Dispersive Liquid–liquid Microextraction Combined with High-performance Liquid Chromatography-UV Detection as a Very Simple, Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Determination of Bisphenol A in Water Samples

Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran, Iran.
Journal of Chromatography A (Impact Factor: 4.17). 02/2009; 1216(9):1511-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2008.12.091
Source: PubMed


Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV detection was applied for the extraction and determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in water samples. An appropriate mixture of acetone (disperser solvent) and chloroform (extraction solvent) was injected rapidly into a water sample containing BPA. After extraction, sedimented phase was analyzed by HPLC-UV. Under the optimum conditions (extractant solvent: 142 microL of chloroform, disperser solvent: 2.0 mL of acetone, and without salt addition), the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5-100 microgL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.07 microgL(-1) for BPA. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n=5) for the extraction and determination of 100 microgL(-1) of BPA in the aqueous samples was 6.0%. The results showed that DLLME is a very simple, rapid, sensitive and efficient analytical method for the determination of trace amount of BPA in water samples and suitable results were obtained.

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    • "The injection volume was 10 mL and the detection was performed at the wavelength of 226 nm. Water samples were prepared by dispersive liquideliquid microextraction (DLLME) method [38], using methanol as the disperser solvent and chloroform as the extraction solvent. "
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    ABSTRACT: A ruthenium-mediated photoelectrochemical sensor was developed for the detection of BPA, using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as the recognition element, a tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticle-modified ITO as the electrode, and a blue 473-nm LED as the excitation light source. Photoelectrochemical oxidation of BPA on SnO2 electrode was achieved by [Ru(bpy)3](2+) under the irradiation of light. It was found that BPA was oxidized by Ru(3+) species produced in the photoelectrochemical reaction, resulting in the regeneration of Ru(2+) and the concomitant photocurrent enhancement. MIPs film was prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole on SnO2 electrode using BPA as the template. Surface morphology and properties of the as-prepared electrode were characterized by SEM, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and photocurrent measurement. In the presence of BPA, an enhanced photocurrent was observed, which was dependent on the amount of BPA captured on the electrode. A detection limit of 1.2 nM was obtained under the optimized conditions, with a linear range of 2-500 nM. Selectivity of the sensor was demonstrated by measuring five BPA analogs. To verify its practicality, this sensor was applied to analyze BPA spiked tap water and river water. With advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity, low-cost instrument, and facile sensor preparation procedure, this sensor is potentially suitable for the rapid monitoring of BPA in real environmental samples. Moreover, the configuration of this sensor is universal and can be extended to organic molecules that can be photoelectrochemically oxidized by Ru(3+). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Analytica chimica acta
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    • "Therefore, highly reliable methods are required for the detection of trace amounts of BPA. Some sample preparation techniques such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) [12], dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) [13], solid-phase extraction [14– 16], and molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction [17] [18] have been developed for the extraction of BPA from various matrices. Micelle-mediated extraction is a simple and powerful extraction method that is based on the property of most nonionic surfactants in the aqueous solutions to form micelles and to separate into a surfactant-rich phase with a small volume. "
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    ABSTRACT: A simple and high sensitive preconcentration method based on micelle-mediated extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography (LC-UV) was developed for preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous samples. The BPA was quantitatively extracted from aqueous samples in the presence of Triton X-114 as a nonionic surfactant and preconcentrated into the small volume (about 30 μL) of the surfactant-rich phase. Taguchi method, an orthogonal array design (OA16 (45)), was utilized to optimize the various factors affecting the micellar extraction of BPA. The maximum extraction efficiency of BPA was obtained at pH 3, 0.2% (w/v) Triton X-114, and 0.25 mol L−1 sodium acetate. For the preconcentration, the solutions were incubated in a thermostatic water bath at 50°C for 7 min. After centrifuge and separation of aqueous phase, the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 100 μL acetone and injected in the chromatographic system. Under the optimum conditions, preconcentration factor of 34.9 was achieved for extraction from 10 mL of sample solution and the relative standard deviation (RSD%) of the method was lower than 6.6%. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.5–150 μg L−1 with reasonable linearity ( 𝑟 2 > 0 . 9 9 8 7 ). The limit of detection (LOD) based on 𝑆 / 𝑁 = 3 was 0.13 μg L−1 for 10 mL sample volumes. The limit of quantification (LOQ) based on 𝑆 / 𝑁 = 10 was 0.43 μg L−1 for 10 mL sample volumes. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of BPA in the real samples, and satisfactory results were obtained.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013
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    • "These results could be explained from several aspects. First, extraction efficiency increased due to the salting out effect, whereby water molecules from hydration spheres around the ionic salt molecules reduce the concentration of water available to dissolve the analyte molecules and then decrease the solubility of the target analyte in the aqueous phase (22), thus enhancing transfer of analyte into the organic phase. Secondly, decrease in the extraction efficiency is due to the increased viscosity of the solution, thus reducing the rate of diffusion of the target analyte into the extraction solvent (23). "
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    ABSTRACT: Novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), coupled with high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) has been applied for the extraction and determination of cyproheptadine (CPH), an antihistamine, in human urine samples. In this method, 0.6 mL of acetonitrile (disperser solvent) containing 30 μL of carbon tetrachloride (extraction solvent) was rapidly injected by a syringe into 5 mL urine sample. After centrifugation, the sedimented phase containing enriched analyte was dissolved in acetonitrile and an aliquot of this solution injected into the HPLC system for analysis. Development of DLLME procedure includes optimization of some important parameters such as kind and volume of extraction and disperser solvent, pH and salt addition. The proposed method has good linearity in the range of 0.02-4.5 μg mL(-1) and low detection limit (13.1 ng mL(-1)). The repeatability of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation was 4.9% (n = 3). This method has also been applied to the analysis of real urine samples with satisfactory relative recoveries in the range of 91.6-101.0%.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research (IJPR)
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