Article

Cushing's Disease in Dogs and Humans

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Hormone Research (Impact Factor: 2.48). 02/2009; 71 Suppl 1(Suppl. 1):140-3. DOI: 10.1159/000178058
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cushing's disease (CD) is a common endocrinological disorder in dogs with an estimated incidence of 1 to 2 cases/1,000 dogs/year. This is in contrast to humans in whom CD is rare. The clinical presentation of CD, however, is highly similar between dogs and humans, with characteristic signs, such as abdominal obesity, weight gain, fatigue, muscle atrophy and skin changes. Canine CD may therefore serve as an animal model for human CD, especially since therapeutic canine hypophysectomy can generate substantial amounts of primary corticotroph adenoma tissue for in vitro research purposes. In a recent study, we found that dopamine (DA) D(2) and somatostatin (SS) receptor subtypes are well expressed in canine corticotroph adenomas, but there are some distinct differences compared with the expression profile observed in human CD. These differences need to be considered when using canine CD as a model to evaluate the efficacy of novel DA/SS compounds for potential use in human CD. CASE REPORT: This case involves an 8-year-old female dog that developed signs of exercise intolerance, muscle weakness and polyuria/polydipsia due to an adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. The dog underwent curative transsphenoidal hypophysectomy and has remained in complete remission in the 3.5 years since surgery.

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Available from: Björn Petrus Meij, Jul 28, 2014
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    • "This has resulted in another similarity: both humans and dogs suffer more frequently from similar disorders, such as obesity, endocrinologic syndromes , osteoarthritis (OA), and degenerative spinal diseases (Bostman 1993; Bray and Burbidge 1998; German 2006; Heliovaara 1987; Kiss et al. 2002a; Liuke et al. 2005; Muraki et al. 2009; Rijnberk, Kooistra, Mol 2003). As a result, dogs can serve as spontaneous disease animal models for certain of these diseases (An and Masuda 2006; Casal and Haskins 2006; de Bruin et al. 2009; Kooistra et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Both spondylosis and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) are prevalent in humans and are considered distinct entities. Nowadays, the term spondylosis is in the biomedical literature mostly used when concurrently degenerative disc disease is present. In companion animals, many reports on spondylosis, often without intervertebral disc degeneration, are described. The nomenclature and the definitions of both spondylosis and DISH in biomedical and veterinary literature should be more in line to facilitate comparison. Spondylosis and DISH occur in dogs spontaneously and can co-occur in one animal. Specifically, Boxers may serve as translational disease models for the elucidation of the gene(s) involved in the (etio)pathogenesis of spondylosis and DISH or serve as a test population for newly developed treatment options.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · ILAR journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources
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    • "By getting older and increasingly obese, humans and pets suffer more frequently from similar disorders, including endocrinological syndromes, osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative spinal diseases (Heliovaara 1987; Bostman 1993; Bray & Burbidge 1998; Kiss et al. 2002a; Rijnberk et al. 2003; Clarke et al. 2005; Liuke et al. 2005; Clarke & Bennett 2006; German 2006; Muraki et al. 2009; Slingerland et al. 2011). For specific human diseases, companion animals, including pet patients, can serve as spontaneous disease animal models (Casal & Haskins 2006; Masuda 2006; de Bruin et al. 2009; Kooistra et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Both spondylosis and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) are prevalent in humans and are considered distinct entities. Nowadays, the term spondylosis is in the biomedical literature mostly used when also degenerative disc disease is present. In companion animals, many reports on spondylosis, often without intervertebral disc degeneration, are described. The nomenclature and the definitions of both spondylosis and DISH in the biomedical and veterinary literature should be more in line to facilitate comparison. DISH occurs in dogs but has not been described in cats yet. DISH and spondylosis can co-occur in dogs in one animal. Boxers may serve as translational disease models for the elucidation of the gene(s) involved in the (etio)pathogenesis of DISH or serve as a test population for newly developed treatment options.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013
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    • "Canine endogenous hypercortisolism or Cushing's syndrome is considered a good animal model for its human counterpart, because of similarities in the pathogenesis : 80–85% of cases are caused by a pituitary tumor and ACTH-dependent, while 15–20% are ACTH-independent [7]. Moreover, middle-aged to old individuals are typically affected in both species and similar clinical signs include fatigue, weight gain and central obesity with muscle atrophy of the limbs, polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia, with the latter three being most pronounced in the dog [8], [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives of this study were to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal structural changes and proteinuria in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone (HC) administration. Eleven Beagle dogs ≥10 years old were treated with either hydrocortisone (HC group, n = 6) or placebo (control group, n = 5). Urinary markers, GFR and kidney biopsies were evaluated before (T0), during (T16 wks) and after discontinuing HC administration (T24 wks). Results indicate that HC administration causes a significant increase in GFR. At all time points except T16 wks, proteinuria was higher in the control group than in the HC group, and there was no significant difference in urinary markers between groups. At T16 wks, proteinuria, urinary albumin-to-creatinine (c) ratio, immunoglobulin G/c and retinol-binding protein/c were higher compared to baseline in the HC group. At T0, rare to mild renal lesions were detected in all HC dogs and rare to moderate changes in all control dogs. Glomerulosclerosis progressed in both groups until T24 wks. Tubular atrophy was detected in three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, but also in five control dogs throughout the study. At every time point, five HC dogs and all control dogs had rare to moderate interstitial inflammation. Rare to mild interstitial fibrosis was found in up to three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, and severe fibrosis in one HC dog at T24 wks. Up to four control dogs had rare to mild fibrosis at all time points. These findings indicate that clinically healthy, aged Beagle dogs may have considerable renal lesions and proteinuria, which could have implications for experimental or toxicological studies. Additional research is needed to elucidate glucocorticoid effects on renal structure, but functional changes such as hyperfiltration and proteinuria warrant attention to kidney function of canine patients with Cushing's syndrome or receiving exogenous glucocorticoids.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · PLoS ONE
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