Article

Resilience over the Lifespan Developmental Perspectives on Resistance, Recovery, and Transformation

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Active intentional human agency has been found to be associated with successful ageing (Wray, 2004). Agency has also been seen as contributing to processes of personal growth and resilience (Dmytro et al.2014;Masten & Wright, 2009). Resilient ageing in the face of challenges has also been found to be achievable with environmental support, a positive attitude, and appropriate coping strategies (Tourunen et al., 2021). ...
... Overall, active human agency, resilient ageing, and having social relationships have all been proposed as factors that promote healthy ageing (Masten & Wright, 2009). We suggest, therefore, that the rehabilitation of older adults should be based on not only person-centred but also agency-based principles. ...
... However, the variety in person responses suggests that DIF should be controlled for when comparing groups, especially in research settings. At the same time, we are aware that agency is a complicated and latent phenomenon which a person constructs and transforms in relation to contextual factors and institutional settings throughout the life course, and which is always manifested in the current life situation (Eteläpelto et al., 2013;Masten & Wright, 2009;Messick, 1995;Pikkarainen et al., 2015;Pikkarainen et al., 2019;Vik et al., 2008). Thus, it can never be precisely conceptualised or expressed as an index or test score. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: It has been argued that an agency-based approach should be taken to person-centered gerontological rehabilitation. Such an approach requires agency-based assessment tools valid for use with older adults. Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Assessment Tool for Perceived Agency (ATPA) adapted for older adults in gerontological rehabilitation in Finland. Methods: Participants (n=97) were older adults aged 69 to 90 years. A many faceted Rasch (MFR) analysis was used to investigate the item and person response processes (goodness-of-fit statistics) and the separation reliability (separation index) of the ATPA. Results: The ATPA19 items defined a unidimensional construct with moderate internal consistency and separation ability. More uncertainty than expected was found in within-person responses, mostly among females and participants aged 80 years or older. Conclusion: The ATPA-19 is a promising tool to measure features of older adults’ perceived human agency. However, since perceived human agency is seen as a subjective and dynamic phenomenon that is constructed over the life course, research is needed on how human agency appears in different temporal periods, contexts, and populations. Significance: Evaluating individuals’ perceived human agency with ATPA19 can help professionals strengthen the meaningful agency of older adults. Keywords: construct validity; human agency; older adults; person response validity; Rasch analysis
... Mental resilience as a general term refers to the positive adjustment of an individual following a traumatic event as well as their ability to recover. According to many authors (Masten & Wright, 2010;Zautra, 2014;Luthar, Crossman, & Small, 2015), recovery, positive adaptation to adversity, and balanced sustainability (physical, emotional, and systemic) are elements of the resilience concept. This, in turn, means that two critical conditions are indirectly related to the concept of resilience; a) exposure to adversity (threat / danger or positive event); and b) achieving a positive adjustment, since the display of resilience primarily requires an athlete to face their difficulty or achieve a positive adjustment (Charney, 2004;Masten & Wright, 2010;Sarkar, Fletcher, & Brown, 2015). ...
... According to many authors (Masten & Wright, 2010;Zautra, 2014;Luthar, Crossman, & Small, 2015), recovery, positive adaptation to adversity, and balanced sustainability (physical, emotional, and systemic) are elements of the resilience concept. This, in turn, means that two critical conditions are indirectly related to the concept of resilience; a) exposure to adversity (threat / danger or positive event); and b) achieving a positive adjustment, since the display of resilience primarily requires an athlete to face their difficulty or achieve a positive adjustment (Charney, 2004;Masten & Wright, 2010;Sarkar, Fletcher, & Brown, 2015). ...
... These distinct, social, cultural and environmental factors affect an individual's overall ability to recover. According to Masten and Wright (2010), although the study of human resilience focuses specifically on understanding these differences due to adverse experiences, resilience should not be assumed as a static characteristic of an individual, as it derives from various processes and interactions that far exceed the human body and include interpersonal relationships and social settings to achieve positive adjustment. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between resilience levels and anxiety of volleyball players and to find possible differences that exist between the two genders. Participants included 195 volleyball players (37 male and 158 female), with the Self Evaluation Resilience test and the CSAI-2 test (Greek version) used as evaluation instruments. The data was analysed with SPSS 21.0 using Pearson’s r and t-test for independent samples. Results of Pearson’s r test showed positive intercorrelations between all the resilience variables and between resilience and self-confidence. The t-test showed statistically significant differences between male and female volleyball players in “forming relationships” and “self-efficacy” variables, with no other statistically significant differences observed for the rest of the resilience variables. Additionally, statistically significant differences were observed for “cognitive”, “somatic” anxiety and “self-confidence” between the two genders of volleyball players. Future research should further investigate the relationship between resilience and self-confidence and how it affects the resilience level of volleyball players.
... Masten [17] states that resilience is a dynamic concept that occurs from many processes and interactions that go beyond the boundaries of individual organisms, wherein this process includes variables of close relationships and social support. Resilience is said to be dynamic because the same individual can bring up maladaptive functions at one time and become resilient in development, or vice versa. ...
... Meanwhile, protective or promotive factors refer to the characteristics that increase adaptability or have a positive correlation with resilience. Masten [17] states that risk factors generally refer to the prediction of unwanted results. Although it is not certain, a higher probability can cause one or more problems. ...
... In summary, it can be said that risk factors are variables that appear before the bad outcome. Furthermore, in his study, Masten [17] (2010) also argues that in the process of a person becoming resilient there are variables called protective factors, namely variables that protect or fortify individuals from the negative effects of stressors. Almeida [18] states that there are 2 protective factors, internal protective factors such as selfesteem, self-efficacy, optimism, emotional regulation, and problem-solving abilities. ...
... In the resilience literature, in addition to disagreements about the locus of resilience (McEwen, 2003;Kirmayer et al., 2009;Masten and Wright, 2010;Ungar, 2011;Dresen et al., 2019), there is also some muddle about what the concept of "resilience" denotes or means (Anthony, 1987;Masten, 2002;Herrman et al., 2011;Reghezza-Zitt et al., 2012;Helfgott, 2015;Woods, 2015;Rose, 2017). We have conducted an analysis of the concept of resilience, based on an extensive literature review (Holling, 1973;Cairns et al., 1977;Westman, 1978Westman, , 1986Cicchetti and Curtis, 2006;Lerner, 2006;Soule, 2006;DuMont et al., 2007;Masten, 2007;Lemery-Chalfant, 2010;Rutter, 2012;Duchek, 2014;Standish et al., 2014;Luthar, 2015;Juster et al., 2016;McJunkin and Rieger, 2017;Santarelli et al., 2017;Cousijn et al., 2018;Dresen et al., 2019;Mertoguno et al., 2019;Den Hartigh and Hill, 2022). ...
... Anthony (1987) described this process as psycho-immunization, wherein the agent develops some form of resistance to future risk by learning from previous and current experiences and difficulties, and better equipping the self to handle future risks. Throughout its development, an agent must grasp at the opportunities presented by its ecological niche that maximize the potential for plasticity (Masten and Wright, 2010), increasing the breadth of safe states. Perhaps paradoxically, some lines of research suggest that, at least within certain bounds, exposure to psychosocial stressors and deprivation during the early stages of life can, at least in some people, result in the emergence of beneficial, protective traits, such as secure attachment, educational engagement and achievement, and prosociality, later in life (Gapp et al., 2014;Chaby et al., 2015;Santarelli et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we aim to conceptualize and formalize the construct of resilience using the tools of active inference, a new physics-based modeling approach apt for the description and analysis of complex adaptive systems. We intend this as a first step toward a computational model of resilient systems. We begin by offering a conceptual analysis of resilience, to clarify its meaning, as established in the literature. We examine an orthogonal, threefold distinction between meanings of the word “resilience”: (i) inertia, or the ability to resist change (ii) elasticity, or the ability to bounce back from a perturbation, and (iii) plasticity, or the ability to flexibly expand the repertoire of adaptive states. We then situate all three senses of resilience within active inference. We map resilience as inertia onto high precision beliefs, resilience as elasticity onto relaxation back to characteristic (i.e., attracting) states, and resilience as plasticity onto functional redundancy and structural degeneracy.
... In the resilience literature, in addition to disagreements about the locus of resilience [2,3,4,5,6], there is also some muddle about what the concept of "resilience" denotes or means [7,8,9,10,11,12,13]. We have conducted an analysis of the concept of resilience, based on an extensive literature review [14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,5,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33]. ...
... Anthony [12] described this process as psychoimmunization, wherein the agent develops some form of resistance to future risk by learning from previous and current experiences and difficulties, and better equipping the self to handle future risks. Throughout its development, an agent must grasp at the opportunities presented by its ecological niche that maximize the potential for plasticity [3], increasing the breadth of safe states. Perhaps paradoxically, some lines of research suggest that, at least within certain bounds, exposure to psycho-social stressors and deprivation during the early stages of life can, at least in some people, result in the emergence of beneficial, protective traits, such as secure attachment, educational engagement and achievement, and prosociality, later in life [30,40,35]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper, we aim to conceptualize and formalize the construct of resilience using the tools of active inference, a new physics-based modeling approach apt for the description and analysis of complex adaptive systems. We intend this as a first step towards a computational model of resilient systems. We begin by offering a conceptual analysis of resilience, to clarify its meaning, as established in the literature. We examine an orthogonal , threefold distinction between meanings of the word "resilience": (i) inertia, or the ability to resist change (ii) elasticity, or the ability to bounce back from a perturbation, and (iii) plasticity, or the ability to flexibly expand the repertoire of adaptive states. We then situate all three senses of resilience within active inference. We map resilience as inertia onto high precision beliefs, resilience as elasticity onto relaxation back 1 to characteristic (i.e., attracting) states, and resilience as plasticity onto functional redundancy and structural degeneracy.
... .in the context of significant threats to an individual's life or function.'' 11 In HIV-negative women, high resilience scores are associated with fewer midlife symptoms, 12 however, this link has yet to be assessed in WLWH. In addition to positive influences, factors, such as poverty, violence, substance use, and recent traumatic life events, are also known to relate to severe menopausal symptoms in HIV-negative women. ...
... Resilience is a pattern of positive adaption in the context of life adversity and is of particular interest for WLWH, many of whom have faced layers of oppression. 11 Increasingly, evidence has emerged demonstrating the health benefits of resilience for WLWH, including increased viral suppression, treatment adherence, and improved health-related quality of life. [40][41][42][43] For midlife reproductive symptoms, resilience may improve symptom experience by enhancing adaptive coping strategies, social relationships, and willingness to seek health care support. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are commonly symptomatic during perimenopause and menopause (≥1 y without menstruation), however, little is known of risks for symptoms and their timing. We analyzed these unwanted experiences to inform care. Methods: WLWH (≥40 y) in the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study rated midlife experiences for seven symptoms and a symptom composite (from 0 to 21). Timing was categorized into four phases: i) perimenopause (flow in the last year), ii) 1-2 years from final menstrual period (FMP), iii) 2-5 years post-FMP; and iv) >5 years post-FMP. Resilience (standardized out of 100) was assessed based on Wagnild's Resilience Scale. Univariable/multivariable mixed effects linear regression assessed correlates of symptom intensity by composite score. Results: Among 457 peri-/menopausal women mean age 54.7 (±6.6) over two time points (703 observations), 88% experienced ≥1 mild symptom; 75% were of moderate and 55% severe intensity. The most frequently reported symptoms were joint/muscle stiffness (67%), depressed mood (67%), and hot flashes (57%). After adjusting for reproductive phase, we found that women with greater resilience had fewer/lower intensity symptoms (symptom score 1.37 [2.30 to 0.44] lower; P = 0.004); those with depressive symptoms and recreational drug use (respectively) had more/higher intensity symptoms (scores 1.71 [0.61 to 2.82] [P = 0.002]; 2.89 [2.09 to 3.77] [P<0.001] higher). Symptoms were most intense in perimenopause and declined with increasing menopausal years (P = 0.03). Conclusions: WLWH experiences a high burden of midlife symptoms, decreased by resilience and most intense during perimenopause. Unwanted experiences were linked to psychosocial and behavioral factors. These data encourage HIV providers to adopt a bio-psychosocial approach to midlife management.
... Some have defined it as a personal quality (Ahern, Ark, & Byers, 2008), a process (Curtis & Cicchetti, 2007), an outcome (Masten, 2001), or combination of outcomes and processes (Leipold & Greve, 2009). Some have highlighted the role of the environment (Masten & Wright, 2010;Rutter, 2007). What we have seen from this narrative review is that whilst resilience often figures as an individual character of an academic, it is never achieved in atomistic terms. ...
... It is always achieved together with fellow academics, in an enabling environment, and in an ongoing fashion. This narrative review provided evidence that a conceptualisation of resilience should go beyond being a characteristic of individuals and instead, be seen as a dynamic process in interaction with their ever-changing environment (Masten & Wright, 2010). ...
Article
The demands arising from the COVID-19 pandemic have amplified the importance of resilience not only for students, but also for academics. This narrative review examines a phenomenon which has received little research attention, despite its significance during the pandemic, namely the resilience of academics in higher education. We refer to this as 'academic resilience'. The review investigates how academic resilience in higher education has been addressed in scholarship, with particular attention to the five major pandemics from 2001 to 2020. A review of fourteen relevant papers shows a lack of attention to the resilience of university teaching staff. Uncovering how academics overcome and withstand adversity on the one hand, and how higher education institutions have managed and supported the resilience of their staff on the other, this paper offers a conceptualisation of academic resilience that goes beyond the individual/environmental binary in scholarship.
... Growth from adversity has also been studied as resilience, which Ramsey and Blieszner (2012) view as the ability to transcend and grow from adversity. Masten and Wright (2010) proposed that protective systems such as worldview beliefs support resilience across the lifespan. Resilience may be manifested as transformation after trauma and adversity, particularly for individuals who use religious schemas to make meaning of suffering. ...
... They often viewed experiences with adversity as providing a "second chance." This pattern of meaning making within the context of religion is concordant with past research (Pargament, 1997) and suggests that experiences with adversities may be mechanisms through which spiritual resilience can be achieved (Masten & Wright, 2010). Indeed, many participants reported that the loss of a partner or close other led to an increased connectedness with God and the sacred, and presented new opportunities for deepening of religious belief and faith-based practices. ...
Article
Full-text available
Using a lifespan perspective, we investigated a neglected aspect of research on religion, namely, whether perceptions of growth from adversity might strengthen religious worldviews, thus accounting for feelings about one's own death in old age. A directed content analysis of in-depth interviews from 16 adults aged 65+ focused on life events, religious worldviews, and death. Findings suggested that participants’ religious worldview beliefs were associated with positive reinterpretation of lifespan adversities such that stressors functioned as opportunities for spiritual growth. Participants’ views of and beliefs about death were without fear, indicating the potential influence of highly individualized and deeply spiritual religious worldview beliefs on the abatement of death fear.
... Adolescents with high levels of psychological resilience can cope with and adapt to difficulties effectively, protect or repair themselves more effectively when faced with adversity, and promote the driving force of sustainable development (Newman, 2005;Rutter, 2012). In other words, becoming more resilient not only helps individuals cope with difficult circumstances but also empowers them to grow (Masten & Wright, 2010) and establish positive relationships with others. Graber et al. (2015) noted that psychological resilience is positively and closely related to friendship quality. ...
Article
Full-text available
A number of studies have examined the association between parent‒child conflict and the friendship quality of students, while few studies have investigated whether factors such as psychological resilience can protect against these conditions among this population. A total of 662 Chinese adolescents completed a survey assessing parent‒child conflict, friendship quality and resilience based on the conflict dimension of the Family Environment Scale, the Friendship Quality Questionnaire, and the Chinese version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. The results showed that the total friendship quality score of adolescents was above average and that girls had higher friendship quality than boys. The moderately above average resilience of Chinese adolescents was also shown in the study, and there were no significant differences in terms of gender. There was a negative association between parent‒child conflict and adolescents’ friendship quality. Individuals’ resilience exhibited a strong association with their friendship quality. In addition, resilience played a fully mediating role between parent‒child conflict and friendship quality. These results suggest that interventions intended to bolster psychological resilience may help reduce the severity of parent‒child conflict among adolescents.
... Und weiter kann sich ein höheres Intelligenzniveau unter bestimmten Bedingungen sogar negativ auswirken (s. a. Masten & Wright, 2009). So kann es für Kinder durchaus protektiv sein, wenn sie z. ...
Article
Abstract Das Resilienzkonstrukt hat seit Beginn seiner Erforschung entscheidende Wandlungen durchlaufen. Nach einem Überblick zu zentralen Befunden und Ansätzen der Pionier/innen der Resilienzforschung werden im vorliegenden Artikel verwandte Modelle wie das Risiko-Schutzmodell herangezogen und mögliche Wirkmechanismen protektiver Faktoren beschrieben. Letztlich wird jedoch aufgezeigt, dass Resilienz heute mehr als eng umgrenzte Schutzfaktoren oder stabile inhärente Persönlichkeitsmerkmale umfasst. Vielmehr handelt es sich um ein dynamisches Konstrukt, bei welchem auch biologische Wirkmechanismen eine wichtige Rolle spielen. Auf verschiedenen Ebenen zeigt sich dabei, dass das Verhalten von Bezugspersonen eine wichtige Funktion einnimmt, sowohl bezüglich relevanter epigenetischer Veränderungen, als Puffer in stressreicher Umgebung oder auch beim Erwerb resilienzförderlicher Kompetenzen. Der Artikel schließt angesichts dessen mit einer Synthese relevanter Befunde eingebettet in eine bindungstheoretische Sichtweise. Insbesondere wird hierbei auch auf außerfamiliäre Bezugspersonen (z.B. Pflegeeltern, Lehrende, Erzieher/innen) eingegangen, welche hinsichtlich Prävention und Intervention eine tragende Rolle spielen sollten.
... This means that some people are more psychologically resilient to adversity than others (Killgore et al., 2020). It has also been proven that the patterns of resilience even vary among individuals (Sominsky et al., 2020) and across their lifespan (Masten and Wright, 2010). Moreover, it has been demonstrated that when facing certain severe stressful events, it is much harder to achieve resilience, however, individuals still demonstrate "relative resilience" to face the trauma (Feder et al., 2019). ...
Article
Purpose The COVID-19 outbreak has undoubtedly affected overall mental health. Thus, researching resilience is important, as it has been previously discussed as a means to protect people from mental health problems. This study aims to clarify whether survivors of a traumatic event (i.e. cancer survivors) are more resilient to living through another traumatic experience, such as COVID-19, compared to those who have never had such an experience. The study also examines the role of emotional creativity in this process. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative research design was adopted. The data collection was performed through a survey ( N = 338), which was conducted among two separate groups of participants. The first group ( N = 152) included the survivors of a traumatic event (i.e. cancer survivors), and the second group ( N = 186) included those who did not have such an experience. Findings The results demonstrate that living through a traumatic experience results in a higher level of resilience during another traumatic experience (i.e. COVID-19), which is the result of higher post-traumatic growth. Moreover, emotional creativity is discussed as an explanatory variable that explains a significantly higher level of post-traumatic growth among survivors of a traumatic event. Originality/value This research offers a better understanding of the effect of living through a traumatic event on post-traumatic growth and resilience in living through another traumatic experience. Moreover, post-traumatic growth is explained through emotional creativity improvement, which happens after experiencing a traumatic life event.
... However, other scholars (Clauss-Ehlers, 2008;Ungar et al., 2008;Veeran & Morgan, 2009) critique these elements of resilience because they tend to base progress on personal mastery. The elements proposed by Masten and Wright (2010) also assume that people access similar resources across contexts (Theron et al., 2013). This is however not the case. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
In this thesis, black queer people in Johannesburg describe what it feels like to be at home, to be visible, and to be resilient. Queer is used to describe gay, lesbian, bisexual, trans and intersex individuals, as well as other anti-conventional ways of being. Using a qualitative approach, the study examines how participants make use of their agency by choosing home, where and how to be visible and their meanings of resilience. This study is informed by queer theory, waiting theories, queer liminality, translocality, the abyssal line, and intersectionality. Interviews, online surveys, archival research, and personal diaries are used to collect data. This data is then analysed utilizing narrative analysis, thematic analysis, and critical diversity literacy (CDL). Findings show that participants experience belonging and alienation simultaneously in the city. Black queer people define home as multiple, non-conventional physical and emotional pockets which offer moments of care and allow for visibility and safety. The participants also tend to avoid homophobia by actively pursuing connections with non-heteronormative spaces and bodies. Such participant agency reflects a sense of queer resilience. The thesis shows, however, shows that queer resilience has a cost and that those with greater access to resources such as healthcare, transportation, money, affluent spaces, and social capital are likely to become more resilient. A key recommendation of the thesis is that policymakers and stakeholders must work against conventional definitions of home when working with black queer people. The research also recommends that government and social welfare departments should identify specific black queer groups that are more vulnerable and experience long-term economic exclusion resulting from the violence they encounter in schools or the workplace. Lastly, individuals and communities in Johannesburg should be sensitized to gender and sexuality issues as part of a strategy that aims to uproot heteronormativity
... Luthar et al. (2006), on the other hand, referred to the psychological resilience as a phenomenon that provides positive adaptation in case of trauma and significant challenges. In an interpretation offered by Masten and Wright (2010), it has been considered as a phenomenon that supports a dynamic development process and positive adaptation in the face of difficult, stressful, and traumatic life events. Although there are many different conceptualizations in the literature, it can be inferred that the phenomenon of psychological resilience is a dynamic process. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bireyler yaşamları boyunca en az bir olumsuz deneyim ya da travmatik bir olayla karşılaşır ve bu deneyimlere farklı şekillerde tepki verirler. Bazı bireyler bu yaşanılanlar karşısında kırılganlık geliştirirken diğerleri daha da güçlenirler. Psikolojik dayanıklılık, bireyin karşılaştığı olumsuz deneyimlere rağmen sağlıklı bir gelişim gösterebilmesi veya riskli durumlar karşısında iyi uyum sağlayabilmesidir. Dayanıklılığın gelişmesinde risk faktörleri ve koruyucu faktörler önemli rol oynamaktadır. Bu nedenle tükenmişlik ve aidiyet duygusunun psikolojik dayanıklılığa etkisinin araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Bu temelden hareketle bu çalışmada öncelikle en az bir travmatik olay yaşayan ve yaşları 17 ila 35 arasında değişen üniversite öğrencilerinin aidiyet duygusu ile psikolojik dayanıklılıkları arasındaki ilişkide tükenmişliğin aracı rolü araştırılmıştır (M = 24.17, SD = 3.90). Bu araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak Genel Aidiyet Ölçeği, Yetişkinler İçin Dayanıklılık Ölçeği (RSA) ve Tükenmişlik Ölçeği Kısa Versiyonu kullanılmıştır. Veri analizinde Pearson Momentler Çarpımı Korelasyonu ve Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada oluşturulan uyum indekslerinin iyi uyum sağladığı ve elde edilen katsayıların istatistiksel olarak anlamlı olduğu bulunmuştur. Teorik model, tükenmişliğin aracı bir rol oynadığını ve genel aidiyet duygusu ile psikolojik dayanıklılık arasındaki ilişkiyi önemli ölçüde etkilediğini doğrulamaktadır.
... A prominent definition of resilience (as process) can be described as "an outcome in spite of serious threats to adaptation or development" (Masten & Wright, 2010, p. 228). Masten and Wright (2010) have extended this perception of resilience a process resulting in an outcome which can then be viewed as a process of interaction between both people and their changing conditions. Hegney et al. (2007) illustrates the metaphor of resilience as a bouncing rubber ball which has the ability to rebound and bounce back in their study of individuals in rural Queensland. ...
Article
During the onset of the Covid‐19 pandemic, new health information was being disseminated at unprecedented rates which included ever‐changing mandates and regulations, resulting in information overload for many. Shelter in place orders are the pandemic‐related information that will be discussed. As these dynamic orders were announced and enforced, mobile populations—people who live in their vans or “van dwellers”—abandoned life on the road and rushed to loved ones to abide by social distancing directives. Others had nowhere to turn. This pilot study of van dweller's information practices focuses on the early weeks of the pandemic and how this population adapted to an overwhelming information environment. Using the information resilience conceptual framework, I describe how van dwellers adapted when a myriad of information and misinformation was circulating. The van dweller community, and their supporters, banded together to provide resources and safe spaces in a time of crisis.
... It took several years for scholars to conclude that resilience does not stem from special or exceptional qualities, "but from the everyday magic of ordinary, normative human resources in the minds, brains, and bodies of children, in their families and relationships, and in their communities" (Masten, 2001, p. 235). This understanding of resilience as something more than a personal characteristic or quality (Masten & Wright, 2010) was reached through several waves of research (Allan et al., 2013;Lundholm & Plummer, 2010): During the first wave, researchers focused on exploring and understanding the personal characteristics of resilient individuals; during the second, the interactive processes underlying resilience became of central interest; and, the third emphasised (and still does) the designing and implementation of theory-driven interventions that would help individuals expand their resilience capacity and processes; while the recent, fourth wave, "is integrative, seeking to encompass rapid advances in the study of genes, neurobehavioral development and statistics for a better understanding of the complex processes that lead to resilience" (Masten & Wright, 2010, p. 214). ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the number of studies examining resilience in relation to mathematics teaching/learning (or mathematical resilience, according to some), increased significantly. This paper is a systematic review of 78 studies published between 2010 and 2021, and investigates (a) conceptualisations of mathematical resilience, (b) demographic characteristics of participants in the papers identified, and (c) factors that influence the development of mathematical resilience. Our analysis indicates that mathematical resilience is conceptualised in two ways: as the coexistence of disadvantage and high mathematical performance; and, as part of one's mathematical identity. Participants in related studies belong to one of the following categories: disadvantaged pupils; "typical" pupils; disadvantaged university STEM students; "typical" university students; prospective teachers; in-service teachers. Mathematical resilience is found to be influenced by both psychological and social/ environmental factors. Finally, we discuss implications and how the field can move forward.
... While the occurrence of the psychopathological identikit is considered a vulnerability factor able to contribute to the maintenance of problematic alcohol drinking (71), resilience and self-esteem refer to protective factors for physical and mental health, meaning a positive adaptation and development in the context of significant threats (72). Indeed, bingers were characterized by higher rates of low resilience and self-esteem. ...
Article
Full-text available
During adolescence, internal and external factors contribute to engaging with alcohol binge drinking (ABD), putting at risk the neurodevelopment of brain regions crucial for emotional control and stress coping. This research assessed the prevalence of ABD in late adolescent students of Southern Italy and characterized their psychological profile and drinking motives. Translational effects of alcohol binge drinking in the animal model were also studied. Seven hundred and fifty-nine high school students of both sexes (aged 18–20) were recruited. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C), Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised Short Form, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-Third Ed., State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Basic Self-Esteem Scale identified alcohol habits, drinking motives, and psychopathological profile. Eighty-five percentage of the students drank alcohol and 28% of them engaged in ABD; AUDIT-C correlated with enhancement, coping, and conformity motives. ABD was related to a greater likelihood of presenting clinical syndromes and personality disorders, as well as low resilience and self-esteem. Thereafter, in the pre-clinical model, adolescent male rats were exposed to alcohol (3.5 g/kg) in an intermittent binge-like paradigm and tested during prolonged abstinence. Rats were evaluated for anxiety-like behavior, motivated behaviors, resilience, and stress response following a psychosocial challenge. Binge-like alcohol-exposed adolescent rats displayed high integrated z-score for social- and novelty-induced anxiety, altered motivation-driven output, decreased resilience, and a blunted HPA axis response to psychosocial stress, with respect to respective controls. Our data confirm that ABD is the chosen pattern of drinking in a significant percentage of high school students in Southern Italy, and highlights AUDIT-C score as a relevant parameter able to predict the occurrence of affective disturbances. The evidence from the preclinical model shows that ABD produces detrimental consequences in the adolescent rat brain, resulting in negative affect, emotional dysregulation, and aberrant stress response, pointing to decreasing excessive alcohol drinking as a primary goal for the global act for brain health.
... Resilience can be understood as a dynamic process involving personal strengths, external resources and the presence of external larger support systems that enable to overcome situations of crisis and DOI: 10.36537/IJAHS/7.3-6/66-72 adversities Masten and Wright, 2010). Resilient adolescent has an edge when they meeting the tough circumstances and sense of responsibilities when they facing scarity of resources such as, physical imbalances, or disturbed family atmosphere. ...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Mental health & physical health is fundamentally linked. “There is no health without mental health.” Physical health and mental health considered as two sides of coin. Both are interlinked and interdependent. There are various factors in the individual life that can have an impact on mental health like self esteem, socio economic status, confidence, feeling loved, resilience etc. Resilience play vital role in individual’s life. Resilience refers to as to the finding that some individuals have a relatively good psychological outcome despite suffering risk experiences that would be expected to bring about serious consequences (Rutter, 2006). Resilient Adolescents is expected to be a virtuous probability of coping well whenever they faced adverse circumstances in their life. The aim of paper is to throw light on researches which emphasizes characteristics that are linked with resilience; explain program strategies that promote resilience, enhance mental health and avoid indulgence in risks behaviour. During the developmental stage of adolescence, young people strive for independence and begin to make decisions that impact them for the rest of their lives. Key Words : Mental health, Adolescent, Health resource
... (1) adults encouraging children and adolescents to socially interact with each other; (2) optimistic worldview, faith, responsibilities, and goals; (3) Caregivers or Parents who model prosocial behaviors; (4) Caregivers or Parents who enhance self-esteem of children and adolescents; and, (5) Caregivers or Parents who are resilient and trustworthy in the eyes of the child/adolescent. Previous research has led to conclusions that people are still able to demonstrate resiliency after trauma experiences (McGloin & Widom, 2001;Masten & Wright, 2010). Haverfield and Theiss (2016) found families who addressed trauma experiences occurring in the family had higher resilience levels and reduced depression symptoms in comparison to families who avoided acknowledging trauma. ...
Article
Full-text available
To explore the relationships between complex trauma, family cohesion, family environment, resiliency, and depression, the authors employed hierarchical multiple regression and mediation analysis were employed with a sample of 485 young adults. The sample consisted of three groups of participants based on the amount of trauma experienced, those who reported 1–3 trauma experiences, those who reported 3 or more trauma experiences, and those who did not report trauma. Analyses indicated that despite complex trauma experiences, families were still able to cultivate strong family environment and family cohesion, which enhanced resilience in individuals and in turn reduced depression symptoms. Future research, as well as important implications for family counseling with the aim of enhancing family resilience and decreasing depression symptoms, especially as a trauma response, are discussed.
... No tocante, a resiliência individual é definida pela capacidade do indivíduo de seguir em frente, a partir de experiências negativas, estressantes ou traumáticas (Tugade & Fredrickson, 2004). Em linhas gerais, a resiliência individual se refere ao processo de adaptação e/ou desenvolvimento no combate aos riscos e adversidades (Zautra, Hall, & Murray, 2010), evidenciando assim a capacidade do indivíduo de se manter positivo em momentos de crises ou ameaças (Masten & Wright, 2010). Para Reich, Zautra e Hall (2010), a resiliência pode ser compreendida em diversos níveis, como dos aspectos biológicos, emocionais e comportamentais; na análise das fases de vida humana; na dimensão social da comunidade; e pelas diferenças éticas e culturais. ...
Article
Full-text available
Este artigo objetivou analisar a influência do lócus de controle na resiliência dos alunos de programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu da área de Administração Pública e de Empresas, Ciências Contábeis e Turismo. A amostra final foi composta de 145 alunos e os dados foram tratados por meio de estatística descritiva, análise fatorial e regressão múltipla. Dentre os resultados, evidencia-se que os alunos com lócus de controle interno predominante têm maiores estímulos para serem resilientes frente aos desafios diários da alta carga de estudos. Eles acreditam em seus esforços e habilidades para o alcance dos resultados, apresentam maior competência pessoal, aceitação de si mesmo e da vida e maior autoconfiança. Por outro lado, alunos com lócus de controle externo maior, encontram dificuldades de serem resilientes na competência pessoal e autoconfiança. O estudo, portanto, contribui com alunos e coordenadores dos programas de pós-graduação para maior entendimento do lócus de controle e suas influências na resiliência.
... ). Students who have been previously sexually violated are prone to depression, anxiety and headaches, may be less likely to perform academically. Students may sometimes struggle in silence against violent and aggressive males, and against patriarchal gender norms that disempower them, rendering their suffering and abuse invisible(Moletsane and Theron 2017;Harris, Hemson, and Kaye 2014;Masten and Wright 2010). Some participants were able to observe and describe the impact of gender-based violence on the victim. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article focuses on first-year black female students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal who were exposed to and experienced sexual violence. The aim of the study was, broadly, to determine how female students experience and negotiate gender, sexuality and violence in campus residences. Semi-structured individual interviews were utilised to generate data. The findings show that violence was shaped by gender and power dynamics. These students were first years, and predominantly from poor backgrounds, and therefore particularly vulnerable to sexual violence and unequal relationships. Alcohol, substance abuse and dangerous masculinised spaces further exacerbated their vulnerability. Poverty, scarce resources and gender intersect to produce vulnerability and constrained forms of their agency that translate into transactional relationships. The findings also suggest that being first year female students have implications for how these young women negotiated their newfound freedom away from the parental gaze. The study highlights the ways in which these first-year students are aware that sexual violence is prevalent on campus particularly in certain spaces such as Dark City and residence rooms. Members of the SRC and DSRA are cited as likely perpetrators of sexually predatory behaviours. We therefore propose that the Gender Based Violence Policy at UKZN should be introduced to first year students by way of induction courses, and that these courses should also include gender and sexuality education to help ensure that awareness around gender violence permeates the lives of all students.
... The resilience developmental perspective provides one promising framework for identifying and understanding the promotive factors that help youths overcome various adverse family circumstances and risk factors (e.g. maltreatment, low family socio-economic status, and immigrant status) (Masten and Wright, 2010;Zimmerman et al., 2013). Masten and Wright (2010: p. 215) referred to adolescent resilience as 'the processes or patterns of positive adaptation and development in the context of significant threats to an individual's life or function'. ...
Article
Full-text available
Driven by two theoretical models of the resiliency framework, this paper examines the compensatory and protective role of interacting with peers in late adolescence in inhibiting the intergenerational transmission of poverty into young adulthood. We suggest different compensatory and protective effects of three peer contexts, referring to specific advantages of group-based friendship networks (i.e. cliques) in comparison with dyadic best friendships and romantic relationships. Further, we assume heterogeneity in the peer resilience mechanisms by age, migration background, and gender. Using longitudinal data from the German SocioEconomic Panel and random-effects linear probability models, we indeed find conditional compensatory influences as well as an unconditional protective effect of clique interaction in late adolescence for the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Hence, frequent interaction within friendship cliques compensates the deleterious effect of long-term poverty in adolescence on the risk of poverty in young adulthood with increasing age as well as particularly for first-generation immigrants. Further, the engagement with peer cliques in late adolescence attenuates the association between long-term youth poverty and adulthood poverty and thus helps to protect against the intergenerational transmission of poverty.
... That most teachers view changes in education policy as something normal and unavoidable indicates that teachers are aware of the reality of education settings and contexts which are dynamic and ever-changing, a component with which teachers have to interact in order to exercise their resilience (Masten & Wright, 2010). This means that if teachers always try to adapt to the settings and contexts of their workplace, then they are building their resilience. ...
Article
Full-text available
This is a descriptive study aiming at investigating resilience among university teachers, especially in dealing with changes in education policies during the covid-19 pandemic. The participants of this research were lecturers at the English education study program at a state university in West Nusa Tenggara Province. The data were obtained through an online questionnaire which was distributed to all potential respondents. Among 39 teaching staff, 26 of them completed and returned the form. Based on the data analysis it was found that most of the teachers (86.6%) are classified as having high and very high resilience, only 13.4% having moderate resilience, and none as low nor very low resilience. Based on gender, the level of resilience for both male and female lecturers is within the same level of high resilience with the female having a slightly higher rate than the male by 59.5 and 63 (within the range of 17-85). There is an interesting finding on how resilience relates to the length of tenure. Based on this final category, it was found that length of tenure negatively correlates with the level of resilience with tenure group of 1-6 years, 7-21 years and 21 years and above having 63.7, 61.7, and 56 respectively, although on average all groups are still categorized as having high resilience. The majority of these university professors also perceive the changing education policy as something inevitable. With regards to how they expect to be assisted to better adapt to the changes and maintain their resilience, for any new policies there should be clear planning of the policy, proven working well (not a trial-and-error policy), early socialization, adequate training and coaching, and evaluation on the effectiveness of policies being implemented.
... The primary objective of the study is to examine the impact of self-reported ACE on psychosocial functioning and to investigate the longitudinal interplay and relative strength of emotion regulation and social information processing, as processes and mediators linking ACE with psychosocial functioning in young adults in the framework of the Integrated Model of Emotion Regulation and Social Information Processing in the Aftermath of ACE. A multivariate approach will identify distinct adaptation patterns of psychosocial functioning, such as chronic maladaptive, intermittent maladaptive, resilient and recovery trajectories [43,44]. The main hypotheses are that ACE are associated with a higher risk for lower psychosocial functioning in young adulthood and that this association is mediated by (a) deficits in emotion regulation, i.e., higher emotional reactivity, more perseverative thinking and lower self-efficacy for managing emotions, and (b) social information processing, i.e., higher rejection sensitivity, higher levels of interpretation biases and lower social understanding. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Adverse childhood experiences increase the risk for psychological disorders and lower psychosocial functioning across the lifespan. However, less is known about the processes through which ACE are linked to multiple negative outcomes. The aim of the FACE epidemiological study is to investigate emotion regulation (emotional reactivity, perseverative thinking and self-efficacy for managing emotions) and social information processing (rejection sensitivity, interpretation biases and social understanding) as potential mechanisms linking adverse childhood experiences and psychosocial functioning in a large population sample of young adults. It is embedded in a larger project that also includes an ecological momentary assessment of emotion regulation and social information processing and informs the development and evaluation of an online self-help intervention for young adults with a history of ACE. Methods The study plans to recruit 5000 young adults aged 18 to 21 from the German-speaking Swiss population. Addresses are provided by Swiss Federal Statistical Office and participants are invited by mail to complete a self-report online survey. If the targeted sample size will not be reached, a second additional sample will be recruited via educational facilities such as universities or teacher training colleges or military training schools. Three follow-ups are planned after 1 year, 2 years and 3 years, resulting in ages 18–24 being covered. The main exposure variable is self-reported adverse childhood experiences before the age of 18, measured at the baseline. Primary outcomes are psychosocial functioning across the study period. Secondary outcomes are social information processing, emotion regulation and health care service use. Statistical analyses include a range of latent variable models to identify patterns of adverse childhood experiences and patterns and trajectories of psychosocial adaptation. Discussion The results will contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms that link ACE with psychosocial functioning which is crucial for an improved insight into risk and resilience processes and for tailoring interventions. Furthermore, the identification of factors that facilitate or hinder service use among young adults with ACE informs healthcare policies and the provision of appropriate healthcare services. Trial registration number : NCT05122988. The study was reviewed and authorized by the ethical committee of Northwestern and Central Switzerland (BASEC number 2021-01204).
... In essence, resilience can be taken to include a mix of capacities, resources, and support systems that together enable the development and maintenance of healthy adaptation of individuals, communities and societies during times of adversity and social upheaval [20,25,89]. Resilience in relation to a focus on the individual is best examined in a life course framework and refers "to the processes or patterns of positive adaptation and development in the context of significant threats to an individual's life or function" (Masten & Wright [90], cited in Windsor, Hunter & Browne-Yung, 2015 [91], p. 12). Windle, Markland and Woods [92] proposed that the utilization of theoretical models of psychological resilience in older age may help to explain the ability of some older people to cope remarkably well with adverse life situations. ...
Article
Full-text available
While increases in life expectancy along with extended longevity can be seen as a success story, there remains the central issue surrounding the health and quality of life for increasing numbers of older people. As populations live longer the idea that older people should be empowered to remain active and productive citizens will be paramount. Questions concerning the meaningfulness, purpose and desirability of living longer present an existential challenge for all and sundry. It is clear, that the speed of population aging has made many existing policies, support services and social structures obsolete and thereby societies worldwide will need to face the profound challenges of rethinking aging and old age in wholly different ways. The need to combat ageism including a re-conceptualization of successful aging is seen to be a critical undertaking to promote healthy and productive aging. In particular, understanding the lived experiences of older people warrants deeper focus surrounding the complex interconnections between agency, social structures and quality of life. Insights and perspectives on human finitude, resilient aging, and self-care are offered for the purpose of highlighting their prospective associations with health outcomes in later life. Human longevity presents new realities demanding serious collaborative conversations on heterogeneity, equity and social justice in the context of a rights-based approach to aging policy.
... Resilience as viewed through an ecological prism is a process that is co-facilitated by individuals and their physical and social ecologies and the interaction between their formal and informal spheres (Masten & Wright, 2010;Ungar & Theron, 2020). In this regard, the contact between youths' teachers and parents seems particularly relevant. ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on resilience and hope theories (Snyder, 2000; Ungar & Theron, 2020), in the present study, we explored the contribution of academic support provided by family, school staff and mentors, as well as the contribution of family‐staff contact, to the hopefulness of 175 at‐risk youth (M = 17.67; SD = 0.63), who had indicated having a mentor, and how school belonging mediated these relations. Structural equation modelling revealed that academic support provided by mentors and school staff contributed to youths' hopeful thinking. Whereas the support provided by mentors had a direct effect on hope, staff support contributed indirectly via school belonging. The discussion highlights the importance of academic support provided via youths' social networks and sheds light on the role of school belonging in increasing youths' hopefulness. Implications for practice highlight the importance of strengthening youths' aspirations, motivation and knowledge regarding their future goals in school settings.
... Προκειμένου ο θεραπευτής να επιτελέσει τις παραπάνω ψυχικές λειτουργίες, κατά πρώτον αντλεί από τους δικούς του προσωπικούς και κοινωνικούς πόρους και στηρίζεται στη δική του ψυχολογική ανθεκτικότητα. Παράλληλα, καθώς η ανθεκτικότητα 'χτίζεται' μέσα και από την αλληλεπίδραση με το περιβάλλον (Masten & Wright, 2010), καταλυτικό ρόλο στην οικοδόμηση της ανθεκτικότητας του ψυχαναλυτικού θεραπευτή διαδραματίζουν η προσωπική του ανάλυση, η κλινική εκπαίδευση και εποπτεία. Επιπλέον, στις περιπτώσεις που η ψυχαναλυτική ψυχοθεραπεία λαμβάνει χώρα σε κάποιον δημόσιο ή ιδιωτικό φορέα, η θετική δυναμική του πλαισίου διαδραματίζει, επίσης, καθοριστικό ρόλο. ...
Chapter
Στο κεφάλαιο αυτό καταδεικνύονται, τόσο σε θεωρητικό επίπεδο όσο και σε επί- πεδο κλινικής πράξης, οι κοινοί τόποι ανάμεσα στην ψυχαναλυτική ψυχοθεραπεία και τη Θετική Ψυχολογία, προκειμένου να επιτευχθεί μία δημιουργική και ωφέλι- μη για το κλινικό έργο σύζευξη ανάμεσα στην πλέον παραδοσιακή μέθοδο ψυχοθε- ραπείας και τις σύγχρονες κλινικές παρεμβάσεις της Θετικής Ψυχολογίας. Ειδικό- τερα, εξετάζεται η συνάντηση της ψυχανάλυσης με το σύγχρονο πεδίο της Θετικής Ψυχολογίας μέσα από την ανάδειξη της «θετικότητας» στην ψυχαναλυτική προσέγ- γιση, τη συγκριτική σύνθεση βασικών ψυχαναλυτικών εννοιών με συναφείς έν- νοιες της Θετικής Ψυχολογίας, καθώς επίσης με την παρουσίαση συγκεκριμένων μεθόδων παρέμβασης, οι οποίες προάγουν το «θετικό» σε μία ψυχαναλυτική ψυχο- θεραπεία. Στόχος ενός τέτοιου εγχειρήματος είναι να εμπλουτίσει αμοιβαία τις δύο προσεγγίσεις του ανθρώπινου ψυχισμού, προσφέροντας ένα πλαίσιο απαρτιωτικό.
... Some consider resilience to be an individual trait rather than a dynamic process and propose that resilience may be time-specific and not present across all life domains (Bonanno, 2004;Herrman et al., 2011). These interactions may typically be found in systems of meaning-making and sociocultural contexts such as religious traditions (Helgeson et al., 2006;Masten & Wright, 2010;Ungar, 2013;Worthington et al., 2016). Traditionally, such positive adjustment processes have been explained as driven by the individual, and research is needed to further explore this construct collectively. ...
Article
Trauma is a growing public health concern as global crises increase. Trauma can result in significant adverse psychological outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Past research indicates that forgiveness may buffer the adverse psychological effects of trauma. We hypothesized that restoring individual and collective sense of meaning promotes forgiveness toward self and others and enables posttraumatic growth (PTG). Established PTG models posit that meaning can be found in surviving a traumatic event. We propose that PTG manifests as forgiveness in the face of both natural and humanmade disasters. Data were collected from individuals ( N = 3,534) in 11 countries from diverse global regions that have experienced collective traumas. Our study examined the predictive nature of meaning in life and PTSD symptoms on forgiveness. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that trauma and meaning significantly predicted forgiveness, with a larger effect for humanmade disasters. Results indicated that presence of meaning, but not search for meaning, plays a role in PTG as measured by the ability to forgive after experiencing trauma, thus demonstrating its possible centrality to the healing process. Interventions and community-based programs that foster meaning-making following trauma may be part of an effective multicultural approach for enhancing community-wide PTG and resilience following disasters.
... Reich et al. (2010) suggested that career meaningfulness significantly predicted career resilience, job satisfaction, and career well-being. Believing that one's career has meaning, creates optimism about the future and denotes motivation to cope with stressful working conditions (Masten & Wright, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The new normal working context, characterised by fast changes, rapid upskilling, adoption of technology, and remote working, requires employees to remain psychologically attached to their organisations. More insight is needed regarding how career navigation (as an attribute of career agility) and career well-being attributes explain the psychological attachment of employees in order to invest in their career development amidst the chaos and demands driven by the new normal working context. Objective: The study explored career navigation and career well-being attributes (i.e. positive career effect, career networking/social support, and career meaningfulness) as potential explanatory mechanisms of individuals’ psychological attachment. Method: The study used a cross-sectional research design, which involved a convenience sample (n = 177) of national and international employees (mean age = 34 years; standard deviation [SD] = 10.14), represented by 39% managerial employees, 38% staff, and 23% professional consultants. Most of the participants (72%) were employed by South African organisations. Results: Multiple regression analysis revealed that career navigation explains higher levels of psychological attachment (including affective, normative, and continuous attachment). Positive career effects significantly predicted continuous attachment, whereas social support/career networking positively predicted overall psychological attachment and affective and normative attachment. Career meaningfulness was found to explain higher levels of overall and affective psychological attachment. Conclusion: The findings contribute new insights into the construct of career navigation and career well-being attributes and extend research on the antecedents of psychological attachment in the new normal working space, characterised by remote working and technology.
... Some consider resilience to be an individual trait rather than a dynamic process and propose that resilience may be time-specific and not present across all life domains (Bonanno, 2004;Herrman et al., 2011). These interactions may typically be found in systems of meaning-making and sociocultural contexts such as religious traditions (Helgeson et al., 2006;Masten & Wright, 2010;Ungar, 2013;Worthington et al., 2016). Traditionally, such positive adjustment processes have been explained as driven by the individual, and research is needed to further explore this construct collectively. ...
Article
Trauma is a growing public health concern as global crises increase. Trauma can result in significant adverse psychological outcomes such as PTSD. Past research indicates that forgiveness may buffer the adverse psychological effects of trauma. We hypothesized that restoring individual and collective sense of meaning promotes forgiveness toward self and others and enables posttraumatic growth (PTG). Established PTG models posit that meaning can be found in surviving a traumatic event. We propose that PTG manifests as forgiveness in the face of both natural and humanmade disasters. Data were collected from individuals (N = 3534) in 11 countries from diverse global regions that have experienced collective traumas. Our study examined the predictive nature of meaning in life and PTSD symptoms on forgiveness. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that trauma and meaning significantly predicted forgiveness, with a larger effect for humanmade disasters. Results indicated that presence of meaning, but not search for meaning, plays a role in PTG as measured by the ability to forgive after experiencing trauma, thus demonstrating its possible centrality to the healing process. Interventions and community-based programs that foster meaning-making following trauma may be part of an effective multicultural approach for enhancing community-wide PTG and resilience following disasters.
... Psychological resilience is defined as the ability to respond to and overcome extremely stressful or traumatizing and adverse life experiences [4,23]. The relationship between emergency situations such as a pandemic and the resultant psychological distress is well established [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social support was an important factor in minimizing the effect of social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. This research aimed to study the role of online class participation and social media usage to link the social support available from family and friends to psychological resilience among pre-service special education teachers against the negative psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. A survey was conducted with 377 pre-service special needs education (SNE) teachers enrolled at universities in Pakistan. Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was applied using Smart-PLS 3.2.8. Results revealed that social media and online class participation played a mediating role between social support and psychological resilience in the pre-service special needs education (SNE) teachers studied. Teacher education institutions can devise strategies to develop social media platforms for student socialization during an emergency to help build resilience against the negative psychological effects of social isolation. Future studies could be conducted to adapt instructions and curricula to social media environments for education in an emergency.
... The definition of resilience that is presented in this article is complex, dynamic, and integrates various systems included in a child's life (Masten & Wright, 2010;Southwick et al., 2014;Ungar, 2012Ungar, , 2018Windle, 2011;Zimmerman & Brenner, 2010). It does not focus on their capabilities or their outcomes but the dynamic interaction between the systems. ...
Article
Resilience is a dynamic, multidimensional complex concept that implies risk and protective factors, adaptation, and success. Communication and language are often identified as barriers in deaf children's development. However, research linking deafness in childhood and resilience is scarce. The present comprehensive literature review aims to verify which are the predominant risk factors for this group, which protective factors may be identified and if significant differences have been found between deaf and hearing children regarding resilience. A systematic search, performed in seven databases, identified 11 articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2019 that met the criteria. Deaf children experience exposure to risk through obstacles in communication, language, and information failure. Consequently, differences between hearing and deaf children are related to more difficulties in emotion regulation and interpersonal relationships. Principal protective factors are a supportive family, school staff, and peers. Practical implications and recommendations for future research are provided.
... To date, life narratives have primarily been used to predict health outcomes (Adler et al., 2015), but this study demonstrates they may have utility for understanding the development of resilience. Second, contrary to prior research, this study goes one step beyond using a largely nonclinical population to study the development of resilience as opposed to clinical and children's populations (Masten & Wright, 2010). Third, the present effort illustrates the relations between life narrative themes and resilience by specifically using a latent trait model, demonstrating the value of measuring life narrative themes as a potential indicator of resilience. ...
Article
Resilience is the process of negotiating, managing, and adapting to significant sources of stress or trauma (Windle et al., 2011). Previous research has demonstrated that higher levels of resilience can positively impact life outcomes, such as adaptive coping and life satisfaction. However, previous research has often been conducted within clinical populations, and less is known about how resilience develops in largely non-clinical college populations. Given some conceptual similarities between the components of resilience and research on three life narrative themes (i.e., agency, communion and personal growth), there is reason to believe that life narrative themes may be linked to the development of resilience. The current study collected data from 184 undergraduate students with ages ranging from 18 to 22 (M = 20.62, SD = 2.05), who were predominantly white (85%) and female (65%). The relations between life narrative themes, resilience, and life outcomes (e.g., coping skills, stress, depression, and anxiety) were modeled using a structural equation model. Results observed that resilience mediated the relationship between life narrative themes and life outcomes. The results of this effort have theoretical implications for the study of resilience. Additionally, these findings may prove helpful for informing future research to foster life outcomes by using interventions geared towards helping individuals improve resilience.
... It is worth noting that resilience is a relative concept. An individual or system may be resilient to some types of adverse events but not to others (Masten and Wright 2010). Here, we focus on perceived uncertainty and resilience to a negative shock affecting employment status, such as job loss. ...
Article
Full-text available
The role of employment uncertainty as a fertility driver has previously been studied with a limited set of constructs, leading to inconclusive results. We address this oversight by considering perceived stability of employment and perceived resilience to potential job loss as two key dimensions of employment uncertainty in relation to fertility decision-making. The present study relies on the 2017 Italian Trustlab survey and its employment uncertainty module. We find that perception of resilience to job loss is a powerful predictor of fertility intentions, whereas perception of employment stability has only a limited impact. The observed relationship between resilience and fertility intentions is robust to the inclusion of person-specific risk attitude and does not depend on the unemployment rate or the share of fixed-term contracts in the area of residence. We conclude that the notion of employment uncertainty includes distinct expectations towards the future, which should be considered separately to understand fertility decision-making. Supplementary material for this article is available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/00324728.2021.1939406.
... These perspectives emphasize the sequential dependency of adjustment in proximal domains of functioning (Masten, 2005). A cascade model would suggest that social problems in the peer group can initiate a sequence of problematic transactions that eventually predict abnormal outcomes (Masten and Wright, 2009). To illustrate this point, consider a child who emerges as a victim of bullying and ostracism during the early years of elementary school. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Peer relationships and children's psychological well-being are inextricably connected, with the majority of children with diagnosed mental health problems also reporting a range of social problems, including rejection, exclusion, and peer victimization. Moreover, the processes linking stressful peer relationships and mental health disorder often begin early in childhood and continue to evolve throughout adolescence. This article synthesizes the research on the intersection of peers and psychopathology using a transactional lens. The co-development of stressful peer relationships and psychopathologies is seen as initiating from a shared transdiagnostic risk factor for varied mental health problems and maladaptive peer interactions—poor self-regulation. Over time, peer stress and mental health disturbances are mutually reinforcing, often through continued declines in self-regulatory capabilities. This cycle occurs as children and youth face salient developmental tasks, leading to age-contingent manifestations of peer difficulties, psychological disturbances, and broader adjustment problems. Thus, by using a transactional lens, we are able to highlight how continuity in peer difficulties and psychopathology across developmental periods can simultaneously lead to emergent forms of both social stressors and mental health disorders during adolescence and young adulthood.
... As a process, resilience is the ability to cope with the difficulties and adapt new situations and managing situations. Furthermore, resilience is defined as a personality trait that provides an individual with improvement after the traumatic events (Bonanno, 2004;Masten & Wright, 2010). A resilient individual can exhibit a function above the norms despite problematic situations (Tusaie & Dyer, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating role of social support and social connectedness between hope and resilience in adolescents. A total of 413 high school students (57.1% girls; M= 17.31, SD= 1.61) participated in the study. Participants completed the Children’s Hope Scale (CHS), Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), Brief Perceived Social Support Questionnaire (BPSSQ), and Social Connectedness Scale (SCS). The results showed that there was a positive significant correlation between social support, resilience, social connectedness, and hope. In addition, according to the gender variable, it is seen that the resilience and hope scores of the boys are significantly higher than the girls. On the other hand, no significant difference was found in social connectedness and social support in terms of gender. The results mediation analysis showed that hope significantly and positively predicted social connectedness, social support, and resilience. Also, social connectedness positively and significantly predicted social support, and social support was a significant predictor of resilience. Most importantly, social support and social connectedness acted as mediating roles in the relationship between hope and resilience. These results suggest that social connectedness and social support are two important sources in developing resilience. This has important implications for research and practice.
... Accumulating evidence worldwide indicates that violence exposure can chronically and pervasively impact multiple developmental domains, including social, biological, psychological, and cognitive functioning, including academic outcomes (57,58). Considering that failure in school can have long-term detrimental consequences for competency and social adjustment as adolescents transition into adulthood (59,60), measures aimed at eradicating or reducing community violence may be beneficial in order to increase youth adjustment and ensure better social functioning in the future. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many children and adolescents experience violent events which can be associated with negative consequences for their development, mental health, school, and social functioning. However, findings between settings and on the role of gender have been inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate cross-country and gender differences in the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and school functioning in a sample of youths from three countries. Methods: A self-report survey was conducted among school students (12–17 years old) in Belgium (Antwerp, N = 4,743), Russia (Arkhangelsk, N = 2,823), and the US (New Haven, N = 4,101). Students were recruited from within classes that were randomly selected from within schools that had themselves been randomly selected (excepting New Haven, where all students were included). CVE was assessed with the Screening Survey of Exposure to Community Violence. School functioning was assessed with four measures: the Perceived Teacher Support scale, Negative Classroom Environment scale, and Academic Motivation and Perception of Safety at School scales. Multivariate Analyses of Covariance were performed to assess differences in the levels of school-related problem behaviors in boys and girls, who reported different degrees of CVE. Results: Participants in all three countries reported a relatively high prevalence of violence exposure (36.2% in Belgium, 39.3% in Russia and 45.2% in the US who witnessed violence), with a higher proportion of girls than boys witnessing violent events (varied from 37.4 to 51.6% between the countries), whereas boys reported more episodes of victimization by violence than girls (varied from 32.3 to 49.9% between the countries). Youths who experienced increased CVE (from no exposure to witnessing to victimization) reported an increase in all school functioning problems in all of the countries and this association was not gender-specific. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that regardless of differences in the level of CVE by country and gender, violence exposure is negatively associated with school functioning across countries. Nonetheless, even though reactions to community violence among adolescents may be expressed in a similar fashion, cross-country differences in social support systems should also be taken into account in order to provide culturally sensitive treatment modalities.
... Several studies have identified the link between traumatic and stressful life experiences and low levels of resilience (Green et al., 2010). Resilience is the dynamic development process in a positive adaptation in case of adverse life experiences (Masten & Wright, 2010). ...
Poster
Full-text available
Several studies have identified the link between traumatic life experiences and low levels of resilience. Since the process of achieving resilience is enhanced by using coping strategies, the main purpose of this research was to study if there is a relationship between coping strategies and resilience in victims of interparental violence. This study comprised 336 Portuguese victims of interparental violence, with ages between 18 and 80, with 69% (n = 232) of women and 31% of men (n = 104). Participants answered online to the sociodemographic questionnaire, the Resilience Scale and the Brief-COPE. All participants signed the informed consente, and the study was conducted in accordance with the ethical principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki. There were statistically positive significant correlations between adaptative coping strategies and resilience: perseverance and active coping (r = .504, p < .001), and perseverance and positive reinterpretation (r = .507, p < .001). Furthermore, our results showed negative correlations between resilience and poorly adaptive coping strategies: perseverance and substance use (r = -.310, p < .001), perseverance and behavioral disinvestment (r = -.306, p < .001), sense of life and substance use (r = -.310, p < .001), and sense of life and behavioral disinvestment (r = -.351, p < .001). These results identified the connection between resilience and coping strategies in victims of interparental violence. Further studies of coping strategies in victims of interparental violence are needed to understand the impact of this variable on this type of victimization. Individuals with less resilience use nonadaptive coping strategies. It is important to know where to intervene to help victims overcome their difficulties, promoting adaptative coping strategies. Keywords: Coping strategies; Resilient individuals; Interparental victims.
... The PPFPs commonly linked to positive outcomes under significant stress include healthy attachment, self-regulation, agency and mastery, problem-solving and meaning-making (Masten and Wright, 2010). Each process draws on resources within the individual (e.g., social skill, tenacity, intelligence), as well as resources within the social ecology in which the individual is nested (e.g., supportive mentors, educational opportunity, nutritious food) (Ungar, 2012;Rutter, 2013;Masten, 2014). ...
Article
Youth resilience is the product of multiple systems. Still, the biological, psychological, social, and environmental system factors that support youth resilience are incompletely understood. How these factors interact, and the situational and cultural dynamics shaping their interconnectedness, are also under-researched. In response, we report a multi-site case study that is instrumental to understanding multisystemic resilience. It draws on the insights of 52 youth from stressed, oil and gas communities in South Africa (13 young men; 8 young women; average age: 20.28) and Canada (19 young women, 12 young men; average age: 20.77). Deductive and inductive analyses show that youth resilience is informed by a biopsychosocial-ecological system of interacting resources that fit situational and cultural dynamics. This has implications for society’s championship of youth adaptation to stressed environments, including less emphasis on individual resources and more on contextually responsive, systemic changes that will facilitate meso- and macro-system resistance to significant stress.
... Finally, there is an array of powerful protective systems ranging from cognitive to emotional and individual to relational that can facilitate a resilient response to crisis or adversity (Wilkes, 2002). Resilience intervention research shows that, among other things, resilience can be deliberately formed by establishing positive attachments with nurturing and competent caregivers; initiating relationships and prosocial networks of friends and partners; seeking out supportive services from effective community institutions; building positive self-perceptions and self-efficacy (see Chapter 8); fostering active coping strategies; developing self-regulation skills (see Chapter 17) needed to be autonomous and goal-oriented; and seeking a sense of broader meaning in life (e.g., Masten & Wright, 2010;Wright et al., 2013). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Because human life and learning within that lifespan features such highs and lows, a major part of growth from childhood to maturity involves building the skills to face such difficult events and circumstances. There are many general factors in the psychology literature (e.g., coping, hardiness, optimism, persistence) that contribute to long-term functioning and overcoming of odds, and, in this chapter, we explore the most prominent of these: resilience. Resilience is the capacity to withstand and recover from experiences of psychological adversity or maintain effective functioning despite adverse circumstances (Masten, 2001). In this chapter, we provide an overview of the construct of resilience, beginning with definitional issues and the research that it has inspired in educational circles. We then turn to how resilience might relate specifically to language learning through a review of relevant work on the topic, and examine the insights that might be integrated into our field’s understanding of resilience. We then think through the lessons from resilience research for our own field, and end with some directions to realize the potential of resilience for language education in the new decade.
Chapter
Achieving sustainability could be perceived as a utopia for Africa. With a complex socio-political and economic context, numerous African people find it challenging to implement the Western concept of sustainability. However, highly vulnerable to climate change, it is urgent for the continent to embark on the sustainable development journey. This trip requires adapting sustainability to Africa. Historically collectivist, African culture preserves a balanced relationship between humans and nature. This balance, a sustainable practice, has now been challenged by the Western way of implementing sustainability. Respectful with their Ubuntu values, Africans care about their communities. Hence, local and international companies realise the importance of investing in people and partner with their clients to develop CSR strategies. In addition, facing corruption and dealing with weak institutions, Africa requires committed leaders to take the continent to the next level of sustainability. Governments can get inspired by many good practices described in this volume and already implemented in Africa.
Article
A tanulmány a napjainkban egyre több tudományterületen használt reziliencia fogalmát értelmezi, és helyezi a turizmus kontextusába. Bemutatásra kerül a fogalom interdiszciplináris jellege és a különböző tudományágakban megfigyelhető jelentéstartalma. A hazai turizmuskutatás még nem foglalkozik kellő mélységben a kérdéskörrel, és a turizmussal foglalkozó nemzetközi szakirodalomban is csak kevés tanulmányban fordul elő a reziliencia kifejezés. A hazai és nemzetközi szakirodalom vizsgálata során leszűrhető az a következtetés, hogy a reziliencia kérdésének előtérbe kerülése összhangban áll a fenntartható fejlődés törekvésének sikertelenségével. A turizmus, mint világviszonylatban az egyik legdinamikusabban fejlődő gazdasági ágazat, jelentős mértékben felelős a fenntarthatóság megbomlásáért. Az egyes desztinációk olyan népszerűségre tettek szert, hogy kialakult a túlturizmus jelensége, amely – mint láttuk – komoly károkat okozhat a fogadóterület társadalmi és természeti környezetében. Egy-egy fogadóterület természeti és társadalmi szféráját ért hatások vizsgálata kapcsán viszont, elemezve az adott desztináció ellenálló és védekező képességét, a következő időszakban egyre többször fog előtérbe kerülni a reziliencia kérdésköre.
Article
This article reports a study of the effect of online prayer lessons in building resilience and sense of personal control among adults with sensory disabilities over a six-year period. Data from intervention and control group participants in select Asian and African cities were collected at baseline (T1) (N1=244) and at three-year intervals T2 (N2=217) and T3 (N3=194). Results indicated that the online prayer lessons were effective (Cohen’s d range = 0.34–1.19, p≤.01) thereby indicating that prayer endowed adults with sensory disabilities a distant perspective on their personal problems and helped make progress on it emotionally. Men, middle class, Hindus, single (never married, widowed, divorced), and living with kin/nuclear families responded better to the online prayer lessons. The ordinary least squares regression and Tobit models indicated that maximum variation in outcomes was attributed to intervention adherence: attending of the online lessons and self-recitation/practice. The longitudinal structural equation model indicated a sustained effect of the said predictors as well as a mutual covariance between resilience and personal control outcomes over a period of time. With certain refinements for women, upper class participants, Christians, currently married, and living with extended family or alone, online prayer lessons are an effective resilience-building intervention for adults with sensory disabilities.
Article
Entrepreneurs work in an uncertain, novel, and high-stakes environment. This environment can lead to disagreements and conflicts over how to develop, grow, and run a business venture, thus triggering destructive social interactions. This research sheds light on the role of destructive interpersonal relationships by examining daily perceived social undermining from work partners and how and when this perceived undermining affects entrepreneurs' work engagement. Building on a resource-based self-regulation perspective, we develop a theoretical model of the self-regulation impairment process whereby an entrepreneur's perceived social undermining disrupts sleep quality at night, which dampens work engagement the next day. We further theorize trait resilience as a self-regulation capacity that buffers this impairment process. We test the model in a study based on daily surveys over 10 workdays from 77 entrepreneurs. The results largely support our hypotheses and further indicate that trait resilience is more crucial for less experienced entrepreneurs. Our study contributes to research on how entrepreneurs' interpersonal relationships—particularly destructive ones—affect entrepreneurial well-being.
Chapter
This chapter introduces terminology and diagnostic criteria associated with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The three waves of the disability movement are discussed, followed by the theoretical frameworks of the medical model and the social-ecological model and how these perspectives influence the lives of individuals and families. Finally, we introduce the construct of resilience and propose how creating and promoting belonging may serve as a key protective factor in fostering resilience among individuals with intellectual and developmental disability and their families.
Article
The core intent of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is to provide a framework to promote a more sustainable future for all, accounting for challenges faced globally. Consequently, these goals echo resilience and other research focused on child and youth outcomes. Using a systems theory framework, we review how the SDGs can be considered as a facilitator of positive mental health outcomes. We begin by reviewing current understandings of child and youth resilience and how these underscore the importance of community resources in supporting improved mental health outcomes. Accordingly, we consider community resilience: the capacity of communities to engage with resources in order to thrive in complex and adverse environments, and develop the personal and collective capacity of those living and working there to respond to these challenges effectively. Building on this discussion, we present an integrative review of the literature to propose a theory of community resilience development. We situate this review against contemporary understandings of how to promote child and youth resilience and related mental health outcomes. We conclude the article by considering the role of community resilience as a means of achieving the SDGs as they pertain to child and youth resilience and mental health outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronotypes and other variables as predictors of resilience in university students. Method The study was conducted with 1040 students studying at Ege University in Turkey. Results The mean total Adult Resilience Scale (ARS) score of the students was found to be 120.23 ± 17.54 and the mean total score of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) was 47.56 ± 8.95 and 63.0% of the students had intermediate type chronotype. It was determined that the variables explaining 21.9% of the ARS were the students' gender, school, income status, health assessment, and MEQ subtypes. Conclusion It was concluded that the students' resilience was above the average, that more than half of them had the intermediate type chronotype, and that the independent variables determined in the study partially explained their psychological resilience.
Article
Recent decades have witnessed the development of inclusive education in China. Yet, the national program of ‘Learning in Regular Classroom’ – a form of inclusive education with Chinese characteristics – has been criticised for lacking sufficient system support. Under these circumstances, parents play a key role in support for their children with disabilities in regular schools in China. This study investigates the relationship between inclusive school quality and the well-being of parents of children with disabilities and the mediating effect of resilience on such a relationship. A sample of 310 Chinese parents of children with disabilities completed the Perception of Inclusive School Quality Scale, the Diener Well-being Scale, and the Davidson Resilience Inventory in the study. The results indicated that parents’ perceptions of inclusive school quality had a positive relationship with their subjective well-being, and resilience showed a partial mediating effect on that relationship. Implications are discussed.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The management of each school unit is the greatest challenge that a school principal is called to face, as soon as he is required to combine leadership skills, broad skills, efficiency, ingenuity in dealing with crises that arise daily within a school community, in parallel with and combined with the culture that he is called to shape but also, to be a role model, both for his colleagues and for his students, as the main person in charge, of this picture of society. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine whether the mental resilience and complex psycho-emotional skills possessed by a school principal, help him to adequately cope with the duties and responsibilities defined by his role. The study focuses on primary school principals,this means to kindergartens and primary schools that are the core of compulsory education in Greece, having the largest number of students per school unit, and therefore their management seems to be particularly demanding. The sub-objectives of this study are to highlight the skills and weaknesses that the managers face during the carrying out of their duties, their roles and responsibilities, as well as the tools they use to perform their work effectively. The sample of the study will be the principals of formal and special education units of a specific region in Greece, while the analyzes will be obtained through the respective questionnaires and the relevant reports of the participating principals. The results of the present study can be used for further investigation of the mental reserves and the mental involvement of teachers-principals.
Chapter
The digital era brings new career challenges and possibilities that put strain on individuals’ adaptive career capabilities. The modern-day career fosters new cognitive thinking and emotional states that elicit either negative or positive coping responses from individuals. This chapter explores the constructs of career wellbeing and career agility as coping attributes for the modern career. The chapter explores whether intrinsic states of career wellbeing positively predict externally driven psychological states of career agility as expressions of adaptive readiness. The chapter reviews theoretical stances underpinning the two constructs from the perspective of the coping circumplex model (CCM). The empirical study revealed that the career meaningfulness state positively predicted problem-solving coping attributes of the future-fit career adapter (i.e. psychological adaptive readiness states of technological adaptivity and agile learning). The career networking/social support state positively predicted coping attributes of the agentic career adapter (i.e. psychological adaptive readiness states of technological adaptivity and career navigation). The agile learning adaptive readiness state was positively predicted by a positive career affective state. The chapter contributes deeper insight regarding the influencing role of people’s states of career wellbeing on their career agility states of adaptive readiness. The chapter outlines suggestions for organisational career support practices that could help facilitate agile coping in the digital era.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.