ArticlePDF Available

Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Helicobacter pylori is the major etiological agent of chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is linked to gastric carcinoma. Treatment to eradicate the bacteria failed in many cases, mainly due to antibiotic resistance, hence the necessity of developing better therapeutic regimens. Mexico has an enormous unexplored potential of medicinal plants. This work evaluates the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity of 53 plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. To test the in vitro antibacterial activity, agar dilution and broth dilution methods were used for aqueous and methanolic extracts, respectively. Aqueous extracts of Artemisia ludoviciana subsp. mexicana, Cuphea aequipetala, Ludwigia repens,and Mentha x piperita (MIC 125 to <250 microg/ml) as well as methanolic extracts of Persea americana, Annona cherimola, Guaiacum coulteri, and Moussonia deppeana (MIC <7.5 to 15.6 microg/ml) showed the highest inhibitory effect. The results contribute to understanding the mode of action of the studied medicinal plants and for detecting plants with high anti-Helicobacter pylori activity.
Content may be subject to copyright.
This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached
copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research
and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution
and sharing with colleagues.
Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or
licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third party
websites are prohibited.
In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the
article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or
institutional repository. Authors requiring further information
regarding Elsevier’s archiving and manuscript policies are
encouraged to visit:
http://www.elsevier.com/copyright
Author's personal copy
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 122 (2009) 402–405
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jethpharm
Ethnopharmacological communication
Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plants used in Mexican traditional
medicine for gastrointestinal disorders
Israel Castillo-Juáreza, Violeta Gonzáleza, Héctor Jaime-Aguilara, Gisela Martínez a,
Edelmira Linaresb, Robert Byeb, Irma Romeroa,
aDepartamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, México, D.F., Mexico
bJardín Botánico, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, México, D.F., Mexico
article info
Article history:
Received 14 October 2008
Received in revised form 2 December 2008
Accepted 21 December 2008
Available online 27 December 2008
Keywords:
Helicobacter pylori
Antibacterial activity
Mexican medicinal plants
Gastritis
Aqueous extract
Methanol extract
abstract
Aim of the study: Helicobacter pyloriis the major etiological agent of chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer
disease and is linked to gastric carcinoma. Treatmentto eradicate the bacteria failed in many cases, mainly
due to antibiotic resistance, hence the necessity of developing better therapeutic regimens. Mexico has
an enormous unexplored potential of medicinal plants. This work evaluates the in vitro anti-H. pylori
activity of 53 plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders.
Materials and methods: To test the in vitro antibacterial activity, agar dilution and broth dilution methods
were used for aqueous and methanolic extracts, respectively.
Results: Aqueous extractsof Artemisia ludoviciana subsp. mexicana, Cuphea aequipetala, Ludwigia repens,and
Mentha ×piperita (MIC 125 to <250g/ml) as well as methanolic extracts of Persea americana, Annona che-
rimola, Guaiacum coulteri, and Moussonia deppeana (MIC <7.5to 15.6 g/ml) showed the highest inhibitory
effect.
Conclusions: The results contribute to understanding the mode of action of the studied medicinal plants
and for detecting plants with high anti-Helicobacter pylori activity.
© 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
The Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori is the most
important etiological agent of chronic active type B gastritis and
peptic ulcer diseases, and is linked to gastric carcinoma (Atherton,
2006). The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori is about 40% in devel-
oped countries and 80–90% in the developing world (Perez-Perez
et al., 2004). Once acquired, Helicobacter pylori infection usually
persists for life unless treated by antimicrobial therapy.
The conventional eradication triple therapy combines two
antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor. The success rate follow-
ing this therapy is approximately 80% and is constantly decreasing
worldwide, mainly due to the antibiotic resistance (Wolle and
Malfertheiner, 2007). However, these therapies involve taking too
many drugs, which may causeside ef fects that, in addition tosignifi-
cant cost of the treatment, promote insufficient patient compliance.
These factors, together with antibiotic resistance, indicate the need
to find new anti-Helicobacter pylori treatments.
Mexico is one of the five Megadiverse countries of the world
given that about 50% of the 22,000 vascular plant species are
Corresponding author. Tel.: +52 55 56232511; fax: +52 55 56162419.
E-mail address: irma@bq.unam.mx (I. Romero).
endemic (Villase˜
nor, 2004). Over 3000 of these plants are used
medicinally (Bye et al., 1995). About one-third of these plants are
employed in the treatment of a variety of ailments associated with
the gastrointestinal system (Argueta et al., 1994).
In recent years the studies regarding the anti-Helicobacter pylori
activity of medicinal plants have increased considerably. Never-
theless, only one work has evaluated the anti-Helicobacter pylori
activity of some Mexican medicinal plants and that focused on
Yucatán, México (Ankli et al., 2002). Taking into account the enor-
mous potential of Mexican medicinal flora, the aim of this study is
to evaluate the in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of 53 plants
used in Mexican traditional medicine for gastrointestinal illness.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Plant material
Plants were selected based on ethnobotanical studies made
in Mexico. The plants were obtained commercially or collected
from different parts of the country and were identified. Voucher
specimens were deposited in the National Herbarium of Mexico
(MEXU) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The list
of plants used and other valuable information is found in Table 1.
0378-8741/$ – see front matter © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.12.021
Author's personal copy
I. Castillo-Juárez et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 122 (2009) 402–405 403
Table 1
Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of aqueous extracts(AE) and methanol extracts (ME) of Mexican medicinal plants.
Botanical species scientific name (Family) Common nameaFolk usagebPlant part usedcMIC (g/ml) Yield (%) Voucher number
AE ME AE ME
Dianthus caryophyllus L. (Caryophyllaceae) Clavel DD AP >1000 >500 1.8 0.8 1211828
Equisetum myriochaetum Schlecht. & Cham. (Equisetaceae) Cola de caballo U, G, SA, DI AP >1000 >500 1.7 0.8 2303
Taxodium mucronatum Ten.(Taxodiaceae) Ahuehuete DI L/B >1000 >500 6.4 0.4 1211841
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) Flor de Jamaica SA, DD F >1000 >500 18.2 17.7 1492
Hemiangium excelsum (Kunth) A.C. Sm. (Hippocrateaceae) Cancerina (GC) G, U, SA R/B >1000 >500 5.2 4.4 1549
Teloxys ambrosioides (L.) W.A.Weber (Chenopodiaceae) Epazote morado SA, DI, PA AP >1000 500 0.7 1.7 1201177
Anoda cristata (L.) Schltdl. (Malvaceae) Alaches SA L/S >1000 500 1.8 2.9 1222018
Poliomintha longiflora A. Gray (Lamiaceae) Orégano (NLMM/RCM) II, PA L/S >1000 250 10.3 8.0 1502
Quercus rugosa Née (Fagaceae) Encino U, SC, DI L >1000 125 0.7 2.2 1211827
Haplopappus spinulosus (Pursh) DC. (Asteraceae) Árnica Blanca II AP >1000 125 4.6 3.1 1204422
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. (Brassicaceae) Bolsa de Pastor U AP >1000 62.5 3.7 0.3 1211823
Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip. (Asteraceae) Santa María SA AP >1000 62.5 2.1 3.5 1201179
Machaeranthera cf. parviflora A. Gray (Asteraceae) Árnica morada DD AP >1000 31.2 4.2 2.4 1204424
Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae) Telimón SA L >1000 31.2 1.7 3.7 1201181
Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) Albahaca SA, D, PA, DI AP >1000 31.2 9.8 2.0 1211816
Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) Marrubio SA, DI, G L/S >1000 31.2 2.9 1.5 1201172
Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae) Oreganón II AP >1000 31.2 6.7 5.4 1204423
Moussonia deppeana (Schltdl. & Cham.) Klotzsch ex Hanst.
(Gesneriaceae)
Tlanchichinole U, DI, SA L/S >1000 15.6 1.0 1.4 1201171
Guaiacum coulteri A. Gray (Zygophyllaceae) Cuachalalate blanco, Guayacán G,U, DD B >1000 15.6 2.1 1.9 2042
Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) Aguacate DD, DI, PA, SA L >1000 <7.5 5.7 5.5 1201175
Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth(Bignoniaceae) Tronadora G, SP, DI AP 1000 500 7.0 2.9 1211818
Teloxys ambrosioides (L.) W.A.Weber (Chenopodiaceae) Epazote verde SA, DI, PA AP 1000 250 1.7 1.6 1201176
Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae) Llantén DI AP 1000 250 2.9 1.8 1211826
Calandrinia micrantha Schltdl. (Portulacaceae) Chivitos DD L/S 1000 250 0.1 1.6 1222019
Machaeranthera tanacetifolia (Kunth)Nees (Asteraceae) Árnica Morada de Chihuahua U AP 1000 125 2.4 5.8 1222012
Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. (Bromeliaceae) Heno G, DD AP 1000 125 2.2 2.3 1214144
Hesperozygis marifolia Epling (Lamiaceae) Orégano (NLJM) II, SA AP 1000 62.5 7.4 8.8 1501
Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) Ruda SA, DD, PA AP 1000 62.5 2.1 2.9 1201180
Campyloneurum amphostenon (Kunze exKlotzsch) Fée
(Polypodiaceae)
Lengua de ciervo PA L 1000 <62.5 2.2 0.7 1230313
Machaeranthera riparia (Kunth) A.G. Jones (Asteraceae) Árnica Morada de lavar, Chihuahua DD AP 1000 62.5 5.7 7.7 1222013
Eryngium carlinae F. Delaroche (Apiaceae) Hierba del sapo DD AP 1000 31.2 1.0 0.3 1211838
Lippia berlandieri Schauer (Verbenaceae) Orégano II, DD, SA AP 1000 31.2 1.8 0.8 1507
Verbena carolina L. (Verbenaceae) Verbena U, SA, PA AP 1000–500 62.5-125 3.1 2.9 1201174
Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) Olivo DD, SA L/S 500 >500 5.0 6.4 1211834
Tagetes lucida Cav.(Asteraceae) Pericón SA, DI, DD L/S 500 500 4.0 5.3 1201173
Amphipterygium adstringens (Schltdl.) Standl.
(Anacardiaceae)
Cuachalalate (GC) G, U,SC B 500 250 1.8 5.8 1490/1491
Priva grandiflora (Ortega) Moldenke(Verb enaceae) Hierba de San Juan DI AP 500 250 1.6 1.5 1214141
Eupatorium petiolare Moc. ex DC. (Asteraceae) Hierba del Ángel DI, DD AP 500 125 4.7 1.3 1211817
Monarda austromontana Epling (Lamiaceae) Orégano de Chihuahua DD AP 500 125 5.0 4.3 2041
Gnaphalium canescens DC. (Asteraceae) Gordolobo G, SA, DI AP 500 62.5 8.6 1.8 1211825
Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Coville
(Zygophyllaceae)
Gobernadora DD AP 500 62.5 4.9 6.1 1493
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.G. (Asteraceae) Árnica SA, DD AP 500 62.5 5.5 6.1 1201170
Grindelia inuloides Willd. (Asteraceae) Árnicade Tepeaca DI AP 500 62.5 3.7 3.9 1222015
Buddleja perfoliata Kunth (Loganiaceae) Salvia de Bolita DD AP 500 <62.5 4.2 1.7 1211839
Heterotheca inuloides Cass. (Asteraceae) Árnica del país U, G, DI AP 500 31.25 1.5 2.0 1211822
Mirabilis jalapa L. (Nyctaginaceae) Maravilla DI, SP AP 250 >500 1.3 0.4 1211819
Cyrtocarpa procera Kunth (Anacardiaceae) Chupandilla DI B 250 500 11.2 17.0 2043
Teloxys graveolens(Willd.) W.A. Weber (Chenopodiaceae) Epazote de zorrillo SA, DD, PA, DI AP 250 62.5 1.7 0.8 1211814
Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae) Chirimoya DI, PA, U L/S 250 <15.6 1.9 0.5 1211832
Author's personal copy
404 I. Castillo-Juárez et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 122 (2009) 402–405
Mentha ×piperita L. (Lamiaceae) Hierbabuena (FCH) SA, DD, G, DI L/S <250 500 2.1 4.4 1211815
Cuphea aequipetala Cav. (Lythraceae) Hierba del cáncer DI, SA AP 125 >500 2.3 0.7 1211831
Ludwigia repens J. R. Forst. (Onagraceae) Silveria G AP 125 500 4.5 7.0 1222022
Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. subsp. mexicana (Willd. ex
Spreng.) Fernald (Asteraceae)
Estafiate SA, DI, PA L/S 125 250 2.3 1.8 1211833
Amoxicillin 0.05 0.1
Metronidazole 75 300
aBotanical species were mainly obtained from “Sonora” Market (México, D.F.) or collected in the field. When specified, plants were obtained from: NLMM: “Mesón de Estrella” Market, Monterrey, Nuevo León; NLJM: “Juárez”
Market, Monterrey, Nuevo León; RCM: “Real de Catorce” Market; GC: Gathering center (Axochiapan, Morelos/Jolalpan, Puebla); FCH: Hydroponic Culture, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.
bFolk usage: G: gastritis; U: stomach and/or duodenal ulcer; SA: stomach ache; DI: diarrhea; PA: parasites; DD: digestive disorders; II: intestinal infections; SC: stomach cancer; SP: stomach problem.
cAP: aerial part; L/S: leaf/stem; B: bark; L: leaf; R/B: root/bark; F: flower; L/B: leaf/branch.
2.2. Extract preparation
Fifty grams of each sample was used to prepare the extracts. For
aqueous extracts (AEs), the plant was boiled for 10 min with 600 ml
of tap water, filtered and centrifuged for 10 min at 3000 rpm; after-
wards the supernatant was lyophilized. In the case of methanol
extracts (MEs), the material was extracted for 72 h with 200 ml
of methanol. After filtration, the extracts were evaporated under
reduced pressure, below 50C.
2.3. Bacterial strain and culture conditions
Helicobacter pylori standard strain ATCC 43504 was grown on
Casman agar base (BBL) plates supplemented with 5% defibrinated
sheep blood, and 10g/ml vancomycin for a day at 37 C under
microaerophilic conditions (10% CO2). The strains were identified
by Gram staining morphology and biochemical testing.
2.4. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations
The AEs were tested with the agar dilution method according to
the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommenda-
tions, in Mueller–Hinton agar (DIFCO) plates with 5% defibrinated
sheep blood, vancomycin (10 mg/l), trimethoprim (5mg/l), ampho-
tericin B (2 mg/l), and polymyxin B (2.5 mg/l), and containing the
plant extract to be tested. The AEs were dissolved in a minimal
volume of sterile distilled water to obtain a final concentration
in the plate of 125, 250, 500, and 1000 g/ml. A volume of 0.1ml
Helicobacter pylori (107CFU) was spread onto the plates and incu-
bated for 5 days as previouslydescrib ed. Growthcontrol plates were
included in each experiment. The MIC was determined from visual
examinations as being the lowest concentration of the extracts in
the plate with no bacterial growth.
For the MEs, MIC was determined in broth cultures containing
Mueller–Hinton broth (DIFCO), 0.2% -cyclodextrin and 10g/ml
vancomycin, incubated under gentle shaking (150 rpm) for the time
of the experiment in the above described conditions. The extracts
were dissolved in DMSO to give final concentrations in the culture
of 7.8, 15.6, 31.2, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500g/ml. These dilutions
(in a volume of 20 l DSMO) were added to 3 ml of Helicobacter
pylori broth culture at the beginning of the exponential growth
phase (108CFU/ml). A660 was determined after 18h of incuba-
tion and was used to calculate the percentage of growth inhibition
with respect to a control that grew only with DMSO (which does
not have any effect on bacterial growth at the used concentration).
All the experiments were performed in triplicate. Amoxicillin
and metronidazole were used as reference antibiotics for validation
of results.
3. Results
Methanolic and aqueous extracts of 53 different plant species
(49 genera in 29 families) used in Mexican traditional medicine to
treat gastrointestinal disorders were screened in vitro for their anti-
Helicobacter pylori activity. The results are shown in Table 1, and the
species are organized in the order of aqueous extract effectiveness.
The resulting activities were classified as follows: for AEs, MIC val-
ues in g/ml >1000, null; 1000, low; 500, moderate; 250, good;
and <250 to <125, strong; for MEs, MIC values in g/ml >500, null;
500–250, low; 125–62.5, moderate; <62.5 to 31.25, good; and 15.6
to <7.8, strong.
AEs of Mentha ×piperita,Artemisia ludoviciana subsp. mexi-
cana,Cuphea aequipetala, and Ludwigia repens showed the highest
inhibitory effect; in contrast, MEs of these plants had little action
against Helicobacter pylori. Among the MEs, the most active plants
were Persea americana,Annona cherimola,Guaiacum coulteri, and
Moussonia deppeana, with MIC values of <7.5, <15.6, 15.6, and
Author's personal copy
I. Castillo-Juárez et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 122 (2009) 402–405 405
15.6 g/ml, respectively. It is interesting to note that only the AE
of Annona cherimola also had good activity against the bacteria.
Compared with the reference antibiotic amoxicillin, the most
active extracts inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori at much
higher concentrations; but compared with metronidazole, the MEs
with MIC values of 250g/ml or less were better than metronida-
zole. It is worth noting that we tested extracts and not isolated
compounds; hence the isolation of different and potent compounds
from the most active extracts is encouraging.
4. Discussion and conclusions
Before the recognition of Helicobacter pylori as the main etiolog-
ical agent of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, the research
studies to elucidate the mechanisms by which traditionalme dicinal
plants exert their actions were focused on their gastroprotective,
and/or anti-acid, and/or anti-inflammatory effects (Borrelli and
Izzo, 2000). In recent years a great deal of research has been under-
taken to determine a direct action of plants upon Helicobacter pylori.
Although CLSI has made important recommendations to standard-
ize the antimicrobial susceptibility testing procedures, and some
plant screenings have begun to apply them, in vitro studies still
lack a normalization that would allow for the meaningful compar-
isons of activity. However, because these guidelines are proposed
for testing pure compounds, their strict utilization must be adjusted
in the case of crude plant extracts, mainly in the case of apolar
ones, where its solubility is restricted in the agar dilution method
recommended by the CLSI. Therefore it is necessary to develop a
reliable standardized method to test in vitro the anti-Helicobacter
pylori activity of plant extracts.The broth dilution method used here
allows the rapid partition of most of the methanolic extract tested,
making this methodology a good candidate for routine screening
work for apolar extracts.
The present study represents the first directed work to test
exclusively the in vitro activity against Helicobacter pylori of a large
number of Mexican traditional plants used for gastrointestinal ill-
ness. Also it reports for the first time the strong anti-Helicobacter
pylori activity of the AEs from Artemisia ludovicianasubsp. mexicana,
Ludwigia repens, and Cuphea aequipetala, and the MEs from Persea
americana,Guaiacum coulteri,Moussonia deppeana, and Annona che-
rimola. It would be promising to use them alone or in combined
therapies in in vivo studies to confirm their bioactivity.
The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Amphipterygium adstrin-
gens bark and its components have been published recently
(Castillo-Juarez et al., 2007). Other species used in this work,
have previously been proved against the bacteria. The 95% ethanol
extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides (the basionym of Teloxys
ambrosioides) resulted to have a moderate activity against the bac-
teria (Wang and Huang, 2005). It has also been reported that the ME
and AE of Mentha ×piperita had weak activity against Helicobacter
pylori (Mahady et al., 2005; Nostro et al., 2005); nevertheless, we
found that our AE had strong anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Also,
the 70% aqueous methanol extract of Ocimun basilicum has been
reported as inactive against Helicobacter pylori 43504 (Stamatis et
al., 2003); but our ME at 100% had good activity against the bac-
teria. As we stated before, it is difficult to compare results. These
discrepancies may be due to the method of bioassay employed as
well as other variables such as the bacterial number or the solvent
used to make the extraction.
The methodology used in this work was standardized in order
to test the activity of many different plants, so we cannot exclude
the possibility that in some cases the active components were not
extracted, for example the most volatile ones that would evaporate
when plants are boiled.
Many of the most active anti-Helicobacter pylori plants have a
long history of traditional use as water-based remedies for gas-
trointestinal afflictions (Argueta et al., 1994). We found four MEs
exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori
even though records of their traditional preparation do not include
alcohol-based preparations; hence their observed activity in vitro
suggests new areas of field and laboratory research as well as novel
applications in community based health programs.
In general, the results indicated that 77% of the assayed plants
are active in at least one of the tested extracts, having from moder-
ate to strong antibacterial activityagainst Helicobacter pylori. Taking
into account that many of the active medicinal plants are also
used as condiments or food ingredients (e.g., Ocimum basiliscum,
Persea americana,Lippia berlandieri,Teloxys graveolens), their fre-
quent consumption could have a preventive effect in controlling
the Helicobacter pylori population of infected people, rather than
an eradicating action.
Our results provide valuable information about plants with high
anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, which will become the starting
material for bioassay guided fractionation to determine the active
constituents of the plant extracts. These data also contribute to the
understanding of the mode of action of these medicinal plants and
to the development of new anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies.
Acknowledgements
Partially supported by DGAPA-UNAM (IN-218108). We thank
Carlos Iglesias, Jardín Botánico Francisco Xavier Clavijero, Jalapa for
his collaboration in the collection of Tithonia diversifolia, and Paul
Hersh, Jardín Etnobotánico del INAH Morelos, for his support in the
collection of Cyrtocarpa procera.
References
Ankli, A., Heinrich, M., Bork, P.,Wolfram, L., Bauerfeind, P., Brun, R., Schmid, C., Weiss,
C., Bruggisser, R., Gertsch, J., Wasescha, M., Sticher, O., 2002. Yucatec Mayan
medicinal plants: evaluation based on indigenous uses. Journal of Ethnophar-
macology 79, 43–52.
Argueta, A., Cano, L.M., Rodarte, M.E. (Coor.),1994. Atlas de las Plantas de la Medicina
Tradicional Mexicana, vols. I–III. Instituto Nacional Indigenista, México.
Atherton, J.C., 2006. The pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastro-
duodenal diseases. Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease 1,
63–96.
Borrelli, F., Izzo, A.A., 2000. The plant kingdom as a source of anti-ulcer remedies.
Phytotherapy Research 14, 581–591.
Bye, R., Linares, E., Estrada, E., 1995. Biological diversity of medicinal plants in Mex-
ico. In: Arnason, J.T., Mata, R., Romeo, J.T. (Eds.), Phytochemistry of Medicinal
Plants (Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, vol. 29. Plenum Press, New York, pp.
65–82.
Castillo-Juarez, I., Rivero-Cruz, F., Celis, H., Romero, I., 2007. Anti-Helicobacter
pylori activity of anacardic acids from Amphipterygium adstringens. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology 114, 72–77.
Mahady, G.B., Pendland, S.L., Stoia, A., Hamill, F.A., Fabricant, D., Dietz, B.M., Chad-
wick, L.R., 2005. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts
used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Phytotherapy
Research 19, 988–991.
Nostro, A., Cellini, L., Di Bartolomeo, S., Di Campli, E., Grande, R., Cannatelli, M.A.,
Marzio, L., Alonzo, V., 2005. Antibacterial effect of plant extracts against Heli-
cobacter pylori. Phytotherapy Research 19, 198–202.
Perez-Perez, G.I., Rothenbacher, D., Brenner, H., 2004. Epidemiology of Helicobacter
pylori infection. Helicobacter 9 (Suppl. 1), 1–6.
Stamatis, G., Kyriazopoulos, P., Golegou, S., Basayiannis, A., Skaltsas, S., Skaltsa, H.,
2003. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Greek herbal medicines. Journal
of Ethnopharmacology 88, 175–179.
Villase˜
nor, J.L., 2004. Los géneros de las plantas vasculares de la flora de México.
Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México 75, 105–135.
Wang, Y.C., Huang, T.L., 2005. Screening of anti-Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving
from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiol-
ogy 43, 295–300.
Wolle, K., Malfertheiner, P., 2007. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori. Best Practice &
Research Clinical Gastroenterology 21, 315–324.
... Одним из них является продукт пчеловодства -прополис, который повышает эффективность лечения и значительно уменьшает частоту нежелательных явлений 3 [83,84]. ...
... Этиология, патогенез и клиническая картина заболеваний ЖКТ, сопряженных с H. pylori, определяют характер рекомендуемого питания, которое должно быть нацелено на решение следующих задач: ■ коррекцию метаболических нарушений [119][120][121]; ■ формирование оптимальной пищевой и энергетической ценности рациона для обеспечения энергетических и пластических функций организма [119][120][121]; ■ купирование нутритивной недостаточности [48,[119][120][121]; ■ устранение витаминного и микроэлементного дисбаланса (B12, Ca, Mg, Fe) [119,122]; ■ поддержание эффективного иммунного ответа [48,119,120]; ■ создание среды для адекватной защитной и эффективной самоограничиваю щейся и саморазрешаю щейся воспалительной реакции без дополнительного повреждения клеток и тканей [119][120][121]; ■ пополнение рациона элементами, которые обеспечивают детоксикацию, облегчают организму работу с катаболитами и/или побочными продуктами, возникаю щими вследствие как токсичного воздействия H. pilory, так и самого иммунного ответа, повреждения или нарушения функции органов и тканей, а также в результате применения лекарственных средств во время лечения заболевания [123,124]; ■ обеспечение быстрой и как можно более полной регенерации тканей без поддержания жизнеспособности патогена и ускользания его от иммунного надзора в организме хозяина [48,119,120]; ■ восстановление микробиома [12,124]; ■ повышение антиоксидантной защиты [12,119,122]; ■ использование продуктов, негативно влияющих на размножение и функционирование H. pylori [12,84]; ■ снижение секреторной активности, исключение раздра жаю щих продуктов [119,125]; ...
... Используемая диета должна: ■ быть разнообразной и сбалансированной; ■ содержать антиоксиданты, железо, витамины C, B12, Ca, Mg, Zn, β-каротин, пищевые волокна [12, 82-85, 119, 122]; ■ включать пре-и пробиотики [64,120]; ■ содержать продукты, влияющие на размножение и функционирование H. pylori (прополис, девясил, куркумин и др.) [84,122]; ...
Article
This review of the literature is devoted to the importance of nutritional support in the treatment and prevention of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract associated with Helicobacter pylori. Modern data on the biological properties of H. pylori and the mechanisms of colonization of the microorganism in the gastrointestinal mucosa are presented. Information is provided on the virulence factors and factors that promote adhesion, depolymerization and dissolution of protective mucus, damage and circulatory disorders of the gastrointestinal mucosa, secreted by H. pylori (lipopolysaccharides and proteins of the outer shell of the bacterium, enzymes – mucinase, protease, phospholipase, urease, VacA cytotoxin). The article pays special attention to the issues of diet therapy, the role of various foods and their components in the dietary correction of disorders in gastrointestinal diseases associated with H. pylori. The causes of nutritional disorders in patients with gastrointestinal diseases are described and a detailed description of food products and their biologically active components with anti-Helicobacter activity is given. A special section is devoted to the use and effectiveness of specialized dietary products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition of domestic production (LLC “Leovit nutria”) and the features of use in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract mediated by H. pylori. The authors provide information on the composition of dietary products, their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunotropic and other activities that underlie clinical efficacy. The article provides detailed recommendations on the use of specialized dietary foods for this pathology.
... It is suggested that the gastroprotective mechanism of action involves increased prostaglandin synthesis and reduced leukocyte infiltrate, TNF-α, and leukotriene B4 [61]. [5][6][7]42,43,45,[49][50][51][52][53][54][55], anti-inflammatory [7,48], gastroprotective [57][58][59][60][61], antimicrobial [5,9,46,47,62,63], anti-virulence [64,65], wound healing [10], and hypocholesterolemic activity [44]. ...
... The Helicobacter pylori bacterium is the primary etiological agent of active chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer [67]. It was reported that the aqueous extract (MIC 5 mg/mL) and the methanolic extract (MIC 0.25 mg/mL) of the stem bark inhibit its growth [63]. Similarly, petroleum ether extract and anacardic acid mixture (C15:0 [46.8%], ...
Article
Full-text available
Diseases, such as cancer, peptic ulcers, and diabetes, as well as those caused by drug-resistant infectious agents are examples of some of the world's major public health problems. Am-phipterygium adstringens (Schltdl.) Schiede ex Standl is an endemic tree to Mexico. Its stem bark has been used medicinally since pre-Hispanic times, but in recent decades it has been scientifically proven that it has properties that help counteract some diseases; extracts with organic solvents of the plant are outstanding for their anticancer, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial properties; ter-penes and long-chain phenols have been identified as the main active compounds. Currently, over-harvesting is causing a sharp reduction in natural populations due to an increase in demand for the stem bark by people seeking to improve their health and by national and transnational companies seeking to market it. Because of the growing interest of the world population and the scientific community , we reviewed recent studies on the bioactive properties of A. adstringens. Through the orderly and critical compendium of the current knowledge of A. adstringens, we provide a reference for future studies aimed at the rational use and protection of this valuable endemic natural resource.
... Por lo anterior, se infiere un uso potencial de los subproductos evaluados en dietas comerciales, sugiriendo la evaluación del alimento funcional en etapas de engorda de la especie y bajo condiciones de cultivo a escala comercial. Palabras clave: mango; jamaica; subproducto; dieta tilapia 70 Volumen XXIV, Número 2 Concepción-Brindis et al: Biotecnia / XXIV (2): 69-76 (2022) 70 ded species (Castillo-Juárez et al., 2009;Torres et al., 2012). Another advantage is that this species is omnivorous, whose feeding may include proteins, carbohydrates, vegetable oils, aquatic plants, animal by-products, fermented yeasts, and in some cases agroindustrial by-products in commercial feeds (González-Salas et al., 2014). ...
... Currently, this industry has been in development process and during production, harvest, and calyx dry out by-products are generated (calyxes not suitable for commercialization). These by-products contain anthocyanins, polyphenols, and ascorbic acid, among other compounds with antioxidant, antibacterial, and diuretic properties (Reanmongkol and Itharat, 2007;Castillo-Juárez et al., 2009), which may enhance the concentration of bioactive compounds -mainly antioxidants-in a balanced feed. ...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT The aquaculture industry experiences a growing interest in implementing antioxidants from natural origin in diets because the synthetic ones are associated to carcinogenic and teratogenic effects. Additionally, synthetic antioxidants have been included in such diets to prevent lipid oxidation during storage and distribution, without a perspective of the organisms health, since they require micronutrients, such as bioactive compounds, mainly antioxidants. Thus, mango and roselle by-products (rich in bioactive compounds) were included in an aquaculture diet, assessed on its antioxidant properties by distincts technics: antiradical activity 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrazyl (DPPH●), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and phenolic compounds concentration. In addition, with this feed, tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings-juveniles were fed and compared with a reference and commercial diets respect their performance in a laboratory scale, according to the main parameters evaluated in aquaculture. With respect to the results obtained by the 3 techniques used, antioxidant properties of the diet are increased with the inclusion of the novel inputs. No differences were found between supplied feeds for biological parameters assessed in the tilapia, so no negative effect was considered during feeding with the novel functional diet. Therefore, the potential use of the evaluated by-products in commercial diets is inferred and an assessment of the functional feed during the next rearing stages of the species under commercial rearing conditions is suggested. Keywords: mango; roselle; by-product; tilapia diet
... Avocado extract selectively induced apoptosis in human oral cancer cell lines by modulation of reactive oxygen species [39]. In the same year, Castillo-Juarez et al. concluded that antibacterial activity of a methanolic avocado extract against Helicobacter pylori, a cause of gastritis implicated in the etiology of gastric cancer [40]. The facial skin is frequently subjected to ongoing oxidative and inflammatory damage by exposure to ultraviolet rays and visible radiation, which can be controlled by carotenoids. ...
... To overcome the resistance problem, new drugs for H. pylori infection are urgently required. Medicinal plant and herb extracts, including extracts from Artemisia annua and Artemisia douglasiana, possess activity against H. pylori infection [42][43][44][45][46][47][48], and their effect could be considered an important alternative or adjuvant therapeutic approach. Previous studies [49] demonstrated that artemisinin and a series of semisynthetic analogues were effective against drug sensitive and resistant H. pylori strains. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the in vitro activity of the arylaminoartemisinin GC012, readily obtained from dihydroartemisinin (DHA), against clinical strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with different antibiotic susceptibilities in the planktonic and sessile state. The activity was assessed in terms of bacteriostatic and bactericidal potential. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the broth microdilution method. After treatment with GC012, all bacterial strains showed significantly lower MIC and MBC values compared to those of DHA. The effect of combination of GC012 with antibiotics was examined using the checkerboard method. GC012 displayed synergistic interactions with metronidazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin in all the strains. The antibiofilm activity was evaluated via crystal violet staining, AlamarBlue® assay, colony-forming unit count, and fluorescence microscopy. At ½ MIC and ¼ MIC concentration, both GC012 and DHA inhibited biofilm formation, but only GC012 showed a minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) on mature biofilm. Furthermore, both compounds induced structural changes in the bacterial membrane, as observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is thereby demonstrated that GC012 has the potential to be efficacious against H. pylori infection.
... Phytochemically, several classes of secondary metabolites such as acetogenins, essential oils, alkaloids, terpenoids and flavonoids have been described in this genus [34,36]. A variety of pharmacological activities have been reported from various parts of Annona species specially leaves and seeds including applications against antibacterial [37], antinociceptive [38], anticancer [39], anticonvulsant [40], antidiarrhea [41], antidiabetic [42], antimalarial [39], anti-inflammatory [43], antioxidant [44], antileishmanial [45], antiulcer [46] and antidepressant [47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In 1789, the Annonaceae family was catalogued by de Jussieu. It encompasses tropical and subtropical plants which are widespread in distribution across various continents such as Asia, South and Central America, Australia and Africa. The genus of Annona is one of 120 genera of the Annonaceae family and contains more than 119 species of trees and shrubs. Most species are found in tropical America, where over 105 species have been identified. Due to its edible fruits and medicinal properties, Annona is the most studied genus of Annonaceae family. To date, only a limited number of these species have economic value, including A. squamosa L. (sugar apple), A. cherimola Mill. (Cherimoya), A. muricata L. (guanabana or soursop), A. atemoya Mabb. (atemoya), a hybrid between A. cherimola and A. squamosa, A. reticulata L. (custard apple), A. glabra L. (pond-apple) and A. macroprophyllata Donn. Sm. (ilama). Phytochemically, several classes of secondary metabolites, including acetogenins, essential oils, alkaloids, terpenoids and flavonoids. The pharmacological activities of Annona species leaves and seeds include antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties.
... Phytochemically, several classes of secondary metabolites such as acetogenins, essential oils, alkaloids, terpenoids and flavonoids have been described in this genus [34,36]. A variety of pharmacological activities have been reported from various parts of Annona species specially leaves and seeds including applications against antibacterial [37], antinociceptive [38], anticancer [39], anticonvulsant [40], antidiarrhea [41], antidiabetic [42], antimalarial [39], anti-inflammatory [43], antioxidant [44], antileishmanial [45], antiulcer [46] and antidepressant [47]. ...
Article
Background Buddleja perfoliata Kunth is an endemic plant in Mexico. It has been used in traditional medicine as a topical antiseptic and diuretic against headaches, colds, tuberculosis, heart disease, dizziness, and nervousness. Aim of the study To investigate the bioactivities of B. perfoliata to support its use in traditional medicine as an antiseptic and against colds and tuberculosis. Materials and methods Chloroform extracts and fractions obtained from different sub-extracts of the aerial parts of B. perfoliata were tested for their antimicrobial activity against a panel of Gram-positive, -negative, and fungi. Ex vivo (human-derived monocytic THP-1 cells) and in vivo (brine shrimp) models were used to test the toxicity of the chloroform extracts and fractions. Also, the inflammatory response, including pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines, were evaluated using the THP-1 model. Results This study revealed that B. perfoliata extracts and fractions had antimicrobial activity against various pathogens, showing significant activity with MICs ranging between 100 to 200 µg/ml. In addition, extracts and fractions showed anti-inflammatory properties, lowering IL-6 while increasing IL-10 secretions, respectively. Finally, a cytotoxic effect was discovered against the THP-1 cell line with an LC50 less than 20 µg/ml, suggesting a potential use in treating cancer. Conclusions Our study showed that the chloroform extracts and fractions of the aerial parts of B. perfoliata possessed antimicrobial activities and anti-inflammatory properties.
Article
Full-text available
Cancer represents one of the major causes of mortality worldwide; indeed, 19.3 million new cases and almost 10.0 million deaths were estimated last year. Among the different type of cancers, malignant melanoma represents the most aggressive and deadly skin cancer. Unfortunately, the long-term efficacy of melanoma treatments is limited by the lack of clinical efficacy, onset of side effects and resistance. The latter is a major obstacle for the success of the melanoma therapy; thus, the exploration of new potent and safer anticancer agents is of great importance. Recently, numerous plant species, used for therapeutic purposes and containing various non-toxic nutraceuticals have been widely studied. Herein, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer properties on melanoma cells of the ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous Annona cherimola leaf extracts (ACE, ACM and ACW, respectively). The ethanolic extract showed higher anticancer activity, mostly against the malignant A2058 melanoma cell line (IC50 = 5.6 ± 0.8 ng/mL), together with a very low activity on the normal cells. It blocks the melanoma cells migration process, and induces a clear disorganization of cytoskeleton, triggering cell apoptosis. Finally, some bioactive compounds were identified in the studied extracts.
Article
Full-text available
Secondary metabolites, in addition to playing an essential role in the adaptation of plants to the environment and phytochemical responses in recovery processes to stress conditions, are the base material of the healing effect of medicinal plants. In this study, the effect of growth conditions and localities of origin of Ageratina petiolaris on phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity was evaluated; the plant is used for medicinal purposes in Oaxaca, Mexico. Samples of stem and young leaves were collected from plants growing naturally (in situ) in two locations in Oaxaca and from propagules collected in situ; plants were grown ex situ to obtain a set of equivalent samples to the first sampling (in situ). In both sets of samples, total polyphenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity were evaluated by spectrometry, and later the phenolic acids and flavonoids were also identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). The growth conditions of A. petiolaris significantly influenced its phenolic composition and antioxidant activity, where samples collected in situ had a higher phenolic compounds content than did plants grown ex situ. Five phenolic acids and five flavonoids were identified, eight of which had not been reported in A. petiolaris: caffeic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, robinin, rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, apigenin-7-glucoside, rosmarinic acid and kaempferol, in terms of HPLC-DAD analysis.
Article
Full-text available
Un recuento actualizado de la riqueza genérica de plantas vasculares de México incluye 2,804 géneros nativos, distribuidos en 304 familias. Las plantas con flores incluyen el mayor número (2,663), de los cuales 2,117 son dicotiledóneas (Magnoliophyta) y 546 monocotiledóneas (Liliopsida). Se registran además 127 géneros de helechos y plantas afines y 14 de gimnospermas. Se proporciona una lista de nombres, así como el número de especies que registra cada uno de ellos en el país. También se presenta una breve discusión de sus principales formas de crecimiento, de su patrones de riqueza y de su distribución geográfica y ecológica. Se considera que 7.8% de los géneros (219) son endémicos de México.
Book
Three volumes and 1500 pages, with local information about medicinal plants from the whole Mexico, trhough colaborators in every state (M.T. Pulido-Salas in Quintana Roo state), all of us coordinated by Arturo Argueta as reviser and editor.
Chapter
Biological diversity can be described as the product of the richness or variety of entities (usually species) and the variance of that richness or its importance value.1 Diversity can be extended to include ecological and biogeographic heterogeneity, and various indices can be used to measure it.2 Biological diversity also can be appreciated by the number of endemic species whose distributions are restricted to a confined geographic area. In recent years, public attention has been given to diversity at the world level3 as well as in the Western Hemisphere4 and Mexico.5
Article
Phytogenic agents have traditionally been used by herbalists and indigenous healers for the prevention and treatment of peptic ulcer. This article reviews the anti-acid/anti-peptic, gastro-protective and/or anti-ulcer properties of the most commonly employed herbal medicines and their identified active constituents. Botanical compounds with anti-ulcer activity include flavonoids (i.e. quercetin, naringin, silymarin, anthocyanosides, sophoradin derivatives) saponins (i.e. from Panax japonicus and Kochia scoparia), tannins (i.e. from Linderae umbellatae), gums and mucilages (i.e. gum guar and myrrh). Among herbal drugs, liquorice, aloe gel and capsicum (chilli) have been used extensively and their clinical efficacy documented. Also, ethnomedical systems employ several plant extracts for the treatment of peptic ulcer. Despite progress in conventional chemistry and pharmacology in producing effective drugs, the plant kingdom might provide a useful source of new anti-ulcer compounds for development as pharmaceutical entities or, alternatively, as simple dietary adjuncts to existing therapies.
Article
As part of an ethnopharmacological field study 48 medicinal plants were evaluated using several biological assays with the goal to obtain information on the pharmacological effects of these plants, which may be of direct relevance to the indigenous uses. Three species used to treat gastrointestinal disorders showed remarkable activity against Helicobacter pylori. One of them showed activity against Giardia duodenalis. Cytotoxic effects against KB cells were found for six species. In the group of plants used for dermatological conditions several species were active against gram-positive bacteria and Candida albicans. Two plant species of this group were found to be active in an Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) assay measuring inhibition of this pro-inflammatory transcription factor. A species of the Solanaceae, applied in cases of pain and fever, showed a weak activity against Plasmodium falciparum. One species traditionally used for diabetes exhibited antihyperglycemic activity. None of the six species from the group of 'women's medicine' showed relevant affinity to the D(2) dopamine receptor. Based on this evaluation, plants with strong activities should be further investigated phytochemically and pharmacologically to identify active fractions and compounds.
Article
In this paper, we have studied the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of 70 Greek plant extracts and a number of commercially available herbs used traditionally in folk medicine against gastric ailments, peptic ulcer included. The extracts of Anthemis melanolepis, Cerastium candidissimum, Chamomilla recutita, Conyza albida, Dittrichia viscosa, Origanum vulgare and Stachys alopecuros have been proved active against one standard strain and 15 clinical isolates of H. pylori.
Article
This review summarizes key results of epidemiologic studies published in peer-reviewed journals between April 2003 and March 2004. The prevalence of H. pylori infection continues to vary strongly between developing countries and developed countries, and according to ethnicity, place of birth and socioeconomic factors among people living in the same country. Intrafamilial spread appears to play a central role in transmission of the infection in both developing and developed countries. The role of H. pylori infection in development of noncardia gastric cancer appears to be even much stronger than previously assumed, whereas the lack of an association with cardia cancer and an inverse association with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus could be confirmed. Suggestions for an inverse association of the infection with atopic diseases have recently received further support, whereas evidence concerning the role of the infection (or its eradication) in GERD and a large variety of other extragastric diseases, including cardiovascular disease, remains inconclusive.
Article
In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all demonstrated strong anti-H. pylori activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the anti-H. pylori activity given by the five ethanol herb extracts ranged from 0.64 to 10.24 mg ml(-1). Twenty-six herbs, including Artemisia argvi Levl. et Vant (AALEV), Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene (PNG) and others, showed moderate anti-H. pylori activity. The additional 19 herbs, including Areca catechu Linn. (ACL), Euphorbia hirta Linn. (EHL) and Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC. (GAWEDC), possessed lower anti-H. pylori effects. About half of the Taiwanese folk medicinal plants tested, demonstrated to possess higher anti-H. pylori activity.
Article
The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of plant extracts as alternative and[sol ]or as active agents supporting antibiotics for treating Helicobacter pylori infection. The effect of either, ethanolic or aqueous extracts from 17 plant materials were studied against one H. pylori standard strain and 11 clinical isolates using a disc diffusion test and by evaluating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on solid media. An inhibitory activity against H. pylori strains was recorded in a large percentage of tested plants. MIC values of ethanolic extracts were from two to four concentration steps lower than the aqueous ones. In particular, ethanolic extracts of Cuminum cyminum L. and Propolis expressed MIC90 values of 0.075 mg/mL. The results show a significant in vitro effect of plant extracts against H. pylori that could be considered a valuable support in the treatment of the infection and may contribute to the development of new and safe agents for inclusion in anti-H. pylori regimens.
Article
The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP), identified in 1982, is now recognized as the primary etiological factor associated with the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, HP infections are also associated with chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. For centuries, herbals have been used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments, including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, the mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic effects has not been completely elucidated. As part of an ongoing screening program, the study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of 15 HP strains to botanical extracts, which have a history of traditional use in the treatment of GI disorders. Methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans (seed) had a MIC of 12.5 microg/mL; Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizome/root) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary leaf) had an MIC of 25 microg/mL. Methanol extracts of botanicals with a MIC of 50 microg/mL included Achillea millefolium, Foeniculum vulgare (seed), Passiflora incarnata (herb), Origanum majorana (herb) and a (1:1) combination of Curcuma longa (root) and ginger rhizome. Botanical extracts with a MIC of 100 microg/mL included Carum carvi (seed), Elettaria cardamomum (seed), Gentiana lutea (roots), Juniper communis (berry), Lavandula angustifolia (flowers), Melissa officinalis (leaves), Mentha piperita (leaves) and Pimpinella anisum (seed). Methanol extracts of Matricaria recutita (flowers) and Ginkgo biloba (leaves) had a MIC > 100 microg/mL.