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Ives' identity which links the different gamma factors of special relativity can be used to show that Einstein's famous E=mc2 law is the quadratic (transverse) special case of a more general first-order longitudinal law E=mcv/2. The latter allows the conversion of energy into both positive and negative mass increments. It arises as an implication of both the equivalence principle and quantum mechanics in a gravitational potential.

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The mass equivalent of radiation is implicit in Poincaré’s formula for the momentum of radiation, published in 1900, and was used by Poincarén illustrating the application of his analysis. The equality of the mass equivalent of radiation to the mass lost by a radiating body is derivable from Poincaré’s momentum of radiation (1900) and his principle of relativity (1904). The reasoning in Einstein’s 1905 derivation. questioned by Planck, is defective. He did not derive the mass-energy relation.

The effect of gravitational potential on the apparent frequency of ; electro-magnetic radiation was measured by using the sharply defined energy of ; recoil-free 14.4kev gamma rays emitted by Coâµâ· and absorbed in Feâµâ·. ; The mean gravitational shift in frequency was measured to be (-17.6 plus or ; minus 0.6) x l0Â¹âµ. (C.J.G.);

It is no exaggeration to say that almost every physicist knows about Albert Einstein's annus mirabilis 1905. It is the year in which he published three papers that should have earned him three Nobel prizes, instead of just one: the paper on the special theory of relativity; the paper on Brownian motion, which earned him the Nobel prize; and the one, which he called `very revolutionary' in a letter to a friend, formulating the light quantum hypothesis and providing an explanation for the photoelectric effect. Nor is it an exaggeration to say that most physicists will not have read all of these papers - or even any of them. The language barrier is, of course, a major reason, although a determined person will be able to find English translations of the three papers in various editions (some of which have been out of print for many years). What was obviously and sadly lacking was, of course, a uniform edition of Einstein's major 1905 papers in a good translation, but no longer. Princeton University Press has done even more than make these papers available in translation. As publishers of the prestigious edition of the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, they have provided an annotated publication of the three miraculous papers, supplemented by Einstein's almost equally remarkable dissertation on the dimensions of molecules and the paper in which he first formulated the famous relation between mass and energy. John Stachel, founding editor of the Collected Papers and the world's foremost expert on Einstein, has written an informative general introduction to the volume, as well as more specific commentary on the individual papers, drawing on the work he and his collaborators have done on Volume 2 of the Collected Papers. In addition, new translations have been made of all five papers. Although not perfect, they are by far the best translations made to date. In short, this beautifully produced and very affordable volume should be on every physicist's bookshelf.

How does a “standing” light wave that is perpendicular to the direction of motion of a receding observer, look to the observer? Both the relativistic Doppler effect and the relativistic conservation of lateral distances, implicit in the Lorentz transformation, are valid. Nevertheless, the size of all objects in the receding frame can be shown to be changed. To keep the observed light consistent with the observed nodal separation, a scale transformation is required. The factor is the same as governs the frequency change. The proposed result is consistent with a recent size-change result obtained in a gravitational setting.

Special relativity puts constraints on clocks including atoms. So does quantum mechanics. Which theory gets the upper hand in case of conflict? It is suggested that redshifted atoms are bigger in all directions in accord with the quantum picture. even though special relatively makes the same prediction only in one direction. The resulting hypothetical "quantum relativity' is testable. It is related in spirit to EINaschie's Cantorian E-(infinity) unification of all forces. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Ali rights reserved.

Matterwave Doppler effect

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Kuypers H, Rossler OE. Matterwave Doppler effect. WechselWirkung 2003;25(120):26–7 (in German).

On the relativity principle and the consequences drawn from the same

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Einstein A. On the relativity principle and the consequences drawn from the same. Jahrb Radioakt Elektr 1907;4:411–62 (in German).

Does the inertia of a body depend on its energy content? In: Stachel J, editor. Einstein's Miraculous Year, Five Papers That Changed the Face of Physics

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Einstein A. Does the inertia of a body depend on its energy content? In: Stachel J, editor. Einstein's Miraculous Year, Five Papers That Changed the Face of Physics. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1998. p. 161–4.