Creating Change: Using the Arts to Help Stop the Stigma of Mental Illness and Foster Social Integration
University of Washington, School of Nursing, Spokane, WA 99201, USA. Journal of Holistic Nursing
02/2009; 27(1):57-65. DOI: 10.1177/0898010108323011
Stigma is a social justice problem that plagues persons with psychiatric disabilities, their families, and society. It fuels the fear underlying discrimination; undermines consumer self-efficacy; and blocks rehabilitation, recovery, and social integration. The author hopes to create a passion for change and suggest a way that everyone can help stop stigma. This approach is simple: to nurture the artistic talent many clients possess and connect them with public venues for their artworks. On display, too, will be the "ability" in "disability." This will reduce stigma while building self-efficacy and empowerment. Anecdotal evidence supports this hypothesis. However, research is needed; a design for a study to test this hypothesis is described. Significantly, an antistigmal arts intervention can be conducted by any aware practitioner; one does not need to be an art therapist or have any background in art, only a desire to make a difference and resources on which to draw.
Available from: writingdownouryears.ca
- "It is increasingly apparent that arts-based therapies such as visual art, music, drama, poetry, horticulture, dance and storytelling can be important vehicles for patients to express their thoughts, emotions and ideas in symbolic fashion. It is the process of creation, not the product that remains the focus of such intervention (Lamb 2009). "
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ABSTRACT: The cognitive losses in dementia and the excess disability associated with the label of dementia threaten personal identity and sense of self (Fontana and Smith 1989). Opportunities for communication are especially constrained for individuals with dementia who reside in assisted living or long-term care facilities (MacDonald, 2006). The construction, telling or writing, and sharing of stories serve to promote connections between the person living with dementia and others, thereby fostering personhood. This paper will explain the use of narrative arts in the promotion of personhood in dementia care. It addresses the use of narrative arts such as storytelling, life writing, memory boxes, and collaborative poetry, and provides case examples. The clinical implications of narrative arts for the care of persons with dementia as well as staff development needs are also discussed. We begin with a description of the Canadian context for research concerning older adults with dementia. [A] Aging, dementia, and caregiving in Canada Canada's population of older people is growing, increasing from 11% of the total population in 1987 to 13% in 2007. By 2056, it is anticipated that the number of people over the age of 65 years will further increase to 27% of the total population. It is forecasted that the population segment that will experience the most growth will be older people over the age of 80 years. This group is predicted to increase from 3% of the total population in 2007 to 10% by 2056 (Statistics Canada 2008). Given that age is considered to be the number one risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD), the aging of Canada's population will have direct consequences on the number of people living with these illnesses. The incidence of ADRD in Canada was 103,700 new cases per year by 2008. The prevalence of ADRD in Canada was 480,600 people (1.5% of the total population) in 2008. This is expected to rise to 1,125,184 or 2.8% of Canada's total population by 2038 (ASC 2010). The economic costs associated with ADRD are considerable. It is estimated that the cumulative incidence of dementia will be more than 5.5 million people by 2038, with an associated economic cost of C$872 billion. While individuals with dementia in the early to moderate stages of the illness will most likely be cared for at home, most persons in the later stages of the illness will require some type of facility-based care. In 2008, 45% of Canadians with dementia over the age of 65 years were being cared for in long-term care homes. It is anticipated that the demand for long-term care beds will increase but there will most likely be a shortfall (ASC 2010).
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ABSTRACT: A companion paper (New and Wittey) describes a new Power Equipment Rack concept. The present paper describes the design of a SMPS for the new rack. The SMPS operates on 240V 50Hz s.p. A.C., producing a nominal 28A D.C. at a preset level between 52 and 58V D.C. The active element is a power transistor half-bridge switching the transformer primary winding at 20kHz between the centre tap of series connected capacitors across a D.C. link, using PWM for load-dependent regulation. The D.C. link is provided by a f.w. diode bridge across the line, feeding a small reservoir capacitor, topped up by a shunt-transistor (boost) converter giving line-dependent pre-regulation. The rectified transformer output (40kHz) after filtering for ripple and RFI may be used to provide an output of either polarity. A low power auxiliary inverter provides isolated supplies for the transistor base drives. The module is totally enclosed for better mechanical protection and freedom from RFI, and has a single full length `thermal wall' heat sink carrying insulated devices, which forms the mechanical `back bone' of the module. 95% of the drilling and tapping operations are carried out in this heat sink using a steel jig. Almost all interconnections are made using PCB tracks, leaving only a few wire links between PCB and devices. Overall efficiency is better than 90% at f.l.c. and the psophometric ripple is about 1mV. Line power factor is better than 0.97 and fold back current limit below 40V cuts the current back to 2.
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ABSTRACT: It is a qualitative design study that examines points of divergence and convergence in the perspectives on recovery of 36 participants or 12 triads. Each triad comprising a patient, a family member/friend, a care provider and documents the procedural, analytic of triangulating perspectives as a means of understanding the recovery process which is illustrated by four case studies. Variations are considered as they relate to individual characteristics, type of participant (patient, family, member/friend and care provider), and mental illness. This paper which is part of a larger study and is based on a qualitative research design documents the process of recovery of people with mental illness: Developing a Model of Recovery in Mental Health: A middle range theory.
Data were collected in field notes through semi-structured interviews based on three interview guides (one for patients, one for family members/friends, and one for caregivers). Cross analysis and triangulation methods were used to analyse the areas of convergence and divergence on the recovery process of all triads.
In general, with the 36 participants united in 12 triads, two themes emerge from the cross-analysis process or triangulation of data sources (12 triads analysis in 12 cases studies). Two themes emerge from the analysis process of the content of 36 interviews with participants: (1) Revealing dynamic context, situating patients in their dynamic context; and (2) Relationship issues in a recovery process, furthering our understanding of such issues. We provide four case studies examples (among 12 cases studies) to illustrate the variations in the way recovery is perceived, interpreted and expressed in relation to the different contexts of interaction.
The perspectives of the three participants (patients, family members/friends and care providers) suggest that recovery depends on constructing meaning around mental illness experiences and that the process is based on each person's dynamic context (e.g., social network, relationship), life experiences and other social determinants (e.g., symptoms, environment). The findings of this study add to existing knowledge about the determinants of the recovery of persons suffering with a mental illness and significant other utilizing public mental health services in Montreal, Canada.
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