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Development of techniques to enhance man/machine communication

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Final Report
(I,tASR-C,_-157886) D_YELOPRF._T OF TE.H_IQ[IES
'_0 ENHANCe. MAN/MACHIN£ COMM_NICATIO_ Final
Report (Stanford _esearch Inst.) 70 p HC
AO_/SF A01 CSCL 05H G3/5_
N79-11730
gnclas
36974
DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES TO ENHANCE
MAN/MACHINE COMMUNICATION
By" RUSSELL TARG. PHYLLIS COLE. and HAROLD PUTHOFF
Prepared for."
THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
c/o CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHPJOLOGY
JET PROPULSION LA8ORATORY
4800 OAK GROVE DRIVE
PASADENA. CALIFORNIA 91103
CONTRACT 953653 UNDER NAST-100
D,sir*button of th_s report IS prov*ded tn the *nleresl of information exchange and should not be con-
st,ued as endor_mer,t by NASA of the meter*el presented. Res_Donsibilitv for the content, resides
w*th the organ=zat=on that Iorepared it.
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FOREWORD
In April of 1973. the Jet Propulsion Lnboratory initiated a contract
with the Stanford Research lnsiiiuie it) explore the potential enhance-
ment of man/machine activities througl_ ESP communications. The con-
tract was initiatt_d at the request of NASA lleadquariers, which assigned
to JPL th(,, responsibility to monitor tile contract and assure an objective
experimental environment.
The experiment proposed by SRI was a scientific investigation of
ESP and ESP learning through feedback or reinforcement. It was pos-
tulated that feedback would bring tile phenomena, if such existed, to a
readily measurable level. Reinlkn'eement was provided by ESP teaching
machines which continuously keep tile subject informed as to his per--
formanee. The contract Statement of Work c,llled for a totally automated
tabulation of data. SRI was specifically funded to construel the leaching
machines and to eondlle! i| statistically significant sot of trials with a
suitable cross section of subjec'ts. The subjects' tasks was to visualize
whieh of several signals was being generated randomly by the machine.
The SRI investigators conducted initial experiments usin_ obserw, rs
to record experiment results rather than automated equipments. Tile
SRI inw, stitzators ill the report that follows (unedited by NASA or JPI,)
dr,w positive t'olxthlsiollS reg'arding I.:SP 4,'omillllnitz|tiolls and learning.
Fl, lrther ¢,x]_erilllt'lliS wel'e ¢'olldtlcted strictly ill at'_'ordallee with tile
Statement of Work, using paper tape pllll¢?_i recording of subject choices.
JPI, review of tile experiment results leg to ihe conclusion that tile ex
periments conducted under the controlled conditions eliminate the pos
sibility of interaction belween experimenter and observer and reveal
no positive evidence of I.:SP or I.:SP learning.
NASA has t'oneluded that there is currently no basis t\n" support
Of ftlrtht, t' investigatiolls.
Studies, Almlysis and Plalmittg OI'fiL'e
Oft'tee el" Aeronautics and Space 'l'eehnolot_y
N A_A Iieadquariers
ty
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__ STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Menlo Perk, California 94025 U,S.A,
Final Repot t
DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES TO
MAN/MACHINE COMMUNICATION
_y RUS_I ! t IAHG PH_ LLIS COt _ a,)(I HAF_O( D Pl.ll_(Ot
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ENHANCE
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II TIIE ESP T_L_CIIING _tACIIINE STUDY ll'onttnued)
E. Phaso II Eximriment,_ .................
1. St, IL, ct Loll of Sub lt, t't,_ ..............
2. ExpL, r Linen tal Cond it ton._ .............
"t. Data Colloctton and Am¢ly,_ts ..........
4. Results .....................
5. Discussion ...................
F. Phase III Exporiments ................
l. Selection of Sub,}oct_ ..............
2. Expel'imont al Cond i t ton._ .............
3. l)ata Collt,¢'tion and Analysis ..........
.1. Rosul ts .....................
5. Dl .,;cuss tolx ...................
£i. ('OltC ILIS ion ......................
I 1 1 EI.IG KX PER IMENTS ......................
IV CONt'I.LtS IONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............
I{ EFER ENCES ..........................
APPENI)IX
i)ERSONAI, OIk_VA'rIONS ON 'IllE USi.: t)l.' SRI 'S ES}'
'rEAL'It INIl 5tACII IN E ................
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ILLUSTRATIONS
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I ESP Teaching Machine .............. 5
2ESP Teaching Machine with Printer Attached ........ 6
3 Alternative Data Recording Formats ............. 8
,l Block Diagram of ESP Teaching Machine ........... lO
5 Summary of ESP Teaching Machine Data for Phase I,
Subject A1 ........................ 20
6 Summary of ESP Teaching Machine Data for Phase I.
Subject A2 ......................... 20
7 Sunmlary of ESP Teaching Machine Data for Phase I,
Subject A3 ....................... 25
8Summary of ESP Teaching Machine Data for Phase I,
:" bJect A9 ......................... 25
9Summary of ESP Teaching Machine Data for Phase I,
Subject A7 ......................... 25
lO Stunmary of ESP Teaching Machine Data for Phase I.
Subject C1 ......................... 26
ii Su0mmry of ESP Teaching Machine Data for Phase I,
Subject C2 ......................... 26
12 Summary of ESP Teaching Mnchlne Data for Phase I,
Subject C3 ......................... 26
vi
1'A 131,1,;
1 Phase I Randomness Tests--,_hlchtm, I .............. 15
'2 Phase II Analysis of liandonmrs,_ of ,_lachine's Pe.rformanee
During Subject A15's Trials .................. 17
3 I)ha.,_e IESP Teaching Machhlc 1)ata: Slopt,, llilloillial
Probability ll,05 ....................... 'J,I
•1 Pha.,_o I I.]SP Tt, athill l I%lachine l)_lla: ,'4lope, ililiOillial ').I
lh'oliabil i ty tl,tll .......................
5 lit, stilts of ESP I'L_pel'illlOllt QIIt'SIiOlIIIIIII't" ,........... 30
6 Ph:tse II I':SP l'eacllin_ Machine l)ata .............. 33
7 Phaso III ESP Tt'tlt'hlllg Mat'hillc Data .............. 37
,N l>lllist • III FSP Tetit'hilllX l_la('hilir liiil;a for Suliiect :/:I ...... 39
vii
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PREFACE
This report is the final technical rep_rt SUnlmarizing the work
perforated under NASA Contract NAS7-100 Task I{D-15.t entitled_ "Develop-
ment of Techniques to Enhance Man/_lachine Communicatit_nt" covering the
period 15 April 1973 to 15 May 197.t. This report was prepared by tilL,
Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory of Sill, ._lenlo Park s California.
This program was under the administrative supervisi_m of ,_Ir. Earle Jtmesr
and tile principal investigator was Mr. Russell Targ. Otller significant
contributors to the program were Ms. Phyllis ('ell, t Dr. llarold Puthoffp
Dr. Richard Singleton_ and Dr. Charles Rebor/.
The work in this program was administered by the Jot t)roptllsiorl
Laboratory at the California Institute of Techao]ogy, P:_s._denil, C,_ii-
fornta_ under their Contract No. 953653. Mr. Robert l*owel] wil,_ lilt"
principal technical representative of the Jet Propulsion l,aboratory,
as well as the representative of tile National Aero|muties ;lilt| Sp:l¢'O
Adn_inistration t which sponsored the resear¢ll.
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I IN'fRODUCT I ON
This final report describes the results of a one-year research program
to determine if man/machine communication and extraordinary human per-
ception can be enhanced with teaching machines, making use of feedback
and reinforcement. The contract work statement called for a series of
ta_ks that included the fabrication of six te-lehtng machines and thL_ir
use with a large number of test subjects.
The results of this part of the investigation suggest the existence
of one or more perceptual modallties through which individuals can and do
obtain information about their environment, wherein this information Is
not presented to any known sense. Such perceptu.tl abilities are often
1-3*
considered to be paranormal. The literature in the fleld, coupled
wlth our own observationsp have led us to conclude that such abilities
can be studied under laboratory conditions.
The phenomena we haw _Investit_tted most extensively pertain to the
ability of certain individuals to ci_oost, correctly thL' present state of
arandom four-state automatic stimulus generator.
In addition to the teaching machine tasks, the work statement called
for SRI to conduct trials to dctormlne th, EEG rL,spons¢ of a test subj_,ct
to remote stimuli. During the course of the performance of the contract,
the work on EEG trials was t_:rmlnatcd at JPL's request to permit concen-
tration of remaining funds on the teaching machine exp_rtmt, nts. llowever,
SI{I management decided to continue the EEG data analysls without the
financial support of NASA/JPl, ancl provided in-house support for the
completion of the EEG work. Tht,se results will be submittt, d for publicatior.
*i{oferoncos art, listed _tt the _.,ndof thLs rt,port.
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in the appropriate professional journal at some time in the '_uture.
In all of our work, we conducted ore' experiments with sufficient
control, using vist;alp acoustic, and electrical shielding, to ensure that
all conventi_._al paths of sensory input were blocked. At all times we
were vigilant in the design of our experiments to take measures to
prevent sensory leakage and to prevent deception--whether intentional
or unintentional--on the part of our subjects.
In Section II, we describe experiments in which 148 volunteer
subjects interacted with an ESP teaching machine. In this work we sought
to determine if subjects could learn to choose the current state of a
four-state random stimulus generator. We were looking either for sig-
nificant learning or consistent extra-chance high scoring. This investi-
gation identified two individuals--working under different conditions--
-6
who produced mean scores at a level of significance, P 2 x 10 .In
addition, six subjects--again, under varying conditions--showed signifi-
cant learning at P< 0.01, whereas no subject in this ex2aerimcnt produced
a negative slope at thi,_ level of significance.
In Section III we summarize tests using electro(._ncephalograms (EE(,),
in which subjects were asked to perceive whether a remote light was
flashing, and to de,ermine whether a subject could perceive the presence
of the light even if only at a noncognitive level of awareness. These
experiments were terminated at JPL'_ request as has been mentioned.
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A. General Ittt roduct ion
The mnin hypothoats to be explored in this part of the ntudy was
that with pc'notice many individuals might improve their perform_tncL,
on asltttable ESP task.
The machine designed for use, in this experiment was n four-choice
t'=ltldt_lt st tlllLlllls gottortltor which was acongenial and visually pleasing
device.- for the stlb.lect.,l, It was also easily the'eked for t'¢itld_mtless tlnd
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c.'_pable of providing; suitable hard copy for computer analysis, Teletype
sub,leers in Pha,,ce Ill,
Phases 0 and I. In Phase lll experimental conditions were again varied
in an attempt to replicate earlier successful results.
B. The ESP Teaching Machine
1. General Description
The Aquarius Electronics ESP Teaching Machtn_ designed for
this kind of proJectr presents four art slides to the subject as shown
in Figure 1.* The machine is often used with a printer attached, as
Flgure 2 illustrates. The machine randomly selects one of the four
slides as a targetr which the subject then tries to identify by pressing
the button _ssoclated with the slide of his choice. As soon as the sub-
ject indicates his choicer the target slide is illuminated to provide
visual feedback as to the correctness or incorrectness of the response.
If the choice is correct_ the number-of-hlts counter displayed on the
machine is incremented and a bell sounds. The number-of-trlals counter
displayed on the machine is incremented whether or not the choice is
correct.
An important feature of the machine is that the choice per se
of a target is not forced. That Is, the subject may press a PASS button
on the machine when he wishes not to guess. Thus, with practicer the
subject can learn to recognize those states of mind In which he can cor-
rectly choose the target. He need not guess at targets when he does not
feel that he "knows" which to choose.
When the PASS button is pushed the machine indicates what its
choice wast and neither a hit nor atrial is scored by the machine, which
b
li *This machine was first designed and built by Russell Targ and David B.
Hurt in 1971 under a grant from the Parapsychology Foundatlon, New York
City, N.Y. The present machines were manufactured by Aquarius ElectronJcs,
Albionr California.
4
FIGURE IESP TEACHING MACHINE
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FIGURE 2
ESP TEACHING MACHINE WITH PRINTER ATTACHED
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then goes on to make Its next seh_et i_m. PASSES may be used as often as
desired. We consider this elimination of forced choice to be asignifi-
cant condition for learnln_ ESP.
Because the user obtains immediate iatormation feedback as to
tile correct answer, he may be able to recognize his mental state at those
times when he has made a correct response. If the information feedback
to the user were not immediate, we believe as milch learning would not
take place and less or no enhancement would be achieved.
Five legends at the top of the ESP machLne face are illuminated
one at a time with increasing correct ¢hoit:es t,_ provide additional rein-
forcement 0
Throughout this expt, rtn|t_llt_ the tllacltlllt_S _vt_re operated in clair-
voyant taode (i.e., the target SelccttoIt w;ts lipide by tile m_lchint" before
tile subject made his choice). Although tile machin_,s are flexible t,uough
to permit several other modes of stlb,jt'Ct _Pt;tt'hille ll_tt'l':lctiolt, these It_tVt"
not yet been systematically explored.
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2. Data-Col lec t ton Methods
Several data-collection options are ;tvailnble; all were used
in different phases of this study. The ESP machine itself displays a
counter of the number of trials and hits. When 25 trials are roachod_
tile "reset" btltton must be pressed before another set of 25 trials can
begin. For one Phase 0subject and for all Phase !II subj,,cts, this
sunmlary information was recorded Oil .,4cort, _ht'ets by ;tit experilllttatt, r
observing the sttil,|ct't. 'I'ht, ()tiler P|1;1._,, 0 ,,4tll),|t,t't rot'ort|_,d Ills own t|ttt[t.
All AtluitrittS-l)rothlced prit_ter tltity bt, plugged ipto tilt, ESP ma-
chine to obtalll far mort, (It, taile(I (hlt_l, which arc printed on fillt-t,_ltI
paper. A sllmplo tapt, is .,_howtt fn Figllre 3(a). ltt,adiltg front loft to
right, tile tttformntion ret, ord¢,(| is:
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2 2
2 !
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0 2
0 1
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0 "_ 12
070 3
0 "/ 30
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0 60 ]
06 I 0
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0 50 3
0 S 2 0
0 5 2 0
0 52 '7_,.
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0 q 3 0
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0 q 2 2
0 31 3
0 3 0 0
02 3 7
n22 7
0 2O3
0 2 2 2
0,1 03
0 I 20
011 1
0 0 21
Score
Sublecl Cho,ce
Machine Cho,ce
la) PAPER TAPE GENERATED Ib)
BY AQUARIUS PRINTER
Hit o_r
Pits [_,_btect Ch_cl
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M_Ic hine Cho,ce
PUNCHED PAPER TAPE GENERATED
BY MODEL-33 TELETYPE
SA-2R13-4
FIGURE 3 ALTERNATIVE DATA RECORDING FORMATS
8
Columns 1 and 2:
Columns 3 and 4:
Column 5:
Column 6:
number ,_f trials
number of hits
target selection, 0-3
subject selection, 0-3 for a slide,
7 for a pass.
Resets are indicated by a "4" in column 6 and zeroes in all other columns.
Thls method of recording data was used for the 145 subjects in Phase I
and the 12 subjects in Phase II.
To provide machine-readable data, a Model 33 Teletype can be
incorporated into the configuration to produce punched paper tape, as
shown in Figure 3(b). A simple coding format enables recording of essen-
tially the same information as that displayed by the Aquarius printer.
All of the following items are encoded in one eight-bit column: machine
generated target, subject choice, subject pass_ correct choice by subject,
and finally a parity bit. All eight holes are punched to indicate reset
after 25 trials. Tapes generated in this way were run through our cen-
tral computer to obtain the required checks of machine rand(z_ness before
subject participation in Phase I.
Punched-paper tapes were also generated for the randomness
tests before Phase II and for all subjects during Phase II.
3. Detailed Description of the ESP Teaching Machine
The random target generator consists of a self-starting multi-
vibrator free running continuously at a 1MHz rate. This is shown in the
system block diagramp Figure 4. The clock gate transfers the clock pulse
to a scale-of-four counter, or target generator. In this manner a new
target is chosen every 1 _s. The function of the synchronous gate is to
ensure uniform pulses to the scale of four counter to el t_.inate any bias
in counting pulses,
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To start a "clairvoyance" trial, the master reset button resets
trial and hit counters to zero, disables the clock gate for about I rasp
and enables the target gate which transfers the last two-bit binary num-
ber from the scale-of-four counter to the target latch_ or memory. The
target gate is then disabled and the clock gate enabled and the scale-of-
four counter starts to cycle again. _leanwhile the target binary number
remains in the memory. When any of the five entry switches is depressed_
its corresponding entry data latch is set and the remaining entry switches
are disabled until all sw: _"_ _re released. The target picture t_ illu-
minated during the interval that the switch is depressed.
The entry information is decoded and checked against the con-
tents of the memory by the comparator. If the contents of the entry data
latch and the target data latch are identical when strobed with an enabling
pulse, a pulse is sent to the "hit" counter and the hit bell ringsp Lndl-
eating acorrect choice. Also apulse will be sent to the trial counter.
It" an Incorrect choice is made, only the trial counter is pulsed. If the
"pass" switch is depressed, the correct target is dtsplayedp but neither
counter Is actuated.
After all switches have been released, the synchronous clock
gate is disabled and the target data latch is enabled, thereby transfer-
ring a new target into memory, ready for the next trial.
When the function switch is in the "precognition" mode, the
timing sequence is altered so that there is an initial delay of 200 _Ls
after the entry switch is depressed, after which the new target is se-
lected_ the eomparator is strobedp and the target display is enabled.
After 25 trials have been made the last target remains on; this
indicates thaf the run is over and the entry switches are disabled until
the reset switch is depressed to start a new run.
11
4. Randomness Tests
The design objective was to build a four-state machine, with
each state equally likely to occur on each trial, independent of the past
sequence of states. If the machine meets this objective, it should not
be possible to devise a rule for future play that significantly differs
from chance. A simple example of such arule would be to select the ms-
chine state observed in the preceding trial; if this strategy were to
produce scores significantly above chance (25 percent hits), we would
reject the hypothesis of randomness of the machine under test.
The preliminary results described in Phase O were obtained
prior to randomness testing. Before e_ch of the other three Phases in
the experiment, the machines were extensively tested for randomness.
Data were analyzed on aCDC-64OO computer, and each machine used in the
experiment met established criteria for randomness.
a. Phase I Tests
In developing randomness tests, we are guided in part by
aknowledge of the machine logic. When one of the four choice keys or
the pass key is depressed, the current machine state is displayed; then
a brief time after release of tile key, a new machine state is established
(but ,lot shown to the subject) by sampling the instantaneous state of a
high-speed four-state electronic counter. For the machine to be random,
the times of dwell of the counter llt each of the fot_r states must be pre-
cisely equal; otherwise, the distribution of outcomes will be biased.
The first randomness test is thus based on tallying the number of occur-
rences of each ,)f the four states. This test should detect tl st_ble bias,
yet m;ly miss a drifting bias. To test for this second possibility _(, als(_
t:llly tile diqtrlbt, tion of oiitc,_t,s in each group of I00 trials, then com-
t_utc :_ kikelih, ,d ratio tes_ s'._tistic (see below) for each group. Under
12
the null hypothesis of equal likelihood of the four states, these statis-
tic values are distributed approximately as chi-square with three degrees
of freedom and their sum for mgroups distributed approximately as chl-
square with three mdegrees of freedom. This test may also detect stable
bias, but Is not as powerful for this purpose as the first test. Variable
bias of still shorter period, if substantial, can be tested for by tally-
ing the frequency with which the previous machine state is repeated; an
overall repeat ratio ("all") significantly above 0.25 is indicative of
such bias.
If for any reason the machine were to fail to sample the
counter to establish a new statep the previous machine stale would be re-
peated. To test for this possibilityD we tally the number of repeats
following the depression of each key. Arepeat ratio significantly
greater than 0.25 should be considered a danger signal.
We also tally the Initial machine states following reset
nnd the transitions between states. In each cased the number of occur-
fences of each of the four possible outcomes should be approximately equal.
When repeats are deleted from the sequence of trials ("nondlagonnl transi-
tions"), the four states should also be approxlmately equal in frequency.
No te_ts beyond these one-step transitions were applied.
In testing the null hypothesis of four equally lik,.ly out-
comes of a trial, alikelihood ratio test 4is used. The s_atlstlc
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l=l _ n i /
under the null hypothesis is distributed approximately as cbi-square with
three degrees of freedom mwith rejection for large values of this statis-
tic. The computer program used in testing randomness includes asubroutine
for computing the probability of a chi-square value as large or larger
than that observed.
13
In testing the null hypothesis that the probability of a
repeat is 0.25_ the binomial probability of obtaining the observed number
K or more repeats in N trials is computed. For K greater than IOOO, n
normal distribution ,approximation is computed_ assuming the stntistlc
N
to be approximately normal with mean zero and standard deviation one.
In making the randomness tests before Phase l jthe data
were recorded directly on punched paper tape. Some initial difficulties
were encountered from operating the machine too rapldly--both printer and
punching errors occurred. This problem was solved by machine modifica-
tion to prevent entry of a new choice before completion of the print
cycle. The punched paper tapes were then converted to cards on a CDC-
6400 computer, using two columns per trlal--one for the mnchlne state
and the other for the key selected by the subject. The punched cards
were used to provide a simple means of combining several sets of trlnls
on agiven machlne, as input to the analysis program.
The typical test pattern tlsed was six passes followed by
twenty-flve choices of one colorp repenting this for each of the four
colors. In this way each of the five keys other than rest were given
npproxlmntely equal use. Typically, 2,000 to 6,000 trials were made.
in each sitting. In the absence of any unusual results in the randomness
tests, a minimum of 10,000 trlals were made before using amachine with
experimental subjects. With IOjO00 trials, the expected fraction _f re-
pents is 0.25 with a standard deviation of 3/200 = 0.00866.
A sample computer listing of the results of randomness
tests on Machine 4is included in Table I. Of the four machines testcd_
three were found suitable for use in the preliminary screening actlvity
t4
Tabll, I
PIIASE I RANI)($1NESS TES'I'S--hb'_CllI.NE .I
Init ial
'l'ran_ itiotis
Yeltox_
states 107
728
777
776
787
But t on s
Green Blue
1 tg 11:1
764 765
784 77;{
796 Ill()
852 S03
lied
128
790
863
773
8O5
Nulnbe r
o f
Trials
.16,|
30.17
5197
:{155
:1247
t'll t-Sq.
1.996
2. 5721
6.7.15
1.158
2.877
0.57
0.46
0.08
O. 76
O. 41
AlL stq tt, s
NO|ld '[ tl_Ollll 1
tl':ltl_ itt. OtlS
:i175
23t0
[%g'y N-Tr i3 Is
3359
2.12t;
Repeat s
13110
9519
R,It io
5. 667 0. 114
2. 630 O..15
Btt_ot_i a I
II [;Igoil:l |
tt'_lll,'-; i| t011.'4
Yo I 1 ow
t;t'eetl
Itlut,
II i'll
Pn s s
All
277-1 705
2755 674
2761 706
27,12 667
1 t;l .t 375
126.1t; ;1127
O. ?5.1 l
O. 2-1.16
O. :_557
t). '-!.l.t;l
O. :2323
O. 2.17;_
Pt'ob.
O. 312t
O. 7.18
O. 250
O. 793
O. 953
O. 763
R;lildoilillO,,4s ill ltl'Otlll_ of |Lit) I rinls:
t'h i-sq. "_!t9.61.11 I). I.'. ;I 15 Prob. I).gW'S
: 2 iii L "--'--'I
¢*
i
e
t
I
1
!
]
15
. ^
.r! :,::.
.. L.L_
_::_'_.
'' I"
|
q,
of Phase I. The fourth machine was returned to the manufacturer for
adjustment.
b. Phase II Tests
Minor modifications were made to the equipment before
Phase II began. After that time_ the machines were tested for randomness
in combination with different printers. Each machine/printer combination
under consideration was tested for 1OpO00 trials.
The analyses used were the same as those for the random-
ness tests before Phase I. Two machine/printer pairs were selected for
use in Phase II. Five of the twelve subjects used the same single machine/
printer combination. The remaining seven subjects used one combination
for about one-half of their trials, the second combination the rest of
t he t lme.
Data analysis for Phase II subjects was based on trial-by-
trial Information coded on punched paper tape and included randomness
checks on the machines' performances during the experiment sessions.
Both pairs of machines performed satisfactorily. There was no indication
that any subject had learned--either consciously or unconsciously--to
operate the keys in such a way as to defeat the Intended sampling of the
machine counter to establish a new state.
Asample of the output from this analysis is Included in
Table 2.
c. Phase IIl Tests
The procedure for testing the randomness of the machine
involved an experimenter making 12pOO0 trials per machine in a nonrandom
fashion while recording the hits per 25 trials. This variation in testing
16
f
Table 2
PHASE I I ANALYSIS OF RANDOMNESS OF _V_CIIINES' PEI(FORMANCE
DURING SUBJECT A-15's TRIAl.S
Initial states
Trans i t ions
All states
Nondlagonal
transitions
Yellow
35
202
194
197
t59
787
Green
38
195
190
196
202
819
Blue
31
183
215
159
180
768
550 593 578
Red
26
173
18,1
186
169
738
543
Nurebe r
of
Trials
128
753
783
738
710
:1112
226.1
Ch i-Sq.
1,988
2. 638
27,10
5.2-12
5. 684
l..149
2. 925
Bin t)m.
Prob.
0.5750
0.,1509
0.4335
0.1549
0.1281
0.2169
0..103-I
Dtagona I
transit ions
Key N-Tr ic_ Is
.... . i
Yel low 721
G:'cell
Blue
Red
Pass
All
766
711
691
95
2984
Randomness in groups of 100 trials:
Repea t s
166
180
159
188
27
720
Ra tio
0. 2302
0. 2350
0. 2236
O. 2721
0. 2842
0.2413
B i nom i a 1
Prob,
O. 898537
O, 8.11682
0,953618
0,098319
0.2537.19
O. 868193
Chi-sq. =75,6798 D.F, =90 Prob. = 0.8598
17
was necessary to it,st the device as it _'tmld actually bt, u_ed by tilt'
subject, viz. without a printer :_ttached.
Analysis was bast,d on "_,000 trials per tar+;et per machinL,
rising tile data analysis procedtll't's described in tile d[SctlS,'_lOh of Ph',tst" 1.
Datu for each t,lrget wore treatt_d .is mi lndlvidu,i1 "sub jeCto" Based ,m
the ['OIIl" target results for ._levorlll Bl_lt'h_ll_Sp otlo llltlt'_llllt, w:I_ st, let'ted
for lls0 based on Its l'llndom appeal':lllct" uslllg tile c_'Ilel'i,t of mean sc'ort, s
and slope, A single mnchine was used for all Phase Ill subjects,
t'. I'imse 0Pilot Study
1. Select iou of Subjects
Much interest was generated by tile arrival of tilt' ESP tt,,lchiug
m+ichlne at SRI. lntere.qted frlelliis +lnd t,mployees tt+ok t trot, to fun 1i)0
trials or so oil tilt' device. Tilt-st, intol'llltll actlvitit,s !'ill;lilt'it IlO dllt;I
Ct_llectton, llIId Wt'l't _ tie! COllSldt, l'ed part of tile pilol stltttv. |lowt'veI'_
tWO indtvtdllllls who expres.'+ed lntel't, st in doltl#_ .Iddltlon,ll uork with tilt'
mnchine were asked to become sub.jet!s.
2. Data Collection
Stlb,jt'ct Ill worked lit homt,_ whert, IIts (Sill Sell,hi is!) t':ttht,t °
ri.'COl'l|('d his d;lItt O!1 prepllI't'd score ,'411or'Is. Sub,leer :\'J_ ,l sclctlttst llot
employed at SI{I_ loecol'ded his /iwn data on the pi'epal't'd scot'!" shct, t,-; u hilt_
wol'ktnl_ on tile itlachlnt, ill all SRI labol'atol,y0
"1. I_:lt a-Analysts l'!',,cedures
:_ Ile(.'e_silt'y ct_lldlt ion l'of eY It|eric!, of ¢1,1 ll'V_+,%';lIlt'e Is ;i 111¢",111
._core signiftcilntly above tilt, 25 ollt el" 100 tl'ials t'xI+t,t'tt'tt by t'hnnct,.
A Ilect,,,4_lll'y COllditloll ['or evldellce of CliiIl'VOytlllt lt'al'llitl#_ is ;i st;it i.'4Ii-
tally sil_llil'it'allt positive le,ll'nlIIl_ slope. For tllt'se l't'llStlIlS t tilt' it;lid
18
i + !
analyses focused upon mean scores and positive learning slope. The test
scores--the number of correct choices in each group of 25 trials--were
punched in time sequence onto cards. The computer program groups these
data in sets of 100 trials, then fits allne. Under the null hypothesis
of random binomial choices with probability 1/4 and no learning, the prob-
ability of observing _k successes in n trials is approximated by the prob-
ability of a normal distribution value
:- •
>(k -2
The statistic used to test the slope was
nn+l
z :),, ,
J=l
which under the null hypothesis is symmetrically distributed about zero
with variance
(n2-1) 300
12 16
4. Results
Subject Al's mean score of 26.06 per 1_0 trials over 9600 trials
has a binomial probability of 8.4 × 10"3; his slope of 0.077 has a bino-
-6
mial probability of 1 x 10 . Subject A2's mean score of 30.50 over 1400
trials has a binomial probability of 2 ×10-6; his slope of 0.714 has a
-3
binomial probability of 6 x 10 .
The data for Subjects A1 and A2 are graphed as hits per 100
trials in Figures 5 and 6, respectively.
5. Discussion
The excellent results of these two subjects led to the decision
to modify the machine to permit automatic recording of total scores as well
19
4O
¢
I
_=lo
I-
0 10
9600 TRIALS
Mean =26.06 Pmean =0.0(_4
Slope =0.077 Petop. " 1 x 10 -6
I I I iI 1 1 ]
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
RUN NUMBER -- 100 trials/run; P ,, 1/4 per trial
SA-2613-6
FIGURE 5 SUMMARY OF ESP TEACHING MACHINE DATA FOR PHASE I, SUBJECT A!
.__.....
?,f
..I 'i
III
io
_.0_
Z
"1" 1400 TRIALS
10 M_n -30.50 Pmee,_
SlOpe =0.714 P=lo=)*
0 5 10
" 2 xI0 -6
• 0.006
I
15 20
RUN NUMBER -- 100 trials/run; P =I/4 per trial
SA-26t 3-7
FIGURE 6 SUMMARY OF ESP
TEACHING MACHINE
DATA FOR PHASE I,
SUBJECT A2
2O
as more detailed data. After this modification to _llIow a printer to he
connected to the machlne_ extenslvc randomness testing was performed.
The machine successfully passed these tests. The manufacturers of the
equipment assure us that the modification to include the printer should
not have changed the randomness of the system. Wc believe that tile per-
formance of these two subjects indicates a man/machlne interaction dlf-
ferlng significantly from chance e×pectatlon.
D. Phase I E×periments
Phase I focused on screening 1.1.5 volunteer subjects to ascertain if
practice using the ESP teaching machine would improve scoring rates. The
screening also was directed toward pinpointing subjects whose mean score
was unusually high.
1. Selection of Subjects
Subjects for Phase Icame trt_n three main sourt'es:
tSill: employees t relatives and friends responded to an
lastitutewide notice requesting volunteers; these vohm-
teers includt_d 79 adults atnd 21 children under 15.
A private school; 18 members **f a iunior high school
class participated; -I somewhat yotlngt, l" students also
took pa rt.
Apublic school: 23 junior high students were selected
by lot from twice that number of volunteers.
Some of these sub,l¢cts believed that ESP phenomena existed;
others (lid not. Some bt, licved they had had psychi(" experlencos_ Intt
tile majority did not. The only criterion for parttctp;tnts wits tht, will-
Ingness to tak¢, pnrt In at let.st five 15- to 20-minute sessions over :t
period of one I_; two w('eks,
21
2. Experimental Conditions
At SRIp each subject worked alone in one of three experlmental
:aboratorles. The ESP teaching machine was only one of anumber of de-
vices located in any one of these rooms. While the environment was per-
haps famillar to participating SRI sclentistsp it was _n unusual setting
for most of the SRI stafft nonemployees, and children who participated.
Each participant came at the same schedule time for five or more sessions.
Each individual worked on two or more machities in different locations over
the experimental period.
The private school subjects used the ESP machines in the science
laboratory at their school. Each student was assigned a 20-minute time
slot for the experiment. Two ESP machines were set up in the laboratory_
and at moat times during the school day both were in use_ while another
student or two waited. The experimenter was in attendance for these ses-
sions. The laboratory was kept locked when the experiment was not in
progress.
1bye ESP machines were set up in the teachers _preparation room
at the public school. The equipment was supervised by the teacher or
teachers present in the room at any given time. Each student had an
assigned 20-minute time each day to work on the machines. This experiment
ran over a period of several weeks; while most students worked regularly_
many complained of the noise and confusion inherent in the location.
Unfortunately_ no better site could be located.
While participants at SRI viewed themselves as subjects in an
experiments_ students at the two schools had a broader view of the situ-
ation. The project was treated as a way of introducing these students
to some basic elements of the scientific m_thod. Several discussions
about the project were held and students were encouraged to ask questions.
Data recording was explainedD and all students le_trned to graph their per-
cent of hits.
22
3, Data Collectlon and An_llysls
A total of 154 subjects had d_ita recorded on the Aquarius
printer paper tape, Only 145 persons Inet the criterion of participating
in at least five sessions; the remaining nine persons--six adults sad
three children--were dropped from the experiment. Of these nine persons,
two adults and the three children attended only one session.
4. Results
Table 361splays data for the 9of the 145 subjects whose posi-
tive learning slopes were statistically significant at the 0.05 level or
better. Five of these subjects were adults and four were children under
15 years of age. Data for the 11 of the 145 subjects whose mean scores
were significant at the 0.05 level or better are given in Table 4. These
11 subjects include five adults and six children.
Four subjects (two adults and two children) had slopes signifi-
cant at the O.O1 level or better. T_o subjects (one adult and one child)
had mean scores significant at tile O. O1 level of slgniflcancc or better.
Figures 7 through 12 display a graph of percent of hits per I00 trl.'_Is
for each of the slx subjects; the leasl-squ:ires fit to the data is super-
imposed.
23
Subject
A9
A7
A8
A5
A6
C1
C2
C7
C9
Note :
Table 3
PHASE I ESP TEACHING MACHINE DATA:
BINOMIAL PROBABILITY _0.05
SLOPE,
Number
of Trials
2300
2000
3000
1900
1100
2800
4500
3800
8000
Slope
0.401
0.409
0.161
0.337
0.718
0.236
0.148
0.II0
O. 037
Binomial Probability _0.05
0.002
0.007
0.039
0.032
0.042
0.010
0.001
0.043
0.038
Subject codes beginning with "C" are children under 15.
Table 4
PHASE IESP TEACHING MACHINE DATA: MEAN SCORES_
BINOMIAL PROBABILITY _0.05
i
i,V!.i
!,
!
!
Subject
A3
A12
A4
A10
All
C3
C6
C8
C4
C5
C10
Note:
Number
of Trials
2800
2800
7800
4700
1800
3300
3O00
2800
2900
2400
3.100
Mean
Score
29.57
26.71
25.94
26.06
26.72
26.97
26.73
26.61
26.48
26.58
26.62
Binomial Probability _0.05
<10-6
0.019
0.029
O.048
0.049
0.005
0.015
0.026
0.034
0.039
0.046
Subject codes beginning wlth "C" are children under 15.
_p
O|UGt_NAi, ' " ' :
OF POOR Q_":\I,IT\'
0
_n
8
25 I
!I
Un_l$1_)l OOL Io ),no -- Nr)EIISJ.IH
IIII
0
0
0 0
e-
._ < cuo<(
0
_|,,
7
_ W
.!
t
5. Discussion
It appears that during the Phase 1 experiments the population
of 145 subjects functions essentially at random: Th_ binomial probability
of at least 105t890 hits out of 423t000 trials is 0.310. Even if we in-
clude Subjects A1 and A2 (screened in Phase 0), the overall mean score
for these 147 subjects remains at chance.
However tfour of these subjects (two adults and two children)
have a positive learning slope at the O.O1 level of significance or better.
The performance of these individuals is far better than that of the rest
of the population. Excluding these six subjectst the slopes of the re-
maining 141 subjects appear to be nornlally distributed. In facts no
subject had a negative slope at the 0.01 level or less_ in contrast t,_
those four who had a positive slope at the O.O1 level.
These results support our conclusion that the ESP machine can
serve as a suitable screening device for people_ perhaps adults in par-
ttcular_ with certain kinds of ESP ability. While not many pe_ple pass
this screening testp many of those who do so perf_rm very well indeed.
Those so identified were asked to work further with the machines.
An interesting observation derived from afollow-up stirvey of
the adult subjects who participated in either Phase O or Phase I is that
.'37 L)I the 79 adults contacted practiced some regular form of discipline
such as yoga or meditation. However, in our highest scoring adtllt popu-
lation (18 at the O.10 level of significance based on slope or mean scores
or both) we find tilree and one-half times as many meditators/yoga practi-
tioners as nonpractltioners--1,t and 4t respectively. This is obviously
-3
asin:ill population, but it is nonetheless significant al the 9.1 x 10
level.
27
A variety of information "data," mainly anecdotal, was pr,_duced
that provided assistance in defining protocols and hypotheses for future
experiments. For example, complaints about the not:_y printer led to
placing the printer in a remote location.
Two main types of strategies were observed: Soate subjects
worked very s_owly, some extremely quickly. About half of the subjects
who did very w_ll fell into each category. Both strategies seemed to
grow from attempts on the part of the subjects to override their rational
urges to try to see patterns in the slides. Although it _'as carefully
explained to all subjects that the machines selected targets randomlyt
many people still felt there were patterns to be found. This may have
in part been because only four targets were used.
Several subjects--including _lx)ut half of those who scored at
the O.01 level or better--felt that they sometimes scented to operate in
precognitive mode. That is, when attempting to select the correct target
for trial N, they were in fact selecting the correct target for trial N+I.
No subject was able to successfully sort out the cues that enabled hin_ to
determine the state he was in. Examin.ltton of Subject A3's data indicates
that overall scores for precognition are about at chance level. However,
as the subject noted, precognitive "runs" seem to t_.cur. It would be of
interest in a future experiment to explore further the prc_cognitive /
clairvoyant confusion.
Throughout Phase I, no observable perfolm_:tncc differt, nces wt, re
noticed by sex or age; however, no detailed analysis was made.
St|bJects uniformly enjoyed participating in this experiment,
and many mentioned they would be happy to use the m,lchines again if the
chance arose. Several adults speclflcnlly mentioned they felt tlley were
learning how to improve their scores; such remarks were _fit, n made at ,t
time when merely observing tile session's scores provided lit t le st.el)err
_8
: i
,
,l
i
.i
i
i
I
1
:.l_---[ ....L....L..! .........L_ l.. [ .!. L__L_.J_......L [ [......,_.... t_,"! ___. _
for this notion. Yet many of these same persons--in particular Subjects
A6 and A7--dtd show learning.
The llllpressioll that one could learn to otltgtlUSS a ralldom machine
was prevalentD and seemed to become stronger the more attention that was
paid to the machine. Numerous aubjects bemoaned tile fact that when they
were "hot" they could perform extremely wellt and t'ett ttl touch wttl_ tile
machine. The man!machine rapport was mentioned over and over agaLn_ but
few people were able to verbalize what they meant by tl)is. One of tilose
who was not only verbal but able to replicate his results was Subject A3.
His attitudes and interpretations of his methods are discussed more fully
under Phase III and in Appendix A.
In an attempt to encourage verbalization, all inforllt_ll or_ll stir-
vey was given each participant at the private school after his participa-
tloII in tile expcrLment. The ].csults, tallied in 'l'.._ble 5_ parallel c_u_t'nts
fr¢_'n adult subjects :is well as other children. Questions 3 and 3a are of
particular interest: Many students tried to get low scores. Tilts ten-
dency to experiment with different modes of interacttng with the machine
was not taken into account in recording or analyzing data.
E. Phase tI Experiments
The goal of Phase 11 was to do additional work with subjects who had
performed well duritlg the earltt, r p.t_ises of the experiment. The itlquiry
was directed toward several areas:
.%
_,
i _ |._
;
• I
i, • I
i'
I
t
Replication of earlier rt, sults.
Improved I)t, rfo_'manct, by crt, at ing amore congt, nial expt, rimental
t'=ll V lrOlllllt, n t .
('oliectioll of data Ill =_ directly reliC|line l'_'ad,lb|t" format to
_II|OW more (it, tailed _lnllly.'4is Of sub.lect rt,,_pol_._t,_ =ltl(t m;ichitlt,
per [o10111anf o ,,
1
I
|
41
I
I
2q I
l
IQ
[Itl
').,
2;t •
3.
_a°
3b,
4.
_e
5a °
6,
T_lble 5
RESULTS OF ESP EXPERIMENT QUESTIONNAIRE
Ss : 22 bnytt and girls ages 10-14
Given Oct. I and 2, after 7 oxpert_ont_ll sesst(ms
t)f 20 MiUtlte_ t,rs('h
Do you tl_ink yL_ teamed anything?
Yes : 11 No : 7 Ibn_ 'tktlow : 4
Wha t?
Anawers vary.
What sort oF things did you do to _ot |li_h scores?
Not thinking: ;; Just pushed: 3
Fast pressttl_: 6 F'oll¢_wl,d feelings:
Found pat lern_: 5 Other: ,%
How did yoo feel?
Varies: R
Feeling g(x)d helps"
Other: 6
'#h:it .';orts of thinks did y,_! d,_ tq) get really low scott, s?
Av_id right at_s_ers: 8
I.'i.d p_ltterns: J
',)t her : ,_
Did you try on purpose to get ]¢_w scores?
Yes: 15 .No: 7
flow did you feel?
Vat t(_s : 6 Don't kn<)w : 3
Maybe not so go()d: 4 ()thor or n_) response:
Usual : 5
What did you think you were doing?
Mostly gue._s tag : 8
Some ESP, some guessing: 6
Mostly ESP: 2
Guessing at first, then more ESP:
[)on't kay)w: 2
Sometimes IIght ,act ton aroultd
c¢_rrect btlttOn: |
When really fast, more ESP: 1
Did you like the experiment?
Yes: 22 N,): 0
Would you llke to he in a similar cxperlment some other time?
Yes: 21 Maybe: I No: 0
Other ctm_nent s:
Nice time during experiment: 3
Don't Itke printer: :!
Trying hard t_ get high sc_re,_
led t_ low st',)ros: 4
L_ _cores _(tett occ%lrt'_td -'tft_.,r
httIh seo|'e_ :2
Ot Iler re_nrk_ : 9
3O
,
1. Selection of Subjects
Criteria for selecting subjects for this part of tile experiment
included statistically significant slopes or mean scores during Phase 0
or Phase I. Adult Subjects A3 through AS, whose records are shown in
Table 3_ participated in this portion of the experiment, as did Subject
A2, aPhase 0 participant. Subject A9 declined to take part because she
believed she had learned to achieve high scores on the machine and had
no further interest in it.
Five additional adult subjects took part. Subject A13 i_s
demonstrated some paranormal ability in other tests conducted at SRI.
Subjects A14-A16 are individuals whose slope was between the 0.05 and
0.06 levels of significance. Subject AI7 sllowed significant promise of
improvement, based on comparisons on number of lllts in the second half
of the data as compared to the first half. Three of these five individuals
believe that they have had personal ESP-related experiences.
2. Exper Lmenta I Conditions
Several protocol changes were made to enhance the experimental
conditions. The most dranlatic change was reconfiguring the equipment so
that the fairly noisy printer was remote from tlxe subjects. Several dozen
Phase Iparticipants ilad complained that the clatter of the printer was a
distraction.
Asecond change was to provide a single experimental setting
in a living-room like environment. Tile overilead fluorescent ligilts were
replaced by table lamp._. Equipment not pertinent to tlle experln_ent was
removed from the room.
Finally, subjects were asked to work on tile ESP Teacl_ing ._hlchlne
only ,_,hen they wisile,! to do so. Such flexible schedules were an attempt
to promote positive attitudes toward each session with the machine.
31
3. Data Collection and AnalysLs
The printed paper tape and punched paper tape described in
Section II were used as data-collectlon devices in Phase II. Both the
printer and the Model 33 Teletype that generated tile punched paper tape
were located in an experlmenterts office approximately ,I0 f_ from the
subjects' experimental room.
The statistics calculated for this portion of the experi_enl
were essentially the same as those described for Phase I data, namely,
the mean and the learning slopep and the binomial probability for each
of these. However_ rather than analyze the trials in blocks of I00, as
was done in earlier analysesp the punch paper tape input of detalled data
allowed trlal-by-trlal calculations to be performed.
As previously mentloned_ this form of input also permitted
randomness tests to be performed on data during experimental trials.
Itesults indicated the machines were performing suitably throughout
Phase II. Asample output frown these tests for Subject A6 is includt-d
_ls Table 2.
4. Results
No subjects perfor_led significantly better than chance lhr,_ugh-
out Phase II. The slope, mean, and the binomial probability of each are
given in Table 6. Under these conditions, then, no ESP learning occurred.
An additional experiment was performed with Subject AI'3: We
attempted to establish whether money would serve as a motivator t¢_ achi_,vc
high scores for this individual. Of the more than 20,000 trials perftn'med
by AI3 during Phase II, about 13_500 were undt, rthe following payment
schedule for scores greater than or equal to lO per set _f 25 trials:
il;
32
! |
Table 6
PI_.SE II ESP TEACHING MACHINE DATA
Subject
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
AI3
AI4
AI5
AI6
AI7
Number
of Trials
4824
1698
,1529
2424
3017
2274
4650
21,488
5820
4824
8459
1325
Slope
(binom. prob.)
4.1 x 10 -7 (0.464)
1.3 x10 -5 (0.271)
-4 × 10 -4 (0.767)
3.6 x 10 -6 (0.386)
6x10 -6 (0.238)
1.7 x 10 -5 (O.114)
6.1 ×10 -6 (0.096)
4.3 × 10 -7 (0.182)
-9.9 x 10 -7 (O.616)
-1.3 x 10 -5 (0.975)
-2.9 x 10 -6 (0.933)
-1 x 10 -5 (0.632)
Mean
(binom. prob. )
25.24 (0.351)
25.32 (0.388)
25.63 (0.180)
24.92 (0.545)
25.42 (0.302)
24.71 (0.631)
25.57 (0.188)
24.98 (0.528)
24.93 (0.554)
23.21 (0.994)
24.04 (0.979)
24.38 (0.709)
33
tJ
I,.
• | .
• I
"1
• | "
:]: I
I
$I for a tO
$2 for an II
$5 for a 12
$I0 for a 13
$20 for a 14
While the subject was highly motivated to generate many trials, the num-
ber of scores greater than or equal to tO generated during these .toney-
motivated sessions did not differ significantly from the number of scores
greater than or equal to tO generated when money was not a motivator, or
from chance expectation.
.,. i
5, Discussion
The data analysis of the 12 Phase I I subjects reveals no sig-
nificant departure from chance expectation. Two factors may partially
be responsible,
First, the subjects were definitely aware that they were in a
test situation, despite attempts to provide a quletp pleasant, nonthreat-
enlng atmosphere. All knew they were selected to participate because they
performed well during the screening process, and this knowledge created
varying degrees el tension associated with these performance expectations,
according to interviewed subjects.
The subjects in this experiment have uniformly complained about
the new experimental conditions in that "It all feels different_ being
connected to a computer" despite the fact that the new working conditions
were much quieter nnd more congenial than those in the pilot studies. We
have spent consi.lcrable time interviewing the more articulate of our pre-
vlous high-scorlng subjects. From these conversations we have determined
that they have lower levels of confidence when working with the printer
34
connected to the tenchlng machine than they do when working with an ex-
perimenter watchlttg them, And they have the least comfort when working
with tilt. teletypewriter punch operating. We have not done blind studies
to ctmflrm these poreeptlons, but they nre certainly supported by tile
decline in scoring rate observed as we have progressed through the three
recording techriiques used in the program.
Wc therefore propose tile following hypothesis: The subject in
these experiments interacts with the experiments in a holistlc fashion.
That ls_ the experimental variables that should be considered lnctnde
the observation techniques as woll as the overt experimental conditions.
Wllen dealing with sensitive or low level systems (such as a photon-limited
contvauntcation clmnnel)p the quantum effects introduced by the observer
must be takcn into account. Based on arguments by E. P. Wigner in his
book Sy_u.ett'ies ;intl Iteflections, 5 w_' lllay hypotilesize that increasing the
complexity of tile observation system for an event makes the evt, txt itlcrelts-
lngly sensitive t,_ "observer" effects. Therefore, we tony have ;i situ:ttion
wllerein tile more complex configuration for observing it sub, ject's pt, rfor-
mance causes greater perturbation of his perceptual channel.
F. Phase Ill Experiments
Given tile results of Phase II experiments, we wislled to examine the
hypothesis that tile more complex the observation system of asubject's
per[ormnnce, tile more gross is the pertttrbanee of his perceptual channel.
ll;|se(| oil results from Phnse Othrough II, we tentatively ilypothesized
that tilt, observer" t, ftqt,ct Is least when a fnmiliar experimenter records
tilt, data. The effect is more noticeable when the printer is used. and
m()st ltotice;tl)le when bot}t a printer and teletype are used to record the
t|;I t :t
In pitase Ill we at tempted to rehabilitate selected sttt)teet,..t t high
sct)rt's t)y rt, tttrning to tile experimentnl conditions of Subject AI In Phase
35
O_ when nn ob._erver ,qeated _ith the subjects rec_rdt}d the sc_re _lt tlu,
end of erich set of 2.% trl_tls.
I. 8etectton of Subjects
Subjects were _leetod for phase Ill expt_rtments ou the, b;_is
_f results of the Phase 0 pilot study and the Phnst, l._'reontng p_c_,.,z_.
Selected ._ttbjl, cts hind nstatistically significant ,_.oriug rate or t_ l_.,ru-
lng ctlrw, with a p_.,zitive sl_)pe devtilting by s siguirt_'ant ,.u_uut rv(.. the,
,ulI ¢'{)llditioll. Eighl {_f th,; original 147 sub,|ects |'ell lntt_ i_nt} or both
_f these c,teKories ;_t the 0.01 lev_,l of significnnc¢, or t_tter. Of the.
z, igizt _ul),Je_'t_.._ix (t'ottr adults Zltt{! two children) lind ._l{_pe_ _igtztttc,z.t
to this d{,grz, e_lud t'our (thret- _utults .rid onz_ child} had ._tK, it'tctintly
hLKh me,'zu secures beyond the 0.01 l_,vt_l. Th_ probabillti_,s _t' the slol_,s
w_,r_, 0.010. O.OOI. 0.002. 0.006. 0.007. nnd 1 x 10 -6 . Thz, bin_zmt_zl i_z',_b -
-6 -t;
S_,v_,n or th_,.';t' _,tght _uh|_,t't.,; inzrt i{'lpnt_,d itz Phnse Ill; tht' _iKhth .,;tzl,-
,jvct dz, cliuz_d to p;zrttcipnt_,. Sub.tee| ^13. who had pt, rt'ormt, d w(,ll o,
_ther Slit ESP tt, st_. nt_ took part in Phn_e 111.
2. Exp¢,r iment _11 Cotld it l_.ls
Adult .,_ub.|_.'_'ts i, Phzlse Ill usually w_rked i, thz_ f_Zl, llt_zr
living-r_m-ltkz, lnt_rntory nt 8RI th, t most o[ thL_m u_,d duriuK |'|ztl.,_z.
II. The, _zm_, t, xpt_rtmt, ntt, r _'.zs in thz, r_m with e,ch p_zrttctp:_ut durt.K
z,nch st-.,;_t_.u. For _,zlch stlb.|t,{'t_ :it It, am| z_nt, _t,_i_zl tz_)k pl_zct, ;zt hi_
htln(_.
All ._'_._t,_tl_ _lth the" thret. ,Iunior high _t'h,}_l _ul}.lz'ct_ _'t'_,
tzl Iht, tr |l_q_lt-._. Tht, ._11m_, t.xpt, l"lmt, lltt.r worked with tll_,.;t, .-ztlll|t,_..t_.
.Ib
_!i:j
3. De, ta Collection and An al_sla
Phase III data consisted of the number of hits per 25 trials
scored by each subject. The scores were recorded by the experimenter
observing subject performance. A single ESP machine wee used by all
subjects in all sessions.
The data were a.alyzed using the procedures described for
Phase I.
4. Resul ts
Table 7 gives the slope, mean, and binomial probability of
both for all sub,lects except A3. The protocols ,need with Sub,Ject A:!
wt.re somewhat different than those used with the other subjects.
Tnble 7
PHASE III EPS TEACHING MACHINE DATA
Nt_ber Slope Mean
Subject of Trials (Binom. Prob.) (Blnom. Prob.)
Ji i, H • i = | ,
AI
A2
A7
AI,I
CI
t'2
C,_
II,000
2,500
2,700
4,800
4, .I00
5,600
2,800
0.0042 (0.373)
0.0038 (0.489)
-0.0501 (0.681)
0.0289 (0.261)
-0.0621 (0.887)
0.0270 (0.225)
-0.1762 (0.959)
25.27 (0.258)
25.36 (0.,I,17)
25.22 (0. 403)
26.02 (0. 053)
25.48 (0.238)
25.696 (0.117)
23.93 (0.908)
,';uI)j_,ct A3 w;i._ the only Ph:lSC l p;irticipant whose _col'c,s were
rt, t'ordt, tl _11 t|tt, priuler btlt whose results were highly si_:ntfic,_nt 11o.P-
IIIt'lt,s.*;. Ilis mOall ,)|" 29.57 ,,w,r '_',800 trials w;t_ _Lgllifl¢;llll ;11 ;i It, re1
J7
less thtttl 10-6 Ills consistently high scores produced tl slope of ,rely
0.135, whlt'h hits abi.omial prob_tbillty of 0. I12,
DllrLng Phase lID Subject A3's resultn were at the level of
chn.ce_ _is were those of the other eleve11 subjects.
Throughout Phtlses I and lip Subject A3 proved extremely artlcu-
l.ltt, Ill doscrlbi.g his subjective improsilons of what took place both whe.
he pe|'formcd well and .Iso when he performed poorly on the ESP machine.
ills comments on his perceptions are included aa Appe.dix A.
During the Phase llI trials, Subject A3's subjective impressions
of le:srnlng the elairvoynnt task were clarified and verbnllzedt :_s Appen-
dix A lndic._tes. Earl), in the experiment he expressed a desire for prac-
tice sessions at v_triou._ points during the expertmeut. Such sessttms were
lustittlted _It the stlbJect's request throughout the rem:linder of the expert-
merit for tht._ subject o, ly. These pr_tctice sessions were obst, rved by tile
t, xperime.tt, r tt) serve one or mtl|'t? Of |he following [tlnction.q. Each
,*leSS Lea :
• Per_littetl i_|t11 machine rapport tt_ be t_Stttb]is|lN before
"rt.nl" tt.sti,g on the machine| t_r
('|'e-_ted nlow-pt't.ss_lre enviz'omueat in which the sttb.tect
ct)uld experimt.,t with different modes of interpreting
tlitUittVe datllt or t
Allowcd the Stlb.|ect at| opportunity to regain alost
I'eeliug of r;ipport with the system without pentllizing
Ills |_erfol_:lllCC (prevtotlsly the sub.|ect would terminate
;_ session .s s_)otl n,_ hi. felt rapport was lost}.
._tl|).lct'l A;| specified p|'tt_r to any set of trials whether hi,
wisht'd to pr;Icttce. T.b|t" 14 shows tht. rem||ts of titter expcrimellt. The
t_tal ttnt;i ti._t _.:ts c_ustructed hy chronolt_gtcatty interwe_tving prnctice
_tttt| real .,tcs,._tl,lIS b¢,fot't, il¢,rfot-mtttg the nt|alyL_is°
(
I: 1 1_:
38
Ljt
+[i.....t+?+L,[++t ,t t,
Table B
PI_XSE ILl I';SP TP_XL'IIING _LAt'IIINE DATA _SUBJECT A3
l'rlals
PI'IIi_ l i¢'t'
Tot:_l
_tl.tbL' I' of
l+l'esel1|ll I ions
S lope
(Binom. Prob.)
Mean
(Binc_m. Prob. )
2,500
7_t10_
0.0338 (0.390)
-0.1179 (0.991)
-0.0571 (0.987}
27.88 (4.79 ×I0 "'I)
25.,I0 (0.273)
26.29 (6.75 xI0 -3)
5. Dis¢'uss ion
,_ub|ot't A'{ was able to su¢'cessfully replicate -t high mt]au sc_r-
111_ r'tte du1"i11_ I+hase Ill. Of particular interest is the, difference, be-
txvee11 1"_'.'+tllt_ Oli "rt-;ll" trials, whose mean score of :_7.8H over 2,500
tri,.lls h._,; al>robability of 1.19 x I0-'I_ and the re.,+ults t)f lh¢, pr)ctlec
sossious t u/io_t, mean score, of 25..10 over .1,500 trials hum a probability
of 11.27,l. This dralUatic dtfl'ereuce supports the subJ_cl's use ,+t" prat-
ttot, sessions as u1ool to ¢,xplore mall/mllchille illterllt'tioll +ind It) t|t'Vt'lop
skill+ e'er "real" trials.
None of lhe rcmalulng seven sub,)ects h£1d nsignificantly hIKh
posttlve It'arnlnK or mean score. Sub,Jeer Al3p who has performed well o11
avariety o|" olht,+r E,qP tasks thad amean score of 26.02 over .I1800 trials
which appr,+:lches significance at alevel of 0.053.
Thes¢, re'stilt,,+ Stll_ge,_t that the practice se,,Isions muy be, ,t key
to ct't, at inr thL' al_P1",_p1"late lenr1_illg t-nviro1_ment for w|Int I...i nppn1"e1_tlv
:1 very dtl'ficu|t task.
G. ('O11¢' 111,'+ [_)11
llu1"In_ the" l'llas¢, O I+IIo1 study and t11¢, l+llilme [ st'rt, ellillg of 1.17 _tllS-
,Jet'ts_ t,i_ht sub.lt,t'ts had t'eSlllts well beyolld chalice expectatiotlm. ,_tx
3q
L!.!, f, I,±_L..L.......I......!......I.......I.....I.........L_I......I.............I.I._L_I_]__.L_LA
subjects showed learning with the machine at a lew'l of signi/lcnnct,
with P _0.01. In fact, nt) subject iU tile study h'_d nnegative sl,_l_t, nt
the 0.01 level or less. 1'he probability of obt;_i=ltng this number of sub-
jects at this level by chance is P = 3.8 x 10 -3 . 'rillsleads us t,_ conclude
that the ESP machine can help screen certain individuals who are able to
establish an unusual degree of man/machine rapport,
In the Phase III study one individual was able to significantly
replicate his Phase I results and six others were unable to do so. _lany
subjects have suggested changes in the exDerimeatal enviroI_ent. Three
main aspects were considered:
The Phase II results suggest that the more equipment tlsed to
observe a subject's performance_ the more pertt_rbed tile sub-
,jeer's perceptual channel becomest since paranormal phenomena
were not apparent here.
Tile test-taking pressure gener;_ted by the ._ubj_ct's a_are-
ncss of being chosen because of superior performance mu._{
he minimized.
The chance for a subject to "practice" rather than be test:,d
should be available at the subject's request.
All three modifications of protocol need to be explored in depth tLtlder
controlled conditions to help identify crucial parameters ill succ_._l'ul
man/maci_ine interact Ion,
4O
i
III EEG EXPERIMENTS
This section briefly summarizes experiments undertaken to determine whether
aphysiological measure such as EEG activity could be used as an indicator
of information transmission between an isolated subject and a remote
stimulus. We hypocaesized that perception could be indicated by such a
measure, even in the absence of verbal or other overt indicators. In
other words, this experiment examines the hypothesis that perception may
take place at noncognitlve levels of awareness and be measurable, even
though not expressed verbally.
It _as assumed that the application of remote stimuli would result
in responses similar to those obtained under conditions of direct stimula,-
tion. For example, when normal subjects are stimulated with a flashing
light, their EEG typically shows adecrease in the amplitude of the
resting rhythm and a driving of the brain waves at the frequency of the
flashes. We hypothesized that if we stimulated one subject (a sender),
in this manner the EEG of another subject (a receiver), in aremote room
with no flash present, might show changes in alpha (9-11Hz) activlty,
or _)ssibly EEG driving similar to that of the sender.
Applying this concept, we informed our subject that at certain times
alight was t¢) be flashed in asender's eyes in a distant room, and If
the subject perceived that event--consclously or unconsciously--it might
be ev/dent from changes in his EEG output. The receiver was seated in
the visually opaque, _coustically and electrically shielded double-walled
OF POOR QUALI'I_'
41
y ,
:_/i?Ii:'_
?_: t ,':
;ii{ ;::;!
_2 . !
..I !
:iI, 1
I
i.:} ,"
-:1. I
i
• i
""I
i _ .
2
steel room shown in Figure 13. The sender was seated xn a room across
tile hall from the EEG chamber at a distance of about 7 meters from the
recei vet.
In order tc_ find subjects who were responsive to such aremote
stimulus, we initially worked with four female and two male volunteer
subjects, all of whom believed that success in the experimental situation
might be possible. Tt_ese were designated "receivers." The senders were
either other su¢.jects or the experimenters. We decided beforehand to
run one or two se._sions of 36 trials each with each subject in this
selection procedure, and to do amore extensive study with any subject
whose results were positive.
AGrass PS-2 photostimulator placed about 1meter in front of the
sender was used to present flash trains of 10 s duration. The receiver's
EEG activity from the occipital region (Oz) ,referenced to linked mastoids,
was amplified with a Grass 5P-1 preamplifier and associated driver amplifier
with a bandpass of 1 to 60 Hz. The EEG data were recorded on magnetic
tape with an Ampex SP 300 recorder.
On each trial, a tone burst of fixed frequency was presented to both
sender anti receiver, and was followed in one second by either a ten-second
train of flashes or anull flash interval presented to the sender. Thirty-
six such trials were given in an experimental session, consisting of 12
II trlals--i.e., no flashes following the tone--12 trials of flashes
at 6 flashes per second (fps), and 12 trials of flashes at 16 fps, all
randomly intermixed. Each of the trials generated an ll-second EEG epoch.
The last t seconds of the epoch was selected for analysis to minimize
the EEG desynchroniziug action of the warning cue. This 4-second segment
was subjected to Fourier analysis on aLINC 8 computer. This work was
terminated by JPL to permit concentration of remaining funds on the teachinb
machine experiments.
42
IV CONCLUSIONS AND Rh_2t)b_ENI_TIONS
The goal _l_ thi._ program _as to develop techniques to enhance malt:
macllint, conlmunicntion. The primary means we chose to acc,)mpltsh this
goal w,t,_ through t|st, of tile four-state random stimulus generator described
in this rvport.
In tile course of our work with this machine, we were able to identify
at It,ast t_vo sub,loots who obtained highly significant l_sitlve learning
slopt,s of tilt,order of oat, ili amillion. In addition, _e found significantly
.nor,, sub jt,cts shelving high learning than would be expected front tht, binomial
distvtbut xon [or the 1 |14 ,_ubiects in tile study, lio_over, no evidence was
fotln,] I'ov I:SI + Ic:lrntnlt wh, 1+ automtltic data logging and tolctypt, printout
W[.'I'_. ' (ISCd .
From ,)ur z'c_,,ivch ,,ll this program wc have concluded that tht, rc i_
t'Vitlt_lli.'t ' [Of par_:normal t'uuctioning resulting from our _t,_rk with the, ESP
teaching IIlHCh i llt'.'-_,
ll_l,_l,d i)n out" ¢'Vt'l'_lll t'.xpel'it'llCt in this area, it _ippt'ar._ thlil forct,d-
ciloico l)(,rceptton tasks lit't, more difficult--and therefore less ._atisfactory
lhali Olll.' _ollld lik,, for tilt, engendering of paranormal perception--a._
cl)ml)nroit xt till otilt?r l_Ssililt, approaches offering more. of all opportunity
[or [l't,t' I't'.'_i)tillSt-'. Sub.lefts indicate that when faced with a Vt,l'y limited
ch,,ict, in li lierct,piion task ,if tills type, riley tend to generate internal
st tmtlii fl'ol_l theii lllCniiir.v o[ prevititlS targets and then gtles._ btlsed oil
tllc,_t, lnternnllv #_,,nelultcd inlprt,sSiOltS. In olir experit,l_ct, _ith fret,-
reslitlll._e slill_ltiotl_, till tilt' tltht,r blind (e.g.. the rt,lntitt, vit,_ilng expcrll_lt, lits
\_|lt, l't' ;I .,4ti|lit,t,t |llt:, lie iti'ot, Ol, COi_ttOll as to tht, Ixiittil't of tht, target) thc
._tibit'ct lind,-, hii,l:;t, il tii _1 llltivt, tqlell ;lllll unbi;i._ott ._t'ltc, tti_il lil tilt, lilllll,.d
ClIO ll'O ._ ttil_it iOII.
.l'i
r'.
!(
7
i'
i {
!
t,
i
tt .... _._ ..t_ _it_ I___- }'
From the experiments doecribed in thi_ report we bclit, ve that we
have learned certain tl_lng_ ,tbout paranormal perception. It seems clear
that it is necessary for thu percipient to bc _n a state of consciousness
which is altered to some extent from his usual state in the., sense described
by Tart.6 It appears that the repetitive nature of the teaching machine
is one reason that it is a less than optimum tool for studyi_g the
phenomenon tbecause it tends to keep the subject in an analytical state
of awareness.
Given the lack of significant learning in the machine L_xperimcnts,
there is the possibility that it is more appropriate to consider the,
problem from the standpoint of screening or granting permission for sub-
jects to demonstrate paranormal ability, rather than from the standpoint
of t_aching. Since at the present time society reinforces negatively
the demonstration of paranormal ability, it may be assumed that such
abilities are rt, pre._sed t denied, and extinguished to a significant dc_ree.
Our work does suggest that it is fc, asible to train or eat'outage TM sub}(,cts
to d_'v_,lop their latent ability for making use of imaginative and non-
repetitive stimuli in asupportive and enabling atmosphere.
In ¢:_m. iusion, we have found that it i._ possible to conduct meaningful
and well-controlled laboratory experiments in this area, while, maintaining
a supportive setting for the subjects so they will hay(" the will Io
develop their paranormal skills, and we roeL_mend that work continue t_)
accomplish these objectives.
,14
REFERENCES
_o
2e
3o
4e
5e
J. Pratt, J. B. Rhine, C. Stuart, and J. Greenwood, Extra Sensory
Perception After Sixt_ Years (Henry Holt, Net York, 1940).
S. Soal and F. Bateman, Modern Experiments in Telepathy (Faber and
FaDer, l_mdon, 1954).
L. L. Vasilliev, Experiments in Mental. Suggestlon (ISMI Publication, s.
Hampshire_ England, 1963).
Alexander McF. Mood, Introduction to the Theory of Statistics
(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950).
E. P. Wigner, S_mmetries and Reflections (Indiana University Press,
Bloomiugton. Indiana, 1967).
6. C. Tart, Altered States of Consciousness: Book of Readings (Wiley,
New York, 1969).
45
Append I x
PERSONAl, OBSERVATIONS ON Tile USIC
OF SRI'S ESP TEACHING MACHINE
Appendix
PERSONAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE USE
OF SRI'S ESP TEACHING MACHINE*
The following notes are based solely upon my experience and I there-
fore make no claim that they are generalizable to other persons. Since
I am still learning about ESP phenomena, I am confident that additional
work in this area will expand, modify, and refine the perceptual processes
discussed below. While I have tried to describe these experiential
processes with as much precision as possible, the use of seemingly precise
language should not leave the impression that the perceptions themselves
were equally precise. To the contrary_ I found these perceptions to be
delicate, transient and ephemeral--and yet_ at the same time--and somewhat
surprisingly--unmistakably real.
1. Perceptual Processes
Working with the ESP machine proved to be a venture Into unfamiliar
perceptual territory which functioned according to new and different
rules. It took some time (five hours or so with the ESP machine) to begin
to learn not only which perceptual processes would work but_ equally
important which would not work. There was clearly a learning process
in finding those delicate and subtle internal cues that would allow me
to make perceptually based choices. After approximately 1000 trials
with the ESP machine, five dominant perceptual modes emerged. Subsequent
Prepared by Mr. Duane Elgin_ a policy research analyst at SRI, who was
Subject A3 in the studies reported herein.
47
work with the machine seemed to essentlally expand and refine these
perceptual processes that emerged Initially.
Direct Knowin_ (Used approxlmately 5 to 15 percent of the ttme)--Thls
perceptual cue came as a "gift" that I did not have to work for. This
is not to say that this "cue" was always rLghtj but when there was a
direct perception of the appropriate response untediated by any of the
other cues described below, my chances of being right seemed quite high
(say 75 percent the time). Internally, this was simply the feeling
that I should push one specific button and the knowing was almost
immediate. If it were not immediate then_ typlcally_ one of the other
cues would be used.
°
p_
'it,
"Closure Cues" (Used perhaps 75 percent of the tlme)--This cue
manifested itself in a variety of ways; a sense of "[ullness" with respect
to aparticular button, an internal anttclpation of the bell ringing, n
sense of "hardness" or "firmness" and a sense of being "locked into" tile
correct response. Tile validity of this cue cotlld be tested by acting
and thinking as if I were going to push ap_irtlcular button and then
noting the extent to _.hich these "closure cues" became present. This
sense el' active Intentionality--both physlcally and psychologically--
seems important in that it allowed me to sort out many real from imagim'd
perceptions. Also. this cue often gave a kind of veto po_er; i.e.. it
did not necessarily assure me as to the right answer but it would tend
to tell me If I had picked the wrong one. i.e., I would not t,xpPri_nce
the aforementioned cues.
Pattern Reco_nitio n (Nt.gligible use initially. I_t then used
approximately 75 percent of the time durin_ Phase IV}--Although 1 t, sed
this perceptual mode very infrequently during the initial stages of the
48
I
I
. !
: t
1
,i
, I
.t
!"
t1
experiment, it emerged ratht_r naturnlly toward the e,(I. This _tt_ ._'.nttar
tt_ the "direct knowing" bttt not |,elated to axtngle bill|On; ratht_r, thvrt.
was asense of the next two to three buttons that would be the t'_)rrect
rvsl)_lt._os. ThesL. percept|tat cries were obtut,t,d In a tess objective /
rat|trait1 w_ty and In mort. of a meditative state, highly t-_mcentrated |)tit
within|it spt.t't(tc focus t_lt tt purttctllar button, tt_teresttngly, tit t|_i,g
thL_ Itt, rt'el_tUttt |_ro_'t,s_. Iwas able to go _omewhat faster and have gr_atcr
acgL, ss tt) till u[ tht. buttons In an equivalent way (see the ._t, cond p_t,t
tinder Set'tL_tt ') nt.xt lingo'). Thus. this mode |tat| tht. advalttttge t)f I_.L)St'lttttK
habttuatt.d pe|'t't_ptu_tt I)attcrlts btlt tt also made _.lcctit)t|s lt'$S ame,al)tt,
to t'on.'_;.'t_ti._ t't_lttt't_| ;tad tc._ttng. This procc_s pt'_v_.d t(_ |)_' .,tther highly
accurgtte t_r highly kllttt't'tll'tlte. At'_'UI';;t',V seemed tt_ t),, a['tlltt'tIL()ll ,if 1111'
tlt.grce t_ _htt'h It'L_tltt| |lt,¢'t,m¢, synt.hr.mt;'ed _tth tit,. ovtltvt,g ira|tern .it
m_tt'htllV ._t.t_.t'tt,t| cht_tcc._--_t,d tt _:i..4 t,a._y it) gt, t (_tlt _1 |l|l;l_,".'_t'_ltit'ltt't '
'tt,z tht,,- |_tttt, rtl.
I,Iltt_lt the' rzzltd¢,m, tn;tt'|t_nt _ _e|t.t't|_,lt t_f buttons, [ wtiuld _mvtzme._ tt.ln|tt.t"
my _t.tett |,,11._ (Vt.l"V ._t, ltltlm t'z_r the better) by nt_tkllg that t_11., till|t,)11 ha,t
t't)ltlI' tip ttts_ .,ftt'lt I._r it t(_ be likely t_lt the Itext t|'ltt_ t_r, t'stllVt,|'_¢'|_'.
t t htid t.t_lllt, till .._o .-;,.|t|l_ t|t¢tt tt .._|tould be ¢ivPtt S|lt't'k;l| t._lt.-_tderatt_11
;is ;t ltkt.ly pt_._sibttity t_lt the nt,._t trial. Again. alth_ltlgil Iht.. _.t_ ;t
tt_lltl_ttltF. _trtttegy, 1 t'_,illlt| that rttlltlL_m |_t'¢_t't,.q_es v.¢,l't, tit,| ;i111.,!1,||_|t, t,_
r;_tt,m_t| ;tntLt'tp_ttt_n._ ;tilt| m.v ratt_,ml| gtl¢.aztt_..; set,m_.tl _l't,,It t,_ t_,. _l'_tlg.
Tt..._,,tt Y,.t'tor A.alv,-.t._ ((U_ed ltppr_,x tm.tet_ 75 i,_.TCt,izt__ _,l" .tit,. t tmt.)--
Iiere tit,, t'ut, _._t.,; mttnt['z,._tt,tl a_ a.,_¢_lt.qe o[" tt, ttSkt_lt(_t) pi|lltlzK tit ,,tl,'
,itt'z'¢tt,,tt ,_r _tlic_t|ter with tlt_, _t,|_,t't|_tt |)tltt_tt_ a_ tit|' |O¢ll_ t_l' th._t
lt'lt.'_|*)n, l'|tt't'tit'Wlt.'*ill._ malltl_,stt,¢i li_ al't't'tllllg_f "_,ml,t itt,,_:{" itlttl
49
i _ _
t
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!
conversely as asense of fullness. To describe this process further,
it felt analogous to vector analysis In physics where, in sorting otlt
competing tugs and pulls, one finds the "dominant" vector; i.e., the o.e
with the strongest "pull" or the one that best "balances" the other vector
tensions. Figure A-I illustrates this phenomenon.
Although the tension/vector cues were very useful and among tht,
most reliablt L of all the cues, I found them to be at times quite mis-
leadi.g. The source of confusion stemmed from the role of time as a
variable rather than a constant in extrasensory reality (dis_:t|ssed in
more detail _mder section "Comments on Perceptual Processes"). If my
assumptions a_ to the teml_)ral nature o[ my perceptions did not fit _ith
the actual n_tture of tho._e perceptions, then the perceptior_s _erL, gtlite
misleading. (Recall that cl_tlrvoyance refers here to a button that _lll
be selected in the future--typically the next trial}. The nine-cell
matrix sho_n in Figttrt. A-2 i_tay clarify the complexity of the percepttlal
process, the need for dt._crimlnating awareness and the possibility for
error. Out oi nine possible combinations of the assumed 'actual naturt,
of perceptions, t_nly three are matched or congruent and yield accurate
understandings, each of these primary cases is discussed below:
Cl_irw_vant,--llere the feeling which allows sorting and
s_.lection is like that described in Figure A-I.
Precognitive--The fe_,ling, sorting, and selection is like
that described in Figure A-I with clairvoyance; the prim_r.v
(',iffert,nce being a shift in the time dimension to refer, not
to the present targt, t of the, machine, but to the one to bt,
select_,d next. To act on this perception I would press the
p:_ss bill ton to bring the future into the present and then
pro._s the button th:tt corresponded to my precognitive pt, r-
cept Ions.
.Clairvoyant and Precognitiw,--The perception is of a Imttern
of tnlttons, di._tribnt_-d through time, that art, and will be
s_,It.ct_,d by the machine--the "pattern" usually consisted of
two to three buttons. Again. the time variable was most
i
i"
50
LIGHT PULL/UNBALANCED 81"I_ONG PULL OR/BALANCE
® ©
EMPTY _ _ ..... LIGHT PULL/
UNBALANCED
SA-2613--21
FIGURE A-I ILLUSTRATION OF TENSION/VECTOR ANALYSIS IN OPERATION
With Button C being the one selected using these cl,es,
FIGURE A-2
ACTUAL
NATURE OF PERCEPT|ONS
ASSUMED
NATURE OF
PERCEPTIONS
Chl.vov_n!
Prtcogr_tttv_
ChlirvoyImt
J
CocfQct
Per rapt ion
MillL_r cep! ion
Precognit ire
CIB,voy_nt
a_d
Chllwoy_nl
_nd
PrtDct_nlhv_
M*q_rc0ption
MATRIX SHOWING CORRECT PERCEPTION AND MISPERCEPTION IN THE LISE
OF TENSION/VECTOR CUES VIA THE INTERFACE BETWEEN ASSUMED AND
ACTUAL NATURE OF PERCEPTIONS
troublesome--typically with greatc, r difficulty Xn determining
thL" order in which the buttons would appear as targets and
lesser difficulty in determining which buttons were targets.
Confusion and error would arise when I assumed the tension/vector
perceptions were clairvoyant when in fact they were (say) clairvoyant
and precognitive. To explain how this felt_ refer back to Figure A-1.
If the actual sequence of correct answers were Buttons B and D, and if
I were assuming the perceptions were clairvoyant only, then it was not
unc_nmon to have the perception that the intervening button (C) was the
correct choice. The rationale for this perception was that it felt like
a balance point between Buttons B (present target) and D (next targ_t).
In retrospect, when I am more rationally aware of the room for
error in the use of this cue mechanism, I am somewhat surprised as to
how useful it was in operation.
It should be clear from the preceding descriptions that selections
were made by a variety of processes which were used sometimes in isolation
and oftentimes in combination. A typical sequence in the selection
process was: (1) Check for "direct knowing" cues, if not there, then
(2) Use "tension/vector" cues, then (3) Make final selection with "cl¢_sure
CUES."
2. Comments on Perceptual Processes
Rather than work rapidly, Ichose to work deliberately, consciously.
and therefore slowly. I would typically take five to thirty seconds
to select a button--enough time to have a firm and conscious sense (_E
my internal cues and what I thought they meant. The typical sequence
would be as follows:
Clear mind and become quiet
Concentrate internal awareness
52
L
-I
_4
itI
Observe various cues
Rationally interact wlth cues to sort them out
Select abutton and press It
Integrate feedback from response
Clear mind and become quiet.
Except during "pattern recognition," when all buttons seemed equally
accessible, ifound that the top two buttons on the machine were lltuch
more accessible than the bottom two. Three plausible explanations emerge
to account for this. First (and least likely I think) is a psychological
predisposition against the bottom two buttons--perhaps because of the
color of the buttons or because of the pictures associated with the tar-
gets. Second is the possibility that the circuitry the ESP ma_'htne
in _ome _ay £aw, rs the top two buttons or obscures the bottom t_o. Third
(and most plausible to me) Is the possibility that to the extent I used
tt ],i
the tensl_,nzvector cue, then the bottom two buttons would be without
a vector below them--making it more difficult to "bracket" the bottom two
buttons with this perceptual process. In later phases of the experiment.
I was more able to access the bottom two buttons and this seemed to cor-
respond with increasing use of the "pattern recognition" cues and the
decreasing use ten._ion/vector cues.
The longer 1worked with the ESP machtne_ the more apparent it be-
came that. in an extrasensory perception reality, time becomes fluid.
In other words, although the experiment was designed to test clalrvoyanct"
(st'lecting the currt, nt tnrgt, t only, I found that the perccpt,al cues
would oftentimes bt, eq_mlly applicable to precognition (selecting a futurt-
target--usually the next one). Therefore, making a cor-er_ selection
required doing two things; first, finding the correct "pvttt,rn" of buttons
that would bt, randoml7 st,lcctcd by the machine (typically the, p,_ttern
consisted of two to thre_, i)tlttons) and second, associating a time component
I
_:,t.
'.,_N
11
53
with the buttons in that pattern. Stated differently, the same cues
discussed above held equally well for precognition or for clairvoyance--
so tile problem of making a selection was compounded by the additional
difficulty of having to determine whether a perceptual cue was associated
with the button that had already been selected by the machine or the
button that would be selected in the next or even subsequent trial. !
definitely felt that if I could consistently separate clairvoyant from
precognitive dJaensions of identical cues, that Icould substantially
increase the accuracy of overall scores.
The cues were not always consistent in their presence and meaning.
For example, Imight be obtaining good results with the use of tension/
vector cues and then find them becoming ambiguous, with acommensurate
decline in my score. Then I would rely more heavily upon other cues.
Or, the cues might work well for clairvoyant perceptions for a while but
then shift to operate for precognition--then I would have to "recalibrate"
myself to tile cue mechanisms. So, it was a fluid, dynamic perceptual
process which required flexibility and patience. Highly significant
scores and perceptions seemed to go in spurts of ten trials or so, then
_,'_,.
,+,i
P.
I
Iwould fall back to a chance level until I could resynchronize myself
with the machine and the character of my perceptual cues.
In the last phase of the experiment, I was allowed (according to
protocol) to make use of practice runs. This seemed quite helpful for
several reasons: First, it allowed me to reestablish rapport with the
machine when the perceptual cues had obviously gotten out of synchronization
with the pattern of machine generated selections; second, it allowed me
more "free space" to try out new perceptual processes in the midst of an
experiment and to see which of the old ones were most operable; and finally,
it allowed me to "clear" a habituated perceptual pattern.
54 ° 4
I tend to agree with the notion that it might be more appropriate
to call these processes "extraconceptual perception" rather than "extra-
sensory perception." The perceptual cues were definitely present and
they had sensory dimensions even though they do not fit into our traditional
sensory categories. Just "where" and "how" these sensory cues were present
is not clear to me--but these are essentially conceptual rather than
sensory issues.
3. Problems in Perceptual Translation
A basic problem in using the ESP machine was not so much the obtaining
of perceptual data as the translating of those data into sufficient
information to allow the action of selecting the correct button. While
the act itself is so simple as to be trivial, the information processes
(gathering, filtering, dyltamically translating) underlying that act
seemed to me very substantial. It is within this unseen and unrecorded
portion of the ESP testing process that most of the "action" takes place.
From this vantage point I would like to suggest two impediments that
might partially account for relatively low scores.
First, I am still not fluent in the "language" of extrasensory
perceptlons--analogously, it is llke hearing many separate commands in
Russian (or another unfamiliar language)_ each time spoken in slightly
different ways and with different intonations and Inflections. The
call for action may be clearly heard but the translation of that command
into operational reality is an imprecise process until the language can
be better understood.
Second Is the problem created by shifting back and forth between
rational anti Intuitive knowledge processes during the course of the
experiment. In selecting a single button I would use intuitive knowledge
55
[.....LL!........I. lt[
processes for perception and oftentimes, ratio,hal or semirational knowledge
processes to interpret those perceptions. This is not to say that the
rational component is absolutely necessary, but it did seem to be useful
for me. in any event, since the experiment covers thousands of trials
(button selections) it required thousands of translations from one knowledge
mode to another. Although the rational mode did seem helpful for inter-
pretation, it was also "costly" (i.e._ by shifting to a rational mode,
Icould be thrown slightly off-balance in maintaining contact with the
subtle and delicate intuitive processes--thereby introducing an additional
elemex_t of ambiguity and error).
Related to the problem of differential knowledge processes is the
problem of having to translate between states of consciousness in order
to act upon extrasensory perceptions. LeShan* analyzed the experiential
properties of what he has termed Clairvoyant Reality and found that while
certain events (such as telepathy, precognition, and clairvoyance) are
"normal" to this reality, certain other events (such as being able to take
directed action toward a goal) are "paranormal." For me this was manifested
experientially as the feeling that when I obtain extrasensory perceptions.
I am so much a part of, and immersed in the Clairvoyant Reality that in
order to act, I must causally separate myself from the Clairw)yant Reality
and enter the dualistic_ subject/object Reality that LeShan terms "Sensory
Reality." Encouragingly, the "pattern recognition" process seemed to
offer a means of both perception and action, which did not require the
same degree of transfer between _hese subtly different states of con-
sciousness.
l,awrence Li, Shan. The Medium/ _l e bl_stic: and the Physicist (Viking Press.
Nt'_ York, 197,1).
56
l
'_,
'(i
h'.
L. _.... L_._J-----.L_I
The preceding points suggest that one difficulty in testing and
assessing extrasensory perception may be the apparent need to translate
it into an output that is not isomorphic with the perceptions themselves--
aperson must translate the perceptual "language" to a familiar form,
across rational and intuitive dimensions, and relatedly, from one state
of awareness to another. Is it possible, then, that our means for testing
ESP may not be highly congruent with the nature of the phenomenon, and
this may inherently reduce the significance of the test results that
can be obtained?
4. Two _iews of the ESP Process
I suspect that, to an external observer, my work with the ESP machine
might appear as fairly consistent scoring slightly above chance--the
logical inference could then be made that a small amount of extrasensory
perception was mixed with a substantial amount of pure guessing. While
the scoring data may support this inference, my awareness of the input
process does not. Consider the following: on the first run, aperson
could get six "hits" out of twenty-five by pushing buttons at random; then
on the second run, he could get six "hits" out of twenty-flve by using
extrasensory perception. To the statistician who looks Only at the output,
the scores are identical--they are no more than would occur by chance--
and the logical inference would be that the input processes were identical
or at least very similar. However alike they might appear externally,
internally they could feel llke quite different runs. In the second
instance, the chance level of scoring would be the result of an imperfect
but operative extrasensory perception process. Obviously, then. measure-
ment of ESP by statistical output alone obscures the nature and extent
of the extrasensory input. A relatively modest score on the ESP machine
can--I think--substantially understate the amount of learning and perceptual
i
i
i
F
57
.i_ I i....I . | I [ i
development that actually occurs. Tile foregoing is ccmsistent _ith my
impression that my sc_l,t.s, though statistically signil'leant, still did
not reflect lilt' actual am_nmt of learning that had occurred.
5. Comments on the Research Phases
Phase I (ESP machine with paper pri.ntout)--As I mentioned earlier,
this was a substantial learning period where I wa,_ finding out which
perceptual cues were valid and which were not. Iu this phase the ex-
periment was still ne_ and interesting, and 1had very few performance
expectations for myself.
h_
Phase II (ESP machine with remote paper printout plus teletype
hookup)--After the significant scores obtained during Phase I, and _th
preliminary learning establi._hed, this _as a frustrating test phase _",th
consistently lo_ xcovos (at tile chi|llce level). I could find lit) l'ational
reason wily my scores should decrease. Subjectively° howt, ver. it ._eemod
to me that the machine had taken on a dt£terent character as it "intt, r-
acted" with the teletype: lu other words, the ESP machine seemed less
"personable," more "isolated." and my perceptual cues were less synchronized
with the actual workings of tile machine.
Phase III (ESP machine with no form of printout but with obsevver
present)--Initially, this presented a new learning situation since my
confidence had been dimillished by Phase II and the presence of an ob-
server increased my perfornumce expectations--which inhibited the clarity
of my perceptions. In a short time, thotlgh, I became acclimated and
felt very good aix_ut tile experiment and presellce of all obsel'ver.
58
6. Supportive Mind Set
There emerged, after it time, what seemed to be a series o£ pre-
conditions to good performance in term3 of mind set. These were:
A high level of motivation seemed essential. The task
pushing one of four buttons over thousands of trials could
be rather boring--enough to allow one's attention to wander.
With each trial, it was necessary to have a high level of
motivation to ensure adequate levels of concentration and
focused attention.
• Although motivation, concentration, and attention were
important, it was also necessary not to be too concerned
with the success or failure associated with each selection.
If I became "attached" to the outcome of aprevious trial,
whether asuccess or a failure, it could divert a significant
amount of attention from the present trial. Therefore, each
trial must be s_parate/fresh/clear/unconditioned by the actual
success or failure of previous trials and separate from the
imagined successes or failures of upcoming trials.
Arelatively stable, undisturbed emotional state also seems
important. Inoticed the most substantial fluctuation in
my scores when I was emotionally stressed (angry, hassled,
and so on).
Feeling rested physically also seemed important. This was
particularly true if I were to work with the machine for an
hour or two--as this required a substantial amount of energy.
A positive attitude--a feeling that I could do well and could
always score at least at the chance level--was also important.
A corollary to this was that I found I did better when I
"always liked myself" even if I did poorly. Self-deprecation
seemed to be a sure way of rapidly diminishing the accuracy
of the perceptual processes.
7. The Environment
There were attributes of the surrounding envirorm_ent that seemed
to enhance the accuracy of my selections. The more significant factors
seemed to be the following:
59
It was helpful to have a relativt, ly quiet _o1"k_ng environ-
ment. Or, if there were noises, to have them a ._(,rt--
fairly constant ones that remained in the background--that
could be readily filtered out of my consci,_u._ncss. My
impression was that external sensory informati(m--imrticulnrly
sounds--could _'eadily overload/overridt, subtl_ _ and d,,lic_te
internal sensory information.
It also seemed to help to have low light levcl._--I a,u_l(l
always turn out the overhead lights in the testing roo,u. I
experimented _ith closing my eyes to further reduce external
sensory stimulation and I found that this would incrcast, t|_t _
sensitivity of sensory cues, but this increase in sensitivity
was offset by a lack of visually based feedback to verify
the accuracy of the selections. As a consequence, I cho,_ _
to keep my eyes open.
I found it essential to work with the ESP mact_ine by ._iti in_,'
somewhat above it so that I could look down on the face ,)t
tile machil_e. For some reason, perceptual discrimillatioll _,_':::t'_i
much more difficult when I would sit at a Io_er level wht:'h
placed the buttons in a plane more nearly horizontal to m)"
face and upper body.
8. Transferabili.t>" t,f Processes
The perceptual l¢,arning gained in this experiment seemed gem, r::lly
transferable to ,)thor situations where I might use ESP abilities, in
particular, telepathy, precognition, and clairvoyance. The infer,,nct,
is that a process or faculty is being deer, loped which has numerous appli-
cations in other situations which would rely upon ESP. Analogously.
just as ,jogging could exercise muscles to make a persou more adt, Dt at
playing football, dancing, swin:ming, L_td the like. tile use and dcvelol)_u_,nt
of these "psychic" muscles seems to have somc degree of transference to
other situations.
6O
b
i J
i
1
!
|
9. Conclusions
Ifound the experiment to be a very substantial learning experience'
in which, I feel, I learned much more than was reflected in the scores.
It allowed me to begin to identify an ability which I presume was largely
latent within--never having had a prior opportunity for overt expression,
Finally_ it suggests to me that this must be _ common ability among many
people that they simply do not recognize--primarily becat|se they have
never had the opportunity to explore it as a legitlmatc _ind "real"
phenomenon.
61
Chapter
Interest in psychic phenomena in general, now often referred to as psi, was based originally on a wealth of anecdotal material. We will first define some basic terms and then go on to use anecdotes to illustrate some of the main forms of psi.
Article
Full-text available
In July 1995 the CIA declassified, and approved for release, documents revealing its sponsorship in the 1970s of a program at Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, CA, to determine whether such phenomena , as remote viewing "might have any utility for intelligence collection".' Thus began disclosure to the public of a two-decade-plus involvement of the intel- ligence community in the investigation of so-called parapsychological or psi phenomena. Presented here by the program's Founder and first Director (1972-1985) is the early history of the program, including discussion of some of the first, now declassified, results that drove early interest.
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