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The UniTire model: A nonlinear and non-steady-state tyre model for vehicle dynamics simulation
The UniTire model is a nonlinear and non-steady-state tyre model for vehicle dynamics simulation and control under complex wheel motion inputs involving large lateral slip, longitudinal slip, turn slip and camber. The model is now installed in the driving simulator in the Automobile Dynamic Simulation Laboratory at Jilin University for studying vehicle dynamics and their control systems. Firstly, the nonlinear semiphysical steady-state tyre model, which complies with analytical boundary conditions up to the third order of the simplified physical model, is presented. Special attention has been paid to the expression for the dynamic friction coefficient between the tyre and the road surface and to the modification of the direction of the resultant force under combined-slip conditions. Based on the analytical non-steady-state tyre model, the effective slip ratios and quasi-steady-state concept are introduced to represent the non-steady-state nonlinear dynamic tyre properties in transient and large-slip-ratio cases. Non-steady-state tyre models of first-order approximation and of high-order approximation are developed on the basis of contact stress propagation processes. The UniTire model has been verified by different pure and combined test data and its simulation covered various complex wheel motion inputs, such as large lateral slip, longitudinal slip, turn slip and camber.