was registered in petroleum ether extract of A. indica whole plant against S. pyogenes at 100μl concentration. The least activity was registered in ethanol extract of C. alata leaf with 6.01±0.47 mm inhibition zone at 75μl concentration. Antibiotic erythromycin and amphotericin B were used as positive control against bacterial and fungal pathogens respectively. Amongst all the extracts tested, petroleum ether extract of both plants, showed positive response against dermatophyte pathogens. TLC and GC-MS analysis of A. indica revealed 6 bands and 23 peaks followed by C. alata with 5 bands and 17 peaks in petroleum ether extract. From this study, it is concluded that petroleum ether extracts of A. indica and C. alata possess phytoconstituents with antidermatophytic potentiality. Also, it offers a scientific platform and baseline information for further analysis such as isolation and standardization of its bioactive compounds as herbal alternative for dermatophyte infections.
... Bioflavonoids, phenolic acids, ascorbic acid and tocopherols are wellknown phytochemical substances with antioxidant characteristics that have been utilized to cure cancer, cardiovascular and other physiological disorder (Bergman et al., 2001). According to some study it has antihepatotoxic, anti-diabetic (Saggu et al., 2014), antibacterial (Nandagopal and Kumari, 2007), antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (Cavin et al., 2005), antihyperglycaemic, andanti-ulcerogenic properties (Rifatuz-Zaman et al., 2006). ...
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This study explored the antioxidant potential of ethno-medicinally valuable species, namely, Cichorium intybus of north-western Himalayan region. The leaves of this plant were subjected to extraction using methanolic solvent. The leaves were found to possess higher values of total flavonoids and total phenolic content. The phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and cardiac glycoside. In vitro antioxidant studies were performed in terms of chelation power on ferrous ions and FRAP assay and DPPH assay. The methanolic extract of leaves was found to harbour better chelating capacity (42% at 100 g/ml) and reducing power (FRAP value 1085.4 ± 0.11 MFe3+/g dry wt.) than all the other extracts. The crude methanol extract was thus further partitioned with solvents to yield five fractions. Antioxidant study of fractions suggested that the methanol fraction possessed significant chelation capacity (49.7% at 100 g/ml) and reducing power with FRAP value of 523 ± 1.13 M/g dry wt. Therefore, it can be concluded that Cichorium intybus leaves would be a valuable candidate in pharmaceutical formulations due to their biochemical, phytochemical and antioxidant composition and would play an important role in improving human, livestock and poultry health by participating in the antioxidant defense system against endogenous free radicals.
... Both plants start to gain attention due to their high content of numerous medicinally important bioactive compounds such as the inulin, esculin, several monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, coumarins, flavonoids and vitamins, many of which act as antioxidant compounds (Willett et al. 1995;Simopoulos 2001). Extracts of C. intybus are active against diseases caused by gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus) as well as gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi) pathogenic bacteria (Nandagopal and Kumari 2007). Moreover, the consumption of chicory plants is very popular amongst locals in Crete, though its popularity expands to other regions of Greece and Mediterranean countries, reaching very high prices in the fresh vegetable market (Klados and Tzortzakis 2014). ...
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Common chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) as well as the spiny chicory (Cichorium spinosum L.) or “stamnagathi” in Greek, a bitter—sweet wild green, are two vegetables belonging to the Asteraceae family. Both species are commercially cultivated in outdoor fields and in greenhouses in various regions of Greece and particularly in Crete. During the years, 2014 and 2015 severe damage occurred in crops of C. intybus and C. spinosum in Crete. Typical symptoms in affected plants were marginal spots and lesions on leaves, and leaf blight. Initially, lesions appeared as water-soaked that later became brown, dry and papery, usually surrounded by a thin yellow halo or a brown to black border. Spots were gradually expanded and coalesced each other causing the blight of the leaves and finally the necrosis of the whole plant. In some cases, the diseased incidence reached 20 to 30% causing a significant reduction in yield and marketability of the product. The study of morphological, physiological and biochemical traits of the isolates as well as the pathogenicity tests indicated that the isolated bacteria belonged to group II of LOPAT discriminative tests, which contain the strains of Pseudomonas viridiflava. The phylogenetic analysis based on the B subunit of the gyrase gene (gyrB), and the amplification of a species-specific fragment confirmed P. viridiflava as the causal agent of the disease. This is the first record of the bacterium P. viridiflava as a pathogen of the common chicory in Greece as well as the spiny chicory worldwide. The disease can result in severe crop losses; hence, effective management practices should be investigated and applied.
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The need for solutions to relieve heat stress and its undesirable effects on broiler production increased, especially in hot climatic areas. The antioxidant and immune stimulant effects of herbal extracts of Emblica officinalis (Amla), Cichorium intybus (Chicory) and Allium porrum (Leek) were examined against the adverse effects of heat stress in broilers. One thousand Cobb 500 one-day-old chicks were used for this experiment. Birds were divided into four equal groups. The first served as the control group. The second received Amla extract (3 g/kg diet), the third received Chicory extract (3 g/kg diet) and the last group received Leek extracts (3 g/kg diet). All groups were daily subjected to heat stress for 12 h by increasing house temperature to 8 ± 2 °C (10:00 am to 10:00 pm daily) using an electric heater, while relative humidity was kept at 47 ± 3%. Results revealed significant improvement in final body weight in treated groups, especially the Chicory and Amla-fed groups. Total weight gain was improved by dietary supplementation with herbal extracts, while feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and mortality percentage were reduced. The positive impact of the herbal extracts was also clear on carcase traits in the treated groups. Meat and serum lipids were significantly reduced in treated groups. White blood cells, phagocytic index and antioxidant enzyme levels were positively improved by dietary supplementations. In conclusion, using Amla, Chicory and Leek extracts positively improved broilers’ growth performance, immunity and oxidative stress status under heat stress conditions. • Highlights • Heat stress causes huge economic losses in livestock production worldwide. • Herbal extracts are rich in antioxidants at low prices than other feed additives. • Herbal extracts can enhance the defense system and reduce the negative effects of heat stress.
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Background: Cichorium intybus Linn., belonging to Compositae family is a common drug found in India. It is traditionally used in the treatment of inflammation, cancer, viral, bacterial fungal infections and liver toxicity. This plant also has power to stimulate the immune system. Aim: Here in the paper an attempt has been made to determine the authenticity of C.intybus stem by means of Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical analysis. Methods: Macroscopy, microscopy, powder analysis, physicochemical properties, preliminary phytochemical analysis and TLC of different extracts of stem were done. Result: Microscopy of stem showed all typical features of the species Cichorium intybus Linn., The physicochemical study showed the highest extractive value with alcohol. Preliminary phytochemical confirmed the positive chemical test for Flavanoids, Alkaloids, Sterols, Carbohydrates, Resins, Phenolics and Glycosides in various extracts.
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Ethanolic extracts of 22 traditionally used Indian medicinal plants were studied for their antimicrobial activity against seven bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, S. paratyphi, S. typhi, E. coli, Shigella dysenteriae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and five filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Rhizoctonia bataticola and Trichoderma viride) and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 16 plant extracts showed varied level of antibacterial activity against one or more test bacteria. Similarly antifungal and anticandidal activity was detected among 17 and 9 plant extracts respectively. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity (both antibacterial and antifungal) was detected among crude extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum (leaves), Caesalpinia bonducella (seeds), Delonix regia (flower), Hedychium spicatum (fruits), Mangifera indica (leaves), Murraya coenigii (leaves) and Syzgium cumini (seeds). Similarly extracts of Cichorium intybus (roots), Ficus religiosa (leaves) and Trigonella foenum-graecum (leaves) demonstrated more antibacterial activity with less antifungal activity. On the other hand Pistacia integerrima (stems) and Rheum emodi (roots) demonstrated more antifungal activity with less antibacterial activity.
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