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... The research on the service environment originated from Kotler's study [14], in which he defined the physical environment that can enhance the customer's purchase intention as "atmospherics", which is an important tool in marketing. Bitner [15] and Siew et al. [16] analyzed the impact of the physical attributes of changes in the service environment on customers' use of the system and willingness to pay. ...
... where coefficients and 0 represent the base shopping rate and waiting sensitivity, respectively, and ∆ is the service environment effect, that is, the utility obtained by the customer's perception of the service environment per unit time. Kotler [14] referred to the physical environment that can improve customer utility and shopping intention as "atmospherics", while Yuan et al. [1] noted that the service environment can effectively reduce the waiting cost of customers in the waiting process, thereby improving their utility. Essentially, the service environment effect refers to the change in customer utility brought about by the service environment; a high-quality service environment will bring an increase in utility for customers, while a poor-quality service environment will bring a decrease in utility. ...
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... Typically car buyers spend more than 10 hours researching cars online before making a purchase decision [27]. However, researching cars online, does not fill the need for test drives and physical interactions with the notion of assurance that captures dimensions such as confidentiality, shopping security, complaint resolution, solutions to problems, warranties, and customer service [27][28][29][30][31][32]. Brick and mortar outlets usually bring that assurance [3]. ...
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