Influence of High-frequency Electromagnetic Radiation at Non-thermal Intensities on the Human Body (A review of work by Russian and Ukrainian researchers)

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  • ... Numerous experimental data have provided strong evidence of athermal microwave effects and have also indicated several regularities in these effects: dependence of frequency within specific frequency windows of " resonance-type " ; dependence on modulation and polarization; dependence on intensity within specific intensity windows, including superlow power density comparable with intensities from base stations/masts [4,789 . Some studies have demonstrated different microwave effects depending on wavelength in the range of mm, cm or m [10,11]. Duration of exposure may be as important as power density. ...
    ... Modulated and pulsed radiofrequencies seem to be more effective in producing effects [4,9]. biological activity [11,131415. This observation is important because cell phone radiation is pulsed microwave radiation modulated at low frequencies [8,9]. ...
    ... Mobile phone exposure may have negative effects on sperm motility characteristics and male fertility in rats [46]. Other studies find a decrease of fertility, increase of deaths after birth and dystrophic changes in their reproductive organs [11]. Intermittent exposure showed a stronger effect than continuous exposure [4] . ...
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    A review on the impact of radiofrequency radiation from wireless telecommunications on wildlife is presented. Electromagnetic radiation is a form of environmental pollution which may hurt wildlife. Phone masts located in their living areas are irradiating continuously some species that could suffer long-term effects, like reduction of their natural defenses, deterioration of their health, problems in reproduction and reduction of their useful territory through habitat deterioration. Electromagnetic radiation can exert an aversive behavioral response in rats, bats and birds such as sparrows. Therefore microwave and radiofrequency pollution constitutes a potential cause for the decline of animal populations and deterioration of health of plants living near phone masts. To measure these effects urgent specific studies are necessary.
  • ... Experiments that study the effects of EMR on living organisms are complex, since a high number of variables exist that need to be controlled. Microwave radiation produces different effects depending on certain methodological positions such as frequency, power, modulation, pulses, time of exposure, etc.262728. Some studies demonstrated different microwave effects depending on the wavelength in the range of mm, cm or m [28,29]. ...
    ... Microwave radiation produces different effects depending on certain methodological positions such as frequency, power, modulation, pulses, time of exposure, etc.262728. Some studies demonstrated different microwave effects depending on the wavelength in the range of mm, cm or m [28,29]. The dose–response relationships (of non-thermal effects), are not simple to establish since they present a non-linear relationship303132. ...
    ... The dose–response relationships (of non-thermal effects), are not simple to establish since they present a non-linear relationship303132. Pulsed waves (in blasts), as well as certain low frequency modulations exert greater biological activity [26,28,31,33]. These radiations also have accumulative effects that depend on the duration of exposure [19,34,35]. ...
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    Full-text available
    A bibliographical review on the possible effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from wireless telecommunications on living organisms and its impact on amphibians is presented. The technical characteristics of this new technology and the scientific discoveries that are of interest in the study of their effects on wild fauna and amphibians are described. Electromagnetic pollution (in the microwave and in the radiofrequency range) is a possible cause for deformations and decline of some amphibian populations. Keeping in mind that amphibians are reliable bio-indicators, it is of great importance to carry out studies on the effects of this new type of contamination. Finally, some methodologies that could be useful to determine the adverse health effects are proposed.
  • ... Los experimentos que estudian los efectos de las radiaciones electromagnéticas en los seres vivos son complejos, ya que existe un elevado número de variables que se deben controlar, y esto podría explicar los resultados contradictorios. Las radiaciones de microondas parecen provocar efectos diferentes, e incluso contrarios, dependiendo de los diseños experimentales como la frecuencia, potencia, modulación, pulsos, tiempo de exposición etc. (Tanner y Romero-Sierra, 1982, Grigoriev, 1996; Daniells et al., 1998; Nikolaevich et al., 2001). Las ondas pulsadas (en ráfagas), así como determinadas modulaciones de baja frecuencia, han mostrado ser las más activas desde el punto de vista biológico (Grigoriev, 1996; Hyland, 2001; Nikolaevich et al., 2001). ...
    ... Las radiaciones de microondas parecen provocar efectos diferentes, e incluso contrarios, dependiendo de los diseños experimentales como la frecuencia, potencia, modulación, pulsos, tiempo de exposición etc. (Tanner y Romero-Sierra, 1982, Grigoriev, 1996; Daniells et al., 1998; Nikolaevich et al., 2001). Las ondas pulsadas (en ráfagas), así como determinadas modulaciones de baja frecuencia, han mostrado ser las más activas desde el punto de vista biológico (Grigoriev, 1996; Hyland, 2001; Nikolaevich et al., 2001). Por otra parte las relaciones dosis-respuesta (de los efectos no térmicos), no son sencillas de establecer ya que presentan una relación no lineal (Monteagudo, 1997; Hyland, 2001; Marino et al., 2003) y los efectos pueden depender de la duración de la exposición (Adey, 1996). ...
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    Se presenta una revisión de estudios de laboratorio realizados exponiendo insectos a radiaciones electromagnéticas en el rango de las microondas, similares a las utilizadas por los sistemas de telefonía que se utilizan actualmente, y a campos electromagnéticos de baja frecuencia. Las microondas pulsadas y moduladas de la telefonía son un reciente contaminante ubicuo, cuyas consecuencias todavía no han podido ser evaluadas convenientemente. Los estudios realizados indican efectos sobre este grupo de fauna, con previsibles consecuencias sobre los ecosistemas. Se recomienda la realización de seguimientos y estudios en las proximidades de las estaciones base de telefonía, donde existen los niveles más elevados de contaminación electromagnética y se exponen algunas características técnicas que pueden ayudar a identificar las áreas más afectadas por la radiación.
  • ... Los experimentos que estudian los efectos de las radiaciones electromagnéticas en los seres vivos son complejos, ya que existe un elevado número de variables que se deben controlar, y esto podría explicar los resultados contradictorios. Las radiaciones de microondas parecen provocar efectos diferentes, e incluso contrarios, dependiendo de los diseños experimentales como la frecuencia, potencia, modulación, pulsos, tiempo de exposición etc. (Tanner y Romero-Sierra, 1982, Grigoriev, 1996 Daniells et al., 1998; Nikolaevich et al., 2001). Las ondas pulsadas (en ráfagas), así como determinadas modulaciones de baja frecuencia, han mostrado ser las más activas desde el punto de vista biológico (Grigoriev, 1996; Hyland, 2001; Nikolaevich et al., 2001). ...
    ... Las radiaciones de microondas parecen provocar efectos diferentes, e incluso contrarios, dependiendo de los diseños experimentales como la frecuencia, potencia, modulación, pulsos, tiempo de exposición etc. (Tanner y Romero-Sierra, 1982, Grigoriev, 1996 Daniells et al., 1998; Nikolaevich et al., 2001). Las ondas pulsadas (en ráfagas), así como determinadas modulaciones de baja frecuencia, han mostrado ser las más activas desde el punto de vista biológico (Grigoriev, 1996; Hyland, 2001; Nikolaevich et al., 2001). Por otra parte las relaciones dosis-respuesta (de los efectos no térmicos), no son sencillas de establecer ya que presentan una relación no lineal (Monteagudo, 1997; Hyland, 2001; Marino et al., 2003) y los efectos pueden depender de la duración de la exposición (Adey, 1996). ...
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    Full-text available
    Se presenta una revisión de estudios de laboratorio realizados exponiendo insectos a radiaciones electromagnéticas en el rango de las microondas, similares a las utilizadas por los sistemas de telefonía que se utilizan actualmente, y a campos electromagnéticos de baja frecuencia. Las microondas pulsadas y moduladas de la telefonía son un reciente contaminante ubicuo, cuyas consecuencias todavía no han podido ser evaluadas convenientemente. Los estudios realizados indican efectos sobre este grupo de fauna, con previsibles consecuencias sobre los ecosistemas. Se recomienda la realización de seguimientos y estudios en las proximidades de las estaciones base de telefonía, donde existen los niveles más elevados de contaminación electromagnética y se exponen algunas características técnicas que pueden ayudar a identificar las áreas más afectadas por la radiación.
  • ... Various research data have offered convincing evidence of non-thermal microwave effects and have also indicated various consistencies in these effects: dependency of frequency within specific frequency windows of " resonance-type " ; dependency on modulation and polarisation; dependency on intensity in definite intensity interfaces, comprising the super-low-power densities comparable with centre stations/masts intensities1112131415. Several studies have identified the influence of microwave based on wavelength in the range of millimetre, centimetres or meters [16,17]. Duration of irradiation may be as important as power density. ...
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    The bioeffects of electromagnetic frequencies were of special interest among scientists, especially microwave and radiofrequencies of different sources from which the mobile communication. The current research study aims to evaluate and assess the effect of seed pre-sowing exposure to microwave radiations of 2.45 GHz on various germination and growth parameters of six common wheat cultivars in Egypt. Irradiation were carried out using NGM-2001 Microwave oven, seeds of the six selected wheat cultivars were irradiated with different exposure time from 1 to 240 seconds. Experiments were performed in vitro and seeds were cultivated on petri-dishes with special hydrogel. Germination percent, relative germination coefficient, and germination rate were assessed, in addition to various growth parameters. A full strength germination (100%) were recorded after in cultivars Giza-168, Gemmiza-9, Sakha-93 and Sakha-94 after seed pre-sowing irradiation with 1, 3, 5, 60, 120, and 240 seconds. In cultivars Giza-168 seed irradiation with 1, 3, and 5 seconds were enough to stimulated early and full strength seed germination, while, Sids-1 required 240 seconds on Microwave radiations to generate full strength germination. Significant variations among the six studied wheat cultivars were statistically recorded; in addition to significant variation among various exposure times and the control were also statistically assessed using two-way analysis of variance. The current data gives account about the positive and negative impacts of microwave on seed germination of wheat cultivars in Egypt. It can be recommended to limiting the exposure time to environmental microwave radiofrequency to ensure the recovering ability of biological systems. However, the stimulatory effects of microwave radiofrequency are of considerable importance and to be applied in fields of agriculture and biotechnology
  • ... Fröhlich formulated later a related hypothesis (Fröhlich, 1988) wherein he deduced that the state of cancer is due to the loss of coherence and can possibly be restored by external irradiation with the correct resonant frequency , which was in fact supported from research on non-thermal biological effects of electromagnetic radiation by Webb (Webb et al., 1968, Webb et al., 1969) and Devyatkov (Devyatkov, 1973). Additional evidence came, on the one hand, from biophoton research claiming loss of coherence in cancer (as compared to healthy) cells (Schamhart et al., 1987, Scholz et al., 1988, Popp, 2009) and, on the other hand, from the application of Microwave Resonance Therapy (MRT)/ Extremely High Frequency Therapy (EHF) (Kositsky et al., 2001, Hyland, 2008) aiming to restore coherence (Sitko et al., 1994, Grubnik et al., 1998, Giuliani and Soffritti, 2010 ). Recent evidence revealed amplitude-modulated radiofrequencies to exhibit a tumor-specific resonant action that blocks the tumor growth by affecting gene expression and disrupting the mitotic spindle of cancer cells (Barbault et al., 2009, Costa et al., 2011, Zimmerman et al. 2012 ). ...
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    The dialogue with Nature about Time and Change has pointed to the functional synthesis of linearity with non-linearity since the times of Epicurus. The modern concepts of Quantum Coherence, Self-Organization, Deterministic Chaos and Reciprocal Causality in biology, also suggest an integration of lineari-ty with non-linearity, of molecular with field aspects. In this review, we discuss the theories and experimental evidence on the existence, the role and the properties of a biological field, following the arrow of time in a scientific perspective that unites being with becoming, and particles with fields.
  • ... Fröhlich formulated later a related hypothesis (Fröhlich, 1988) wherein he deduced that the state of cancer is due to the loss of coherence and can possibly be restored by external irradiation with the correct resonant frequency , which was in fact supported from research on non-thermal biological effects of electromagnetic radiation by Webb (Webb et al., 1968, Webb et al., 1969) and Devyatkov (Devyatkov, 1973). Additional evidence came, on the one hand, from biophoton research claiming loss of coherence in cancer (as compared to healthy) cells (Schamhart et al., 1987, Scholz et al., 1988, Popp, 2009) and, on the other hand, from the application of Microwave Resonance Therapy (MRT)/ Extremely High Frequency Therapy (EHF) (Kositsky et al., 2001, Hyland, 2008) aiming to restore coherence (Sitko et al., 1994, Grubnik et al., 1998, Giuliani and Soffritti, 2010 ). Recent evidence revealed amplitude-modulated radiofrequencies to exhibit a tumor-specific resonant action that blocks the tumor growth by affecting gene expression and disrupting the mitotic spindle of cancer cells (Barbault et al., 2009, Costa et al., 2011, Zimmerman et al. 2012 ). ...
    Chapter
    Full-text available
    The dialogue with Nature about Time and Change has pointed to the functional synthesis of linearity with non-linearity since the times of Epicurus. The modern concepts of Quantum Coherence, Self-Organization, Deterministic Chaos and Reciprocal Causality in biology, also suggest an integration of lineari-ty with non-linearity, of molecular with field aspects. In this review, we discuss the theories and experimental evidence on the existence, the role and the properties of a biological field, following the arrow of time in a scientific perspective that unites being with becoming, and particles with fields.
  • ... The idea about possible bio-effective influence of the electromagnetic field (EMF) variations (both natural and artificial origin) has been very popular in Russia since pioneer works by Presman [30], Kholodov [31] and Deviatkov [32, 33]. A lot of useful references are given in the review [34]. It was found out that the exposure of living organisms (including bacteria, animals and humans) to EMF of some frequencies produces sharp reaction of the objects. ...
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    Our environment includes many natural and artificial agents affecting any person on the Earth in one way or other. This work is focused on two of them - weather and space weather, which are permanently effective. Their cumulative effect is proved by means of the modeling. It is shown that combination of geomagnetic and solar indices and weather strength parameter (which includes six main meteorological parameters) correlates with health state significantly better (up to R=0.7), than separate environmental parameters do. The typical shape of any health characteristics' time-series during human body reaction to any negative impact represents a curve, well-known in medicine as a General Adaptation Syndrome curve by Hans Selye. We demonstrate this on the base of blood pressure time-series and acupunctural experiment data, averaged by group. The first stage of adaptive stress-reaction (resistance to stress) is sometimes observed 1-2 days before geomagnetic storm onset. The effect of "outstripping reaction to magnetic storm", named Tchizhevsky- Velkhover effect, had been known for many years, but its explanation was obtained recently due to the consideration of the near-Earth space plasma processes. It was shown that lowfrequency variations of the solar wind density on a background of the density growth can stimulate the development of the geomagnetic filed (GMF) variations of the wide frequency range. These variations seem to have "bioeffective frequencies", resonant with own frequencies of body organs and systems. The mechanism of human body reaction is supposed to be a parametrical resonance in low-frequency range (which is determined by the resonance in large-scale organs and systems) and a simple forced resonance in GHz-range of variations (the resonance of micro-objects in the organism such as DNA, cell membranes, blood ions etc.) Given examples of mass-reaction of the objects to ULF-range GMF variations during quiet space weather time prove this hypothesis.
  • ... Notice that previous investigations of effects of low-intensive microwave radiation also show the immunomodulating effects at certain frequency ranges and intensities (see, e.g. [9,26]). These findings stimulate our interest to study the influence of weak centimetre electromagnetic waves on tumour-immune dynamics. ...
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    We formulate the dynamical model for the anti-tumor immune response based on intercellular cytokine-mediated interactions with the interleukin-2 (IL-2) taken into account. The analysis shows that the expression level of tumor antigens on antigen presenting cells has a distinct influence on the tumor dynamics. At low antigen presentation a progressive tumor growth takes place to the highest possible value. At high antigen presentation there is a decrease in tumor size to some value when the dynamical equilibrium between the tumor and the immune system is reached. In the case of the medium antigen presentation both these regimes can be realized depending on the initial tumor size and the condition of the immune system. A pronounced immunomodulating effect (the suppression of tumor growth and the normalization of IL-2 concentration) is established by considering the influence of low-intensity electromagnetic microwaves as a parametric perturbation of the dynamical system. This finding is in qualitative agreement with the recent experimental results on immunocorrective effects of centimeter electromagnetic waves in tumor-bearing mice.
  • Article
    Abstract Plants growing in natural environments are exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted by various communication network base stations. The environmental concentration of this radiation is increasing rapidly with the congested deployment of base stations. Although numerous scientific studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of EMR on the physiology of humans and animals, there have been few attempts to investigate the effects of EMR on plants. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of EMR on photosynthesis by investigating the chlorophyll fluorescence (ChF) parameters of duckweed fronds. During the experiment, the fronds were tested with 2, 2.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 8 GHz EMR frequencies, which are not widely studied even though there is a potentially large concentration of these frequencies in the environment. The duckweed fronds were exposed to EMR for 30 min, 1 h and 24 h durations with electric field strength of 45-50 V/m for each frequency. The results indicated that exposure to EMR causes a change in the non-photochemical quenching of the duckweeds. The changes varied with the frequency of the EMR and were time-varying within a particular frequency. The temperature remained unchanged in the duckweed fronds upon exposure to EMR, which confirms that the effect is non-thermal.
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    Monitoring of a white stork population in Valladolid (Spain) in the vicinity of Cellular Phone Base Stations was carried out, with the objective of detecting possible effects. The total productivity, in the nests located within 200 meters of antennae, was 0.86 ± 0.16. For those located further than 300 m, the result was practically doubled, with an average of 1.6 ± 0.14. Very significant differences among the total productivity were found (U = 240; p = 0.001, Mann-Whitney test). In partial productivity, an average of 1.44 ± 0.16 was obtained for the first group (within 200 m of antennae) and of 1.65 ± 0.13 for the second (further than 300 m of antennae), respectively. The difference between both groups of nests in this case were not statistically significant (U = 216; P = 0.26, Mann-Whitney Test U). Twelve nests (40%) located within than 200 m of antennae never had chicks, while only one (3.3%) located further than 300 m had no chicks. The electric field intensity was higher on nests within 200 m (2.36 ± 0.82 V/m) than on nests further than 300 m (0.53 ± 0.82 V/m). Interesting behavioral observations of the white stork nesting sites located within 100 m of one or several cellsite antennae were carried out. These results are compatible with the possibility that microwaves are interfering with the reproduction of white storks and would corroborate the results of laboratory research by other authors.
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    A review on the effects of radiofrequency radiation from wireless telecommunications on living organisms and its possible impact on wild mammals are presented. Physical and technological characteristics of mobile telephone and phone masts, the scientific discoveries that are of interest in the study of their effects on the wildlife, action mechanisms on biological systems and experimental difficulties are described. Keeping in mind that electromagnetic pollution (in the microwave and radiofrequency range) is a possible source for decline of some mammal populations, it is of great importance to carry out studies on the effects of this new pollutant to wildlife. Some research types that could be useful to determine adverse health effects are proposed.
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    A physical basis of adverse and therapeutic effects of low intensity microwave radiation is presented based on the concept of oscillatory similitude between the frequency of an external microwave field (together with any lower frequency modulations thereof) and those of certain endogenous dipolar coherent excitations allied to aliveness, which play the role of 'tuned circuits' via which a living organism is electromagnetically sensitised in a non-linear way to external fields too weak to be able to cause heating. From this perspective, an external electromagnetic field affects a living system not as a toxin but rather by perturbing its endogenous electromagnetic activity. The possibility of adverse perturbation is illustrated by reference to the microwave fields used in mobile telecommunications whose signals interfere in a non-thermal way with biofunctionality--in particular, undermining the efficacy of processes that would otherwise afford natural protection against the development of pathology. Therapeutic modalities of microwave exposure, on the other hand, are illustrated using the example of microwave resonance therapy--which can be considered as an electromagnetic version of acupuncture, and as an example of 'quantum medicine'--whose normalising effect on a wide range of pathologies is striking, and which affords a novel alternative to conventional pharmacological interventions.
  • Book
    One Physical Principles and Experimental Methods of Investigation of the Biological Action of Electromagnetic Fields.- 1. Physical Characteristics of Electromagnetic Fields.- Chapter2. Natural and Artificial Sources of Electromagnetic Fields in the Habitats of Organisms.- 3. Electric Properties of the Tissues of Living Organisms.- 4. Physical Principles of the Interaction of Electromagnetic Fields with Biological Objects.- 5. Dosimetry of Electromagnetic Fields for the Assessment of Their Effects on Man and Animals.- Two Experimental Investigations of the Biological Action of Electromagnetic Fields.- 6. Irreversible and Permanent Effects of Electromagnetic Fields in Entire Organisms.- 7. Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Neurohumoral Regulation in Entire Organism.- 8. Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Reproduction and Development of Organisms.- 9. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields at the Cellular and Molecular Levels.- 10. Mechanisms of the Experimentally Observed Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields.- Three Role of Electromagnetic Fields in the Regulation of the Vital Activity of Organisms.- 11. Environmental Electromagnetic Fields and the Vital Activity of Organisms.- 12. Electromagnetic Fields within the Organism and Their Role in the Regulation of Vital Processes.- 13. Role of Electromagnetic Fields in Informational Interconnections between Organisms.- 14. Practical Applications.- Conclusion.- References.