Article

Virgin olive oil as a fundamental nutritional component and skin protector

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Abstract

Fats are indispensable to life not only as an energy source but also for their structural role in the skin, retina, nervous system, lipoproteins, and biologic membranes. They are also precursors of important hormones and constitute the vehicle for the absorption of liposoluble vitamins. Nutritionists recommend a balanced lipid intake corresponding to a total amount of fats equal to 25% to 30% of total calories with a ratio in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, olive oil, with its balanced fatty acid composition, is of high nutritional value. Moreover, extra virgin olive oil, extracted from a fruit, has an important value related to the antioxidant power of minor components. Extra virgin olive oil contains 98% to 99% triglycerides and 1% to 2% minor components. In the triglycerides, the main fatty acids are represented by monounsaturates (oleic), with a slight amount of saturates and an adequate amount of polyunsaturates. The minor components are alpha-tocopherol, phenol compounds, carotenoids, squalene, phytosterols, and chlorophyll. Factors that can influence olive oil's composition, especially in regard to its minor components, are the cultivar, area of production, time of harvesting, and degree of technology used in its production. Therefore, an evaluation of the biologic value of extra virgin olive oil and its use as a topical raw material in cosmetic dermatology is reported.

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... To this aim, we compared their emulsification capacity test using two model oils-one mimicking the composition of sebum secreted by human skin (olive oil) and one representing a model greasy dirt difficult to remove (engine oil). The similarity of the composition of olive oil to human sebum results from the high content of squalene, β-sitosterol and fatty acids [45]. Analogous tests are typically employed to compare the washing abilities of different detergents, so in addition to the mechanistic questions, they will provide reliable grounds for the comparison of the practical usefulness of SAP and its synthetic counterparts. ...
... The chamber temperature was set to 120 °C and the outlet temperature (effective drying temperature) equaled typically 70 °C. The dried extract (SAP), with total saponin content of 110 ± 2.4 mg/g of dry mass (determined using UPLC-MS, as described in ref. [45]) was stored at room temperature and was dissolved in phosphate buffer (pH = 7, I = 10 −3 M) immediately before the measurements. ...
... It was then dried using a YC-015A lab spray dryer (Pilotech, Shanghai, China). The chamber temperature was set to 120 • C and the outlet temperature (effective drying temperature) equaled typically 70 • C. The dried extract (SAP), with total saponin content of 110 ± 2.4 mg/g of dry mass (determined using UPLC-MS, as described in ref. [45]) was stored at room temperature and was dissolved in phosphate buffer (pH = 7, I = 10 −3 M) immediately before the measurements. ...
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Our skin is continuously exposed to different amphiphilic substances capable of interaction with its lipids and proteins. We describe the effect of a saponin-rich soapwort extract and of four commonly employed synthetic surfactants: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium laureth sulfate (SLES), ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS), cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) on different human skin models. Two human skin cell lines were employed: normal keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human melanoma cells (A375). The liposomes consisting of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol mixture in a molar ratio of 7:3, mimicking the cell membrane of keratinocytes and melanoma cells were employed as the second model. Using dynamic light scattering (DLS), the particle size distribution of liposomes was analyzed before and after contact with the tested (bio)surfactants. The results, supplemented by the protein solubilization tests (albumin denaturation test, zein test) and oil emulsification capacity (using olive oil and engine oil), showed that the soapwort extract affects the skin models to a clearly different extent than any of the tested synthetic surfactants. Its protein and lipid solubilizing potential are much smaller than for the three anionic surfactants (SLS, ALS, SLES). In terms of protein solubilization potential, the soapwort extract is comparable to CAPB, which, however, is much harsher to lipids.
... 7 Topical olive oil could acts as sunscreen, but contains 2ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate and 4-t-butyl-4'methoxy-dibenzoyl methane which is UVB absorber, maintaining proper penetration of ultraviolet lights to deep epidermal and dermal compartments of the skin. 8 Olive oil doesn't interfere with ultraviolet light penetration and can be applied before NB-UVB sessions safely also topical olive oil nourishes the skin without harmful toxic that's why olive oil being added to various cosmetic formulas. 5,8 ...
... 8 Olive oil doesn't interfere with ultraviolet light penetration and can be applied before NB-UVB sessions safely also topical olive oil nourishes the skin without harmful toxic that's why olive oil being added to various cosmetic formulas. 5,8 ...
... 16 The main role of olive oil in repigmentation process is due to facilitation of more penetration of NB-UVB to skin as well as nutritive effect on melanocytes. 5,8 Best repigmentation pattern was achieved in tested area which was marginal pigmentation pattern in eight pts 80% the most stable type compared to control which was 10% follicular which is the worst with higher depigmentation rate and only 50% were marginal type and the use of only NB-UVB necessitate frequent sessions (dependency). 17 To conclude, the addition of topical olive oil before NB-UVB and on daily basis in session free days for segmental vitiligo patients is preferred over NB-UVB only therapy for enhancing erythemogenic effect of NB-UVB and enhancement of repigmentation and result in best repigmentation pattern which is the marginal type and minimizes post phototherapy itch and dermatitis. ...
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p class="abstract"> Background: Adult segmental vitiligo treated by narrow band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) showed delayed repigmentation. This study is being undertaken to determine the efficacy of topical olive oil addition before (NB-UVB) sessions for vitiligo patients (pts). Methods: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) enrolled ten volunteers suffering segmental vitiligo on both upper limbs, all patients left limb was tested by topical olive oil before each NB-UVB session and twice daily in session free days for a total of 20 sessions (46 days), the right upper limb was the control (only NB-UVB), each site response was assessed based on time of appearance of erythema and repigmentation. Statistical analysis was done by the Chi-square test. Results: All patients were ten, seven were female (70%), three males (30%) of middle age group, university graduates live in Khartoum state. Their left upper limbs showed erythema in <3 sessions in five pts (50%) and three-five sessions in (50%), repigmentation started in <3 sessions in one patient (10%) and three-four sessions in five pt. (50%) and >5 sessions for four pts (40%), pattern of repigmentation was marginal in eight pts (80%), mixed in two pts (20%). Their right upper limbs showed erythema in three-four sessions in two pts (20%) and eight pts (80%) needed five sessions, repigmentation started after five sessions in all patients (100%), pattern of repigmentation was follicular in one pts (10%), marginal in five pts (50%), mixed in four pts (40%). Conclusions: Addition of topical olive oil to NB-UVB for segmental vitiligo patients showed earlier occurrence of repigmentation and better pigmentation pattern.</p
... However, there was no further discussion about the role of olive oil in their lipstick formulation. A study by Viola and Violab (2009) mentioned that the phenol structure of olive oil has shown antioxidant action, especially oleuropeine, which acts against free radicals at the skin level [103]. Olive oil has an inhibitory effect on sun-induced cancer development when applied on the skin after the sun exposure [103]. ...
... However, there was no further discussion about the role of olive oil in their lipstick formulation. A study by Viola and Violab (2009) mentioned that the phenol structure of olive oil has shown antioxidant action, especially oleuropeine, which acts against free radicals at the skin level [103]. Olive oil has an inhibitory effect on sun-induced cancer development when applied on the skin after the sun exposure [103]. ...
... A study by Viola and Violab (2009) mentioned that the phenol structure of olive oil has shown antioxidant action, especially oleuropeine, which acts against free radicals at the skin level [103]. Olive oil has an inhibitory effect on sun-induced cancer development when applied on the skin after the sun exposure [103]. On the other hand, Gorini et al. (2019) indicated that topical treatment with olive oil has a detrimental effect on skin barrier function and has the potential to promote the development of and to exacerbate existing atopic dermatitis [3,104]. ...
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A considerable amount of literature has been published on several aspects of lipsticks production. To date, there is no collation of studies related to lipsticks production that has been published. This review was conducted to examine information about the history of lipsticks; ingredients used in the preparation of lipsticks, focusing on the natural and chemical ingredients; methods of preparation for the lipsticks; and the characterization of the lipsticks. A literature search for English language articles was conducted by searching electronic databases including Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Overall, the evidence indicates that lipsticks have been used since ancient times and are among the highest demand cosmetics. The findings of this review summarize those of earlier studies that explained the use of different types of ingredients in the manufacturing processes of lipsticks. It highlights the importance of using green technology and ingredients to fabricate lipsticks to avoid potential side effects such as skin irritation and allergy reaction.
... Some polyunsaturated fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms (linoleic, 18:2 ω-6, and α-linolenic, 18:3 ω-3), although indispensable for cell structure and function, cannot be synthesized by the body and must be consumed in food. 18 The minor components of EVOO are α-tocopherol, phenol compounds, carotenoids (β-carotene and lutein), squalene, phytosterols, and chlorophyll (in addition to a great number of aromatic substances). ...
... Therefore, olive oil is a good source in many applications such as biological, cosmetics and nutrition-related applications. 18,19 Black Cumin Products and their Characteristics Black cumin seed is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the Ranunculaceae family growing in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. 26 The scientific classification of black cumin is shown in Table-3. Black cumin seed is an annual herbaceous plant cultivated in different parts of the world, mainly in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. ...
... In the manner of the health, fatty acids are not only seen as a source of energy in the diet but also known as building blocks of skin, retina, nervous system, lipoproteins and biological membranes. Olive oil has its special place in these functional sides of fats (Viola & Viola, 2009). Most of the fat composition of olive oil (98-99%) is composed of triacylglycerol and it is reported that the structure of these triacylglycerol's is rich in oleic acid which is known as monounsaturated fatty acid (56-84%) (Gorzynik-Debicka et al., 2018). ...
... Received 29 January 2020; Received in revised form 25 April 2020; Accepted 6 May 2020 and is a form of an organ with high metabolic activity. Therefore, it should be mentioned that the skin is quite sensitive to oxidative stress, atmosphere pollution, ultraviolet lights etc. Depending on all these negative factors; it might be thought to be at the high risk of deterioration of structure and function, aging and cancer (Viola & Viola, 2009). Considering the importance of mitochondrial function especially in skin diseases and skin aging, it had been realized that olive oil might have the positive effects on skin. ...
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The balanced presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and specific bioactive components of high-polyphenol extra virgin olive oil (HP-EVOO)result in the presumed health benefit. Enrichment of its principal polyphenols is shown to be protective in oxidative damage and improves mitochondrial dysfunction. We investigated the effect of different concentrations of HP-EVOO applications on mitochondrial functions and antioxidant defense status on human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) under the H2O2 induced stress conditions. Our data showed that HP-EVOO has prominentantioxidant capacityin 2%, 5% and 10% HP-EVOO groups (p = 0.000) especially under H2O2 toxicity. Mitochondrial gradients for ATP production were preserved with the increase in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) with 2% (p = 0.001), 5% (p = 0.000), 10% (p = 0.003) EVOO application, which resulted in improving cell viability.Hereby, it was concluded that EVOO might have a beneficial effect on skin health by increasing antioxidant status and by providing higher MMP to maintain the mitochondrial function of the keratinocytes in our study.
... Takva izloženost škodi stanicama kože, dolazi do formiranja radikala koji kemijskim reakcijama uzrokuju negativne promjene na koži, posebice ubrzano starenje. 44 Glavni cilj kozmetičke industrije je usporiti starenje kože što iz zdravstvenih, što iz estetskih razloga. Potrošači danas osim estetskog i zdravstvenog zadovoljstva teže uporabi prirodnih preparata. ...
... Fenoli su prirodni antioksidansi koji u prisustvu kisika, vodikova peroksida i raznih radikala sprječavaju reakcije peroksidacije, koje su smatrane jednim od glavnih faktora kod starenja kože. [44][45][46] Koliko je prepoznat kozmetički potencijal komine u Hrvatskoj pokazuje Neva Jurman sa svojim radom "Postupak dobivanja zdravstveno ispravnog aktivnog elementa od komine masline za upotrebu u kozmetici". Riječ je o inovaciji za koju je 2014. ...
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Komina masline kao ostatna materija u prehrambenoj industriji ne ubraja se u opasni otpad ili otpad općenito. To je potencijalni problem zbog njezinih određenih komponenata koje negativno utječu na ekosustav, a osobito na vodene organizme i biljke. Uslijed neadekvatnog odlaganja, spojevi komine bivaju isprani i procjeđivanjem dospijevaju u tla i podzemne vode gdje uzrokuju onečišćenja. Tema privlači dodatan interes zbog potencijala iskorištavanja komine masline u raznorazne svrhe, te je predmet mnogih znanstvenih istraživanja današnjice.
... Ini dikarenakan oleh aktivasi enzim p53, suatu enzim yang mencegah dan memperbaiki kerusakan kulit yang disebabkan oleh paparan UVA. (26)(27)(28) Secara keseluruhan, minyak zaitun murni diindikasikan untuk digunakan langsung pada kulit dalam bentuk krim dan salep yang digunakan di dunia kosmetik. Namun, tidak dapat dilupakan jika penggunaan minyak zaitun secara topikal saja atau sebagai bahan dalam kosmetik kulit memiliki efek terapeutik (yaitu sebagai anti-inflamasi, anti-neoplastik serta anti-penuaan), penggunaan minyak zaitun sehari-hari diyakinin berkontribusi dapat mencegah perubahan fisiologis yang disebabkan oleh waktu dan beragam faktor pengaruh eksternal. ...
... Namun, tidak dapat dilupakan jika penggunaan minyak zaitun secara topikal saja atau sebagai bahan dalam kosmetik kulit memiliki efek terapeutik (yaitu sebagai anti-inflamasi, anti-neoplastik serta anti-penuaan), penggunaan minyak zaitun sehari-hari diyakinin berkontribusi dapat mencegah perubahan fisiologis yang disebabkan oleh waktu dan beragam faktor pengaruh eksternal. (26)(27)(28) ...
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Sensus WHO memperkirakan kenaikan populasi lanjut usia di dunia sebesar 10% sampai 22% atau dari 800 juta jiwa menjadi 2 milyar jiwa. Populasi lanjut usia di Benua Asia dan Asia Tenggara berturut-turut berjumlah 7% dan 6% dari seluruh total demografi, serta hal ini pula berdampak untuk meningkatnya angka kejadian penyakit pada populasi lanjut usia salah satunya adalah penyakit kulit atau kulit kering. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mencari peningkatan kadar hidrasi kulit lansia setelah penelitian intervensi berupa minyak Klentiq. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian quasi eksperimental, dengan metode pengambilan sampel berupa total sampling. Penelitian dilakukan di Panti STW RIA Pembangunan Cibubur pada periode September 2019, dengan hasil penelitian menggunakan uji statistik Cochran dan uji statistik Friedman didapatkan perubahan status hidrasi kulit yang lebih baik setelah penggunaan minyak Klentiq secara rutin selama 3 minggu. Dianjurkan untuk secara terus menerus (rutin) menggunakan minyak klentiq minimal 3 minggu dalam rangka agar terjadi perbaikan kadar hidrasi dan status hidrasi kulit, serta tidak perlu khawatir untuk digunakan dalam jangka panjang.
... The Egyptians, for example, used olive oil to make creams and perfumes, while the Romans used this oil to keep the skin elastic after bathing. Nowadays, especially in the last few decades, olive oil has been the subject of several studies, mainly due to its biologic and healthy value (Viola & Viola, 2009;Smeriglio et al., 2019). ...
... Skin is the main protection organ against numerous internal and external conditions, being highly prone to oxidative stress, especially due to exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which leads to ROS formation and, upon an imbalance between ROS formation and antioxidant defences, to oxidative stress. (Viola & Viola, 2009;Rodrigues et al., 2015). ...
Article
Olea europaea L. is one of the most important fruit trees in the Mediterranean countries due to its products, olive oil and table olives. However, the olive oil extraction industry produces large amounts of by‐products, such as olive pomace, leaves, and olive mill wastewater, which are considered harmful to the environment, having negative impacts on soil, aquatic and air ecosystems. The olive oil industry by‐products are a major ecological issue mainly due to their phenolic components, such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. However, olive oil industry by‐products can be recovered, treated and studied for their health‐promoting properties, holding great potential for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Furthermore, the recovery and treatment processes contribute for an efficient waste management and sustainability of the olive oil industry, leading to important economic benefits. The phenolic compounds extracted and obtained from these by‐products present numerous health properties and can be used as antioxidant, photoprotector, anti‐inflammatory and/or antimicrobial agents in wellness and therapeutics of the skin. This review highlights issues related to olive oil industry by‐products, and then proceeds to discuss how their beneficial biological activities makes them reusable, particularly their high positive impact in treating skin disorders.
... Emollients are a standard of care for inhibition of dryness, steroid-sparing effect, and maintenance therapy in AD [4,6]. Virgin olive oil coat the skin, occluding and protecting it by slowing down transepidermal water loss and increasing hydration within the stratum corneum [6,21]. Also, it makes the skin look less rough and scaly [21]. ...
... Virgin olive oil coat the skin, occluding and protecting it by slowing down transepidermal water loss and increasing hydration within the stratum corneum [6,21]. Also, it makes the skin look less rough and scaly [21]. The superiority of Olivederma in comparison with Betamethasone regarding the severity of dryness reported by our patients might be due to such moisturizing effects of olive oil. ...
Article
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Objectives: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent and chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin condition that can influence all age groups. AD is associated with a poor health-related quality of life. This randomized clinical trial was performed to compare the effectiveness of Olivederma (combination of aloe vera and virgin olive oil) or betamethasone regarding disease severity, quality of life, serum IgE and eosinophil count. Methods: Thirty-six AD patients were randomly allocated to topical Olivederma or betamethasone, and were followed for 6 weeks. Results: Total SCORAD severity scores showed significant decrease in both groups, while it was more prominent in Olivederma group (64.5% improvement in Olivederma vs. 13.5% improvement in Betamethasone, p-value < 0.001). Quality of life (DLQI questionnaire) of AD patients was significantly improved after 6 weeks treatment with Betamethasone (22.3%, p < 0.001) and Olivederma (60.7%, p-value < 0.001). Olivederma group showed a significantly lower DLQI score in comparison with Betamethasone treated patients after 6 weeks of therapy (p < 0.001). Improvements in eosinophil count and serum IgE was observed. Conclusion: In summary, this study shows that Olivederma is superior to topical Betamethasone after 6 weeks of therapy with regard to disease severity, quality of life and eosinophil count.
... It is composed mainly of fatty acids and other minor components. 1 The fatty acids are mainly subdivided into unsaturated (oleic and linoleic acids) and saturated types (palmitic and stearic acids). The other minor components include α-tocopherol, phenol compounds. ...
... The other minor components include α-tocopherol, phenol compounds. 1 Olive oil phenols can be divided into three categories: simple phenols, secoiridoids, and lignans, all of which inhibit auto-oxidation. Major phenols include hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, oleuropein, and ligstroside. ...
Article
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The use of topical olive oil (OO) for skin health is common among Saudis and worldwide. Therefore, this cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the use of topical OO for skin health among Saudis in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was administered to Saudis at four different malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 401 participants were enrolled in the study. The results showed that the average knowledge score of the participants was 3.4±0.3 (out of 5) and 87% had fair knowledge. The top source of knowledge among the participants was friends/relatives. In the attitude section, the average score was 4.1±0.5 (out of 5). Females had a higher attitude score 4.2±0.5 as compared to males 4±0.5 (P=0.03). The most common reason for using topical OO among the participants was skin moisturizing (73%). Female gender was the only significant factor associated with the use of topical OO (P < 0.001). The use of topical OO for skin health is highly prevalent in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Therefore, more awareness of the benefits and adverse effects of topical OO use is required especially from health educational organizations. The preliminary results of this study suggest further research with a larger sample in an academic setting across the nation.
... It is composed mainly of fatty acids and other minor components. 1 The fatty acids are mainly subdivided into unsaturated (oleic and linoleic acids) and saturated types (palmitic and stearic acids). The other minor components include α-tocopherol, phenol compounds. ...
... The other minor components include α-tocopherol, phenol compounds. 1 Olive oil phenols can be divided into three categories: simple phenols, secoiridoids, and lignans, all of which inhibit auto-oxidation. Major phenols include hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, oleuropein, and ligstroside. ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of topical olive oil (OO) for skin health is common among Saudis and worldwide. Therefore, this cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the use of topical OO for skin health among Saudis in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was administered to Saudis at four different malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 401 participants were enrolled in the study. The results showed that the average knowledge score of the participants was 3.4±0.3 (out of 5) and 87% had fair knowledge. The top source of knowledge among the participants was friends/relatives. In the attitude section, the average score was 4.1±0.5 (out of 5). Females had a higher attitude score 4.2±0.5 as compared to males 4±0.5 (P=0.03). The most common reason for using topical OO among the participants was skin moisturizing (73%). Female gender was the only significant factor associated with the use of topical OO (P<0.001). The use of topical OO for skin health is highly prevalent in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Therefore, more awareness of the benefits and adverse effects of topical OO use is required especially from health educational organizations. The preliminary results of this study suggest further research with a larger sample in an academic setting across the nation.
... Its fruit is mostly destined to olive oil production, but it is also an important health-promoting factor in the Mediterranean diet, having a several-century long folk medicine tradition [15]. Since remote times, olive oil has been used for medicinal and cosmetic purposes, e.g. by ancient Egyptians to make creams and perfumes as well as by Romans to keep the skin elastic after bathing [16]. Furthermore, in the Middle ages, physician monks used it to make lotions for the treatment of burns and skin infections [17]. ...
... Medicinal properties include prevention of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, cancer, anti-inflammatory effects and wound healing [21,22]. In addition, both topical and dietary use of olive oil are known to exert preventive action against skin ailments [16]. Beneficial effects for human health are mainly due to the major secondary metabolite oleuropein, a heterosidic ester of βglycosylated eleanolic acid and hydroxytyrosol (HT), and to other phenolics such as HT itself [18]. ...
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Background: Atopic dermatitis is a multifactorial immune-mediated skin disorder characterized by an alteration of epidermal barrier function and onset of skin lesions, which range from mild erythema to severe lichenification. Treatment consists in hydration with possible use of topical or immunomodulatory corticosteroids, which, however sometimes showed side effects. Recently, the interest in natural compounds has grown significantly and among these, hydroxytyrosol (HT) plays a pivotal role due to its strong and well-known anti-inflammatory activity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of Fenolia® Eudermal Cream 15 (HT-based formulation) on epidermal barrier impaired as consequence of skin injury. Methods: Whit this purpose, morphologic and structural as well as anti-inflammatory evaluations, after treatment with pro-inflammatory mediators (PBS 1 X and LPS) and HT-based formulation on reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) were carried out by qualitative (hematoxylin/eosin- and immunostaining) and quantitative (MTT assay, IL-1α and IL-8 release by ELISA) techniques. Furthermore, HT absorption through the epidermal barrier was evaluated by RP-LC-DAD analysis. Results: A rise in the thickness of the epidermis as well as an appropriate maturation and protein expression (Loricrin, Fillagrin, E-Cadherin and Cytokeratins 5&6) were detected in treated RHE samples. In particular, the HT-based formulation was found to stimulate cell proliferation, as evidenced by the significant increase in Ki67 expression, which suggests the involvement of repair mechanisms, increasing epithelial regeneration and differentiation and improving the epidermal barrier effect. Furthermore, HT-based formulation showed a statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity by reducing both IL-1α and IL-8 release by RHE tissues, greater than the reference drug dexamethasone. Finally, excellent transcutaneous absorption values were found for HT, demonstrating how this new formulation increases the availability of the bioactive compound. Conclusions: In light of these results, Fenolia® Eudermal Cream 15 could be an effective agent to counteract atopic dermatitis. Graphical abstract Safety and efficacy of hydroxytyrosol-based formulation on skin inflammation: in vitro evaluation on reconstructed human epidermis model.
... Saat diterapkan ke kulit setelah terkena paparan sinar matahari, minyak zaitun memiliki efek penghambatan ke arah perkembangan kanker yang disebabkan oleh sinar matahari. Ini dikarenakan oleh aktivasi enzim p53, suatu enzim yang mencegah dan memperbaiki kerusakan kulit yang disebabkan oleh paparan UVA (Viola & Viola, 2009;Lucas et al., 2011;Cicerale et al., 2012). ...
... Namun, tidak dapat dilupakan jika penggunaan minyak zaitun secara topikal saja atau sebagai bahan dalam kosmetik kulit yang memiliki efek terapeutik (sebagai antiinflamasi, antineoplastik serta antipenuaan). Penggunaan minyak zaitun sehari-hari diyakini berkontribusi dalam mencegah perubahan fisiologis yang disebabkan oleh waktu dan beragam faktor eksternal (Viola & Viola, 2009;Lucas et al., 2011;Cicerale et al., 2012). ...
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Aging is something that cannot be avoided which has an impact on decreasing organ function. One of them is the skin organ whose ability to maintain skin hydration tends to decrease due to reduced expression of aquaporin-3 and damage to the lipid bilayer that makes up the stratum corneum. One simple alternative to improve this is by using klentiq oil which is a typical Javanese oil and comes from natural ingredients. This study is a quasi experimental, with a total sampling method. The intervention carried out in the form of klentiq oil intervention with a composition of 20% virgin coconut oil and 30% virgin olive oil and 1% rose flower essence. The research was conducted at the STW RIA Panti Pembangunan Cibubur in the period September 2019. The results showed that 10 respondents with low skin hydration levels experienced a significant increase in skin hydration levels with the highest increase in sample 1, namely from 27.8 to 34.8 and sample 7 from 32.6 to 39.4. So that it can be concluded that moisturizer from klentiq oil has been shown to increase the hydration level of elderly skin after 3 weeks of use. INTISARI Penuaan merupakan suatu hal yang tidak dapat dihindari yang berdampak pada menurunnya fungsi organ. Salah satunya adalah organ kulit yang kemampuannya dalam mempertahankan hidrasi kulit cenderung menurun dikarenakan berkurangnya ekspresi dari aquaporin-3 dan rusaknya lipid bilayer penyusun stratum corneum. Salah satu alternatif sederhana untuk memperbaikinya yaitu dengan menggunakan minyak klentiq yang merupakan minyak khas masyarakat Jawa dan berasal dari bahan alami. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian quasi eksperimental, dengan metode pengambilan sampel berupa total sampling. Intervensi yang dilaksanakan berupa intervensi minyak klentiq dengan komposisi berupa virgin coconut oil 20% dan virgin olive oil 30% dan esens bunga mawar 1%. Penelitian dilakukan di Panti STW RIA Pembangunan Cibubur pada periode September 2019. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 10 responden dengan kadar hidrasi kulit yang rendah mengalami peningkatan kadar hidrasi kulit yang cukup signifikan dengan kenaikan tertinggi yaitu pada sampel 1 yaitu dari 27,8 menjadi 34,8 dan sampel 7 dari 32,6 menjadi 39,4. Sehingga dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa pelembab dari minyak klentiq terbukti dapat peningkatkan kadar hidrasi kulit lansia setelah pemakaian selama 3 minggu. Kata kunci: lansia; minyak klentiq; status hidrasi PENDAHULUAN Penuaan adalah proses yang tidak bisa dihindari oleh manusia dan merupakan suatu hal yang pasti terjadi (Shai et al., 2009; Farage et al., 2013). Seiring dengan meningkatnya fasilitas kesehatan dan perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan diketahui bahwa angka harapan hidup cenderung meningkat yang berdampak pada meningkatnya populasi lanjut usia. WHO memprediksi bahwa kenaikan lanjut usia akan menjadi 22% dari yang sebelumnya 10% pada tahun 2030 dengan populasi lanjut usia di Benua Asia dan Asia Tenggara adalah 7% dan 6% dari seluruh total demografi. Hal ini berdampak pula pada peningkatan angka kejadian penyakit pada populasi lanjut usia, salah satunya yaitu penyakit kulit atau kulit kering. Seiring dengan bertambahnya usia maka akan terjadi penurunan dari fungsi barier (proteksi) baik dari barier mekanik, barier imunologi, dan barier biokimia terutama pada lapisan stratum corneum (Fitzpatrick et al., 2008). Hidrasi serta kelembaban kulit di stratum corneum diatur secara endogen oleh natural moisturizing factor (NMF), interaksi
... The ratio ω-6/ω-3 in olive oil is highly satisfied, since the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended this ratio to be within 5:1 to 10:1 [7,8]. ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids play an important role in development of cell membrane, regulate fluidity of cell membrane and activities of precursor molecules of many physiological elements, those are involved in controlling inflammatory reactions, blood pressure, mortal cardiac diseases and cancer [9]. ...
... In combination with vitamin A, vitamin E stimulates cell regeneration. It is considered as useful remedy against wrinkles and is also applied in treatment to prevent stretch marks [8,59]. Presently, microcapsule of olive oil has been applied into the cosmetics with the same aid [18,58,63]. ...
Article
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Olive oil has been received a great importance around the globe because it provides unique functional value. Olive oil prevents the risks of several chronic and acute metabolic disorders because it is enriched with monounsaturated fatty acids, antioxidant phenolic compounds, vitamin E and vitamin K. Unfortunately, oxidative deterioration of fatty acids in olive oil provides short shelf life and reduces biological activities. It is responsible for undesirable organoleptic properties. It may belief that one of the solutions to preserve the quality of olive oil is microencapsulation. In this review, comprehensive information about techniques to prepare olive oil microcapsule is represented. To prepare olive oil microcapsule, emulsification of olive oil with different wall materials (matrixes) has been adopted as a primary step. Subsequently, dehydration of emulsion by spray drying or freeze drying or coacervation process has been adopted to prepare olive oil microcapsule. Moreover, microcapsule of olive oil has been prepared by extrusion technology. Biopolymers, such as proteins and polysaccharides have been used as wall material for encapsulation of olive oil. As stable emulsification is one of important issue to produce microcapsule, several emulsifiers, such as lecithin, tween 20 have been used during emulsion preparation. Different characteristics of the microcapsule of olive oil are summarized because it is influenced by several factors during preparation of microcapsule. In later exercise, several applications of encapsulated olive oil in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries are represented in comprehensive way. It may expect that this review article will receive attention in industries and academic sectors.
... Triglycerides are the most dominant compounds in OO, which render the main physical and chemical properties of oil. On the other hand, the dominant FA in olive oil is oleic acid and a number of other FAs are present in tiny amounts [5]. The most important part in OO is the FAs that include stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2), linolenic acids (18:3), palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1), and Myristic (14:0), However, eicosanoic and heptadecanoic acids are found in trace amounts [1,4]. ...
... Oats have been used for a long time to alleviate itching and irritation [3] and avena sativa has been shown to have preventive effects on skin irritation in a SLS model [4]. Olive oil's composition is similar to that of sebum which makes it particularly able to protect the skin [5]. Ceramide 3 has been shown to have a protecting effect against surfactant-induced dermatitis [6]. ...
... 7 For their elimination antioxidants contained in antioxidant creams are helpful. 13 The study demonstrated that bright and firm hybrid emulsion I can reduced free radical scavenging activity because it contained high active ingredients such as pseudoalteromonas ferment extract, chlamydomonas extract, hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel) extract, and astaxanthin etc. ...
... e main lipid components of olive oil are unsaturated fatty acids such as mono-(oleic) and di-glycerides (linoleic acid). Both are bioactive compounds and play a major role in human health [68]. Besides this, triterpene squalene is also considered as a functional compound in the unsaponifiable fraction of olive oil. ...
Article
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Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from the fruit of Olea europaea , a plant belonging to the Oleaceae family, which is widely cultivated and diffused in the Mediterranean area. It is largely produced and used since antiquity. It is mainly used and consumed as food but also as key ingredient in a wide variety of cosmetic products, e.g., to moisturize and nourish dry skin. In the last few decades, olive oil has received much attention as compared to the other seed-obtained oils as well as to the animal fats due to many functional compounds with positive effects on health. To maintain the genuine picture of olive oil, it is essential to assure its authenticity and quality. The presence of bioactive compounds, which characterize the olive oil owing to their antioxidant properties, can be assessed by spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Currently, spectroscopic techniques combined with chemometric data analysis represent one of the most promising detection methods in the food sector. They offer rapid, versatile, and inexpensive data collection and analyses. The main advantages include the limited and simple sample preparation and the possibility to get spectra directly from the production line. Infrared spectroscopy (mid- and near-infrared) coupled to chemometrics is considered as powerful, fast, accurate, and nondestructive analytical tool for rapid and precise determination of the bioactive compounds content, as well of their bioactivities, i.e., antioxidant properties. These techniques represent a valid alternative to the existing conventional methods of analysis, e.g., based on chromatography and mass spectrometry. Indeed, the present review focuses on the application of infrared spectroscopy for functional compounds evaluation in olive oil.
... Skin is a tissue that sensitive to oxidative stress, atmospheric pollution, ultraviolet rays and diseases. Depending on all these negative factors; it has been thought that skin is under the high risk of impaired structure-function, aging and cancer [38]. It is possible to see studies on the effects of olive oil on skin aging besides cognitive effects in aging. ...
Article
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There are many studies examining the effect of olive oil consumption and its bioactive components on health. Experimental mod-els and studies on volunteers, epidemiological studies, systemic reviews and metaanalyses show that olive oil consumption has a positive effect on the formation, prevention and treatment processes of many chronic diseases, mainly due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. By preserving the mitochondrial function with its polyphenolic properties, olive oil is thought to have benefits on metabolism and maintaining the cellular structure. Similarly, it has been thought that the role of the Mediterranean diet in maintaining healthy life is based on olive oil, as an important component of the Mediterranean diet and main source of dietary fat. In this review, the systemic effects of using olive oil as a source of fat in diet or olive oil applications with experimental models have been discussed with many in vitro, in vivo and human studies.
... The topical use of avena sativa is well established and provides a variety of benefits including moisturization, barrier protection, and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and soothing effects [4] leading to its use for a number of dermatological conditions [5] [6]. Olive oil's composition is similar to that of sebum; it contains oleic acid which acts as a skin softener and provides skin protection with its fat and antioxidant content [7]. Ceramides are natural lipids and are a major component in the stratum corneum. ...
... Treatment with both fig and olive oil revealed the presence of numerous and varied antioxidant agents. The diverse natural antioxidants act synergistically with each other to produce a broad spectrum of antioxidative activities that create an effective defense system against free radical attack (Viola and Viola, 2009). Moreover, the polyphenols present in the plants may up-regulate mRNAs of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase and thus, may counteract the oxidative stress-induced by ionizing radiations. ...
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The present study was designed to determine the possible protective and therapeutic effects of olive oil and/or Ficus carica against radiation-induced cytological and histological changes in liver and Kidney of male albino rats. Irradiation was performed by whole-body exposure of rats to an acute single dose gamma radiation of 6 Gy. Irradiated rats received, via gavage, extra virgin olive oil (7.6 ml/kg b.wt), and/or extract of Ficus carica fruit (1 g/kg b.wt) before and/or after radiation exposure. Six rats were sacrificed on the 1 st and 15 th-day post-irradiation exposure at the control and treated irradiated subgroups. Time duration for this experiment was one month. The γ-Irradiation treated group revealedhisto pathological alterations in the hepatic and renal tissues on the 1 st and 15 th-day post-irradiation as compared to the control rats. The administration of the olive oil and/or Ficus carica showed beneficial results against the deleterious effects of γ-irradiation. A better ameliorative effect was noticed with the combined treatments that revealed the synergistic effect between them. In conclusion, the administration of the olive oil and/or Ficus carica provides considerable radioprotective and radiotherapeutic effects against whole body γ-radiation in male Wistar albino rats.
... Saat diminum, minyak zaitun telah dikonsumsi terbukti memberi perlindungan terhadap kulit. (Cicerale, Lucas, & Keast, 2012;Franco et al., 2014;Viola & Viola, 2009) Sebanyak 117 pasien yang dimasukkan dievaluasi pada awal, dan kemudian pada minggu 2, 4, dan 8 dan hasilnya menyimpulkan keunggulan VCO dibandingkan minyak lainnya di antara pasien anak dengan AD ringan sampai sedang. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian baru di Indonesia dikarenakan belum ada yang meneliti mengenai efektivitas Minyak Klentiq yaitu gabungan minyak kelapa dan minyak zaitun terhadap peningkatan kadar hidrasi kulit terutama pada kelompok lansia. ...
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The Population Reference Bureau (PRB) estimates that Indonesia will experience a population surge to 365.3 million by 2030, which will further affect the surge in the elderly population and increase health problems occurring in the elderly. One of the elderly health problems that often occur on the skin is skin hydration. The purpose of this study is to look for an increase in the hydration level of elderly skin after intervention studies in the form of Klentiq oil. This research is a quasi-experimental study, with a total sampling method in the form of sampling. The study was conducted at the STW RIA Pembangunan Cibubur in September 2019, using the statistical test Repeated Measurement results a significant increase in hydration (p-value <0.001) between measurements after giving intervention in the form of Klentiq Oil. The highest increase of hydration level is between the measurement of week zero and week three which is 2,637 (0,300)%. It is advisable to continuously (routinely) use Klentiq oil for at least 3 weeks in order to improve the hydration level and skin hydration status, and doesn’t have to worry about being used in the long term usage.ABSTRAK Population Reference Bureau (PRB) memperkirakan bahwa Indonesia akan mengalami lonjakan populasi menjadi 365,3 juta jiwa pada tahun 2030 yang selanjutnya akan berdampak terhadap lonjakan populasi lanjut usia serta peningkatan permasalahan kesehatan yang terjadi pada lansia. Salah satu permasalahan kesehatan lansia yang sering terjadi pada kulit adalah masalah hidrasi kulit. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mencari peningkatan kadar hidrasi kulit lansia setelah penelitian intervensi berupa minyak Klentiq. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian quasi eksperimental, dengan metode pengambilan sampel berupa total sampling. Penelitian dilakukan di Panti STW RIA Pembangunan Cibubur pada periode September 2019. Variabel bebas dalam penelitian ini adalah penggunaan Minyak Klentiq selama 21 hari dan variabel tergantung dalam penelitian ini adalah perubahan kadar hidrasi kulit lengan kanan bawah. Hubungan antar variabel di uji dengan Repeated Measurement. Terdapat 51 responden yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan mengikuti penelitian hingga akhir. Uji statistik Repeated Measurement didapatkan hasil kenaikan hidrasi kulit pada lengan kanan bawah yang bermakna (p-value < 0,001) antar pengukuran setelah pemberian intervensi berupa Minyak Klentiq. Peningkatan kadar hidrasi lengan kanan bawah paling tinggi adalah antara pengukuran minggu ke nol dengan minggu ke tiga yaitu sebesar 2,637 (0,300)%. Sebagai kesimpulan, Minyak Klentiq terbukti meningkatkan kadar hidrasi kulit pada lansia (p-value < 0,001) dengan pemakaian selama 21 hari.
... Squalene ditemukan dalam jumlah tinggi di sebum (∼12% dari komposisinya) dan bertindak sebagai agen kimia yang berguna untuk pembersihan radikal bebas, menghambat lipoperoksidasi yang diinduksi oleh UVA. Saat diminum, minyak zaitun telah dikonsumsi terbukti memberi perlindungan terhadap kulit (Cicerale, Lucas, & Keast, 2012;Franco et al., 2014;Viola & Viola, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
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Tulisan ini membahas perubahan epigenetic pada molekul mRNA yang disebut N6 metiladenosin dan kaitannya untuk penyembuhan kanker otak. Penyakit kanker otak atau glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) merupakan jenis kanker yang termasuk sulit untuk diobati. Selain jenisnya beraneka macam, efek pengobatan sangat rendah. Harapan hidup penderita sangat rendah dan kemungkinan kekambuhan sangat besar. N6metiladenosin atau m6A adalah suatu proses epigenetik yang terjadi di RNA. Terjadinya m6A dikatalisis oleh tiga kelompok protein yang dapat bersifat metilase, misalnya METTL3 dan METTL4. Ada juga keompok protein sebagai katalis m6A yang bersifat demitilase seperti FTO dan ALKBH5. Adapun kelompok protein ketiga adalah protein pengikat m6A, yang juga mengatur keseimbangan cis dan trans, misalnya IGF2BP. Sejumlah penelitian menunjukkan bahwa m6A berkaitan dengan penyebab terjadinya GBM. Walaupun demikian, masalah dalam penerapan m6A adalah belum dipastikannya sifat m6A sebagai onkogen atau gen supresor tumor. Maka pemberian inhibitor bagi katalis m6A, misalnya MV1035 yang merupakan inhibitor bagi ALKBH5, diharapkan dapat membantu penyembuhan GBM (Malacrida dkk, 2019). Hasil sebaliknya justru dilaporkan oleh Visnawathan dkk (2017) yang mengamati bahwa knock down pada METTL3 dan METTl4 justru menghentikan pertumbuhan tumor dan meningkatkan apoptosis. Karena itu, makalah ini akan membahas peran protein katalis yang mempengaruhi terjadinya metilasi m6A, misalnya kaitan antara katalis FTO dan PRRC2 yang mempengaruhi pembentukan protein OLIG2 yang merupakan master factor bagi pemrograman sel GBM, ketahanan genotoksik, dan plastisitas fenotiope tumor. Makalah ini juga akan membahas lebih dalam mekanisme OLIG2 sebagai katalis bagi m6A pada sel GBM. Kata kunci: gliobstoma multiforme, N6 metiladenosin, epigenetik, terapi
... Squalene ditemukan dalam jumlah tinggi di sebum (∼12% dari komposisinya) dan bertindak sebagai agen kimia yang berguna untuk pembersihan radikal bebas, menghambat lipoperoksidasi yang diinduksi oleh UVA. Saat diminum, minyak zaitun telah dikonsumsi terbukti memberi perlindungan terhadap kulit (Cicerale, Lucas, & Keast, 2012;Franco et al., 2014;Viola & Viola, 2009). ...
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ini membahas mekanisme virus onkolitik dalam memusnahkan sel kanker otak atau glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM merupakan jenis kanker yang sulit disembuhkan. Pengobatan standar adalah pembedahan yang dilanjutkan dengan radiasi dan kemoterapi. Salah satu penyebab sulitnya terapi adalah brain-blood barrier (BBB). Selain itu, GBM cenderung bersifat resisten terhadap kemoterapi dan radiasi. Dengan demikian, tingkat kekambuhan tinggi dan tingkat kesembuhan rendah. Salah satu metode baru yang diduga dapat menyembuhkan GBM adalah virus oncolytic (VO). VO dapat menyerang dan mematikan sel kanker. Ada VO yang bersifat alami dan ada VO yang bersifat transgenic. VO dapat menyebar ke sel kanker di sekitarnya dan menembus BBB. Antara tahun 2010 hingga 2018, sudah ada 57 penelitian mengenai uji klinis VO pada GBM. HSV1 merupakan salah satu jenis VO. Kelebihan HSV adalah tidak bergabung dengan genom inangnya dan tidak bersifat onkogenik. Selain HSV, polio–rhinovirus chimera (PVSRIPO) digunakan untuk mematikan sel kanker. Virus ini mengenali reseptor CD155 yang diekspresikan secara berlebih pada sel GBM. Adanya virus ini memicu sel T dan timbulnya kekebalan terhadap sel kanker. Virus rekombinan ini disuntikkan secara intracranial. Pasien tetap dalam keadaan normal selama 24 bulan, bahkan dua pasien bertahan 69 bulan setelah terapi. Namun kekurangan metode virus onkolitik adalah dalam hal biaya dan efektivitas. Selain itu, perlu lebih tepatnya penentuan target molekuler bagi VO yang bersifat rekombinan. Karena itu maka penulisan paper ini akan difokuskan pada mekanisme rekombinasi gen pada VO, mekanisme molekuler pengaruh VO terhadap sel kanker, peningkatan efektivitas terapi, dan kombinasi dengan kemoterapi dan radiasi. Kata kunci: virus oncolytic, glioblastoma multiforme, kanker otak
... Squalene ditemukan dalam jumlah tinggi di sebum (∼12% dari komposisinya) dan bertindak sebagai agen kimia yang berguna untuk pembersihan radikal bebas, menghambat lipoperoksidasi yang diinduksi oleh UVA. Saat diminum, minyak zaitun telah dikonsumsi terbukti memberi perlindungan terhadap kulit (Cicerale, Lucas, & Keast, 2012;Franco et al., 2014;Viola & Viola, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
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ABSTRAK Jumlah populasi lanjut usia di dunia mengalami peningkatan yang signifikan seiring dengan meningkatnya angka harapan hidup. Sensus WHO memperkirakan kenaikan populasi lanjut usia di dunia sebesar 10% sampai 22% atau dari 800 juta jiwa menjadi 2 milyar jiwa. Hal ini berdampak terhadap meningkatnya permasalahan kesehatan pada lansia terutama kulit kering. Penelitian bertujuan untuk efektivitas pelembab dengan minyak klentiq dan plasenta domba dalam rangka meningkatan kadar hidrasi kulit lansia. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian quasi eksperimental, dengan total sampling, dilakukan di Panti STW RIA Pembangunan Cibubur pada periode September 2019. Hasil penelitian didapatkan terdapat perbedaan peningkatan hidrasi kulit yang bermakna antara intervensi minyak klentiq dan krim plasenta domba pada minggu 0-2, 1-3, dan 1-4 dengan p-value berturut-turut sebesar 0,015, 0,039, dan 0,004. Hasil uji statistik T-Test independent didapatkan perbedaan rerata peningkatan hidrasi kulit pada minggu 0-3 dengan intervensi minyak klentiq dan krim plasenta domba (p-value 0,039) dan perbedaan rerata peningkatan hidrasi kulit antara dua intervensi tersebut adalah 0,853 (0,407)%. Saran penelitian adalah dianjurkan untuk rutin menggunakan pelembab minimal tiga minggu dalam rangka agar terjadi perbaikan kadar hidrasi.
... Oleic acid (OA) is one of the relevant fatty acids found in vegetable oils and foods, such as cod and oilseeds (Roncero et al. 2016;Viola and Viola 2009). OA is also naturally found in the human body as a constituent of cell membranes, and it participates as a substrate for hormone synthesis (Tvrzicka et al. 2011). ...
Article
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The treatment of cutaneous inflammation with topical corticosteroids may cause adverse effects reinforcing the need for therapeutic alternatives to treat inflammatory skin disorders. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of oleic acid (OA), a fatty acid of the omega-9 (ω-9) family, and we point out it as an alternative to treat inflammatory skin disorders. OA was incorporated into Lanette®- or Pemulen® TR2-based semisolid preparations and the pH, spreadability, rheological behavior and in vivo anti-inflammatory performance in a UVB radiation-induced skin inflammation model in mice were assessed. The anti-inflammatory activity was verified after single or repeated treatment of the mouse ear following the UVB. The OA action on glucocorticoid receptors was investigated. Both semisolids presented pH values compatible with the deeper skin layers, appropriate spreadability factors, and non-Newtonian pseudoplastic rheological behavior. Pemulen® 3% OA inhibited ear edema with superior efficacy than Lanette® 3% OA and dexamethasone after a single treatment. Pemulen® 3% OA and dexamethasone also reduced inflammatory cell infiltration. After repeated treatments, all formulations decreased the ear edema at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after UVB. OA in semisolids, especially Pemulen® TR2-based ones, presented suitable characteristics for cutaneous administration and its anti-inflammatory activity seems to occur via glucocorticoid receptors. OA was also capable to reduce croton oil-induced skin inflammation. Besides, the ex vivo skin permeation study indicated that OA reaches the receptor medium, which correlates with a systemic absorption in vivo. The natural compound OA could represent a promising alternative to those available to treat inflammatory skin disorders. Graphic abstract Open image in new window
... Extra-virgin olive oil contains 70% to 85% oleic acid (C18:1 cis 9) (an n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid) and 1% to 2% minor components, such as a-tocopherol, polyphenols, carotenoids, squalene, phytosterols and chlorophyll [6]. The Mediterranean diet, which is rich in olive oil, is associated with a higher population longevity, reduction in mortality from coronary heart diseases and cancer risk [7]. ...
Article
Objective Chronic stress‐induced oxidative damage and protease synthesis cause a loss of extracellular matrix components promoting human skin aging. The administration of antioxidant compounds, such as those observed in olive oil, may attenuate stress‐induced aging signs in human skin. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive oil administration in ex vivo stressed human skin. Methods Explants of human skin were treated with high levels of epinephrine (as observed in stressed patients) and olive oil in medium for 13 days. Cultures treated with medium alone were used as controls. Results Olive oil reversed the high epinephrine level‐induced reduction in epidermis and dermis thickness and collagen fiber content in ex vivo human skin. The increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde levels (an index of lipid peroxidation) promoted by high levels of epinephrine were also attenuated by olive oil in ex vivo human skin. Moreover, olive oil was able to reverse the high epinephrine level‐induced increase in extracellular signal‐related kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and c‐JUN (a major component of transcription factor AP‐1) phosphorylation and protein matrix metalloproteinase‐2 (MMP‐2) expression in ex vivo human skin. Conclusion Olive oil attenuates stress‐induced aging signs (thinner dermis and collagen fiber loss) in ex vivo human skin by reducing MMP‐2 expression, ROS production, and ERK 1/2 and c‐JUN phosphorylation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The ancient Egyptians used it as an anti-wrinkle potion; the Romans used it as a moisturizer after bathing .To this day, olive oil is used widely in many countries to treat and prevent multiple skin conditions & an evaluation of its biologic value as a topical raw material in dermatology is reported. (Viola & Viola, 2009). ...
... The anticancerous effects of olive oil when applied to the skin need to be more thoroughly explored. 30 ...
Article
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The olive tree is an unpredictable formed tree, which grows up to 10 m in stature. The olive leaves are inverse and elongated molded. The leaves are dim green above and gleaming beneath. The white and relatively little olive blossoms are shaped on a year ago's wood. The run of the mill natural products or olives are ovoid formed and regularly pointed. This study aimed to see if health signals influenced consumers' decisions of olive oil with varying levels of information about the oil's beneficial characteristics. In order to accomplish this, a direct poll on the use of olive oil was conducted by looking at the expressed preferences of a sample of users. Two economically measured examinations were conducted to determine the factors that influence the use of high-polyphenol olive oil. Furthermore, the data demonstrate that varying levels of personal knowledge have a role in shaping olive oil customers' health perceptions. Finally, this study confirmed that consumers' selections are heavily influenced by their sense of self-coherence, even with healthful foods. As a result, different reasons and traits impact customers' knowledge or beliefs that shape their attitudes.
... Sometimes called "liquid gold", olive oil is mainly appreciated for its flavour and high nutritional value, along with its recognised potential in the prevention of certain diseases [1,2]. It is also an interesting ingredient in dermo-cosmetology, as it has beneficial effects on the skin [3,4]. ...
Article
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The olive oil industry is subject to significant fraudulent practices that can lead to serious economic implications and even affect consumer health. Therefore, many analytical strategies have been developed for olive oil's geographic authentication, including multi-elemental and isotopic analyses. In the first part of this review, the range of multi-elemental concentrations recorded in olive oil from the main olive oil-producing countries is discussed. The compiled data from the literature indicates that the concentrations of elements are in comparable ranges overall. They can be classified into three categories, with (1) Rb and Pb well below 1 µg kg −1 ; (2) elements such as As, B, Mn, Ni, and Sr ranging on average between 10 and 100 µg kg −1 ; and (3) elements including Cr, Fe, and Ca ranging between 100 to 10,000 µg kg −1. Various sample preparations, detection techniques, and statistical data treatments were reviewed and discussed. Results obtained through the selected analytical approaches have demonstrated a strong correlation between the multi-elemental composition of the oil and that of the soil in which the plant grew. The review next focused on the limits of olive oil authentication using the multi-elemental composition method. Finally, different methods based on isotopic signatures were compiled and critically assessed. Stable isotopes of light elements have provided acceptable segregation of oils from different origins for years already. More recently, the determination of stable isotopes of strontium has proven to be a reliable tool in determining the geographical origin of food products. The ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr is stable over time and directly related to soil geology; it merits further study and is likely to become part of the standard tool kit for olive oil origin determination, along with a combination of different isotopic approaches and multi-elemental composition.
... Olej z pierwszego tłoczenia (na zimno) charakteryzuje się najmniejszą liczbą kwasową (7) i otrzymywany jest w procesach łagodnej obróbki mechanicznej, a następnie poddawany płukaniu, dekantacji, odwirowaniu i filtracji (8). Otrzymany olej zawiera triglicerydy, estry kwasów tłuszczowych, wielonasycone kwasy tłuszczowe (WKT) oraz frakcję niezmydlającą się (tokoferole, fitosterole, pigmenty, fenole) (9). ...
Article
The olive tree is a long-lived plant, mentioned already in Greek mythology and the Bible. Currently most plantations is concentrated in the Mediterranean and the Middle East. The fruit of the olive ripens in favorable climatic conditions for about 5 months. Half of the fruit's content is water, the other ingredients are mainly: oil, carbohydrates, cellulose, phenolic compounds, proteins and inorganic compounds. This compound belongs to the terpenes secoids, it is a glucoside of the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol. It is found in many genera of the Oleaceae and Gentianaceae families. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol are responsible for the sharp and bitter taste of the oil.
... The antioxidant activity of olives makes them a candidate for moderating the effects of the aging process on the skin by limiting biochemical consequences of oxidation [101] due to its high squalene content and β-sitosterol, and richness in oleic acid (a skin softener). As such, virgin olive oil is ideal for directly protecting the skin [102]. Oleuropein is used in cosmetics due to its antioxidant, antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, skin protecting, and anti-aging properties [65]. ...
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The natural cosmetics market has grown since consumers became aware of the concept of natural-based ingredients. A significant number of cosmetics have an ecological impact on the environment and carry noxious and chemically potent substances. Thus, the use of natural and organic cosmetics becomes increasingly important since it is clear that topical treatment with cosmeceuticals can help improve skin rejuvenation. A substantial investigation into the benefits that fruits and plants can bring to health is required. Studies have shown that antigenotoxic properties are linked to anti-aging properties. Several studies have shown potential antigenotoxicity in natural ingredients such as Almonds (Prunus dulcis), Elderberry (Sambucus nigra), Olives (Olea europaea), and Grapes (Vitis vinifera). This review presents an overview of research conducted on these natural ingredients, the most common in the Northeast of Portugal. This region of Portugal possesses the most organic farmers, and ingredients are easily obtained. The Northeast of Portugal also has climatic , topographic, and pedological differences that contribute to agricultural diversity.
... OO contains up to 99% mixed triglyceride esters from which around 55-83% monounsaturated (e.g., oleic acid), 3.5-21% of polyunsaturated (e.g., linoleic acid), 7.5-20% of saturated (e.g., palmitic acid) and other minor compounds (e.g., stearic acid, α-linolenic acid, squalene, phenolics or sterols) [25]. Glycerides profile depends on several factors such as the plant variety, altitude, location, extraction process or harvest-time [26,27]. ...
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The overall purpose of this study was to synthesize biobased polyols to replace conventional fossil-based polyols in polyurethane foams (PUF) in a multistep approach based on green chemistry, in order to bring both improved properties and sustainability. Oleochemistry has been largely used for PUFs elaboration, but for as far as we know the use of olive oil to obtain such systems had never been reported. The synthesis of the biobased polyols is based on robust approach based on the epoxidation of the double bonds from olive oil using hydrogen peroxide, followed by the ring opening of the epoxides with acetic acid or ethanol to yield polyols with different chemical structures. The chemical structures were determined and checked by NMR and FTIR. The molar masses, the thermal stability and the viscosity were also evaluated. These biobased polyols were further tested making biobased and flexible PUF (FPUFs), with open cells. In this respect, a conventional and fossil-based polyol was partially replaced by up to 35% of each synthesized biobased polyol, alone or mixed. The structural, morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of the PFUFs obtained from the mixture of the biobased polyols were superior to the ones obtained using a sole biobased polyol. Surprisingly, these biobased foams present higher properties than the conventional and fully fossil-based PUF.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Cutaneous inflammatory diseases, such as irritant contact dermatitis, are usually treated with topical corticosteroids, which cause systemic and local adverse effects limiting their use. Thus, the discovery of new therapeutic alternatives able to effectively treat skin inflammatory disorders, without causing adverse effects, is urgently needed. Aim of the study: To investigate the topical anti-inflammatory effect of oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid, into Pemulen® TR2-based semisolid dosage forms, employing a croton oil-induced irritant contact dermatitis model in mice. Materials and methods Male Swiss mice were submitted to skin inflammation protocols by acute and repeated applications of croton oil. The anti-inflammatory activity of Pemulen® TR2 hydrogels containing OA was evaluated by assessing oedema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β levels. The mechanisms of action of OA were evaluated using cytokine IL-1β application or pretreatment with the glucocorticoid antagonist mifepristone. Possible toxic effects of OA were also assessed. Results Pemulen® TR2 3% OA inhibited the acute ear oedema [maximal inhibition (Imax) = 76.41 ± 5.69%], similarly to dexamethasone (Imax = 84.94 ± 2.16%), and also inhibited ear oedema after repeated croton oil application with Imax = 85.75 ± 3.08%, similar to dexamethasone (Imax = 81.03 ± 4.66%) on the day 7 of the experiment. Croton oil increased myeloperoxidase activity, which was inhibited by Pemulen® TR2 3% OA (Imax = 71.37 ± 10.97%) and by 0.5% dexamethasone (Imax = 96.31 ± 3.73%). Pemulen® TR2 3% OA also prevented the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β levels induced by croton oil (Imax = 94.18 ± 12.03%), similar to 0.5% dexamethasone (Imax = 87.21 ± 10.58%). Besides, both Pemulen® TR2 3% OA and 0.5% dexamethasone inhibited IL-1β-induced ear oedema with an Imax of 80.58 ± 2.45% and 77.46 ± 1.92%, respectively. OA and dexamethasone anti-inflammatory effects were prevented by 100% and 91.43 ± 5.43%, respectively, after pretreatment with mifepristone. No adverse effects were related to Pemulen® TR2 3% OA administration. Conclusions OA demonstrated anti-inflammatory efficacy similar to dexamethasone, clinically used to treat skin inflammatory conditions, without presenting adverse effects.
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The development of thermal treatments is helping to optimize the management of waste generated by the two-phase olive oil extraction system. A new treatment reactor, based on the steam explosion system, has been scaled up to the industrial level and offers several physical and chemical advantages. The reactor has been adapted to work into the pomace oil extractors. Chemical advantages include the efficient solubilization of simple phenols, like hydroxytyrosol, and sugars in the liquid fraction, and a significant reduction of humidity and toxicity of the residual solid fraction, in which cellulose and oil are concentrated, making the solid residual waste more suitable for subsequent bioprocess applications. All of these parameters will lead to the widespread use of steam treatment in the near future to improve the management and obtain the maximum exploitation of this byproduct.
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Currently, hyperlipidemia is a growing health issue that is considered a risk factor for obesity. Controlling body weight and modifying life style in most of cases are not adequate and the condition requires medical treatment. Statin drugs (mainly Atorvastatin (ATO)), have been used broadly and for long time as medications for handling higher levels of lipid, especially bad cholesterol, which accordingly controls the prevalence of obesity. Still, the obstacle that stands in front of any formulation is the poor solubility of the drug. Low solubility of ATO came up with poor absorption as well as poor bioavailability. This paved the way for the present study, which aimed to exploit nanotechnology and develop certain nanolipid carriers that could accommodate hydrophobic drugs, such as ATO. Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) containing ATO was fabricated using olive oil. Olive oil is natural plant oil possessing confirmed hypolipidemic activity that would help in improving the efficacy of the formulation. Via applying the Quality by Design (QbD) approach, one NLC formula was selected to be optimized based on appropriate size and higher entrapment. Optimized ATO-NLC was scrutinized for zeta potential, in vitro study and kinetic profile. Moreover, stability testing and in vivo hypolipidemic behavior was conducted. The optimized NLC formulation seemed to show particle size (254.23 nm) with neutral zeta potential (−1.77 mV) and entrapment efficiency (69.56%). The formulation could be prolonged for 12 h and provided higher % of release (97.17%). Stability testing confirmed the role of modifying the surface of the formulation with PEG-DSPE in providing a highly stable formulation that could withstand three months storage in two altered conditions. Ultimately, optimized ATO-NLC could successfully lower total cholesterol level in rats induced with obesity and fed a high-fat diet. Remarkably, ATO-NLC prepared with olive oil, in addition to shielding its surface, would provide a stable formulation that holds up the synergistic action between olive oil and ATO.
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Wound care forms a large component of the ever-increasing workload of district and community nurses. The need for a cost-effective product that can be used on a variety of wounds and that meets multiple requirements (e.g. protease modulation, anti-microbial, peri-wound skin protection, maceration control and barrier function) is well recognised. The plethora of wound dressings available today all fulfil some, although not all, of these requirements. Choosing the correct dressing decreases healing time, provides cost-effective care and improves patient quality of life. This article looks at the important properties of wound care products, investigates the need to release nurse time and describes how patients with wounds can engage in effective self-care, with a focus on 1 Primary Wound Dressing® (1PWD), a cost effective, easy-to-use product that has already demonstrated clinical efficacy. Case studies showing the successful use of 1PWD are also presented to highlight the clinical application of this novel product.
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Rania Ibrahim Mohammad Almoselhy. Application of Some Methods for Detecting Adulteration in Olive Oil. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, 2010. This study aimed to maintain the high quality of olive oil by investigating some analytical methods as a powerful tool to determine extra virgin olive oil adulteration with relatively cheap seed and vegetable oils such as sunflower oil, corn oil and refined olive oil. The analytical methods ranged from the familiar manual physical and chemical tests such as refractive index (RI) which gives a good idea about the degree of unsaturation of the oil under investigation, as well as its correlation with iodine value (IV); acid value (AV) as indication of free fatty acid content of the oil; peroxide value (PV) which determines the amount of primary oxidation products and UV absorbencies at 232 and 270 nm, that measure the formation of conjugated dienes and trienes, respectively due to the formation of secondary oxidation products. The analytical methods extended to the more sophisticated instrumental methods of analysis such as chromatographic separation and determination techniques which involved gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID) in order to investigate the composition of the fatty acids of the oils under investigations. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopic determination technique was employed and applied as a potent, nondestructive and effective analytical tool to study its potency to investigate the functional groups with their relative absorbencies or transmittances according to their concentrations in samples and their characteristic fingerprints. FTIR spectroscopy was used also to determine extra virgin olive oil adulteration with sunflower, corn and refined olive oils in their binary admixtures at different concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100%; w/w. FTIR spectral data collected in MIR range 4000-400 cm-1 showed major peaks representing triglyceride functional groups which could be observed around 2925 cm-1 [C–H stretching (asymmetry)], 2854 cm-1 [C– H stretching (symmetry)], 1747 cm-1 [C=O stretching], 1463 cm-1 [C–H bending (scissoring)], 1238, 1163, 1118 and 1097 cm-1 [C–O stretching] and 722 cm-1 [C–H bending (rocking)]. A peak around 1653 cm-1 is attributed to C=C stretching (cis). The spectral region (1300-1000 cm-1) which contains FTIR fingerprints of the used oils was found to be very useful in detecting extra virgin olive oil adulteration. A band shift at 3005 cm-1; assigned to C–H stretching vibration of cis- double bond (=C–H) characteristic to extra virgin olive oil, was observed at higher wavenumbers with increasing adulterant concentration which allowed the determination of adulteration of extra virgin olive oil. The absorption intensity values of the spectral bands at 1163 cm-1 (assigned to C–O stretching vibration and CH2 bending vibration) increased with increasing adulterant concentration. There was a pronounced shift of the peak at 912 cm-1 (assigned to –HC=CH– of cis- double bond, bending out-of-plane) for extra virgin olive oil to higher wave numbers with increasing adulterant concentration. Absorbance ratios (R1118/1097 and R1747/2925 cm-1) decreased with increasing the concentrations of added adulterant oils (sunflower, corn and refined olive oils) with a fairly good linear relationship. The spectral region selected between 1800-900 cm-1 mostly represented the combination of C–H bending, C=O stretching and C=C stretching and hence it was directly related to the unsaturated C=C bond. It played a very important role in the discriminant analysis. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy proved its potency to detect extra virgin olive oil adulteration at 5% level of adulterant oils (sunflower, corn and refined olive oils) which is much lower than the limit at which there exists a threatening of adulteration of extra virgin olive oil. *** Keywords: Adulteration; extra virgin olive oil; FTIR spectroscopy; UV spectroscopy; GC analysis; sunflower oil; corn oil; refined olive oil ***Suggested Citation: Almoselhy, Rania I.M., M.Sc. 2010- Application of some Methods for Detecting Adulteration in Olive Oil (August 29, 2010). Ain Shams University - Faculty of Agriculture - Department of Food Science, 2010, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3908539 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3908539
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Medium- and long-chain fatty acids (MLFAs) are essential energy sources in cells and possess vital biological functions. Characteristics of MLFAs in biosamples contributes to the understanding of biological process and finding potential biomarkers for relevant diseases. However, there are obstacles of the MLFAs determination due to their poor ionization efficiency in mass spectrometry and structural similarity of the MLFAs. Herein, a derivatization strategy was applied by labeling with d0-N, N-dimethyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine-2-amine (d0-DHPP) and detecting with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The parallel isotope labeled internal standards were generated by tagging d6-DHPP to MLFAs. The simple and rapid derivatization procedure and mild reaction conditions greatly reduced the potential of MLFA degradation during the processing procedure. With the methodology, the chromatographic performance was greatly improved, and the mass spectrum response was enhanced up to 1, 600 folds. Finally, the developed derivatization method was applied to serum samples to analyze the alteration of MLFAs induced by 2,2’,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) exposure in breast cancer nude mice. The semi-quantitative results demonstrated that the BDE-47 exposure significantly influenced the MLFA metabolism in mice.
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The olive tree and its derivatives are of great interest in the field of biomedicine due to their numerous health properties. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of the use of olive products, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and products derived from its extraction, on the skin. Numerous studies have pointed out the protective effect of olive compounds on skin ageing, thanks to their role in the different mechanisms involved in the ageing process, such as reducing oxidative stress, increasing cell viability and decreasing histological alterations. With regard to their photoprotective effect, the olive tree and its fruit contain phenolic compounds which have a protective effect against radiation, such as low ultraviolet absorption and high antioxidant activity, acting as a protective factor against photocarcinogenesis. Similarly, the anti-tumour effects of olives have been studied at the level of the different compounds and extracts obtained from them, and their ability to selectively attack human melanoma cells has been observed. They have also shown antibacterial activity against microorganisms particularly implicated in skin infections, such as Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus spp. Likewise, on healthy tissue, they have shown the ability to stimulate growth, migration and the expression of genes involved in cell differentiation, which favours the regeneration of skin wounds. According to the results included in this review, the olive tree and its derivatives could be useful in the treatment of many skin conditions.
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Squalene is a cancer chemo-preventive and skin protective agent with high commercial demand. Here, we report for the first time that the green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves is a surprisingly rich plant-based source of squalene. Young and tender leaves and old and turf leaves were collected at four different collecting seasons (April–August). Lipophilic compounds in the leaves and commercial green teas were extracted with hexane. The squalene contents in the hexane extracts varied greatly with the types of the leaves and collecting seasons. The hexane extract of turf leaves contained significantly higher contents of squalene than the extract of tender leaves. The hexane extract of the turf leaves collected in August contained the highest content of squalene (29.2 g/kg extract). This represents the first report on the qualitative and quantitative information on squalene in green tea leaves.
Chapter
Olive and olive oil (OO) are a fundamental component of the Mediterranean culture and cuisine. Diverse traditional medicines include olive and its oil as a vital ingredient for the formulation of concoctions useful against urinary tract infection, diabetes, high blood pressure, hair loss, diarrhea, gout, rheumatism, mouth, and as a skin cleanser in various parts of the world. The use of OO as a healthy culinary ingredient has remained in vogue compared to other cooking oils given its promising benefits on the cardiovascular system among other health benefits. Indeed, results derived from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies have validated the potential benefits of olive and OO for the cardiovascular system. In vitro, both the methanolic and the ethanolic leaf extract downregulate hydroxynonenal-induced p-MAPKAPK-2 and p-c-Jun. Olive and OO are rich in bioactive metabolites such as oleuropein (OLE), hydroxytyrosol, and polyphenols. Notably, OLE inhibits the excess production of reactive oxygen species and stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential following simulated ischemia-/reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte injury. In vivo, OLE reduced the plasma lipid peroxidation products and protein carbonyl levels in rabbits alongside providing strong antioxidant protection. Interestingly, it can also reduce doxorubicin-related cardiotoxicity. Both hydroxytyrosol and OLE significantly reversed chronic inflammation and oxidative stress consequently reducing cardiovascular, hepatic, and metabolic symptoms. Polyphenols also reduce chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. In furtherance, extra-virgin oil has demonstrated both cholesterol and blood pressure lowering properties while clinically decreasing cardiovascular disease risk by at least 35%. Virgin OO provides benefits among patients with stable coronary heart disease and can be employed as a supplement in patients with this disease.
Chapter
The skin, the largest organ of the human body, performs many functions. Perhaps, the most important of which is protecting the internal organs from environmental toxins and pathogens. Diseases of the skin are now a global public health issue. Xerosis (dry skin) and pruritis (itch), the most common dermatological conditions, result from damage to the skin. Olive oil is known as “liquid gold.” Its consumption improves health, reducing the incidence of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Wrinkles, xerosis, and pruritis can be treated with molecules found naturally in olive oil which have antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. This chapter reviews the effects of olive oil on skin.
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This study aimed to maintain the high quality of olive oil by investigating some analytical methods as a powerful tool to determine extra virgin olive oil adulteration with relatively cheap seed and vegetable oils such as sunflower oil, corn oil and refined olive oil. The analytical methods ranged from the familiar manual physical and chemical tests such as refractive index (RI) which gives a good idea about the degree of unsaturation of the oil under investigation, as well as its correlation with iodine value (IV); acid value (AV) as indication of free fatty acid content of the oil; peroxide value (PV) which determines the amount of primary oxidation products and UV absorbencies at 232 and 270 nm, that measure the formation of conjugated dienes and trienes, respectively due to the formation of secondary oxidation products. The analytical methods extended to the more sophisticated instrumental methods of analysis such as chromatographic separation and determination techniques which involved gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID) in order to investigate the composition of the fatty acids of the oils under investigations. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopic determination technique was employed and applied as a potent, nondestructive and effective analytical tool to study its potency to investigate the functional groups with their relative absorbencies or transmittances according to their concentrations in samples and their characteristic fingerprints. FTIR spectroscopy was used also to determine extra virgin olive oil adulteration with sunflower, corn and refined olive oils in their binary admixtures at different concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100%; w/w. FTIR spectral data collected in MIR range 4000-400 cm-1 showed major peaks representing triglyceride functional groups which could be observed around 2925 cm-1 [C–H stretching (asymmetry)], 2854 cm-1 [C–H stretching (symmetry)], 1747 cm-1 [C=O stretching], 1463 cm-1 [C–H bending (scissoring)], 1238, 1163, 1118 and 1097 cm-1 [C–O stretching] and 722 cm-1 [C–H bending (rocking)]. A peak around 1653 cm-1 is attributed to C=C stretching (cis). The spectral region (1300-1000 cm-1) which contains FTIR fingerprints of the used oils was found to be very useful in detecting extra virgin olive oil adulteration. A band shift at 3005 cm-1; assigned to C–H stretching vibration of cis- double bond (=C–H) characteristic to extra virgin olive oil, was observed at higher wavenumbers with increasing adulterant concentration which allowed the determination of adulteration of extra virgin olive oil. The absorption intensity values of the spectral bands at 1163 cm-1 (assigned to C–O stretching vibration and CH2 bending vibration) increased with increasing adulterant concentration. There was a pronounced shift of the peak at 912 cm-1 (assigned to –HC=CH– of cis- double bond, bending out-of-plane) for extra virgin olive oil to higher wave numbers with increasing adulterant concentration. Absorbance ratios (R1118/1097 and R1747/2925 cm-1) decreased with increasing the concentrations of added adulterant oils (sunflower, corn and refined olive oils) with a fairly good linear relationship. The spectral region selected between 1800-900 cm-1 mostly represented the combination of C–H bending, C=O stretching and C=C stretching and hence it was directly related to the unsaturated C=C bond. It played a very important role in the discriminant analysis. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy proved its potency to detect extra virgin olive oil adulteration at 5% level of adulterant oils (sunflower, corn and refined olive oils) which is much lower than the limit at which there exists a threatening of adulteration of extra virgin olive oil.
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Determination of authenticity of extra virgin olive oils has become very important in recent years due to the increasing public concerns about possible adulterations with relatively cheap vegetable oils such as sunflower oil, soybean oil, sesame oil, corn oil and refined olive oil. Recent developments in Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy instrumentation extend the application of this technique to the field of food research, facilitating particularly the studies on edible oils and fats. In this work, FT-IR spectroscopy is used as an effective analytical tool in order to determine extra virgin olive oil adulteration with sunflower, corn and refined olive oils in their binary admixtures in different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100% - w/w). The spectral region (1300-1000 cm-1) which contains the IR fingerprints of these vegetable oils was found to be very useful in detecting olive oil adulteration. A band shift observed at 3009 cm−1 assigned to the =C–H stretching vibration of the cis- double bond, allows the determination of extra virgin olive oil adulteration. The intensities of the spectral bands at 1163 cm-1 (assigned to -C-O stretching vibration and CH2 bending vibration) increase with increasing adulterant concentration. The absorbance ratio (R1118/1097 cm-1) decreased with increasing adulterant concentration. Also, there was a pronounced shift of the peak at 912.78 cm-1 (assigned to -HC=CH- cis- double bond, bending out of plane) for pure olive oil to higher wave numbers with increasing adulterant concentration.
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Approximately 12 h after the ingestion of a single dose containing 1000 mg each of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol and RRR-gamma-tocopherol, the plasma and lipoproteins of normal subjects contained equal increases of both tocopherols; by 24 h the concentration of gamma-tocopherol, but not the alpha-tocopherol, decreased sharply. Similar studies in hyperlipidemic subjects demonstrated that the plasma and the chylomicron fraction from lipoprotein lipase-deficient patients (with elevated chylomicrons) contained both tocopherols up to 24 h, whereas plasma from a patient with dysbetalipoproteinemia (with elevated beta very-low-density lipoproteins) displayed the decrease in gamma-tocopherol at 24 h. These studies demonstrate that both alpha- and gamma-tocopherols are absorbed and secreted by the intestine in chylomicrons, and suggest that alpha-tocopherol is preferentially secreted by the liver in nascent lipoproteins. Furthermore, studies in post-gall bladder surgery patients suggest a preferential secretion of gamma-tocopherol in bile. Thus, the liver rather than the intestine appears to discriminate between alpha- and gamma-tocopherols.
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Topical supplementation represents an attractive approach to mitigate environmentally induced deficiencies of skin vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol). We report here the impact of natural sunlight on stratum corneum (SC) vitamin E and also compare the effectiveness of dietary supplementation to topical application as a way to increase vitamin E in the superficial layers of the SC. The effects of natural sunlight, 30 minutes of midday sunlight, were measured on two separate occasions. Vitamin E in the surface layers of the SC was measured by HPLC after ethanol extraction. Under these relevant conditions, vitamin E in the superficial SC was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by 50-65%. In a followup study, panelists entered into a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study. In this study, one group washed their skin once daily for one minute with a commercially available body wash containing 0.15% vitamin E and 0.10% vitamin E acetate, while the second group used a body wash without vitamin E but also supplemented their diet with 400 IU alpha-tocopherol (18 x RDI). Not surprisingly, only dietary supplementation increased serum vitamin E (approximately twofold). Although both treatment modalities increased SC vitamin E, topical delivery was significantly more effective (53-fold vs baseline) than dietary delivery (eightfold vs baseline). Moreover, only topical delivery increased SC vitamin E acetate (19-fold vs baseline). The results reported here indicate that vitamin E in the superficial layers of the SC is depleted readily by even a brief exposure to sunlight and that use of a vitamin E body wash can substantially increase the vitamin E in this superficial layer more effectively than dietary supplementation.
Article
Reactive oxygen species have been shown to play a role in ultraviolet light (UV)-induced skin carcinogenesis. Vitamin E and green tea polyphenols reduce experimental skin cancers in mice mainly because of their antioxidant properties. Since olive oil has also been reported to be a potent antioxidant, we examined its effect on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in hairless mice. Extra-virgin olive oil was applied topically before or after repeated exposure of mice to UVB. The onset of UVB-induced skin tumors was delayed in mice painted with olive oil compared with UVB control mice. However, with increasing numbers of UVB exposures, differences in the mean number of tumors between UVB control mice and mice pretreated with olive oil before UVB exposure (pre-UVB group) were lost. In contrast, mice that received olive oil after UVB exposure (post-UVB group) showed significantly lower numbers of tumors per mouse than those in the UVB control group throughout the experimental period. The mean number of tumors per mouse in the UVB control, pre-UVB and postUVB groups was 7.33, 6.69 and 2.64, respectively, in the first experiment, and 8.53, 9.53 and 3.36 in the second experiment. Camellia oil was also applied, using the same experimental protocol, but did not have a suppressive effect. Immunohistochemical analysis of DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), (6‐4) photoproducts and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) in samples taken 30 min after a single exposure of UVB showed no significant difference between UVBirradiated control mice and the pre-UVB group. In the post-UVB group, there were lower levels of 8-OHdG in epidermal nuclei, but the formation of CPD and (6‐4) photoproducts did not differ. Exposure of olive oil to UVB before application abrogated the protective effect on 8OHdG formation. These results indicate that olive oil topically applied after UVB exposure can effectively reduce UVB-induced murine skin tumors, possibly via its antioxidant effects in reducing DNA damage by reactive oxygen species, and that the effective component may be labile to UVB.
Article
background.Generation of free radicals has been shown to play a role in cutaneous alterations resulting from ultraviolet radiation.objective.Cells from a previously described in vitro transgenic model of cutaneous photoaging were exposed to reactive oxygen species to determine if this results in elastin promoter activation.methods.Reactive oxygen species were generated using a hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase system, and elastin promoter activation was measured using cells derived from transgenic mice containing the human elastin promoter.results.Free radical generation resulted in a greater than sixfold increase in elastin promoter activity, and this increase was blocked with the addition of catalase.conclusion.Elastin promoter activation may play a role in the generation of solar elastosis in photoaged skin. Utilizing hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase with the in vitro transgenic photoaging model results in a sensitive system for evaluating agents that may prevent oxidative damage.
Article
Because antioxidants may play a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease by inhibiting the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), the combined association of diet-derived antioxidants and PUFAs with acute myocardial infarction (MI) was investigated. This multicenter case-control study included 674 patients and 725 control subjects in eight European countries and Israel. Fatty acid composition and alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene levels were determined in adipose tissue; selenium level was determined in toenails. For alpha-tocopherol no association with MI was observed at any PUFA level. The overall multivariate odds ratio (OR) for low (10th percentile) versus high (90th percentile) beta-carotene was 1.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 2.82). The strength of this inverse association with MI was dependent on PUFA levels (in tertiles): for low PUFA, the OR for low versus high beta-carotene was 1.79 (95% CI, 0.98 to 3.25), for medium PUFA the OR was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.00 to 3.11), and for high PUFA 3.47 (95% CI, 1.93 to 6.24). For selenium increased risk was observed only at the lowest PUFA tertile (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.22 to 5.09). This interaction between selenium and PUFAs was not significant and may at least partly be explained by a higher proportion of smokers at the low PUFA level. These findings support the hypothesis that beta-carotene plays a role in the protection of PUFAs against oxidation and subsequently in the protection against MI. No evidence was found that alpha-tocopherol or selenium may protect against MI at any level of PUFA intake.
Article
Interpretation of studies comparing the efficacy of different dietary fat sources in promoting 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis often ignores the fact that about 4% (wt/wt) linoleic acid (18:2n-6) is required for optimal tumor promotion. We therefore fed DMBA-intubated or placebo-intubated female, Sprague-Dawley rats 20% fat diets containing 18:2n-6 (wt/wt) from either high-linoleic safflower oil (SL, 14.6% 18:2n-6), high-oleic safflower oil (SO, 3.4% 18:2n-6), olive oil (OO, 1.1% 18:2n-6), or OO supplemented with 18:2n-6 (OL, 3.4% 18:2n-6) for 16 weeks. Results indicated that OO-fed rats had longer tumor-free time, fewer tumors per rat, and lower tumor incidence compared with SO and OL. Addition of 2.3% 18:2n-6 to OO enhanced tumor promotion (p less than 0.04); SL, SO, and OL demonstrated similar tumor-enhancement effect. About 74% of observed mammary tumors were adenocarcinomas; a greater number of tumors appeared in the thoracic and inguinal than in the cervical and abdominal regions irrespective of diet. These results indicate that once an optimal amount of linoleic acid is provided in the diet, oleic- or linoleic-rich oils have similar effects on promotion of mammary tumors in the rat.
Article
Both the presentation and prognosis of coronary heart disease in women are significantly different than in men. Diagnostic evaluations should be approached somewhat differently in male and female populations, and gender should be one of the variables assessed when options for medical and surgical therapy are considered. Risk factor modification can be offered as a potentially effective form of therapy for coronary heart disease in women. These modifications would include cessation of smoking, avoidance of oral contraceptives in women greater than 35 years of age, hypertension control, and normalization of blood lipid profile and body weight. Risk factor modification may be particularly important in prevention of accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic women. Prognosis after myocardial infarction is significantly worse in women despite better post-infarction left ventricular ejection fraction and higher incidence of non-Q-wave myocardial infarction in that population. Definitive assessment of coronary anatomy and aggressive management of coronary heart disease should be considered in women judged to be at high risk. Little information is available regarding gender-specific responses to medical management of coronary heart disease. Women seem to have a less favorable short-term outcome after PTCA, but better long-term results. Coronary artery bypass grafting results appear to depend less on gender than on coronary anatomy, preoperative risk factors, and patient size, and thus should not be withheld from women.
Article
Malonaldehyde (MA), a product of lipid peroxidation, is known to have a number of toxicological effects. Among skin surface components, squalene has been suggested as a significant source of MA following UV exposure. Irradiation of squalene coated on the inside surface of glass tubes served as a simple model to examine skin surface photochemistry. Malonaldehyde produced during UV-irradiation was reacted with methyl hydrazine to form N-methylpyrazole, which was then measured by gas chromatographic analysis. Ultraviolet A-irradiation produced low levels of MA from squalene, with a maximum of 1.0 nmol MA/mumol squalene near 6 h. Malonaldehyde production varied with the energy of irradiation, with levels of 176 nmol/mg squalene and 9 nmol/mg squalene produced after 3 h of irradiation with UVB and UVA, respectively. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay for lipid peroxidation showed large overestimations of MA levels under all irradiation conditions tested. The TBA assay predicted the highest levels of MA with UVC but we did not detect any MA with our assay.
Article
Carotenoid pigments have been found to have a protective function against photosensitization in green plants. This protective ability has been exploited in the administration of high doses of beta-carotene to patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria to ameliorate the photosensitivity associated with this disease. The carotenoids seem to exert their light-protective function by quenching excited species such as singlet oxygen and free radicals.
Article
The rate constant of quenching of singlet oxygen (kQ) by squalene (SQ) is found to be much larger than those of the lipids in human skin surface. SQ is the first target lipid in human skin surface by oxidative stresses such as sun light exposure. kQ of SQ is similar to that of 3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT). The large kQ of SQ is due to the small ionization potential. SQ consists of six 2-methyl-2-pentene units and kQ of SQ is about 6-times as large as that of 2-methyl-2-pentene. The electron donating property of methyl groups bonded to quaternary carbons of SQ is essential to the large kQ. SQ is not very susceptible to peroxidation and is stable for attacks by peroxide radicals. The chain reaction of lipid peroxidation is unlikely to be propagated with SQ in human skin surface. It is concluded that SQ functions as an efficient quencher of singlet oxygen and prevents the corresponding part of lipid peroxidation in human skin surface.
Article
Recent scientific evidence has shown free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) to play an important role in the initiation and progression of cancer. Many radical scavengers have also been found to help reduce the attacks by these ROS. Interestingly, the ROS scavengers that have been investigated are naturally occurring compounds such as vitamins C and E. Roidex is a formulation of squalene, vitamin e, and aloe vera. It was our goal to investigate whether Roidex was able to prevent the development of chemically induced cancer and to cause regression of any tumors already formed in a mouse skin model. In the prevention study, skin tumors were initiated in 50 female CD-1 mice with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene (DMBA) and promoted with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The mice were treated with either mineral oil, 5% squalene, or Roidex. At the end of the prevention study, there was a 33.34% incidence to tumors (multiplicity of 1.40) in the mineral oil-treatment group, 26.67% (multiplicity of 0.467) in the 5% squalene and Roidex groups, respectively. The tumor regression study involved the selection of mice with tumors and possible regression of these tumors with Roidex treatment. There was a regression of 33.34% of the tumors in the Roidex-treated group (39 tumors to 26 tumors) compared to the non-treated group whose tumors regressed only 3.44% (29 tumors to 28 tumors).
Article
Squalene, an isoprenoid compound structurally similar to beta-carotene, is an intermediate metabolite in the synthesis of cholesterol. In humans, about 60 percent of dietary squalene is absorbed. It is transported in serum generally in association with very low density lipoproteins and is distributed ubiquitously in human tissues, with the greatest concentration in the skin, where it is one of the major components of skin surface lipids. Squalene is not very susceptible to peroxidation and appears to function in the skin as a quencher of singlet oxygen, protecting human skin surface from lipid peroxidation due to exposure to UV and other sources of ionizing radiation. Supplementation of squalene to mice has resulted in marked increases in cellular and non-specific immune functions in a dose-dependent manner. Squalene may also act as a "sink" for highly lipophilic xenobiotics. Since it is a nonpolar substance, it has a higher affinity for un-ionized drugs. In animals, supplementation of the diet with squalene can reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In humans, squalene might be a useful addition to potentiate the effects of some cholesterol-lowering drugs. The primary therapeutic use of squalene currently is as an adjunctive therapy in a variety of cancers. Although epidemiological, experimental and animal evidence suggests anti-cancer properties, to date no human trials have been conducted to verify the role this nutrient might have in cancer therapy regimens.
Article
In our ongoing studies on the chemoprevention of cancer we have a particular interest in the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet, of which olive oil is a major component. Recent studies have shown that extravirgin olive oil contains an abundance of phenolic antioxidants including simple phenols (hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol), aldehydic secoiridoids, flavonoids and lignans (acetoxypinoresinol, pinoresinol). All of these phenolic substances are potent inhibitors of reactive oxygen species attack on, e.g. salicylic acid, 2-deoxyguanosine. Currently there is growing evidence that reactive oxygen species are involved in the aetiology of fat-related neoplasms such as cancer of the breast and colorectum. A plausible mechanism is a high intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids which are especially prone to lipid peroxidation initiated and propagated by reactive oxygen species, leading to the formation (via alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes such as trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) of highly pro-mutagenic exocyclic DNA adducts. Previous studies have shown that the colonic mucosa of cancer patients and those suffering from predisposing inflammatory conditions such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease generates appreciably higher quantities of reactive oxygen species compared with normal tissue. We have extended these studies by developing accurate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for the quantitation of reactive oxygen species generated by the faecal matrix. The data shows that the faecal matrix supports the generation of reactive oxygen species in abundance. As yet, there is a dearth of evidence linking this capacity to actual components of the diet which may influence the colorectal milieu. However, using the newly developed methodology we can demonstrate that the antioxidant phenolic compounds present in olive oil are potent inhibitors of free radical generation by the faecal matrix. This indicates that the study of the inter-relation between reactive oxygen species and dietary antioxidants is an area of great promise for elucidating mechanisms of colorectal carcinogenesis and possible future chemopreventive strategies.
Article
Generation of free radicals has been shown to play a role in cutaneous alterations resulting from ultraviolet radiation. Cells from a previously described in vitro transgenic model of cutaneous photoaging were exposed to reactive oxygen species to determine if this results in elastin promoter activation. Reactive oxygen species were generated using a hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase system, and elastin promoter activation was measured using cells derived from transgenic mice containing the human elastin promoter. Free radical generation resulted in a greater than sixfold increase in elastin promoter activity, and this increase was blocked with the addition of catalase. Elastin promoter activation may play a role in the generation of solar elastosis in photoaged skin. Utilizing hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase with the in vitro transgenic photoaging model results in a sensitive system for evaluating agents that may prevent oxidative damage.
Article
The oxidative modifications of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are crucial for the atherosclerosis process. The aim of this study was to determine if the minimally modified LDL, obtained after the ingestion of three different diets, produce differential effects on the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin expression in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). Twenty healthy young males were exposed to three dietary periods. Each period lasted four weeks. During the first period, all subjects consumed a saturated fat (SFA) enriched diet (38% fat, 20% SFA). The second and third dietary periods were administered following a randomized crossover design: a low fat high carbohydrates diet (CHO diet) and a Mediterranean diet. LDL particles, isolated during each dietary period, were oxidized by exposure to UV light and incubated for 48 h with HUVEC. Thereafter, 100 U/mL of TNF-alpha was added and incubation continued for 6 h. Cellular ELISA determined adhesion molecules expression. Lag time, propagation rate and total amounts of formed conjugated dienes were calculated in LDL incubated with 10mumol/L Cu(2+). When compared to the SFA diet, LDL isolated from the Mediterranean and CHO diets induced a lower expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin in HUVECS (P<0.007). There were no differences between both lipid lowering diets. However, lag time of LDL from the Mediterranean diet was higher than with the CHO diet (P<0.042). This parameter was inversely correlated with E-selectin expression (r=-0.497; P<0.04). Our results suggest that both the Mediterranean and CHO diets may decrease the pro-inflammatory environment induced by modified LDL in endothelial cells.
Preferential incorporation of α-tocopherol vs γtocopherol in human lipoproteins
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Phenolic compounds extracted from olive oilpreventoxidationofLDLandinhibitplateletfunctionandplateletand leukocyte eicosanoid production in vitro
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RRR- and SRR-α-tocopherol are secreted without discrimination in human chylomicrons, but RRR-α-tocopherol is preferentially secreted in very low lipoproteins
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Phenolic compounds extracted from olive oil prevent oxidation of LDL and inhibit platelet function and platelet and leukocyte eicosanoid production in vitro
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The effect of very long-chain n-3 fatty acids on immune function-related skin disease
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Evaluation of cosmetic efficacy of oleoeuropein
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