Article

The Influence of Adaptogens on Ultraweak Biophoton Emission: a Pilot-Experiment

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

In the present study, the effect of plant adaptogens (Rhodiola rosea and ADAPT-232) on human photon emission has been determined. In a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study, 30 subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: one group (n = 10) taking placebo pills, one group (n = 10) taking Rhodiola rosea (SHR-5) pills and one group (n = 10) taking ADAPT-232 supplements (the latter being a fixed combination of the following three adaptogens: Eleutherococcus senticosus, Rhodiola rosea and Schisandra chinensis). All subjects underwent measurements to determine ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) of the dorsal side of their hands using a photon-counting device, both before and after a week of taking the supplements. In addition, the experienced levels of stress and fatigue (tiredness) were evaluated. After 1 week of supplementation, the Rhodiola group showed a significant decrease (p = 0.027) in photon emission in comparison with the placebo group. Furthermore, after supplementation, a significant decrease (p = 0.049) concerning the experienced level of fatigue in the Rhodiola group was observed compared with the placebo group. No significant changes were observed between the ADAPT-232 and the placebo group.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... One RCT was excluded because the R. rosea capsules used contained another active substance (i.e., 5 mg of zinc/capsule) (Skarpanska-Stejnborn et al. 2009), and one duplicate paper was also excluded (Schulz 2008). Eleven RCTs (Abidov et al. 2004;Darbinyan et al. 2000;Darbinyan et al. 2007;De Bock et al. 2004;Olsson et al. 2009;Shevtsov et al. 2003;Spasov et al. 2000a;Spasov et al. 2000b;Walker et al. 2007;Wing et al. 2003;Schutgents et al. 2009) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Fig. 1 is a flow chart of the trial selection process. ...
... Two trials involved participants who were diagnosed with stress-related fatigue 2 (Olsson et al. 2009) and mild or moderate depression (Darbinyan et al. 2007). One trial assessed the change of photon emission, stress and fatigue in healthy subjects (Schutgents et al. 2009). All trials were carried out in participants over 18 years except for two trials that involved first year medical students, aged between 17 and 19 (Spasov et al. 2000a;Spasov et al. 2000b). ...
... Seven trials investigated the effects of R. rosea on physical or physiological performance (Abidov et al. 2004;De Bock et al. 2004;Spasov et al. 2000a;Spasov et al. 2000b;Walker et al. 2007;Wing et al. 2003;Schutgents et al. 2009). In five RCTs (Abidov et al. 2004;De Bock et al. 2004;Spasov et al. 2000a;Spasov et al. 2000b;Walker et al. 2007), healthy volunteers were instructed to carry out different types of exercise, such as cycling or forearm wrist flexion, for 1 The hypoxic exposure was achieved by placing a Plexiglas hood over each participant. ...
... The study showed a pronounced anti-fatigue effect in both R. rosea treatment groups, with no significant difference between the two dosages. Additionally, the levels of stress and fatigue were measured by Schutgens et al. in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial [15]. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: a placebo group, a group that took 144 mg of R. rosea extract, and a group that took a supplement called ADAPT-232, a fixed combination of Eleutherococcus senticosus Rupr. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rhodiola rosea L. has a long history of use in traditional medicine to stimulate the nervous system, treat stress-induced fatigue and depression, enhance physical performance and work productivity and treat gastrointestinal ailments and impotence. Apart from its well-established traditional use, a significant number of publications on the clinical efficacy of various R. rosea preparations can be found in the literature. The majority of these studies are related to the efficacy of R. rosea in terms of cognitive functions and mental performance, including various symptoms of life-stress, fatigue and burnout. The beneficial effects of this medicinal plant on enhancing physical performance have also been evaluated in professional athletes and non-trained individuals. Moreover, even though most evidence originates from pre-clinical trials, several clinical studies have additionally demonstrated the remediating effects of R. rosea on cardiovascular and reproductive health by addressing non-specific stress damage and reversing or healing the disrupted physiologies and disfunctions. Overall, in accordance with its aim, the results presented in this review provide an encouraging basis for the clinical efficacy of R. rosea preparations in managing various aspects of stress-induced conditions.
... Moreover, the lowest UPE intensities were observed in subjects who regularly meditate (van Wijk, Koch, Bosman, & van Wijk, 2006). It was found that patients who took the herbs used in TCM for 1 week had a significant decrease in UPE comparison with the placebo group (Schutgens et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
The authors consider the existence of an energy transfer system (ETS) in the human body and its consequenc-es for health, performing a review of the available literature and studies. The article is an attempt to describe the possible psychophysiological mechanism of ETS (i.e. mechanism of transmission of stimuli in connective tissue) based on biochemical reactions, which was first described in Eastern Medicine a long time ago. Some previously reported results suggest that it is possible to modulate the psychophysiological effects on the con-nective tissue, and that the internal ETS can be activated not only through internal acupoints but also through breath self-regulation techniques. Among the people specialized in such breathing are martial art fighters. In a very preliminary pilot study we investigate four cases in a Vietnamese Thiên Môn Đạo (TMD) group, where breathing techniques result in cardiovascular and blood pressure changes, which can indirectly suggest activa-tion of ETS. An additional energy system in the human body is postulated. However, future research is serious-ly needed. Findings could be applicable e.g. in cardiac rehabilitation programs.
... After one week, subjects in the Rhodiola group experienced a significant decrease in UPE and levels of fatigue (p = 0.027) (p=0.049) (Schutgens et al., 2009). ...
... The SHR group supplement consisted of the proprietary SHR-5 extract of RR roots (Swedish Herbal Institute, Sweden). Laboratory HPLC analysis of this supplement indicated the following active ingredients: 2.3% salidroside, 0.4% p-tyrosol and 2.7% rosavin (as reported by Schutgens et al. 2009). The participants consumed a gelatin capsule containing 3 powdered SHR-5 tablets (432 mg total dose). ...
Article
Full-text available
The adaptogen Rhodiola rosea (RR) may mitigate stress responses and have beneficial effects on endurance capacity (EC) and mental performance. Heat acclimation (HA) improves EC in the heat, but the potential impact of RR on the HA process is unknown. Therefore, our intent was to determine would RR impact positively on the efficacy of the HA process. Twenty male subjects (age 22.5 ± 3.0 years) completed two EC tests involving walking (6 km·h <sup>-1</sup>) until volitional exhaustion in a climate chamber (air temperature, 42°C; relative humidity, 18%) before (H1) and after (H2) an 8-day HA period. One group (SHR; n =10) ingested standardised extract SHR-5 of RR (a single daily dose of 432 mg), while a second group (PLC; n =10) administered a placebo prior to each HA session. Efficacy of HA was evaluated on the basis of changes that occurred from H1 to H2 in the time to exhaustion (TTE), exercise heart rate (HR), core and skin temperatures ( T c, T sk), stress hormones, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), fatigue (RPF) and thermal sensation (TS). HA significantly increased TTE (133.1 ± 44.1 min in H1; 233.4 ± 59.8 min in H2; p < 0.0001) and decreased ( p < 0.0001) HR, T c, T sk, stress hormones as well as RPE, RPF and TS. However, the magnitude of all these changes was similar ( p > 0.05) in the SHR and PLC groups. These results suggest that the use of RR during HA has no beneficial performance, physiological or perceptual effects in young healthy males.
... The adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola root SHR-5 extract have been shown in several double blind, randomized controlled clinical trials, Table 3. Orally administrated for 2-6 weeks dry SHR-5 extract prepared with ethanol-water (ethanol 70% (V/V) in the daily doses of 288 -680 mg (1-4 tablets), have been shown to improve mood (Darbinyan et al., 2007), cognitive performance, attention (Olsson et al., 2009;Darbinyan et al., 2000;Shevtsov et al., 2003;Spasov et al., 2000) and relief fatigue (Olsson et al., 2009;Darbinyan et al., 2000;Shevtsov et al., 2003;Spasov et al., 2000;Schutgens et al., 2009) in stress related conditions. A single dose effect is achieved in one-two hours after the administration of Rhodiola extracts Mattioli and Perfumi, 2007;Mattioli et al., 2008;. ...
... Further studies employing an RCT design are needed to determine the value of photon emission measurement as a tool for assessing the impact of supplement use as well as other interventions meant to improve health. See Table 2 for further details of the study [38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a systematic review (SR) of the peer reviewed scientific literature on ultraweak photon emissions (UPE) from humans. The question was: Can ultraweak photon emissions from humans be used as a non-invasive health assessment? A systematic search was conducted across eight relevant databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, BIOSIS, CINAHL, PSYCHINFO, All of Cochrane EBM databases, GIDEON, DoD Biomedical Research, and clinicaltrials.gov from database inception to October 2011. Of the 1315 studies captured by the search strategy, 56 met the inclusion criteria, out of which 1 was a RCT, 27 were CCT, and 28 were observational and descriptive studies. There were no systematic reviews/meta-analyses that fit the inclusion criteria. In this report, the authors provide an assessment of the quality of the RCT included; describe the characteristics of all the included studies, the outcomes assessed, and the effectiveness of photon emission as a potential health assessment tool. This report demonstrates that the peer reviewed literature on UPE and human UPE measurement in particular is surprisingly large. Most of the human UPE literature is of good to high quality based on our systematic evaluation. However, an evaluation tool for systematically evaluating this type of "bio-evaluation" methodology is not currently available and would be worth developing. Publications in the peer reviewed literature over the last 50 years demonstrate that the use of "off-the-shelf" technologies and well described methodologies for the detection of human photon emissions are being used on a regular basis in medical and research settings. The overall quality of this literature is good and the use of this approach for determining inflammatory and oxidative states of patients indicate the growing use and value of this approach as both a medical and research tool.
... The influence by the consumption of plant adaptogens (Rhodiola rosea and ADAPT-232) regarding human photon emission have been evaluated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study [41]. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: one group (n = 10) taking Rhodiola rosea (SHR-5) pills, one group (n = 10) taking ADAPT-232 supplements (the latter being a fixed combination of the following three adaptogens: Eleutherococcus senticosus, Rhodiola rosea and Schisandra chinensis), and one group (n = 10) taking placebo pills. ...
Data
Full-text available
For decades, the relationship between ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) and the health state of the body is being studied. With the advent of systems biology, attention shifted from the association between UPE and reactive oxygen species towards UPE as a reflection of changed metabolic networks. Essential for this shift in thinking is the development of novel photon count statistical methods that more reflect the dynamics of the systems organization. Additionally, efforts to combine and correlate UPE data with other types of measurements such as metabolomics be key to understand the complexity of the human body. This review describes the history and developments in the area of human UPE research from a technical – methodological perspective, an experimental perspective and a theoretical perspective. There is ample evidence that human UPE research will allow a better understanding of the body as a complex dynamical system. The future lies in the further development of an integrated UPE and metabolomics platform for a personalized monitoring of changes of the system towards health or disease.
... The influence by the consumption of plant adaptogens (Rhodiola rosea and ADAPT-232) regarding human photon emission have been evaluated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study [41]. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: one group (n = 10) taking Rhodiola rosea (SHR-5) pills, one group (n = 10) taking ADAPT-232 supplements (the latter being a fixed combination of the following three adaptogens: Eleutherococcus senticosus, Rhodiola rosea and Schisandra chinensis), and one group (n = 10) taking placebo pills. ...
Article
For decades, the relationship between ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) and the health state of the body is being studied. With the advent of systems biology, attention shifted from the association between UPE and reactive oxygen species towards UPE as a reflection of changed metabolic networks. Essential for this shift in thinking is the development of novel photon count statistical methods that more reflect the dynamics of the systems organization. Additionally, efforts to combine and correlate UPE data with other types of measurements such as metabolomics be key to understand the complexity of the human body. This review describes the history and developments in the area of human UPE research from a technical – methodological perspective, an experimental perspective and a theoretical perspective. There is ample evidence that human UPE research will allow a better understanding of the body as a complex dynamical system. The future lies in the further development of an integrated UPE and metabolomics platform for a personalized monitoring of changes of the system towards health or disease.
... The influence by the consumption of plant adaptogens (Rhodiola rosea and ADAPT-232) regarding human photon emission have been evaluated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study [41]. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: one group (n = 10) taking Rhodiola rosea (SHR-5) pills, one group (n = 10) taking ADAPT-232 supplements (the latter being a fixed combination of the following three adaptogens: Eleutherococcus senticosus, Rhodiola rosea and Schisandra chinensis), and one group (n = 10) taking placebo pills. ...
Article
For decades, the relationship between ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) and the health state of the body is being studied. With the advent of systems biology, attention shifted from the association between UPE and reactive oxygen species towards UPE as a reflection of changed metabolic networks. Essential for this shift in thinking is the development of novel photon count statistical methods that more reflect the dynamics of the systems organization. Additionally, efforts to combine and correlate UPE data with other types of measurements such as metabolomics be key to understand the complexity of the human body. This review describes the history and developments in the area of human UPE research from a technical - methodological perspective, an experimental perspective and a theoretical perspective. There is ample evidence that human UPE research will allow a better understanding of the body as a complex dynamical system. The future lies in the further development of an integrated UPE and metabolomics platform for a personalized monitoring of changes of the system towards health or disease.
... It had two detector heads located on top of two dark chambers. The dark chambers and detector heads were shielded from any surrounding light [4,16,23]. The dark chambers were free from any phosphorescent material and their temperature was maintained at 20 ± 1.0°C. ...
Article
Sixty visible range photon signals spontaneously emitted from the dorsal side of both hands of fifteen human subjects are analyzed with the aim of finding their attributes. The signals are of 30min duration and detected in bins of 50ms by two synchronized photo multipliers sensitive in the range (290-630nm). Each signal is a time series of 36,000 elements. The attributes of its signal are determined from the statistical properties of time series. The mean and variance of time series determine the attributes signal strength and intercept (p0) and slope (p1) of the Fano Factor curve. The photon count distribution of the time series determines squeezed state parameters |α|, r, θ and ϕ, squeezed state index (SSI), and sum of the squares of residue (SSR). The correlation between simultaneously detected signals determines intercept (c0) and slope (c1) of their correlation curve. The variability of attributes is studied by calculating them in smaller intervals covering the entire signal. The profile of attribute at 12 sites in a subject is more informative and biologically relevant.
... The adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola root SHR-5 extract have been shown in several double blind, randomized controlled clinical trials, Table 3. Orally administrated for 2-6 weeks dry SHR-5 extract prepared with ethanol-water (ethanol 70% (V/V) in the daily doses of 288 -680 mg (1-4 tablets), have been shown to improve mood (Darbinyan et al., 2007), cognitive performance, attention (Olsson et al., 2009;Darbinyan et al., 2000;Shevtsov et al., 2003;Spasov et al., 2000) and relief fatigue (Olsson et al., 2009;Darbinyan et al., 2000;Shevtsov et al., 2003;Spasov et al., 2000;Schutgens et al., 2009) in stress related conditions. A single dose effect is achieved in one-two hours after the administration of Rhodiola extracts Mattioli and Perfumi, 2007;Mattioli et al., 2008;. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this review article was to summarize accumulated information related to chemical composition, pharmacological activity, traditional and official use of Rhodiola rosea L. in medicine. In total approximately 140 compounds were isolated from roots and rhizome - monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides, flavonoids, flavonlignans, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid derivatives. Studies on isolated organs, tissues, cells and enzymes have revealed that Rhodiola preparations exhibit adaptogenic effect including, neuroprotective, cardioprotectiv e, anti-fatigue, antidepressive, anxiolytic, nootropic, life-span increasing effects and CNS stimulating activity. A number of clinical trials demonstrate that repeated administration of R. rosea extract SHR-5 exerts an anti-fatigue effect that increases mental performance (particularly the ability to concentrate in healthy subjects), and reduces burnout in patients with fatigue syndrome. Encouraging results exist for the use of Rhodiola in mild to moderate depression, and generalized anxiety. Several mechanisms of action possibly contributing to the clinical effect have been identified for Rhodiola extracts. They include interactions with HPA-system (cortisol-reducing), protein kinases p-JNK, nitric oxide, and defense mechanism proteins (e.g. heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and FoxO/DAF-16). Lack of interaction with other drugs and adverse effects in the course of clinical trials make it potentially attractive for use as a safe medication. In conclusion, Rhodiola rosea has robust traditional and pharmacological evidence of use in fatigue, and emerging evidence supporting cognition and mood.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Rhodiola is a worldwide used medicinal plant for its various medicinal functions, and the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Rhodiola is increasing in recent years. This study aims to evaluate the reporting quality and risk of bias of the current RCT reports of different Rhodiola species. Methods: Six databases including Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrial.gov, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched to identify RCTs that used Rhodiola as a single intervention and were published in English or Chinese from inception to December 2020. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) 2010 statement was used as the checklist for assessment, and a scoring system was applied to the evaluation of RCTs. Score 0 represents no reporting or inadequate reporting, and score 1 represents adequate reporting. The risk of bias of the included studies was also assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Results: A total of 39 RCTs were included in this study, including 23 RCTs of Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea), 8 RCTs of Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata), and 8 RCTs of Rhodiola wallichiana (R. wallichiana). None of the included studies met all the CONSORT statement criteria, and the reporting quality of RCTs of the three Rhodiola species was all generally poor. Based on the risk of bias assessment, the majority of included studies were judged to have an unclear risk of bias in most domains due to inadequate reporting. Conclusions: There is inadequate reporting among the included RCTs of different Rhodiola species, and RCTs of Rhodiola with higher reporting quality and better methodological quality are needed.
Article
Full-text available
Obbiettivo di questo articolo è quello di spiegare il funzionamento della TB-Tecnica Bioenergetica secondo il Metodo Summa Aurea®, dal punto di vista scientifico, sia teoricamente che sperimentalmente, inquadrandola come un trattamento di Medicina Complementare che va ad inserirsi in quella che è la Nuova Medicina: La Medicina Integrata Informazionale - MII
Article
Full-text available
In questo lavoro si intende presentare la Teoria della Consapevolezza Unificata che ha l’intendimento di spiegare i processi di funzionamento legati alla salute di una persona in relazione ai campi di Energia-Informata che lo compongono e le loro interazioni con tutti gli altri campi esistenti in natura. Questo, secondo correlazioni e interconnessioni esistenti in una visione sistemica e unitaria dell’Universo e non solo. In questo contesto si conferma la visione in cui corpo-mente e Spirito sono correlati e che la Consapevolezza è un processo profondo, intimo e fondamentale per la Salute e che non è semplicemente uno stato di coscienza attiva ma è un Ente senziente mediatore tra i campi che compongono l’essere umano in una accezione non-locale e che potremmo anche chiamare Anima.
Article
Full-text available
Scopo di questo lavoro è la valutazione di come un trattamento Bioenergetico secondo il Metodo Summa Aurea® possa ridurre anche in modo significativo l’infiammazione tissutale e perché vi possa riuscire. Abstract The purpose of this work is to evaluate how a Bioenergetic treatment according to the Summa Aurea® Method can also significantly reduce tissue inflammation and why it can succeed.
Article
Full-text available
Nell’ambito della Medicina Complementare e nel nostro specifico campo d’interesse, la Medicina Integrata Informazionale, si parla del Principio di Risonanza come spiegazione degli effetti elettromagnetici tra Operatore e paziente/cliente. Obbiettivo di questo articolo è quello di spiegare il Principio di Risonanza applicato alla trasmissione energetica o elettromagnetica tra persone e nello specifico poi in relazione alla TB-Tecnica Bioenergetica secondo il Metodo Summa Aurea® avvalorando con altri elementi scientifici quella che è la Nuova Medicina: La Medicina Integrata Informazionale - MII
Article
Living systems emit what is called ultraweak photon emission (UPE). This visually undetectable phenomenon has only been studied in humans for the last 30 years, finding that UPE is a complex process depending on multitude factors. Considering previous literature, this review discusses the current trends in the analysis of in vivo UPE from human beings. To this aim, Analytical Approaches Employed for UPE Measurement section focuses on the analytical techniques employed (photomultipliers and charged coupled device cameras), summarizing analytical conditions and reporting figures of merit reached to date. Then, Human UPE Depending on External Factors and Human UPE Depending on Internal Factors sections address external and internal factors, which have proved to affect UPE, pointing out the important influence on oxidative processes outside and inside the body, and also highlighting some personal states of the individuals affecting UPE. Last section is devoted to give a general view on the goals and achieved up to date regarding UPE measurement, emphasizing some potential applications as well as recommendations which include: use of UPE spectra information together with UPE intensity, larger populations (≈50–100 subjects), further studies on internal states of individuals, and use of statistical tools.
Chapter
Full-text available
Adaptogens are the plant-derived biologically active substances that appear to induce a state of non-specific increase of resistance of the organism to diverse assaults that threaten internal homeostasis and improve physical endurance. The pharmacological assessment of adaptogens typically includes evaluation of their stimulating, tonic and stress protective effects in different screening models in which animals are challenged to acute and chronic stress conditions. Another clue to the identity of plant adaptogens are the chemical compounds found in them that may be responsible for the adaptogenic properties. Adaptogenic activity was seen in withania and rhodiola herbs. Mechanisms of action to improve adaptation to stress were as follows: W. somnifera demonstrated activity on the HPA axis, on the CNS and also had an antioxidant action Rhodiola species demonstrated possible CNS activity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.
Article
Full-text available
Mathias Schmidt,1 Michael Thomsen,2 Olaf Kelber,3 Karin Kraft4 1Herbresearch Germany, Mattsies, Germany; 2Herbresearch Pty Ltd, South Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; 3Scientific Department, Steigerwald Arzneimittelwerk GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany; 4Universitätsmedizin Rostock, Rostock, Germany Background: Eleutherococcus senticosus radix (also known as “Siberian ginseng” or “eleuthero”) is used as a medicinal plant in cases of asthenia with fatigue and weakness, a condition especially common in elderly patients. Most reviews and monographs state the contraindication “arterial hypertension”. This excludes many elderly patients from therapy with eleuthero, as the prevalence of arterial hypertension in this age group is high. The origin and substantiation of this contraindication appears, however, unclear. Methods: Available data on eleuthero in the context of hypertension was searched and evaluated systematically for an increase in blood pressure after application of corresponding preparations. Results: Numerous clinical and preclinical studies with eleuthero, as well as reviews and monographs were identified. All sources directly or indirectly refer to only two Russian publications from 1966, presented to the Western world in a review in 1985. Later citations of these two Russian sources tended to mix up the results described therein, frequently indicating the observation of secured adverse effects in hypertensive patients. Such warnings are neither in accordance with the original data, nor are they supported by other published data, which rather point to potential antihypertensive effects. Conclusion: The contraindication “arterial hypertension” is not evidence-based and should be carefully re-evaluated for not unnecessarily excluding a large patient group from the benefits of eleuthero. Keywords: Eleutherococcus senticosus, Siberian ginseng, eleuthero, arterial hypertension, contraindication
Article
The pharmacodynamics aspects of homeopathic remedies are appraised by laboratory studies on the biological effects at various levels (cellular, molecular and systemic). The major question is how these medicines may work in the body. The possible answers concern the identification of biological targets, the means of drug-receptor interactions, the mechanisms of signal transmission and amplification, and the models of inversion of effects according to the traditional 'simile' rule. These problems are handled by two experimental and theoretical lines, according to the doses or dilutions considered (low-medium versus high dilutions). Homeopathic formulations in low-medium dilutions, containing molecules in the range of ultra-low doses, exploit the extreme sensitivity of biological systems to exogenous and endogenous signals. Their effects are interpreted in the framework of hormesis theories and paradoxical pharmacology. The hypotheses regarding the action mechanisms of highly diluted/dynamized solutions (beyond Avogadro-Loschmidt limit) variously invoke sensitivity to bioelectromagnetic information, participation of water chains in signalling, and regulation of bifurcation points of systemic networks. High-dilution pharmacology is emerging as a pioneering subject in the domain of nanomedicine and is providing greater plausibility to the puzzling claims of homeopathy.
Article
Exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation triggers oxidative stress in skin tissue that can lead to erythema, early skin aging or even cancer. It is suggested that oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), phytonutrients that belong to the polyphenol family have an anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activity on the skin. Measuring ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) is a non-invasive, fairly-sensitive and convenient technique for continuously monitoring oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to confirm anti-oxidant activity of the specific OPCs cream formulation in human skin by measuring UPE of skin. In the present study 25 healthy female subjects participated. As a baseline measurement of skin, UPE was recorded from the dorsal surface of the subjects' hands before (spontaneous UPE) and after exposure to UV (UV-induced UPE). The effects of the OPCs cream on spontaneous and UV-induced UPE were measured using a fractionated UV exposure protocol. UV exposure resulted in an increase in UPE from both hands. Repeat UV exposure also resulted in a long-term increase of spontaneous UPE. This is likely due to depletion of anti-oxidant capacity of skin resulting in sensitization of skin to UV. It was assessed by measuring spontaneous UPE at 80 min after each UV exposure. Application of the OPCs cream immediately after UV exposure resulted in a significant (approx. 30%) decrease in UV-induced UPE. Topical OPCs cream application also reduced sensitization of skin to UV following repeated UV exposure (i.e., reduced long-term increase in spontaneous UPE). This study indicates that the specific OPCs cream formulation significantly decreases UV-induced oxidative stress in human skin based on UPE measurement. It therefore suggests that regular use of this OPCs cream might protect skin from harmful effects of UV.
Article
Research shows a dramatic increase in use of the medical system during times of stress, such as job insecurity. Stress is a factor in many illnesses - from headaches to heart disease, and immune deficiencies to digestive problems. A substantial contributor to stress-induced decline in health appears to be an increased production of stress hormones and subsequent decreased immune function. Non-pharmaceutical approaches have much to offer such patients. This article focuses on the use of nutrients and botanicals to support the adrenals, balance neurotransmitters, treat acute anxiety, and support restful sleep.
Article
Full-text available
Rhodiola rosea L., also known as "golden root" or "roseroot" belongs to the plant family Crassulaceae.1 R. rosea grows primarily in dry sandy ground at high altitudes in the arctic areas of Europe and Asia.2 The plant reaches a height of 12 to 30 inches (70cm) and produces yellow blossoms. It is a perennial with a thick rhizome, fragrant when cut. The Greek physician, Dioscorides, first recorded medicinal applications of rodia riza in 77 C.E. in De Materia Medica.3 Linnaeus renamed it Rhodiola rosea, referring to the rose-like attar (fragrance) of the fresh cut rootstock.4 For centuries, R. rosea has been used in the traditional medicine of Russia, Scandinavia, and other countries. Between 1725 and 1960, various medicinal applications of R. rosea appeared in the scientific literature of Sweden, Norway, France, Germany, the Soviet Union, and Iceland.2,4-12 Since 1960, more than 180 pharmacological, phytochemical, and clinical studies have been published. Although R. rosea has been extensively studied as an adaptogen with various health-promoting effects, its properties remain largely unknown in the West. In part this may be due to the fact that the bulk of research has been published in Slavic and Scandinavian languages. This review provides an introduction to some of the traditional uses of R. rosea, its phytochemistry, scientific studies exploring its diverse physiological effects, and its current and future medical applications.
Article
Full-text available
Convincing evidence supports a role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. The model includes the formation of radical oxygen species (ROS) and the misassembly and aggregation of proteins when three tiers of cellular defence are insufficient: (a) direct antioxidative systems, (b) molecular damage repairing systems, and (c) compensatory chaperone synthesis. The aim of the present overview is to introduce (a) the basics of free radical and antioxidant metabolism, (b) the role of the protein quality control system in protecting cells from free radical damage and its relation to chronic diseases, (c) the basics of the ultraweak luminescence as marker of the oxidant status of biological systems, and (d) the research in human photon emission as a non-invasive marker of oxidant status in relation to chronic diseases. In considering the role of free radicals in disease, both their generation and their control by the antioxidant system are part of the story. Excessive free radical production leads to the production of heat shock proteins and chaperone proteins as a second line of protection against damage. Chaperones at the molecular level facilitate stress regulation vis-à-vis protein quali y control mechanisms. The manifestation of misfolded proteins and aggregates is a hallmark of a range of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amylotrophic lateral sclerosis, polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, diabetes and many others. Each of these disorders exhibits aging-dependent onset and a progressive, usually fatal clinical course. The second part reviews the current status of human photon emission techniques and protocols for recording the human oxidative status. Sensitive photomultiplier tubes may provide a tool for non-invasive and continuous monitoring of oxidative metabolism. In that respect, recording ultraweak luminescence has been favored compared to other indirect assays. Several biological models have been used to illustrate the technique in cell cultures and organs in vivo. This initiated practical applications addressing specific human pathological issues. Systematic studies on human emission have presented information on: (a) procedures for reliable measurements, and spectral analysis, (b) anatomic intensity of emission and left-right symmetries, (c) biological rhythms in emission, (d) physical and psychological influences on emission, (e) novel physical characteristics of emission, and (f) the identification of ultraweak photon emission with the staging of ROS-related damage and disease. It is concluded that both patterns and physical properties of ultraweak photon emission hold considerable promise as measure for the oxidative status.
Article
Full-text available
In situ and perfused rat livers showed a spontaneous chemiluminescence of 7-12 counts/sec . cm2 (corresponding to 7-12 x 10(3) photons/sec . cm2); chemiluminescence was increased up to 30 times by infusion of exogenous hydroperoxides. The chemiluminescence of the perfused liver was oxygen dependent. Ethyl, t-butyl, and cumene hydroperoxides were almost equally effective in inducing light emission in the perfused liver. Glutathione release and chemiluminescence showed a parallel increase upon hydroperoxide supply to the perfused liver. A partial spectral analysis of the chemiluminescence of the perfused liver showed a predominance of red-light-emitting species, presumably arising from the singlet oxygen dimol-emission peaks. Many side reactions derived from the complex free radical sequence of lipid peroxidation could afford the chemistry leading to light emission, which represents only about 10(-14) of the utilization of peroxide.
Article
Full-text available
The objective was to investigate the stimulating and normalizing effect of the adaptogen Rhodiola rosea extract SHR-5 in foreign students during a stressful examination period. The study was performed as a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled with low repeated dose regime. The study drug and the placebo were taken for 20 days by the students during an examination period. The physical and mental performance were assessed before and after the period, based on objective as well as on subjective evaluation. The most significant improvement in the SHR-5 group was seen in physical fitness, mental fatigue and neuro-motoric tests (p <0.01). The self-assessment of the general well-being was also significantly (p < 0.05) better in the verum group. No significance was seen in the correction of text tests or a neuro-muscular tapping test. The overall conclusion is that the study drug gave significant results compared to the placebo group but that the dose level probably was suboptimal.
Article
Full-text available
Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants in favor of pro-oxidants. Photon emission (also called chemiluminescence) has been widely used to study oxidative stress in biological systems in vitro. In vivo chemiluminescence has been proposed as a non-invasive method to assess oxidative stress in the skin. UVA (320-400 nm part of the ultraviolet radiation) exposure is generally accepted as a source of oxidative stress in the skin. In this study, UVA-induced oxidative stress was studied by using an in vivo chemiluminescence detection method. First, the dose response and the fluence rate response of the UVA-induced oxidative stress in human skin were investigated by examining the decay kinetics of the chemiluminescence signal following UVA exposure. A kinetic model was proposed to help differentiate these two responses. We found that the initial burst of the chemiluminescence signal depended on the UVA fluence rate, whereas the decay of the signal following exposure can be related to the UVA dose involved. Second, a significant reduction of UVA-induced chemiluminescence signal was observed after tape-stripping, indicating that stratum corneum is a major source of UVA-induced oxidative stress in the skin. Furthermore, the oxygen dependence of UVA-induced chemiluminescence signal was also confirmed by application of a pressure cuff, implying that some of the oxidative stress occurs in the deeper layers of the skin. Finally, topical application of vitamin C before exposure significantly reduced the UVA-induced chemiluminescence signal. We thus conclude that chemiluminescence is an effective method to assess the oxidative stress induced by UVA in human skin in vivo.
Article
Full-text available
In the past years, research on ultraweak photon emission (UPE) from human body has increased for isolated cells and tissues. However, there are only limited data on UPE from the whole body, in particular from the hands. To describe a protocol for the management of subjects that (1) avoids interference with light-induced longterm delayed luminescence, and (2) includes the time slots for recording photon emission. The protocol was utilised for multi-site recording of 4 subjects at different times of the day and different seasons, and for one subject to complete spectral analysis of emission from different body locations. An especially selected low-noise end-window photomultiplier was utilised for the detection of ultraviolet / visible light (200-650 nm) photon emission. For multi-site recording it was manipulated in three directions in a darkroom with a very low count rate. A series of cut-off filters was used for spectral analysis of UPE. 29 body sites were selected such that the distribution in UPE could be studied as right-left symmetry, dorsal-ventral symmetry, and the ratio between the central body part and extremities. Results: Generally, the fluctuation in photon counts over the body was lower in the morning than in the afternoon. The thorax-abdomen region emitted lowest and most constantly. The upper extremities and the head region emitted most and increasingly over the day. Spectral analysis of low, intermediate and high emission from the superior frontal part of the right leg, the forehead and the palms in the sensitivity range of the photomultiplier showed the major spontaneous emission at 470-570 nm. The central palm area of hand emission showed a larger contribution of the 420-470 nm range in the spectrum of spontaneous emission from the hand in autumn/winter. The spectrum of delayed luminescence from the hand showed major emission in the same range as spontaneous emission. Examples of multi-site UPE recordings and spectral analysis revealed individual patterns and dynamics of spontaneous UPE over the body, and spectral differences over the body. The spectral data suggest that measurements might well provide quantitative data on the individual pattern of peroxidative and anti-oxidative processes in vivo. We expect that the measurements provide physiological information that can be useful in clinical examination.
Article
Full-text available
Biophoton emission is the spontaneous emission of ultraweak light emanating from all living systems, including man. The emission is linked to the endogenous production of excited states within the living system. The detection and characterisation of human biophoton emission has led to suggestions that it has potential future applications in medicine. An overview is presented of studies on ultraweak photon emission (UPE, biophotons) from the human whole body. Electronic searches of Medline, PsychLit, PubMed and references lists of relevant review articles and books were used to establish the literature database. Articles were then analysed for their main experimental setup and results. The, mostly, single case studies have resulted in a collection of observations. The collection presents information on the following fields of research: (1) influence of biological rhythms, age, and gender on emission, (2) the intensity of emission and its left-right symmetry in health and disease, (3) emission from the perspective of Traditional Chinese and Korean Medicine, (4) emission in different consciousness studies, (5) procedures for analysis of the photon signal from hands, (6) detection of peroxidative processes in the skin. Of each article the main findings are presented in a qualitative manner, quantitative data are presented where useful, and the technological or methodological limitations are discussed. Photon emission recording techniques have reached a stage that allows resolution of the signal in time and space. The published material is presented and includes aspects like spatial resolution of intensity, its relation to health and disease, the aspect of colour, and methods for analysis of the photon signal. The limited number of studies only allows first conclusions about the implications and significance of biophotons in relation to health and disease, or to mental states, or acupuncture. However, with the present data we consider that further research in the field is justified.
Article
Full-text available
Plant adaptogens are compounds that increase the ability of an organism to adapt to environmental factors and to avoid damage from such factors. The beneficial effects of multi-dose administration of adaptogens are mainly associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a part of the stress-system that is believed to play a primary role in the reactions of the body to repeated stress and adaptation. In contrast, the single dose application of adaptogens is important in situations that require a rapid response to tension or to a stressful situation. In this case, the effects of the adaptogens are associated with another part of the stress-system, namely, the sympatho-adrenal-system (SAS), that provides a rapid response mechanism mainly to control the acute reaction of the organism to a stressor. This review focuses primarily on the SAS-mediated stimulating effects of single doses of adaptogens derived from Rhodiola rosea, Schizandra chinensis and Eleutherococcus senticosus. The use of these drugs typically generates no side effects, unlike traditional stimulants that possess addiction, tolerance and abuse potential, produce a negative effect on sleep structure, and cause rebound hypersomnolence or 'come down' effects. Furthermore, single administration of these adaptogens effectively increases mental performance and physical working capacity in humans. R. rosea is the most active of the three plant adaptogens producing, within 30 min of administration, a stimulating effect that continues for at least 4-6 h. The active principles of the three plants that exhibit single dose stimulating effects are glycosides of phenylpropane- and phenylethane-based phenolic compounds such as salidroside, rosavin, syringin and triandrin, the latter being the most active.
Article
Full-text available
Chronic fatigue greatly affects quality of life and is a common reason for consulting a physician. Since conventional therapy is often of limited help, fatigued patients may use herbal treatments. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of Siberian ginseng. Subjects were recruited from advertisements in Iowa (82%) and members of chronic fatigue syndrome support groups (18%). Potential subjects were required to have substantial fatigue > or = 6 months with no identifiable cause. The mean change in a fatigue measure was compared for placebo and Siberian ginseng at 1 and 2 months. Comparisons were for all subjects and for subjects with characteristics previously identified in the literature as important for categorizing chronic fatigue. Ninety-six subjects were randomized to treatment groups, and 76 provided information at 2 months of follow-up. Fatigue among subjects assigned to either placebo or Siberian ginseng was substantially reduced during the study, but differences between treatment groups were not statistically significant in the full sample. Fatigue severity and duration had a statistically significant interaction with response to Siberian ginseng at the P < 0.05 level. Treatment was effective at 2 months for 45 subjects with less severe fatigue (P = 0.04 unadjusted for multiple comparisons) and for 41 subjects with fatigue for > or = 5 years (P = 0.09 unadjusted for multiple comparisons). Overall efficacy was not demonstrated. However, the findings of possible efficacy for patients with moderate fatigue suggests that further research may be of value.
Article
Full-text available
To present a reconceptualization of fatigue. Studies indexed in CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Psyc INFO, SPORTDiscus, and CancerLit from 1995-2004; studies included in the bibliographies of indexed articles; and five qualitative studies conducted by the author. Tiredness and exhaustion are conceptually distinct from fatigue. All three concepts are located along an adaptational continuum in a manner consistent with stress theory. Interventions should focus on the elimination or reduction of stressors and the increase of patients' resistance to stressors. Interventions that prevent or delay progression from tiredness to fatigue will be different from those that prevent or delay progression from fatigue to exhaustion.
Article
Full-text available
Using two photomultiplier tubes (PMT), we measured the biophoton emission of the left and right wrists simultaneously. The subjects performed hand-grip exercises with both hands, during the measurements. We found a slow increase of the emission rates during the exercises, rising in average from 51.6 cps (counts per second) to 72.3 cps and an immediate decrease after the ending of the exercises. Simultaneous measurement of the skin temperature near the wrist using a thermocouple showed steady increase of temperature even after the ending of the exercises. Thus we demonstrated manifestly that the biophoton has no correlation with body temperature changes. We proposed a hypothesis to account the increase of the biophoton due to muscular activity. The oxygen used by the respiratory chain is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and therefore must be one of the biophoton sources. To flesh out this hypothesis we compared our data to heart beat rates and oxygen consumption values measured while doing the same type of exercises.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of standardized extract SHR-5 of rhizomes of Rhodiola rosea L. in patients suffering from a current episode of mild/moderate depression. The phase III clinical trial was carried out as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study with parallel groups over 6 weeks. Participants, males and females aged 18-70 years, were selected according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for depression, the severity of which was determined by scores gained in Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) questionnaires. Patients with initial HAMD scores between 21 and 31 were randomized into three groups, one of which (group A: 31 patients) received two tablets daily of SHR-5 (340 mg/day), a second (group B: 29 patients) received two tablets twice per day of SHR-5 (680 mg/day), and a third (group C: 29 patients) received two placebo tablets daily. The efficacy of SHR-5 extract with respect to depressive complaints was assessed on days 0 and 42 of the study period from total and specific subgroup HAMD scores. For individuals in groups A and B, overall depression, together with insomnia, emotional instability and somatization, but not self-esteem, improved significantly following medication, whilst the placebo group did not show such improvements. No serious side-effects were reported in any of the groups A-C. It is concluded that the standardized extract SHR-5 shows anti-depressive potency in patients with mild to moderate depression when administered in dosages of either 340 or 680 mg/day over a 6-week period.
Article
Full-text available
Using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we investigated the effects of Rhodiola on life-span. Rhodiola is a plant root used in traditional Chinese medicine that may increase an organism's resistance to stress. It has been proposed that Rhodiola can extend longevity and improve health span by alleviating oxidative stress. Rhodiola supplied every other day at 30 mg/mL significantly increased the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. When comparing the distribution of deaths between Rhodiola-supplemented and control flies, Rhodiola-fed flies exhibited decelerated aging. Although the observed extension in lifespan was associated with statistically insignificant reductions in fecundity, correcting for a possible dietary restriction effect still did not eliminate the difference between supplemented and control flies, nor does the effect of Rhodiola depend on dietary manipulation, strongly suggesting that Rhodiola is not a mere dietary restriction mimetic. Although this study does not reveal the causal mechanism behind the effect of Rhodiola, it does suggest that the supplement is worthy of continued investigation, unlike the other Chinese herbals, Lu Duo Wei (LDW), Bu Zhong Yi Qi Tang (BZYQT), San Zhi Pian (SZP, Three Imperial Mushrooms), Hong Jing Tian (Rhodiola) that were evaluated in this study.
Article
Full-text available
Extracts of plant adaptogens such as Eleutherococcus senticosus (or Acanthopanax senticosus) and Rhodiola rosea can increase stress resistance in several model systems. We now show that both extracts also increase the mean lifespan of the nematode C. elegans in a dose-dependent way. In at least four independent experiments, 250 microg/ml Eleutherococcus (SHE-3) and 10-25 microg/ml Rhodiola (SHR-5) significantly increased life span between 10 and 20% (P < 0.001), increased the maximum lifespan with 2-3 days and postponed the moment when the first individuals in a population die, suggesting a modulation of the ageing process. With higher concentrations, less effect was observed, whereas at the highest concentrations tested (2500 microg/ml Eleutherococcus and 250 microg/ml Rhodiola) a lifespan shortening effect was observed of 15-25% (P < 0.001). Both adaptogen extracts were also able to increase stress resistance in C. elegans: against a relatively short heat shock (35 degrees C during 3 h) as well as chronic heat treatment at 26 degrees C. An increase against chronic oxidative stress conditions was observed in mev-1 mutants, and during exposure of the wild type nematode to paraquat (10 mM) or UV stress, be it less efficiently. Concerning the mode of action: both adaptogens induce translocation of the DAF-16 transcription factor from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, suggesting a reprogramming of transcriptional activities favoring the synthesis of proteins involved in stress resistance (such as the chaperone HSP-16) and longevity. Based on these observations, it is suggested that adaptogens are experienced as mild stressors at the lifespan-enhancing concentrations and thereby induce increased stress resistance and a longer lifespan.
Article
The term adaptogen has not yet been accepted in medicine. This is probably due to the difficulties in discriminating adaptogenic drugs from immunostimulators, anabolic drugs, nootropic drugs, and tonics. There can be not doubt, however, that, at least in animal experiments, there are plant drugs capable of modulating distinct phases of the adaptation syndrome as defined by Seyle. These drugs either reduce stress reactions in the alarm phase or retard / prevent the exhaustion phase and thus provide a certain degree of protection against long-term stress. The small number of drugs the antistress activity of which has been proven or reported includes, among others, the plant drugs Ginseng, Eleutherococcus, Withania, Ocimum, Rhodiola, and Codonopsis. This review summarizes the major findings of pharmacological tests and human studies carried out with these drugs. Currently used assay systems allowing detection of antistress activities are also reported. At present the most likely candidates responsible for the putative antistress activity of plant drugs are special steroids, phenylprogane compounds and lignanes, respectively. Apart from influencing activities of the pituitary-adrenal axis and inducing stress proteins, many adaptogens also possess immunomodulatory and / or anabolic activities.
Article
The molecular mechanism in which plant adaptogens induce a state of adaptive resistance in cells is unclear. In this paper we used different mammalian cell lines to study the effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus and of Rhodiola rosea on the expression of seven different heat shock proteins (hsp27, hsp32, hsp47, hsp60, hsp70i, hsc70 and hsp90). We could demonstrate that plant adaptogens only induce hsp32 (also know as heme oxygenase or HO-1), which performs a crucial function in cellular antioxidative defense. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the enhanced synthesis of heme oxygenase is induced by a pro-oxidant action of the plant adaptogens in cells. Plant adaptogens are shown to initially consume glutathione (GSH) and to cause oxidation of lipids as well as of cytoplasmic components. As a result of this damage endogenous cellular defense and repair mechanisms are activated leading to an enhanced synthesis of heme oxygenase and to an increased synthesis of GSH. As a consequence of these induced protective mechanisms an enhanced cellular (oxidative) stress resistance is observed in different mammalian cell cultures 24 hours after exposure to plant adaptogens. It is proposed that part of the action of plant adaptogens can be explained by an hormetic induction of defense mechanisms. In summary, we have demonstrated that plant adaptogens enhance cellular resistance by causing mild damage first. The detection of damage leads to an activation of endogenous cellular repair-and resistance programs, such as an enhanced presence of heme oxygenase and increased levels of GSH, which explains the enhanced adaptive state induced by plant adaptogens.
Article
Application of chemiluminescence to the study of lipid peroxidation reactions is based on the occurence of short-lived free radicals and excited states derived from side reactions of the lipid peroxidation process. Thus, the light emission yield is extremely low: 10(-9)-10(15). Chemiluminescence is induced or enhanced by conditions that normally increase lipid peroxidation or that create a peroxidative stress, i.e., toxic effect of hyperbaric oxygen or infusion to the intact organ with organic hydroperoxides. The higher quantum yield of induced-light emission allows a better study of the photoemissive species occurring in the chemiluminescence system; in this regard, spectral analysis is the more accurate method for identifying the chemiluminescence species involved. Since chemiluminescence can monitor continuously the oxidative metabolism of exposed or fiberopatic organs in vivo, it constitutes an adequate tool for the noninvasive study of lipid peroxidation.
Article
The visual analogue scale is a technique used to measure subjective phenomena. It is a self-reporting device consisting of a line of predetermined length that separates extreme boundaries of the phenomenon being measured. The purpose of this review is to report on the characteristics of the visual analogue scale technique, including its reliability, validity, accuracy, and scale value. This review presents several examples of the usefulness of the visual analogue scale technique in primary care research projects, describes its advantages and limitations, and presents suggestions for constructing visual analogue scales.
Article
Mouse skin was exposed to UVA radiation (320-400 nm). The in vivo chemiluminescence of the skin was measured after irradiation. Chemiluminescence showed a maximum 13-fold increase (control emission, 10 +/- 1 cps cm-2) after 45-60 min of exposure to UVA, with no further increase with 60 min additional exposure. Spectral analysis of the emitted chemiluminescence showed that the principal species emitted in the 400-500 nm range. Topical application with alpha-tocopherol (10% v/w) and beta-carotene (1 mM) greatly reduced the UVA-induced skin chemiluminescence. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were increased by 130% in skin homogenates after 2 h of exposure to UVA (control value, 77 +/- 14 nmol malonaldehyde equivalents (g tissue)-1). The activities of antioxidant enzymes in skin homogenates were decreased after 2 h of irradiation: the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (control value, 181 +/- 10 U SOD (g tissue)-1) was decreased by 40% and the catalase activity (control value, 1.34 +/- 0.14 pmol (g tissue)-1) was decreased by 45%. In vivo chemiluminescence appears to be a suitable method for following the kinetics of the oxidative stress processes and for testing the effect of topical application with antioxidant and photoprotective agents.
Article
This chapter discusses the method to detect ultraweak photon emission (UPE) of human skin in vivo. The monitoring of UPE directly on the skin has the advantages of being noninvasive and providing continuous and convenient monitoring. The effect of the topical application of a-tocopherol and B-carotene was also determined in this study. The UPE detection method provides a useful technique in vivo to determine peroxidative events and efficacy of topically applied antioxidants on human skin. To record the emissions from the skin of human volunteers in vivo, the instruments have to be adapted to special applications. It is necessary to replace small sample compartments and to keep the distance between photocathode and skin surface as short as possible. Avoidance of light from external sources is also necessary. The entire detector head has to be installed in rooms without phosphorescent walls, surfaces, and lamps, and it should be freely movable. Irrespective of theoretical considerations as to whether some kind of physical or biochemical phenomena may be occurring, skin as an organ designed for protection against noxious materials in the environment may be useful as an indicator of free-radical metabolism.
Article
Living cells spontaneously emit ultraweak light during the process of metabolic reactions associated with the physiological state. The first demonstration of two-dimensional in vivo imaging of ultraweak photon emission from a rat's brain, using a highly sensitive photon counting apparatus, is reported in this paper. It was found that the emission intensity correlates with the electroencephalographic activity that was measured on the cortical surface and this intensity is associated with the cerebral blood flow and hyperoxia. To clarify the mechanism of photon emission, intensity changes from whole brain slices were examined under various conditions. The removal of glucose from the incubation medium suppressed the photon emission, and adding 50 mM potassium ions led to temporal enhancement of emission and subsequent depression. Rotenone (20 microM), an inhibitor of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, increased photon emission, indicating electron leakage from the respiratory chain. These results suggest that the photon emission from the brain slices originates from the energy metabolism of the inner mitochondrial respiratory chain through the production of reactive oxygen. Imaging of ultraweak photon emission from a brain constitutes a novel method, with the potential to extract pathophysiological information associated with neural metabolism and oxidative dysfunction of the neural cells.
Article
The main purpose of the studies presented in this paper is twofold: 1) to evaluate whether phyto-adaptogens (Acanthopanax senticosus and Rhodiola rosea) are able to exert a protective action against stress-induced death of embryos of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis; and 2) whether a possible protective action by phyto-adaptogens can be explained by the induction of heat shock proteins. Enhancement in resistance by phyto-adaptogens was studied by applying plant extracts for a period of 20 hours to 3-day old larvae of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Subsequently they were exposed to a high and toxic dose of different environmental stressors. The following stress conditions were selected: a physical stress condition (heat shock: 43 degrees C for 4 minutes), an oxidative stress condition (superoxide radicals induced by menadione (600 microM for 2 hours)) and heavy metal-induced stress (copper (150 microM for 1 hour) or cadmium (20 microM during 1 hour)). Both Acanthopanax and Rhodiola exert a strong protective action against a lethal heat shock. These adaptogens also significantly protect against the negative effect of superoxide radicals as induced by menadione. With respect to the protective action against exposure to heavy metals a small but significant protection was observed against intoxication with copper or cadmium by the phyto-adaptogens. In summary, there appears to be a difference in efficiency in enhancing resistance to the various stress conditions used (heat shock>menadione>copper>cadmium). Based on the results presented in this paper, we can conclude that phyto-adaptogens are able to enhance the resistance against the different stress conditions tested in developing individuals of Lymnaea. Although the degree to which resistance is enhanced appears to depend on the type of stressor applied, our results confirm the definition of phyto-adaptogens as being universal enhancers of non-specific resistance against different kinds of stress conditions. With respect to the mechanism of enhanced resistance, the question was asked whether this protective action is caused by an induction of heat shock proteins (hsps), which are known to be involved in tolerance and adaptation. The phyto-adaptogens did not induce the synthesis of any of the hsps, nor did they modulate the normal heat shock induced synthesis of these stress proteins. We conclude that it is unlikely that hsps play a major role in obtaining an enhanced state of resistance provided by phyto-adaptogens.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated low-dose treatment with a standardized extract SHR/5 of rhizome Rhodiola rosea L, (RRE) on fatigue during night duty among a group of 56 young, healthy physicians. The effect was measured as total mental performance calculated as Fatigue Index. The tests chosen reflect an overall level of mental fatigue, involving complex perceptive and cognitive cerebral functions, such as associative thinking, short-term memory, calculation and ability of concentration, and speed of audio-visual perception. These parameters were tested before and after night duty during three periods of two weeks each: a) a test period of one RRE/placebo tablet daily, b) a washout period and c) a third period of one placebo/RRE tablet daily, in a double-blind cross-over trial. The perceptive and cognitive cerebral functions mentioned above were investigated using 5 different tests. A statistically significant improvement in these tests was observed in the treatment group (RRE) during the first two weeks period. No side-effects were reported for either treatment noted. These results suggest that RRE can reduce general fatigue under certain stressful conditions.
Article
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical study with an extra non-treatment group was performed to measure the effect of a single dose of standardized SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract on capacity for mental work against a background of fatigue and stress. An additional objective was to investigate a possible difference between two doses, one dose being chosen as the standard mean dose in accordance with well-established medicinal use as a psychostimulant/adaptogen, the other dose being 50% higher. Some physiological parameters, e.g. pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, were also measured. The study was carried out on a highly uniform population comprising 161 cadets aged from 19 to 21 years. All groups were found to have very similar initial data, with no significant difference with regard to any parameter. The study showed a pronounced antifatigue effect reflected in an antifatigue index defined as a ratio called AFI. The verum groups had AFI mean values of 1.0385 and 1.0195, 2 and 3 capsules respectively, whilst the figure for the placebo group was 0.9046. This was statistically highly significant (p < 0.001) for both doses (verum groups), whilst no significant difference between the two dosage groups was observed. There was a possible trend in favour of the lower dose in the psychometric tests. No such trend was found in the physiological tests.
Article
Left-right biophoton asymmetry from the palm and the dorsum of hands from 7 Korean hemiparesis patients were studied. There is a strong tendency that the left-hemiparesis patients emit more biophotons from the right than the left hands, while the right-hemiparesis patient emits more from the left hand. Acupuncture treatment reduces dramatically the left-right asymmetry of biophoton emission rates. However there is no systematic difference for the patients in the emission rates from the palm and the dorsum of hands.
Article
For the first time systematic measurements of the "ultraweak" photon emission of the human body (biophotons) have been performed by means of a photon detector device set up in darkness. About 200 persons have been investigated. In a particular case one person has been examined daily over several months. It turned out that this biophoton emission reflects, (i) the left-right symmetry of the human body; (ii) biological rhythms such as 14 days, 1 month, 3 months and 9 months; (iii) disease in terms of broken symmetry between left and right side; and (iv) light channels in the body, which regulate energy and information transfer between different parts. The results show that besides a deeper understanding of health, disease and body field, this method provides a new powerful tool of non-invasive medical diagnosis in terms of basic regulatory functions of the body.
Article
Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) is a plant living at high altitudes in Europe and Asia. Its roots have long been used in the traditional medical system of these geographical areas to increase the organism resistance to physical stress; today, it has become an important component of many dietary supplements. In this study we investigate the antioxidant capacity of the R. rosea aqueous extract evaluating its ability to counteract some of the main damages induced by hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a powerful oxidant generated by activated phagocytes, to human erythrocytes. Ascorbic acid was used as a reference substance because of its physiological HOCl-scavenging ability. Our study demonstrates that R. rosea is able to significantly protect, in a dose-dependent manner, human RBC from glutathione (GSH) depletion, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) inactivation and hemolysis induced by the oxidant. Furthermore, we demonstrate that R. rosea aqueous extract acts from the inside of the erythrocyte suggesting a probable involving of cell components. The protection on GSH afforded by the R. rosea extract with respect to ascorbic acid, occurred also if added 2 or 5 min. later than the oxidant, suggesting a more rapid or powerful effect.
Article
A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized (simple randomisation), pilot (phase III) study of Chisan, (ADAPT-232; a standardised fixed combination of extracts of Rhodiola rosea L., Schisandra chinensis Turcz. Baill., and Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim) was carried out on two parallel groups of patients suffering from acute nonspecific pneumonia. Sixty patients (males and females; 18-65 years old) received a standard treatment with cephazoline, bromhexine, and theophylline: in addition, one group of 30 patients was given Chisan mixture, whilst the second group of 30 patients received a placebo, each medication being taken twice daily from the beginning of the study for 10-15 days. The primary outcome measurements were the duration of antibiotic therapy associated with the clinical manifestations of the acute phase of the disease, together with an evaluation of mental performance in a psychometric test and the self-evaluation of quality-of-life (QOL) (WHOQOL-Bref questionnaires) before treatment and on the first and fifth days after clinical convalescence. The mean duration of treatment with antibiotics required to bring about recovery from the acute phase of the disease was 2 days shorter in patients treated with Chisan compared with those in the placebo group. With respect to all QOL domains (physical, psychological, social and ecological), patients in the Chisan group scored higher at the beginning of the rehabilitation period, and significantly higher on the fifth day after clinical convalescence, than patients in the control group. Clearly, adjuvant therapy with ADAPT-232 has a positive effect on the recovery of patients by decreasing the duration of the acute phase of the illness, by increasing mental performance of patients in the rehabilitation period, and by improving their QOL. Both the clinical and laboratory results of the present study suggest that Chisan (ADAPT-232) can be recommended in the standard treatment of patients with acute non-specific pneumonia as an adjuvant to increase the QOL and to expedite the recovery of patients.
Article
Ultra-weak photon emission of a living system has received scientific attention because of its potential for monitoring oxidative metabolism and oxidative damage to tissues. Heretofore, most studies have focused only on the emission from hands. The data regarding emission from other anatomic locations are limited. A previous multi-anatomic site recording of four subjects quantitatively demonstrated that the emission from several corresponding anatomic locations could differ by as much as a factor of 4. The data also suggested a "common" anatomic emission percentage distribution pattern. This information raised the question whether such a typical anatomic percentage emission exists. The objective of the present paper is to systematically replicate the emission from identical anatomic locations to document whether the anatomic percentage distribution pattern is generic. Part 1 includes the recording of ultra-weak photon emission from one sample subject over the torso, head and upper extremities with a highly sensitive charge-coupled device (CCD). Part 2 includes the analysis of that data to select a series of anatomic locations that were subsequently studied with a group of 20 subjects utilizing a highly sensitive, cooled and moveable (in three directions) photomultiplier system. Total sum emission of all recorded anatomic locations per subject fluctuates in this study almost 5-fold between subjects. However, the contribution of each anatomic location to the total emission from each subject was approximately the same percentage for each subject and similar to the sample CCD subject. The deviation of the anatomic percentage contribution for each subject was also established. The study presents evidence that there is a "common" anatomic percentage distribution pattern of ultra-weak photon emission for corresponding locations from each subject.
Article
Spontaneous photon emission from 30 sites on the skin of a live human subject is measured at different times and on different days. Signals from three representative sites of low, intermediate and high intensities are selected for further analysis. Fluctuations in these signals are measured by the probabilities of detecting different numbers of photons in a bin. The probabilities have non-classical features and are well described by the signal in a quantum squeezed state of photons. Measurements with bins of three sizes yield same values of three parameters of the squeezed state. A procedure for making correction due to background noise is developed. The correction changes the parameters of the quantum state. The new state appears more like a coherent state of photons.
Article
Several physical or chemical environmental stressors generate reactive oxygen species, which trigger oxidation reactions of cells or tissues and thereby induce a correlated ultraweak photon emission (UPE) signal. The present study was designed to qualify and validate UPE measurement following ultraviolet (UV) excitation of porcine and human skin as an analytical method to assess the potency of topical antioxidants in vivo. UPE of porcine skin in vitro and human skin in vivo following excitation with UVA was recorded using sensitive photomultiplier systems. For validation purposes, the effects of variation of extrinsic and intrinsic parameters encompassing skin thickness, humidity, temperature, pH, and composition of the surrounding atmosphere were assessed. Signals were analyzed with regard to overall signal intensity and spectral distribution. In two clinical trials enrolling 20 volunteers each, the effects of topical antioxidant treatment on UVA-induced UPE were validated. Different stressors encompassing exposition to ozone, UVA irradiation, or even cigarette smoke induced UPE of skin. Critical parameters affecting the quality and quantity of the UPE signal were the spectral composition of the exciting UV light, skin temperature, skin humidity, and the O(2) concentration of the surrounding atmosphere. Generally, UVA-induced UPE decreased with increasing temperature, humidity, and O(2) concentration. Skin pH had no significant effect on UPE with regard to signal quality and quantity over a pH range of 2.8-8.2. In a clinical study UPE measurement following UVA excitation could precisely reflect a dose-dependent antioxidant effect of topically applied vitamin C and alpha-glucosylrutin. Our data indicate that UVA irradiation induces UPE especially in deeper (living) skin layers, where antioxidants must be active in order to interfere with accelerated skin ageing. Based on the clinical data, and with knowledge of modulating external variables, UPE measurement following UV excitation can be qualified as a reliable and valid method for the non-invasive measurement of antioxidant efficacy on the skin.
Article
Oxidation of proteins and amino acids is associated with generation of ultraweak photon emission (UPE), which may be used to assess oxidative processes in the skin in a non-invasive way. This first part of a series of reports addresses the physicochemical basis of oxidation-induced UPE in the skin, with a special focus on the contribution of amino acid oxidation. UPE of biological samples and protein/amino acid solutions following oxidation with H(2)O(2) in the presence of Fe(2+) was recorded using a sensitive photomultiplier system. Signals were analyzed with regard to overall signal intensity and spectral distribution. Increasing concentrations of H(2)O(2) in aqueous bovine serum albumin solutions induced linearly correlated UPE and protein carbonyl compounds, with a substantially higher sensitivity for the measurement of UPE. In single amino acid solutions, strong UPE signals were generated by oxidation from Phe, Trp, His, and Cys, and weak signals from Lys and Thr. Analysis of reaction products by MS revealed high oxidative material turnover for Cys and His, whereas barely detectable oxidative material turnover seems to be sufficient to generate a UPE signal of similar strength from Trp and Phe. Combination of different amino acids did not result in a simple addition of individual oxidation-induced UPE signals, but in interactions ranging from antagonism to clear synergism. Synergism was evident between Trp- and UPE-generating amino acids such as Thr, Cys, and His, with the strongest synergism by far observed between Trp and His. The strikingly different individual UPE spectra of His and Trp, despite being of comparable overall strength, were congruent with a pure Trp UPE spectrum after combining His with Trp in solution, indicating energy transfer between both amino acids. Combination of Trp and DNA, which also gives UPE signals following oxidation, did not result in a synergistically enhanced or antagonized overall UPE signal, but in a simple addition of individual UPE signals. Measurement of UPE could be proven to be a highly sensitive method to assess oxidative processes in biological molecules. The reported data indicate that UPE generated by oxidation stressed skin is mainly due to non-fluorescent photon emission via Trp, whereby Trp acts as an energy receptor from other excited species of oxidation-modified amino acids.
Article
Rhodiola rosea is an herbal supplement that many in the general population in Russia and elsewhere in the world have used for decades to alleviate everyday anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Whether R. rosea is effective in reducing similar symptoms in clinical samples is unknown. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate whether R. rosea is effective in reducing symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Ten (10) participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD, recruited from the UCLA Anxiety Disorders Program and between the ages of 34 and 55, were enrolled in this study from November 2005 to May 2006. Participants received a total daily dose of 340 mg of R. rosea extract for 10 weeks. Assessments included the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), the Four-Dimensional Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Clinical Global Impressions of Severity/Improvement Scale. Individuals treated with R. rosea showed significant decreases in mean HARS scores at endpoint (t=3.27, p=0.01). Adverse events were generally mild or moderate in severity, the most common being dizziness and dry mouth. Significant improvement in GAD symptoms was found with R. rosea, with a reduction in HARS scores similar to that found in clinical trials. These preliminary findings warrant further exploration of treatment with R. rosea in clinical samples.
Life-span enhancing effects of plant adaptogens in C. elegans. In Abstract Book of the International Association for Adaptive Medicine. (VIII World Congress) ISAM: Moscow, 61 Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans
  • Wiegant Fac
  • S Surinova
  • E Ytsma
  • M Langelaar-Makkinje
  • Ja Post
  • Wikman
  • Wiegant Fac
  • S Surinova
  • E Ytsma
  • M Langelaar-Makkinje
  • G Wikman
  • Post
  • Ja
Wiegant FAC, Surinova S, Ytsma E, Langelaar-Makkinje M, Post JA, Wikman G. 2006. Life-span enhancing effects of plant adaptogens in C. elegans. In Abstract Book of the International Association for Adaptive Medicine. (VIII World Congress). ISAM: Moscow, 61. Wiegant FAC, Surinova S, Ytsma E, Langelaar-Makkinje M, Wikman G, Post JA. 2008b. Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans. Biogerontology. DOI: 10.1007/s10522-008-9151-9.
DOI: 10.1002/ptr REFERENCES Boon-Niermeijer EK Phyto-adaptogens protect against environmental stress-induced death of embryos from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis
  • Copyright
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Phytother. Res. 23, 1103–1108 (2009) DOI: 10.1002/ptr REFERENCES Boon-Niermeijer EK, van den Berg A, Wikman G, Wiegant FAC. 2000. Phyto-adaptogens protect against environmental stress-induced death of embryos from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Phytomedicine 7: 389–399.