Article

Self-organization of the protocell was a forward process

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Abstract

Yockey's (1981) interpretation of information theory relative to concepts of self-organization in the origin of life is criticized on the ground that it assumes that each amino acid residue type in a given sequence is an unaided information carrier throughout evolution. It is argued that more than one amino acid residue can act as a unit information carrier, and that this was the case in prebiotic protein evolution. Forward-extrapolation should be used to study prebiotic evolution, not backward-extrapolation. Transposing the near-random internal order of modern proteins to primitive proteins, as Yockey has done, is an unsupported assumption and disagrees with the results of experimental models of the primordial type. Studies indicate that early primary information carriers in evolution were mixtures of free alpha amino acids which necessarily had the capability of sequencing themselves.

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Chapter
Professor Wald’s paper, to use an old cliche, is a hard act to follow. In a real sense, however, those few of us who are self- organizationalists working on the problem of the origin of life have necessarily long been following Professor Wald. Each time we make an advance in the laboratory, we are likely to find, as I have on several occasions, that George Wald (1954) had perceived and expressed the essential concept earlier.
Chapter
Where do protobiological and biological information originate, in the initial conditions, in the external boundary conditions, or within matter itself? This chapter is an attempt to answer the question on physical grounds.
Chapter
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Article
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Biological information refers to the process of how matter informs matter through endogenous boundary conditions, exhibiting a sharp contrast to Shannon's information referring to the process of how coded messages inform a human receiver or observer. The origin and evolution of protobiological and biological information occur because prior polymeric products successively provide new boundary conditions to the subsequent production process. The transition from what looks like inanimate matter to living beings is a continuous process. The underlying mechanism is the physical process that prior products provide new boundary conditions to the subsequent production process in a successive manner. Biological information resides in perpetuating cellular production process which eventually leads to an enhancement of evolutionary specificity. Cellular units are prerequisite to biological evolution, not vice versa.
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Article
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Article
Full-text available
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Book
1. Origins of Life's Ingredients.- 1.1. The Setting.- 1.2. Prebiotic Syntheses (Stage I).- 1.3. Prebiotic Polymerization (Stage II).- 1.4. Summary.- 2. The Precellular, or Simple Interacting Systems, Level (Stage III).- 2.1. Synthetic Models of Protobionts.- 2.2. Autocatalysis.- 2.3. The Present Status of the Life Origins Problem-A Critical Assessment.- 3. The Genetic Mechanism: I. DNA, Nucleoids, and Chromatin.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. The Focal Ingredients.- 3.3. The Key Macromolecule.- 3.4. Replication of DNA.- 3.5. Chromatin and the Chromosome.- 4. The Genetic Mechanism: II. the Cell's Employment of DNA.- 4.1. The Types of Ribonucleic Acid.- 4.2. Translation and Protein Synthesis.- 5. The Genetic Mechanism: III. Transcription, Processing, and an Analytical Synopsis.- 5.1. Transcription of the DNA Molecule.- 5.2. An Alternative Protein-Synthesizing System.- 5.3. An Annotated Synopsis-Summary and Analysis.- 6. Micromolecular Evolution-The Origin of the Genetic Code.- 6.1. Conceptual Approaches.- 6.2. Mathematical Concepts.- 6.3. Biochemical Approaches.- 6.4. A Biological Concept.- 7. The Transfer Ribonucleic Acids.- 7.1. The Characteristic Molecular Features of tRNAs.- 7.2. Codon-Anticodon Interactions.- 7.3. Summary of tRNA Structural Features.- 8. Reactive Sites and the Evolution of Transfer RNAs.- 8.1. Reactive Sites of tRNAs.- 8.2. Evolutionary Relations of tRNAs.- 8.3. Origin and Evolution of tRNA.- 9. The Genetic Mechanism of Viruses.- DNA Viruses.- 9.1. Double-Stranded DNA Viruses.- 9.2. Single-Stranded DNA Viruses.- RNA Viruses.- 9.3. Single-Stranded RNA Viruses.- 9.4. Double-Stranded RNA Viruses.- Proteinaceous Viruses.- Summary and Conclusions.- 10. The Origin of Early Life.- 10.1. A Preliminary Definition of Life.- 10.2. The Distinctive Characteristics of Viruses.- 10.3. Possible Steps in the Origins of Early Life.- References.
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Largely derived from experiments in molecular evolution, a theory of the origins of protein synthesis cycles has been constructed. The sequence begins with ordered thermal proteins resulting from the self-sequencing of mixed amino acids. Ordered thermal proteins then aggregate to cell-like structures. When they contained proteinoids sufficiently rich in lysine, the structures were able to synthesize offspring peptides. Since lysine-rich proteinoid (LRP) also catalyzes the polymerization of nucleoside triphosphate to polynucleotides, the same microspheres containing LRP could have synthesized both original cellular proteins and cellular nucleic acids. The LRP within protocells would have provided proximity advantageous for the origin and evolution of the genetic code.
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Article
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Article
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