Flower extract of Panax notoginseng attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via blocking of NF-κB signaling pathway in murine macrophages

Department of Herbology, College of Oriental Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 780-714, South Korea.
Journal of ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3). 03/2009; 122(2):313-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.12.024
Source: PubMed


The root of Panax notoginseng (PN) is commonly used to treat chronic liver disease with its therapeutic abilities to stop haemorrhage in the circulation, while the PN flower (PN-F) is largely unknown in the biological activities on inflammation and mechanisms of its actions. In this study, the pharmacologic effects of PN-F methanol extract on inflammation were investigated to address potential therapeutic or toxic effects in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage cells, RAW264.7 cells.
Production of NO, PGE2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) in supernatant, the expression of iNOS, COX-2 and cytokines, the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules (ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK), and the activation of NF-kappaB in PN-F extract were assayed in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.
PN-F extract significantly inhibited the productions of NO, PGE2, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta on the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, PN-F extract suppressed the mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The molecular mechanism of PN-F extract-mediated attenuation in RAW264.7 cells has close a relationship to suppressing the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules such as ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK, and the translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit into nuclear.
These results indicate that PN-F extract inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response via the blocking of NF-kappaB signaling pathway in macrophages, and demonstrated that PN-F extract possesses anti-inflammatory properties in vitro.

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    • "Therefore, compounds that inhibit NF-kB activation in chronic inflammatory conditions initiated by viruses, bacteria, or chemicals may have the potential to reduce the risk of carcinoma. The flower extract of Panax notoginseng has been reported to attenuate the LPS-induced inflammatory response by blocking the NF-kB signalling pathway in murine macrophages[42]. Our result supports previous research demonstrating that C. indicum Linn e extract inhibits inflammation by suppressing NF-kB and MAPK activation in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages[45]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Psidium guajava L. is a well-known traditional medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine. To explore the anti-inflammatory activity of the flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract (FGLE), we investigated its ability to suppress the levels of inflammatory mediators elevated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Labeo rohita head-kidney (HK) macrophages. HK macrophages of L. rohita were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of the FGLE. We examined the inhibitory effect of FGLE on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The inhibitory effect of FGLE on nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. The effect of FGLE on proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin -1β (IL-1β) was also investigated by ELISA and RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of three mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) molecules ERK, JNK and p38 was analysed by western blot analysis. FGLE inhibited LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. It also effectively inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, iNOS, and COX-2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, FGLE suppressed the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that FGLE decreased both the mRNA and protein expression levels of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 in HK macrophages. FGLE suppresses the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. FGLE also significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. The molecular mechanism by which FGLE suppresses the expression of inflammatory mediators appears to involve the inhibition of NF-κB activation, through the suppression of LPS-induced IκB-α degradation. Together these results suggest that FGLE contains potential therapeutic agent(s), which regulate NF-κB activation, for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in L. rohita macrophages.
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    • "Thus, inhibition of activation of these cells appears to be an important target when treating inflammatory diseases. Stimulation of macrophages with LPS induces high production of NO by iNOS and PGE 2 by cyclooxygenase-(COX-) 2 [25]. Therefore, a reagent that prevents the release of these mediators or downregulates iNOS or COX-2 expression may possess anti-inflammatory activities. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with λ-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group ( P = 0.019 ). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation by blocking the degradation of IκB-α. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-κB-dependent pathways.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · BioMed Research International
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    • "The production of inflammatory molecules by murine monocyte macrophage RAW 264.7 cells can be induced in response to LPS stimulation [9, 11]. Thus, inhibitors of these inflammatory molecules may be considered anti-inflammatory drug candidates [16]. Allium cepa L. has been used to treat inflammatory conditions such as asthma [5] and ovariectomy-induced bone resorption in rats [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Allium cepa L. is known to possess numerous pharmacological properties. Our aim was to examine the in vitro effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells to determine cell viability to other future cell-based assays. Osteoclast precursor cells (RAW 264.7) were stimulated by Pg LPS (1μg/mL) and E. coli LPS (1μg/mL) in the presence or absence of different concentrations of AcE (10-1000 μg/mL) for 5 days at 37oC/5% CO2. Resazurin reduction and total protein content assays were used to detect cell viability. AcE did not affect cell viability. Resazurin reduction assay showed that AcE, at up to 1000 μg/mL, did not significantly affect cell viability and cellular protein levels. Additionally a caspase 3/7 luminescence assay was used to disclose apoptosis and there was no difference in apoptotic activity between tested groups and control group. Fluorescence images stained by DAPI showed no alteration on the morphology and cell counts of LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells with the use of AcE in all tested concentrations when compared to control. These findings suggest that Allium cepa L. extract could be used for in vitro studies on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells.
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