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Tolerance to temperature, pH, ammonia and nitrite in cardinal tetra, Paracheirodon axelrodi, an amazonian ornamental fish

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Poor water quality condition has been pointed out as one of the major causes for the high mortality of ornamental fishes exported from the state of Amazonas, Brazil. The purpose of the current study was to define water quality standards for cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi), by establishing the lower and higher for lethal temperature (LT 50 ), lethal concentration (LC 50 ) for total ammonia and nitrite and LC 50 for acid and alkaline pH. According to the findings, cardinal tetra is rather tolerant to high temperature (33.3 o C), to a wide pH range (acid pH=2.9 and alkaline pH=8.8) and to high total ammonia concentration (23.7 mg/L). However, temperatures below 19.6 o C and nitrite concentrations above 1.1 mg/L NO 2 - may compromise fish
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773 VOL. 38(4) 2008: 773 - 780
Tolerance to temperature, pH, ammonia and nitrite in
cardinal tetra, Paracheirodon axelrodi, an amazonian
ornamental fish
Sarah Ragonha de OLIVEIRA1, Rondon Tatsuta Yamane Baptista de SOUZA1, Érica da Silva Santiago
NUNES1, Cristiane Suely Melo de CARVALHO1, Glauber Cruz de MENEZES1, Jaydione Luíz MARCON2,
Rodrigo Roubach, Eduardo AKIFUMI ONO1, Elizabeth Gusmão AFFONSO1.
ABSTRACT
Poor water quality condition has been pointed out as one of the major causes for the high mortality of ornamental fishes
exported from the state of Amazonas, Brazil. The purpose of the current study was to define water quality standards for cardinal
tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi), by establishing the lower and higher for lethal temperature (LT50), lethal concentration (LC50)
for total ammonia and nitrite and LC50 for acid and alkaline pH. According to the findings, cardinal tetra is rather tolerant to
high temperature (33.3 oC), to a wide pH range (acid pH=2.9 and alkaline pH=8.8) and to high total ammonia concentration
(23.7 mg/L). However, temperatures below 19.6 oC and nitrite concentrations above 1.1 mg/L NO2
- may compromise fish
survival especially during long shipment abroad.
KeywoRdS:
96-h LC50, ornamental fish, Paracheirodon axelrodi, water quality.
Tolerância a temperatura, pH, amônia e nitrito do cardinal tetra,
Paracheirodon axelrodi, um peixe ornamental da Amazônia
ReSUMo
A má qualidade da água tem sido apontada como uma das maiores causas da alta mortalidade dos peixes ornamentais exportados
pelo Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. A proposta deste estudo foi definir padrões de qualidade da água para o cardinal tetra
(Paracheirodon axelrodi), estabelecendo a menor e a maior temperatura letal (LT50), a concentração letal (LC50) para amônia
total e nitrito e LC50 para pH ácido e alcalino. De acordo com os resultados, o cardinal tetra é mais tolerante a temperaturas
elevadas (33,3 oC), a amplos limites de pH (pH ácido = 2,9 e pH alcalino = 8,8) e a alta concentração de amônia (23,7
mg/L). Entretanto, temperaturas abaixo de 19,6 oC e concentrações de nitrito acima de 1,1 mg/L NO2
- podem comprometer
a sobrevivência dos peixes, especialmente durante longos períodos de transporte para o exterior.
PAlAvRAS-ChAve:
96-h LC50, Paracheirodon axelrodi, peixe ornamental, qualidade da água.
1- Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Coordenação de Pesquisas em Aquacultura – CPAQ, sragonha@yahoo.com.br , rondon@inpa.gov.br, ericassn@yahoo.com.br,
cristianesmc@yahoo.com.br, glauber_bio@hotmail.com, roubach@seap.gov.br, onoedu@yahoo.com, pgusmao@inpa.gov.br
2- Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas. Laboratório de Fisiologia, marconjl@yahoo.com
774 VOL. 38(4) 2008: 773 - 780 OLIVEIRA et al.
Tolerance to temperature, pH, ammonia and nitrite in cardinal
tetra, Paracheirodon axelrodi, an amazonian ornamental fish
INTRODUCTION
The ornamental fish trade from the Amazonas State is one
of the most profitable forms of sustainable fish exploitation
and comprises nearly 90% of all ornamental fish exports
from Brazil (Chao et al., 2001). Most of the exported fish
species are harvested from the flooded forests located in the
mid Rio Negro basin and valued around US$ 3 million per
year, representing 2% of the Manaus Free Trade Zone exports
(Harris & Petry, 2001). Although ornamental fish exports
represent a small portion of all foreign commerce undertaken
by the Amazonas State, it still comprises over 65% of the local
economy in the municipality of Barcelos, involving directly
and indirectly 80% of the 16,107 residents (Prang, 2001).
In the last few years, the ornamental fish exporters have
recorded a reduction of 40 to 50% on their trade. Several
factors have contributed for this market loss, such as, the
increasing supply of higher quality species from aquaculture,
the high mortality rate of wild caught fish, and the low
quality of the fish exported. From 30 to 70% of the fish
captured in the Amazon perish before their delivery to the
final consumer (Waichman et al., 2001). According to those
authors, maintaining a stable water quality condition is very
important and its poor quality may become one of the main
causes for the high fish mortality rates.
The cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) is the most
abundant species (21%) in the mid Rio Negro basin (Chao et
al., 2001). This species is also the most requested Amazonian
ornamental fish in the world market, dominating the fish
exports from Brazil, and representing 80% of all fish exported
annually from the Amazonas State. According to Chapman
et al. (1997), describing a case study, 40 out of 50 boxes of
cardinal tetras imported from South America to the United
States were lost as a result of mortality.
The purpose of this paper is defining water quality standards
for cardinal tetra, Paracheirodon axelrodi, establishing the lethal
levels of high and low temperatures, acid and alkaline pH and
high ammonia and nitrite concentrations in the water.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Cardinal tetra of 0.07 ± 0.002 g (mean ± SD) were
collected from forest streams (igarapés) of the mid Rio Negro
basin located in the municipality of Barcelos, Amazonas State.
Fish were transported to the laboratory in Manaus, Amazonas,
where they were kept in 500 L holding tanks supplied with
stabilized temperature (25 ± 1oC) and aerated water, regularly
fed with a commercial fish diet for at least 4 weeks prior to
the experiments. Bioassays to establish tolerance limits to pH,
temperature, ammonia and nitrite were performed in four
40-L test chambers equipped with an air compressor and a
thermostat bath. Twenty-four hours prior to the experiments,
four groups of ten fish (10 per replicate) were transferred to
test chambers where the water quality was preserved. For each
test parameter, the experiments were conducted for over 96
hours, in which fish mortality was observed and water physical
and chemical parameters were monitored.
In order to test fish resistance to pH, water pH was
adjusted with HCl diluted solution for acid pH levels and
Tris and NaOH for alkaline pH levels, which were introduced
into the thermostatized bath to be mixed and distributed into
the test chambers. An alkaline or acid solution was added to
the bath at 1-h intervals until the desired pH was achieved.
The pH levels tested were: control (6.0), acid (2.6, 3.1,
3.6, 4.3, 4.7, 5.2 and 5.6) and alkaline (6.5, 7.2, 7.4, 7.8,
8.4, 8.8 and 9.3). During all the experiment, water pH was
monitored every 3 hours by using a digital WTW pH-meter
model pH330i.
For temperature tests, a series of progressively higher
and lower water temperatures was achieved by using a
programmable thermostat bath (Mod. BTD 770 - São Carlos,
SP, Brazil), which controlled the gradual rising or lowering
temperature to its desired point. The tested temperatures were:
control (25 oC), high (27, 29, 31, 33, 35 ± 1 oC) and low (21,
19, 17 and 15 ± 1 oC).
Regardless the tolerance test performed, the water quality
variables were measured in all test chambers. In the total
ammonia test, water pH was previously set to 7.6 ± 0.12
by adding 1 to 2 g/L NaOH and/or Tris solutions to the
thermostized bath where it was mixed and distributed evenly
to all test chambers. The tests were carried out by adding a
pre-established quantity of NH4Cl solution to the bath, which
were evenly distributed into the chambers. The cardinal tetras
were exposed to six concentrations: 0.9, 1.4, 8.5, 13.1, 18.6,
23.7 and 35.6 mg/L of total ammonia, yielding 0, 0.022,
0.032, 0.19, 0.23, 0.31, 0.44 and 0.85 mg/L NH3 (unionized
ammonia). Test chamber ammonia concentration was
determined daily and the water pH was monitored constantly.
Nitrite tolerance tests were performed by adding the NaNO2
solution to obtain four nitrite concentrations (0.5; 1.0; 1.5
and 2.0 mg/L NO2
-).
Dissolved O2, pH, temperature and electrical conductivity
were measured twice daily and water samples were collected
for total ammonia and nitrite determination. Dissolved
oxygen and water temperature were measured with a YSI
(Yellow Springs Instruments), model 55/12 digital DOmeter;
pH was measured with a WTW model D-812, electrode
(WTW) type E 50 pH 0...14 – 5... +80o C digital pH-meter;
and electrical conductivity was determined by using a WTW
model LF-92 digital meter. Water samples were collected
and the colorimetric method applied for the analysis of total
ammonia (NH3 + NH4
+) and nitrite (NO2
-) concentrations,
according to Boyd & Tucker (1992).
775 VOL. 38(4) 2008: 773 - 780 OLIVEIRA et al.
Tolerance to temperature, pH, ammonia and nitrite in cardinal
tetra, Paracheirodon axelrodi, an amazonian ornamental fish
Water quality data are reported as mean ± SD. The mean
values of different test chambers were compared by using
the ANOVA analysis. The differences were considered to be
significant at p<0.05 using the Tukey test. The 96-h pH (acid
and alkaline), LC50 ammonia and nitrite concentrations (lethal
concentration to 50% of a population) and LT50 temperature
(high and low) (lethal temperature to 50% of a population)
were estimated according to the trimmed Spearman-Karber
method (Hamilton et al., 1977).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Water quality remained uniform among replicates for
all tested variables (pH, temperature, ammonia and nitrite)
with no significant difference between physical and chemical
parameter (Table 1).
The mortality rates of cardinal tetra submitted to low
and high temperatures and pH are presented in Table 2.A
and mortality rates to ammonia and nitrite concentration
are presented in Table 2.B. Also, the 96-h LT50 to low and
high temperature and the 96-h LC50 to acid and alkaline pH,
total ammonia and nitrite concentrations to cardinal tetra are
presented in Table 3. The toxicity action and physiological
effects of low and high pH on fish have been widely studied
and reviewed by many authors (Wood, 1991; Affonso et al.,
2002; Lim et al., 2003; Moiseenko & Sharova, 2006; Aride
et al., 2007). During our study, the pH tests with cardinal
tetra showed 100% survival for pH values between 4.0 and
8.5. The 96-h LC50 to acid and alkaline pH were calculated as
2.9 and 8.8 respectively, indicating that cardinal tetra is highly
tolerant to acid and alkaline pH. The toxicity at a given pH
is affected by factors like fish species, water temperature and
the amount of humic acid present in the water (Peuranen et
al., 2003). The high tolerance of cardinal tetra to low pH is
to be expected once water pH is very acid (around 3.5) in the
environment where this species naturally occurs (black water
streams) (Walker, 2001). Waichman et al. (2001), in a study
to assess fish transport water conditions, found that water
pH tended to increase from 4.62 to 6.15 from capturing of
P. axelrodi until its storage at the exporter’s facilities, so that
the observed pH variation had little effect on the physiology
of these fish.
Temperature can influence fish in multiple ways, affecting
biochemical and physiological activities and can act as a
lethal factor when its effect destroys the integrity of the
organism (Currie et al., 1998). In the present study, the
LT50 of cardinal tetra to low and high temperatures were
19.6 and 33.7 oC, respectively. These findings showed that
fish mortality increased at temperatures below 19 oC and
reached total mortality at 15 oC (Table 2). The tests with high
temperatures (25 to 35 oC), showed 100% fish survival at 29
and 31 oC, resulting in total fish mortality above 35º C. These
results corroborate with Waichman et al. (2001) findings,
while evaluating the water quality used for transportation of
cardinal tetra captured in waters with temperatures from 29
to 31 oC. According to these authors, their findings suggest
that the maintenance of cardinal tetra should be restricted to
high temperatures, considering its inability in tolerating low
temperatures. The tilapias, Oreochromis, Sarotherodon and
Pelvicachromis sp., which represent popular and important
warmwater aquaculture fish species for food and ornament,
are also very sensitive to cold water, presenting thermal death
point values between 10 and 38 ºC, limiting their culture to
the tropical zones (Harpaz et al., 1999). Nevertheless, there
are some warmwater species called eurythermal, which can
tolerate a broader range of water temperature (Wedemeyer,
1996). Eurythermal fish, such as the goldfish, Carassius
auratus, can survive temperatures between 0 and 41 ºC and
short term exposures to 44 ºC (Fort and Beitinger, 2005), as
well as the channel catfish, Ictalurus puntactus, which presents
thermal death points between 4 and 35 ºC (Wedemeyer,
1996).
Ammonia and urea are the two main nitrogenous products
excreted by teleosts, with ammonia usually representing 75-
90% of the nitrogenous excretion (Handy & Poxton, 1993).
Ammonia toxicity to fish depends on the concentration
of unionized ammonia (NH3). Fish branchial membranes
are relatively permeable to NH3, but not to NH4
+, due to
its molecular size. When dissolved in water, ionized and
unionized forms of ammonia are in equilibrium, which is
affected by water pH, temperature and salinity. Alterations
in these parameters can result in the variation of the different
forms of ammonia, whose concentrations can become toxic to
Table 1 - Water quality parameters during experiments to establish cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) tolerance to pH, temperature, total ammonia and
nitrite concentrations. Means ± SD.
Parameter Tolerance
Acid pH Alkaline pH Low Temp. High Temp. Ammonia Nitrite
O2 (mg/L) 7.8±0.3 8.0±0.4 7.9±0.7 6.3±0.5 6.2±0.5 8.2±0.6
Temp (ºC) 25.0±0.7 25.0±0.7 - - 25.2±0.6 25.0±0.8
pH - - 6.6±0.3 6.6±0.5 7.6±0.12 6.7±0.3
Conductivity (µS/cm) 31.7±16 279±74 8.1±0.3 8.2±0.2 100.0±9.7 8.0±0.3
Ammonia (mg/L) 0.9±0.0 0.05±0.0 0.02±0.0 0.02±0.0 - 0.02±0.0
Nitrite (mg/L) 0.08±0.0 0.04±0.0 0.038±0.0 0.04±0.0 0.008±0.0 -
776 VOL. 38(4) 2008: 773 - 780 OLIVEIRA et al.
Tolerance to temperature, pH, ammonia and nitrite in cardinal
tetra, Paracheirodon axelrodi, an amazonian ornamental fish
fish (Arana, 1997). The exposure of freshwater or seawater fish
to sublethal levels of ammonia can increase their subsequent
resistance to lethal concentrations (EIFAC, 1973).
The acute and chronic toxicities of ammonia have been
extensively reviewed for freshwater fishes (Wang & Walsh,
2000; Biswas et al., 2006; Reddy-Lopata et al., 2006).
High levels of ammonia cause stress and produce harmful
physiological response such as osmoregulatory disturb, kidneys
and branchial epithelium damages (Meade, 1989; Soderberg,
1994), retarded growth, inefficient immune response
(Cheng et al., 2004; Pinto et al., 2007) and reduced survival
(Jobling, 1994). The findings in the current experiments
indicated 100% survival of the fish in 96-h exposure to the
control and 0.9-mg/L of total ammonia, while 98, 88, 85,
62, 30 and 25% of the fish survived to 1.4, 8.5, 13.1 18.6,
23.7 and 35.6 mg/L of total ammonia (or 0, 0.022 0.032,
0.19, 0.23, 0.31, 0.44 and 0.85 mg/L NH3) respectively.
Lethal ammonia concentration (LC50) for cardinal tetra was
calculated to be 23.7 mg/L NH3+ NH4
+ or 0.36 mg/L NH3.
The results obtained in this study are within the toxicity
range suggested by Abdalla & MacNabb (1998), in which
the lethal concentration of unionized ammonia for fish varies
between 0.32 e 3.1 mg/L. Several authors have described
the lethal levels (LC50) of total and unionized ammonia for
different fish species (Lemarié et al., 2004), such as Ictalurus
puntactus, 45 mg/L NH3+ NH4
+ and 1.6 mg/L NH3 (Colt
& Tchobanoglous, 1976), Oncorhynchus mykiss, 22 mg/L
NH3+ NH4
+ and 0.3-0.6 mg/L NH3 (Haywood, 1983),
Odontesthes argentinensis, 0.76-0.96 mg/L NH3 (Ostrensky
& Brugger,1992; Sampaio & Minillo, 2000), and Cichlasoma
facetum, 2.95 mg/L NH3 (Piedras et al., 2006). The data
obtained indicate that the cardinal tetra may be considered
as to be tolerant to ammonia, which certainly facilitates its
survival, especially during transport from Barcelos to Manaus,
when the total ammonia can reach high concentrations (< 12
mg/L) (Waichman et al., 2001).
Besides a wide variety of factors, size can influence fish
tolerance to ammonia, as smaller fish are exposed to a higher
dosage per body weight unit than larger fish, being the small
fish more susceptible to unionized ammonia (Piedras et al.,
2006). This fact explains the wide range of results obtained
in several studies. Cavero et al. (2004) have exposed young
Arapaima gigas to a concentration of 25 mg/L NH3+ NH4
+
or 2 mg/L NH3 for 24 hours and no effect was observed on
fish survival or performance.
Table 2 - Mortality rates of cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) submitted to low and high temperatures and pH (A) and to high ammonia (total and
unionized) and nitrite concentrations (B).
(A)
Low temp. (oC) Mort. (%) High Temp. (oC) Mort. (%) Acid pH Mort. (%) Alkaline pH Mort. (%)
25 0 25 0 6.0 0 6.0 0
21 17 27 0 5.6 0 6.5 2.5
19 30 29 2.5 5.2 0 7.2 0
17 92 31 25 4.7 5 7.4 2.5
15 100 33 63 4.3 15 7.8 0
35 100 3.6 45 8.4 0
3.1 72 8.8 42.5
2.6 100 9.3 100
(B)
Total Ammonia
(NH3+NH4
+) mg/L Mort. (%) Unionized ammonia (NH3) mg/L Mor t. (%) Nitrite (mg/L) Mort. (%)
0.0 0 0 0 0.0 0
0.9 0 0.022 0 0.5 7
1.4 2 0.032 2 1.0 40
8.5 12 0.19 12 1.5 65
13.1 15 0.23 15 2.0 100
18.6 38 0.31 38
23.7 70 0.44 70
35.6 75 0.85 75
Table 3 - Lethal lower and higher temperatures (LT50), and lethal concentrations
(LC50) to acid and alkaline pH, total ammonia and nitrite to cardinal tetra
(Paracheirodon axelrodi).
Tolerance
LT50 LC50
Low temp. High Temp. Acid pH Alkaline pH Ammonia Nitrite
19.6 (oC) 33.7 (oC) 2.9 8.8 23.7 mg/L 1.1 mg/L
777 VOL. 38(4) 2008: 773 - 780 OLIVEIRA et al.
Tolerance to temperature, pH, ammonia and nitrite in cardinal
tetra, Paracheirodon axelrodi, an amazonian ornamental fish
The toxicity of nitrite to fish has received much attention
in recent years, but little information is available on the
susceptibility of tropical fish to this compound (Moraes et
al., 1998; Martinez & Souza, 2002; Costa et al., 2004).
Nitrite is the intermediate compound in the nitrification
process, in which total ammonia nitrogen is converted to
nitrite (NO2
-). Under normal conditions, nitrite is rapidly
converted to non-toxic nitrate (NO3
-) by naturally occurring
bacteria (Durborow at al., 1997). At elevated concentration,
nitrite reduces blood oxygen carrying capacity by oxidizing
hemoglobin (Hb) to methemoglobin (metHb), which loses
the ability to bind the oxygen, and under acute concentration
the oxygen carrying capacity of blood markedly decreases
(Jensen, 1995). Methemoglobin gives blood a brownish color,
so a visible symptom of high blood methemoglobin levels is
the brown color of blood and gills (Kroupova et al., 2005).
Nitrite tolerance determination for the cardinal tetra
would be a useful tool to define the environmental quality
and handling standards during shipment. In our tests, all
fish survived to 96-h exposure to the control, while 93, 60
and 35% of fish survived to 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/L NO2
-,
respectively. Total fish mortality was observed at 2 mg/L NO2
-.
The 96-h LC50 was calculated as 1.1 mg/L NO2
-, indicating
the high sensitivity of this species to nitrite. Factors affecting
nitrite toxicity includes the length to nitrite exposure, fish size
and weight, and fish species (Kroupova et al., 2005). Piedras
et al. (2006) observed the mortality of Cichlasoma facetum to
increasing water concentrations of nitrite, where there were
45.63% fish mortality in the higher dosages of 6.68 mg/L
NO2
-. However, Paula-Silva (1999) studied disturbances on
blood tissue of Colossoma macropomum from the exposure
to concentrations that varied from 0 to 3.6 mg/L NO2
- and,
although there was no mortality, it was concluded that
sub-lethal NO2
- concentration could damage the basic fish
physiological functions, growth and reproduction. Among
a variety of tests on the acute toxicity of nitrite to fish,
the salmonids showed to be the most sensitive of the taxa
studied up to date. Channel catfish is as sensitive to nitrite as
salmonids, and tilapias are slightly less sensitive (Kroupova
et al., 2005). The largemouth bass (Micropterus salmonides)
presents high critical concentration of nitrite, as this species
does not concentrate this compound in the blood plasma and
thus appears to discriminate nitrite from chloride (Palachek
& Tomasso, 1984).
Our study suggests that cardinal tetra can be considered
tolerant to acid and alkaline pH and also to ammonia. Low
temperatures (< 19 oC) and nitrite concentrations above 1.1
mg/L may compromise its survival, especially during the long
exposure involved in overseas shipping and maintenance at
the wholesaler’s facilities.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This study was funded by PRONEX/CNPQ (Proc.
No. 661124/03) and INPA (PPI no. 2-3450). We thank
the ornamental fish exporters of the Amazonas State Turkys
Aquarium and Tabatinga Aquarium for the donation of the
cardinal tetra.
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Recebido em 20/12/2007
Aceito em 19/09/2008
... In this study, the experimental design of the LC50-96h as reported by OLIVEIRA et al. (2008) was replicated. The goal was to investigate the acute effects of pH stress and ammonia concentrations on the gill morphology of two ornamental fish. ...
... In order to evaluate the effects of pH alterations and ammonia concentrations on the gill morphology of cardinal and green neon tetras, the experimental conditions of LC50-96 h that were reported by OLIVEIRA et al. (2008) have been replicated. The fish were placed in tanks (40 L) and kept for 48 hours in tap water (pH 6.4 ± 0.7; temperature 29.4 ± 0.5; electrical conductivity 12.1 ± 0.4 µS/cm; dissolved oxygen 4.7 mg/L, and ammonia was not detected) before the beginning of the experiments. ...
... While three different levels of alkaline water were tested: pH 7.2 ± 0.5 (6.9 -7.5), 7.8 ± 0.3 (7.5 -7.9) and 8.8 ± 0.4 (8.6 -9.0). The ammonia levels, acidic and alkaline pH were adjusted as reported by OLIVEIRA et al. (2008). briefly, adjustment to acidic pH was performed with HCl, while alkaline pH was performed with Tris and NaOH. ...
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... The ornamental fish is usually transported in large tanks or aerated plastic bags and is usually farmed for trade and export, so they have extended transport durations, which will be ranging from a few hours to a few days, grouped as short (<8:00 h) and long duration (>8:00), and international trade could be ~50-70 h (Sampaio & Freire, 2016). The most health deteriorating parameters in the microenvironment of ornamental fish during transportation are dissolved oxygen (Boyd & Hanson, 2018;Mallya, 2007), nitrite, pH (Sampaio et al., 2019;Wedemeyer, 1996) and ammonia nitrogen (De Oliveira et al., 2008). Due to their variations, the ornamental fish experienced physiological stress, including waterborne cortisol, mortality and behavioural changes (Wedemeyer, 1996). ...
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... 57 The capacity to transport ornamental fish without negatively impacting their welfare requires in-depth knowledge of specific species in terms of stress tolerance, metabolism and water quality requirements. 58 Although there has been significant effort to control overall water quality within the ornamental supply chain, changes in water quality between each stage can expose fish to significant stress and are often overlooked when assessing welfare. Prior to transport, water is often super-saturated with pure oxygen to compensate for oxygen deficiency and deterioration in combination with an increased ammonia build-up. ...
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... However, it is unknown how tolerant cururu stingray would be to changes in these biomarkers. What it is known is that the cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi), a famous Amazonian ornamental fish abundant in the middle Rio Negro basin, Amazonas, Brazil, is tolerant to a wide range pH (from 2.9 to 8.8), high water temperature (33.3 • C), and high total ammonia levels (23.7 mg/L), but not to temperature below 19.6 • C, which could compromise its survival during long shipment abroad (de Oliveira et al., 2008). ...
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Book
Preface. Acknowledgements. List of Scientific Names. Chapter 1: Introduction: Historical perspective The aquatic environment The intensive culture environment. Chapter 2: Basic physiological functions: Introduction Respiration and oxygen consumption Blood and circulation Osmoregulation Parr-smolt transformation Feeding, digestion, excretion Immune protection Stress response. Chapter 3: Effects of water quality conditions: Introduction Water quality requirements: acidity alkalinity ammonia carbon dioxide chlorine dissolved oxygen hardness heavy metals hydrogen sulfide nitrate, nitrite supersaturation temperature Total dissolved solids, salinity Total suspended solids, turbidity summary Disease problems associated with water quality conditions: Gas bubble disease (Gas bubble trauma) Methemoglobinemia (Brown blood disease) Visceral granuloma and nephrocalcinosis Blue sac disease (Hydrocele embronalis) White spot (Coagualted yolk) disease Soft shell disease (Soft egg disease) Algal toxins. Chapter 4: Effects of fish cultural procedures: Introduction Crowding Transportation Formulated diets/adventitious toxins Effects of smolt development Chapter 5: Biological interactions during rearing: Introduction Interactions between fish Interactions between fish and microorganisms: fish-pathogens-environment relationship Infection into disease:mechanisms Stress-mediated diseases Diseases as indicators of environmental quality Managing biological interactions to prevent diseases. Chapter 6: Methods to minimize pathogen exsposure: Introduction Biological methods water treatment systems: Chloration Ultraviolet light ozone. Introduction: Basic physiological functions Effects of water quality conditions Effects of fish cultural procedures Biological interactions during rearing Methods to minimize pathogen exposure.
Article
A review of the published literature on effects of ammonia on fish indicates that un-ionized ammonia alone is probably not the cause of gill hyperplasia, indicative of, or previously attributed to, chronic ammonia poisoning. The maximum safe concentration of un-ionized ammonia is unknown, but in many cases it is not close to the 0.0125 mg/L value commonly accepted by fish culturists.
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1.Lower and upper temperature tolerances of 240 goldfish, Carassius auratus, were measured at constant acclimation temperatures of 5, 15, 25 and 35°C via critical thermal methodology.2.Mean critical thermal minima and maxima ranged from 0.3 to12.6°C and 30.8 to 43.6° C, respectively, and were significantly linearly related to acclimation temperature. Acclimation temperature accounted for approximately 90% of the variance in temperature tolerance. Ultimate critical thermal minimum and maximum equaled 0.3 and 43.6°C, respectively.3.Integrating the temperature tolerance polygon yielded an area of temperature tolerance of 1429°C2, which is approximately 17% larger than the polygon measured via the incipient lethal temperature approach. This difference is explained by methodological differences in these two techniques to quantify temperature tolerance.