Bioavailability of Anthocyanins from Purple Carrot Juice: Effects of Acylation and Plant Matrix

Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 02/2009; 57(4):1226-30. DOI: 10.1021/jf802988s
Source: PubMed


Absorption of cyanidin-based anthocyanins is not fully understood with respect to dose or anthocyanin structure. In feeding studies using whole foods, nonacylated anthocyanins are more bioavailable than their acylated counterparts, but the extent to which plant matrix determines relative bioavailability of anthocyanins is unknown. Using juice of purple carrots to circumvent matrix effects, a feeding trial was conducted to determine relative bioavailability of acylated and nonacylated anthocyanins and to assess dose-response effects. Appearance of anthocyanins in plasma was measured in 10 healthy adults for 8 h following consumption of purple carrot juice. Each subject consumed 50, 150, and 250 mL of juice containing 76 micromol (65 mg), 228 micromol (194 mg), and 380 micromol (323 mg) of total anthocyanins, respectively. Acylated anthocyanins comprised 76% of total anthocyanins in the juice, yet their bioavailability was found to be significantly less than that of nonacylated anthocyanins. Peak plasma concentrations of nonacylated anthocyanins were 4-fold higher than that for acylated anthocyanins. Absorption efficiency declined across the doses administered. Because the treatments were consumed as juice, it could be discerned that the difference in bioavailability of acylated versus nonacylated anthocyanins was not primarily caused by interactions with the plant matrix.

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    • "Whilst acylated anthocyanins have increased stability due to the co-pigmentation effect, this effect may also decrease absorption of these compounds during digestive processing (Crozier et al. 2009). Conversely, whilst non-acylated anthocyanins may be less stable, human studies have found non-acylated anthocyanins to be more bioavailable than acylated anthocyanins in vivo (Charron et al. 2009). Furthermore, intermolecular co-pigmentation also stabilises anthocyanins via multilayered arrangements with co-pigments compounds through hydrophobic interactions (Boulton 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Anthocyanins that are commonly ingested from the diet are largely conjugated, metabolized by colon microbiota and excreted in the urine and feces, yielding in a rather low bioavailability. Nevertheless, there are several health-promoting properties attributed to the ingestion of dietary anthocyanins including cardiovascular and neuroprotective effects, and the prevention of some types of cancer. There are many doubts on which compounds are really involved and which are the molecular mechanisms underlying all those biological events. Some evidences have come forth supporting the idea that the dietary phenolics bioactive forms in vivo are not necessarily those which occur in nature, but rather conjugates or metabolites arising from them in the human body. So far, it has been quite difficult to clearly assess both native and metabolized forms in vivo and to distinguish their different biological roles. Also, although some anthocyanins bioavailability has been reported to be low, their tissue distribution and accumulation has to be considered. This may lead to an increase of their levels in some key targets. This feature would be likely to contribute to possible different biological properties of dietary anthocyanins depending on their biological target. The several approaches that have been undertaken to assess anthocyanin bioavailability have been reviewed herein.
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    • "In addition, jam and marmalade processing led to increases on the percent recovery of bioaccessible individual anthocyanins (0.8–10.3%). Confirming the results of an in vivo study conducted with 10 healthy adults consuming purple carrot juice (Charron et al., 2009), nonacylated anthocyanins in jams and marmalades were found to be more bioavailable than acylated anthocyanins. Nondialysed phenolic fraction (OUT) accounted for 0.1–58.1% of the initial anthocyanin content. "
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    • "For example, a second peak can be identified for De-3-glc and petunidin-3-glucoside in volunteers administered Concord grape juice (Stalmach et al., 2012). A similar pattern in the plasma concentration versus time curve can be observed in humans for Ma-3-glc following ingestion of red wine (Bub et al., 2001) and purple carrot juice (Charron et al., 2009). Two peaks were also observed in the plasma concentration versus time curve in rats administered De-3-glc at 15 and 60 min after ingestion (Ichiyanagi et al., 2004). "
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