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Scientometric Studies on Chemistry II: Aims and Methods of Producing New Chemical Substances

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Abstract

Chemistry, as today's most active science, has increased its substances exponentially during the past 200 years without saturation. To get more insight why and how chemists produce new substances, a content analysis of 300 communications to theAngewandte Chemie of the years 1980, 1990, and 1995 is carried out regarding aims and methods of preparative research. In the most productive field of organic chemistry production mainly occurs to improve abilities for further production, while the less productive field of inorganic chemistry has more diverse aims. Methodological differences between organic and inorganic chemistry are discussed in detail as well as the relationship between pure and applied science.

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... Chemistry is not only interested in the properties of molecules, but also in generating new substances and refining the processes of production (Nye 1993). Producing new substances can even be seen as the main activity of chemists during the past 200 years (Schummer 1997;Kovac 2002). Even basic research in chemistry is not only concerned about explaining the world, but also about the manipulation of matter on molecular level. ...
... Knowing that creation of new substances and developing methods of synthesis are not only applications of science but also an integral part of chemistry as a science is important for understanding how science and technology interact (see e.g. Schummer 1997;Kovac 2007). In spite of its importance, only one of the textbooks discusses explicitly the way chemistry creates new objects for research (see [5.1] in Table 3). ...
... Specifically Osborne et al. (2003),Lederman et al. (2002), Abd-El-Khalick et al.(2008)andVesterinen et al. (2009). 4 SpecificallyNye (1993),Schummer (1997), van Brakel (2000,Aftalion (2001),Kovac (2002),Laszlo (2006). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to assess how the different aspects of nature of science (NOS) were represented in Finnish and Swedish upper secondary school chemistry textbooks. The dimensions of NOS were analyzed from five popular chemistry textbook series. The study provides a quantitative method for analysis of representations of NOS in chemistry textbooks informed by domain-specific research on the philosophy of chemistry and chemical education. The selection of sections analyzed was based on the four themes of scientific literacy: knowledge of science, investigate nature of science, science as a way of thinking, and interaction of science, technology and society. For the second round of analysis the theme of science as a way of thinking was chosen for a closer inspection. The units of analysis in this theme were analyzed using seven domain specific dimensions of NOS: tentative, empirical, model-based, inferential, technological products, instrumentation, and social and societal dimensions. Based on the inter-rater agreement, the procedure and frameworks of analysis presented in this study was a reliable way of assessing the emphasis given to the domain specific aspects of NOS. All textbooks have little emphasis on the theme science as a way of thinking on a whole. In line with the differences of curricula, Swedish textbooks emphasize the tentative dimension of NOS more than Finnish textbooks. To provide teachers with a sufficiently wide variety of examples to discuss the different dimensions of NOS changes to the national core curricula are needed. Although changing the emphasis of the curricula would be the most obvious way to affect the emphasis of the textbooks, other efforts such as pre- and in-service courses for developing teachers understanding of NOS and pedagogic approaches for NOS instruction to their classroom practice might also be needed.
... Is this process necessary, good, or fair? Here, chemical activity is set in the real world; chemistry is not a mere theoretical activity (only explaining what the world is), but a practical one, that intervenes in the world and transforms it [29][30][31]. ...
... Including the social and cultural system in chemical systems thinking, as discussed above, also requires discussing critically what are the present and future needs of humankind and how to include society in planning research programs and building and evaluating technologies. So far, the societal objective of (green) chemistry is not openly discussed [31], but it has been directed to economic growth [82]. ...
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The current research on systems thinking criticizes the additive nature of green chemistry (GC) not being supportive of systems thinking to achieve holism in its practices. This paper argues that systems thinking should comprise of the social issues, and, therefore, it studies renowned papers by GC pioneers and reviews on the field regarding how they address the social dimension of sustainability. It points out how GC has ignored social sustainability in its discourses, practices, and evaluations, leading to a reductionist interpretation of sustainability. Then, this paper presents some challenges to be overcome in order to achieve balanced sustainability. A systemic chemical thinking is advocated, considering chemistry in culture and chemistry as culture, expanding the chemistry rationality from ontological and technological dimensions into the epistemological and ethical ones. It is then discussed how chemistry education can help to promote sustainability in a broad and systemic way.
... The case of chemical structure theory illustrates that chemistry is not only about explanations and predictions. Instead, theoretical concepts are also developed and judged here according to their potential for synthesis, a major activity of chemists for various, mostly nontechnological ends (Schummer 1997(Schummer , 2004. Moreover, theoretical concepts are expected to provide a basis for classification, to distinguish unambiguously between myriads of substances (Schummer 2002). ...
... 4.2) has already argued in a similar vein that realism is not a matter of belief in the truth of a theory, but an active commitment to the pluralist pursuit of knowledge of the external reality. I will take a slightly different approach in the following sketch (for more details, see Schummer 1996) by returning to the original meanings of realism. In philosophy, realism has been a position opposed to either idealism, nominalism, or skepticism, depending on whether the reality of the outer world or the correspondence of our concepts and knowledge to the world is denied. ...
Chapter
In this paper I first point out the pluralist constitution of science in general and of chemistry in particular and then argue that it is inevitable for epistemological reasons. Once methodological pluralism is accepted, many mainstream philosophical debates that are based on methodological monism become futile, of which I discuss “laws of nature”, “reductionism”, and “scientific realism”. That shifts philosophical debates to more useful issues, such as the methodology of models, improving interdisciplinarity, and forms of philosophical realism that are institutionalized in scientific practice. I conclude that pluralism is the better way of doing and understanding science.
... It has shown also to play a bridging role between the different ''hard'' sciences and ''soft'' sciences such as socio-economic sciences, and law (Balaban and Klein 2006). In the second of his 1997 papers on scientometric studies of Chemistry, Schummer (1997b) declares this science to be the most active. He analysed its development both by studying the exponential growth of chemical substances from 1800 onwards (Schummer 1997a) as well analysing its research process in terms of the aims and methods of preparative organic and inorganic Chemistry (Schummer 1997b). ...
... In the second of his 1997 papers on scientometric studies of Chemistry, Schummer (1997b) declares this science to be the most active. He analysed its development both by studying the exponential growth of chemical substances from 1800 onwards (Schummer 1997a) as well analysing its research process in terms of the aims and methods of preparative organic and inorganic Chemistry (Schummer 1997b). ...
Article
This paper looks at the patterns of collaborative scientific output during the first 10 years of the New Millennium (2000–2009) based on Web of Science data for those Mexican institutions and departments known to be researching in Chemistry. Of the 17,109 papers retrieved 76.9 % were in collaboration, with 34.3 % of these involving foreign institutions. We analysed the collaboration links with foreign partners using visualizations and their dynamics by determining the combination and frequency of individual occurrences and by establishing the sequence found in our country co-authorship chains. Bilateral partnerships were the most common predominantly with the USA and to the lesser extent with Spain. These two countries are also the protagonists of the most frequent trilateral co-authorships. Collaboration with other Latin American countries is infrequent and mainly bilateral. The number of partner countries increased from 75 to 92 from the first to the second quinquennium. With respect to the countries emerging in the second period we find a greater occurrence and repetition of bilateral partnerships and a notable presence of Mexico’s main industrialised partners in the corresponding chains. Similar numbers of journals were found for national and international collaborative papers with important differences but several coincidences. The subject range of journals was diverse in both cases, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the field but with an important presence of titles specializing in subfields of Chemistry. Our findings provide new insight into the way countries interact and communicate when co-authoring with developing countries.
... The focus in synthetic chemistry is on the creation of substances [20]. The majority of those newly created substances are of interest not for their direct technical or practical use in industrial applications, but for the advances they bring to synthetic chemistry itself by improving its synthetic capability [36,35]. Individuals identify strongly with the 'chemistry' they are experienced in and that they have expertise in doing. ...
... However, the notion that chemists have to produce ('create') rather than talk ('understand') emphasizes the material craft aspect of synthetic chemistry. Knowledge contributions in synthetic chemistry are new molecules or synthesis routes, and it has been suggested that the growth of knowledge in synthetic chemistry can be measured by the growth in the number of known chemical substances [35]. All known chemical substances and many of the known reactions are captured in chemical databases, and can be effectively searched, facilitating the assessment of the novelty of a knowledge contribution. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper explores field differences in openness and sharing of scientific knowledge based on a comparative ethnographic field study of research groups in two research specialties. Tensions between cooperation and openness on the one hand and competition for priority and secrecy on the other hand are common in science. However, fields differ in how these tensions play out, influencing what information is exchanged when and how among research groups in a field. This paper develops an explanatory framework that identifies assumptions made in the generic model of the collective production process in the sciences and specifies epistemic and material field characteristics that affect to what extent those assumptions hold for a specific field, explaining field differences in openness and secrecy behaviors. I suggest that these field-inherent sources for differences in openness and sharing behaviors need to be accounted for in research policies and in the design of information and communication systems that aim to support and advance the collective production of knowledge in science.
... 48 Therefore, efforts encompassing the whole chemistry community are mandatory. In the meantime, interdisciplinary thinkers are needed, which in the realm of chemistry do not abound, perhaps as a consequence of the historical disciplinary aim of producing new substances and chemical reactions [197]. 49 Chemistry has a tradition of secrecy that is tied to its historical commercial and industrial links. ...
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Chemistry shapes and creates the disposition of the world's resources and exponentially provides new substances for the welfare and hazard of our civilisation. Over the history chemists-driven by social, semiotic and material forces-have shaped the discipline, while creating a colossal corpus of information and knowledge. Historians and sociologists, in turn, have devised causal narratives and hypotheses to explain major events in chemistry as well as its current status. In this Perspective we discuss the approaches to the evolution of the social, semiotic and material systems of chemistry. We critically analyse their reaches and challenge them by putting forward the need of a more holistic and formal setting to modelling the evolution of chemical knowledge. We indicate the advantages for chemistry of considering chemical knowledge as a complex dynamical system, which, besides casting light on the past and present of chemistry, allows for estimating its future, as well as the effects of hypothetical past events. We describe how this approach turns instrumental for forecasting the effects of material, semiotic and social perturbations upon chemical knowledge. Available data and the most relevant formalisms to analyse the different facets of chemical knowledge are discussed.
... Las ciencias químicas, al igual que otras disciplinas, ha sido objeto de estudio de la bibliome tría; en un conteo que data de 1997, se listan alrededor de cien títulos de artículos bibliométri cos que tienen a la Química como su objeto de estudio (Schummer, 1997). ...
... Las ciencias químicas, al igual que otras disciplinas, ha sido objeto de estudio de la bibliome tría; en un conteo que data de 1997, se listan alrededor de cien títulos de artículos bibliométri cos que tienen a la Química como su objeto de estudio (Schummer, 1997). ...
... It is well known that chemistry-occasionally named as "the central science" [1] due to the fact that it is a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary science connected with other branches of knowledge (i.e., physics, engineering, materials science, geology, environmental sciences, and biology)-"is by far today's most active science with regard to bibliometrical indicators" [2], and it is also known that the modern scientometric science has emerged in chemistry at the end of the 19th century as a standardized format [3]. A growing number of peer-reviewed literature examining, for example, the information flow and the evolution of chemistry research [4], chemical journals [5][6][7][8], chemical OPEN ACCESS substances [9], chemical databases [10], organic chemistry [11,12], green chemistry [13], nuclear chemistry [14], chemical engineering [15], synthesis organic chemistry research [16], chemical terminology [17], national and local scholarly communications in the selected field of science [18][19][20], the relationship between research performance and international collaboration in chemistry [21,22], as well as particular field of studies regarding Thorium [23], Vanadium [24], grapheme [25], energy [26,27] and high-temperature superconductors [28,29] have been published over time as research literature. ...
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The present review seeks to take stock of the South Korean publication activity on the field of chemistry by analyzing systematically all chemistry-related scholarly communications collected in the Web of Science (WOS) database published by at least one Korean author or Korean institute- or university-affiliated author from 1993 to 2012. The studied parameters included the growth in number of the communications, as well as the language-, document-, category-, source-, organization-, and collaboration-wise distribution of the South Korean communications. A total of 5660 communications on chemistry were found to be published by South Korean researchers during the aforementioned period of time, and South Korea was the 15th country (1.77%) in the world in terms of informational communication activity in chemistry.
... Instead, one needs empirical methods for qualified statements. For instance, most people would not believe that much more than half of the chemists are synthesizing new substances on a regular basis; yet, that is what qualified statistical analysis says (Schummer 1997b). Last but not least, philosophical issues of chemistry should be related to the problems chemists are actually confronted with. ...
... Most chemists are in the business of analyzing, transforming, and synthesizing diverse types of matter. 22,23 In their work, they query about: What is this material made of ? (the question of Identity); How do a material's properties relate to its composition and structure? ...
Article
Central ideas define fundamental understandings in a domain and frame curriculum development, instruction, and assessment. How these central ideas are conceptualized can thus have a major impact on what teachers and instructors do in the classroom and on the understandings that students develop. This commentary presents a reflection on how central ideas are traditionally presented in introductory chemistry courses and suggests an alternative way of framing these understandings to convey a more authentic view of the nature of our discipline.
... It is not before recent times, that chemists began to lay aesthetic claims to their products. Indeed, according to a document analysis of 300 randomly selected chemical papers (Schummer 1997a), at least 2% of the papers nowadays mention the aesthetic value of their molecules as one of the aims of making them. (Note that in absolute terms, 2% of the chemical papers are more than the total of all philosophical papers published per year.) ...
Article
By comparing chemistry to art, chemists have recently made claims to the aesthetic value, even beauty, of some of their products. This paper takes these claims seriously and turns them into a systematic investigation of the aesthetics of chemical products. I distinguish three types of chemical products - materials, molecules, and molecular models - and use a wide variety of aes- thetic theories suitable for an investigation of the corresponding sorts of ob- jects. These include aesthetics of materials, idealistic aesthetics from Plato to Kant and Schopenhauer, psychological approaches of Ernst Gombrich and Rudolf Arnheim, and semiotic aesthetics of Nelson Goodman and Umberto Eco. Although the investigation does not support recent claims, I point out where aesthetics does and can play an import role in chemistry. Particularly, Eco's approach helps us understand that and how aesthetic experience can be a driving force in chemical research.
... (Schummer, 1997a). Es verdad que muchas de estas sustancias no tienen aplicaciones prácticas y muchas de ellas son sintetizadas con el solo fin de aprender más sobre métodos para crear sustancias (Schummer, 1997b). Sin em­ bargo, basta con imaginar que una pequeña fracción de ellas pueda ser utilizada para fabricar nuevos medicamentos, ferti­ lizantes, plaguicidas, telas, plásticos u otros materiales, para tener una idea del impacto que esta faceta de la Química tendrá en nuestras vidas. ...
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AbstrAct (chemistry: Who are you? Where are you going? How do we catch up with you?) This paper presents a personal reflection on the nature of Chemistry, its potential areas of development in the 21 st century, and the corresponding implications for chemistry education. Beyond reflecting about basic characteristics of Chemistry as a science and speculating on future research trends in this discipline, the central goal of this essay is to motivate chemistry teachers and instructors, as well as chemical educators, to question the relevance and validity of the current general chemistry curriculum at the different educational levels, and to promote the development of alternatives ways of conceptualizing such a curriculum.
... However, only a small, but increasing, fraction of chemical synthesis is performed with the goal of providing useful applications outside of chemistry. Indeed most new substances are produced in the course of research to further improve the synthetic capacity of chemistry both on the experimental and theoretical level [Schummer, 1997b; 1997c]. The unclear status of synthetic chemistry, between being a science and being a technology in the received sense, which has recently been called technoscience, has opened a space for values other than scientific truth and technological performance. ...
Article
Aesthetic values are difficult to define and to identify in engineering activities for several reasons. One reason is that the professional aesthetics discourse is narrowly focused on the fine arts including literature, such that, particularly for many Anglo-Saxon aestheticists, aesthetics has become equivalent to the study of the fine arts or art criticism. Unfortunately, that makes their conceptual apparatus largely inappropriate for other fields of aesthetics, including engineering aesthetics. Another reason is that scientists and engineers frequently use terms such as "beautiful", which would otherwise be typical indicators of aesthetic appreciation, to express epistemic or functional approval or to popularize their activity to a broader public. It is useful therefore to start with a broad concept of aesthetic values by considering any values that are not of epistemic, functional, or ethical nature. The remaining values typically include familiar aesthetic values such as beauty, elegance, harmony (non-epistemic), simplicity and clarity, and familiarity, as well their opposites on which aesthetic disapproval is based. In addition, something can aesthetically please or displease by resemblance to something else that pleases or displeases for aesthetic reasons only, which is typically expressed by analogies or metaphors and which sometimes leads to the formation of aesthetic styles. Whenever such aesthetic values contribute to preferences in engineering decisions, there is evidence that they inform the engineering activity.
... 102 Compare Le Poidevin's (2000) argument that chirality is not an intrinsic property (see next section). 103Schummer (1997)has argued that spectroscopic methods for purity tests always remain secondary to traditional purity tests in terms of the inseparability by any separation technique. According to him no spectroscopic method can be used for purity tests, unless one already knows what the spectra of a particular pure substance looks like. ...
Article
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Definissant la chimie comme la science macroscopique des substances et de leurs tranformations, l'A. souleve la question de la reductibilite des notions macroscopiques telles que la substance chimique, l'equilibre et la temperature, au domaine de la microphysique. Examinant la relation entre l'image manifeste et l'image scientifique (Sellars) a travers l'exemple de l'eau (Hare), l'A. montre qu'il ne peut y avoir de reduction de la thermodynamique physico-chimique a la physique statique, d'une part, ni de la chimie moleculaire a la mecanique quantique par l'intermediaire de la chimie quantique, d'autre part
... These researchers frequently frame their activities in terms of a design or engineering model, rather than one of theory building or theory testing. They try to build new molecules because they think they can and because that allows them to increase the repertoire of synthetic routes and techniques at their disposal (Schummer 1997b). They do not observe nature passively; they measure to achieve transformations (Hoffmann 2007). ...
Article
Studies of the philosophy of chemistry over the past 15years suggest that chemistry is a hybrid science which mixes scientific pursuits with technological applications. Dominant universal characterizations of the nature of science thus fail to capture the essence of the discipline. The central goal of this position paper is to encourage reflection about the extent to which dominant views about quality science education based on universal views of scientific practices may constrain school chemistry. In particular, we discuss how these predominant ideas restrict the development of chemistry curricula and instructional approaches that may better support the learning of the ideas and practices that studies of the philosophy of chemistry suggest are at the core of the discipline. Our analysis suggests that philosophical studies about the nature of chemistry invite us to transgress traditional educational boundaries between science and technology, inquiry and design, content and process, and to reconceptualize school chemistry as a paradigmatic techno scientific subject. To support these changes, chemical education researchers should expand the scope of their investigations to better understand how students and teachers reason about and engage in more authentic ways of chemical thinking and doing.
... lyzed them in detail, asking for the papers' aims, i.e. why chemists do experiments. And how they accomplish them.Figure 2 shows the outcome. Schummer finds the emphasis on synthesis I mention, as well as what one might call " propagation " —the making of new molecules " in order to improve the abilities to produce more new substances. " 1980 –1995 . Schummer (1997b When did this change, when did synthesis begin to dominate chemistry? One locus is found in the in the second half of the 19th century, in Perkin's opening to aniline dyes, and the subsequent development of German dye and medicinal chemistry. Another is found in the twin explosions of activity in organometallic and solid state chemistry ...
Article
Had more philosophers of science come from chemistry, their thinking would have been different. I begin by looking at a typical chemical paper, in which making something is the leitmotif, and conjecture/refutation is pretty much irrelevant. What in fact might have been, might be, different? The realism of chemists is reinforced by their remarkable ability to transform matter; they buy into reductionism where it serves them, but make no real use of it. Incommensurability is taken without a blink, and actually serves. The preeminence of synthesis in chemistry could have led philosophers of science to take more seriously questions of aesthetics within science, and to find a place in aesthetics for utility. The necessary motion twixt macroscopic and microscopic views of matter in modern chemistry leads to the coexistence of symbolic and iconic representations. And in another way to the deliberate, creative violation of categories.
... We take for granted that beauty has a place in chemistry because we know, as chemists, that chemists are passionate in their vocation and take great pleasure in their work. Moreover, despite a lack of formal aesthetic training among most chemists -and the longstanding stigma associated with discussing beauty in the scientific literature -at least 2% of chemistry papers mention [17] aesthetic values as a justification for studying a molecule. Classic examples include a variety of synthetic Platonic and Archimedean objects [18], such as cubane [19], dodecahedrane [20], buckminsterfullerene [21], and many metal-ligand coordination complexes and cages [22][23][24] that have been appreciated [10] for their symmetry, simplicity, uniformity, and harmony: "simply beautiful and beautifully simple." ...
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Mechanically interlocked objects are ubiquitous in our world. They can be spotted on almost every scale of matter and in virtually every sector of society, spanning cultural, temporal, and physical boundaries the world over. From art to machinery, to biological entities and chemical compounds, mechanical interlocking is being used and admired every day, inspiring creativity and ingenuity in art and technology alike. The tiny world of mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), which has been established and cultivated over the past few decades, has connected the ordinary and molecular worlds symbolically with creative research and artwork that subsumes the molecular world as a miniaturization of the ordinary one. In this review, we highlight how graphical representations of MIMs have evolved to this end, and discuss various other aspects of their beauty as chemists see them today. We argue that the many aspects of beauty in MIMs are relevant, not only to the pleasure chemists derive from their research, but also to the progress of the research itself.
... 126-159). In particular organic chemists benefit from an improved syntax since the synthesis 2 of approximately 36% of organic compounds is guided by reaction mechanisms (Schummer, 1997). In its most advanced version, this type of chemistry performs synthesis 1 with the help of computer simulations. ...
Article
Chemical symbolism provides the linguistic representations for experimental research. It is based on an empirical set of formal (syntactic) rules that allows operations on formulas and reaction equations. The semantic interpretation of formulas and reaction equations links these operations to experimental analysis and synthesis. These syntactic and semantic aspects of chemical symbolism guide as well as limit chemical research. A better understanding of these aspects of chemical language allows chemists to rationalize novel approaches to chemical research (e.g. combinatorial chemistry) and possibly exploit the vast area of 'surprise discoveries'.
... Instead, theoretical concepts are also developed and judged here according to their potential for synthesis, a major activity of chemists for various, mostly non-technological ends. 23,24 Moreover, theoretical concepts are expected to provide a basis for the classification of the tens of millions of substances, 25 which necessarily requires qualitative concepts that a nominalist approach cannot provide. The various subdisciplines of chemistry have developed dozens of different kinds of molecular models, from solid state chemistry to biochemistry, that each serves specific disciplinary needs. ...
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Although the notion of God as the legislator of nature was already known in the Jewish-Christian tradition, the modern concept of laws of nature was established only in the seventeenth-century mechanical philosophy of nature, particularly by Descartes and Newton, and remained largely confined to that tradition before it became seriously questioned in quantum mechanics. After a brief historical survey, I first discuss various examples of so-called laws of nature in chemistry and physical chemistry proposed in the nineteenth century to conclude that none of them really correspond to the original concept, but that they rather comprise a variety of epistemologically different statements. More recent philosophical approaches to extend the concept of laws, so as to cover chemical cases, all result in inacceptable consequences. The deeper reason of the comparatively little importance of natural laws, I finally argue, is that chemistry as the original epitome of the experimental or Baconian science has largely followed methodological pluralism in which a variety of models to be chosen from for pragmatic reasons are preferred over universal laws of nature as in mathematical physics.
... Since this paradigmatic shift took place, however, it seems that research practices in organic chemistry have developed in an Fig. 3 Research objectives in grant proposals written by political scientists The Way We Ask for Money… 95 incremental fashion. In his content analysis of 300 papers published in the internationally renowned journal Angewandte Chemie between 1980 and 1995, Schummer (1997b) came to intriguing conclusions regarding the aims and methods of published work in preparative organic chemistry: By categorizing the research claims of the authors into five hermeneutic categories-''theoretical contribution,'' ''classificatory purpose,'' ''synthesis relevance,'' ''application'' and ''structure typology''-Schummer found that research practices in preparative chemistry did not change fundamentally during his observation period. We applied Schummer's classification of research claims to our data and refined the codebook in order to account for two newer yet empirically relevant research objectives-''methodological innovation'' and ''functional specification.'' ...
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Although existing scholarship offers critical insights into the working mechanisms of project-based research funding, little is known about the actual practice of writing grant proposals. Our study seeks to add a longitudinal dimension to the ongoing debate on the implications of competitive research funding by focusing on the incremental adjustment of the funder/fundee relationship around a common discursive practice that consists in describing and evaluating research projects: How has the perception of what constitutes a legitimate funding claim changed over time and why? By investigating the normative framework enacted in the justification strategies of applicants, we shed light on the historical coevolution of the increasing competition for project funding, the epistemic culture of applicants, and grant writing rhetoric. To do this, we mobilize a comprehensive data set consisting of archival data from Europe’s oldest and largest funding agency, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, as well as a corpus of 80 successful grant proposals written between 1975 and 2005. We find that the 1990s mark an important normative consolidation of what we consider to be a legitimate funding claim: Ensuring the success of the project and the project’s results becomes a major concern in applicant rhetoric. This time period coincides with a substantive rise in the level of competition for project funding. Yet, even though justification strategies might seem to address the same issues in grant proposals across the disciplines under investigation, the normative framework to which applicants refer differs according to the applicant’s epistemic culture.
... 7 also pointed out that "there is still no saturation discernible after 200 years of exponential growth of substances." 8 Barth and Marx (2012, 2013) have introduced the idea of compound-based bibliometrics by searching for compounds containing rare-earth elements in Chemical Abstracts and linking to their corresponding publications. 9,10 They stated that "the method can be applied to analyze large amounts of compounds in combination with the corresponding chemical concepts, to identify gaps in research, and hence open the door to new research in well-described compound-based areas." 10 It was concluded that "the compound-based bibliometric concept can easily be extended to organic chemistry by searching molecular substructures rather than element combinations, or to biochemistry by searching protein or nucleic sequences." ...
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Identifying research gaps and generating research questions are often a first step in developing ideas for writing a research paper or grant proposal. The concept of substance-based bibliometrics uses the counts of substances in the scientific literature to better understand, assess, and clarify the state and impact of information in the chemical sciences. Connecting substances indexed to specific bioactivity or target indicators can lead to assessing the biochemical, biological, and medicinal relevance of substances as well as developing ideas for expanding drug design and discovery through identifying and modifying the structural features of molecules. This study uses Chemical Abstracts through the SciFinder database to count for the occurrence of substances in the scientific literature. The study sets out search strategies for discovering potential research gaps and new ideas through visualization of chemical structures with known bioactivity and target indicators. The author recommends that subject librarians integrate research gap training in their bibliographic instruction classes, particularly to upper-level undergraduate and graduate chemistry students.
... Las ciencias químicas, al igual que otras disciplinas, ha sido objeto de estudio de la bibliome tría; en un conteo que data de 1997, se listan alrededor de cien títulos de artículos bibliométri cos que tienen a la Química como su objeto de estudio (Schummer, 1997). ...
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El Estudio Comparativo de Universidades Mexicanas (ECUM) y su explorador en línea (ExECUM: www.execum.unam.mx) es un proyecto de investigación realizado por la Dirección General de Evaluación Institucional de la UNAM, que sistematiza, mide y compara el desempeño de universidades y otras instituciones mexicanas de educación superior. Se basa en la recopilación, ordenamiento y análisis de información obtenida en fuentes oficiales y bases de datos reconocidas. Contiene datos de más de 3,600 instituciones de educación superior (públicas y privadas); centros de investigación; instituciones de salud; dependencias gubernamentales, y de diversos organismos sociales o privados desde el 2007 al 2012
... Las ciencias químicas, al igual que otras disciplinas, ha sido objeto de estudio de la bibliome tría; en un conteo que data de 1997, se listan alrededor de cien títulos de artículos bibliométri cos que tienen a la Química como su objeto de estudio (Schummer, 1997). ...
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Desde hace algunos años, en el país se habla de la necesidad de construir agendas de ciencia y tecnología para impulsar diferentes sectores sociales y económicos. Los mapas ofrecidos especialmente por organizaciones como Scimago o el Observatorio Colombiano de Ciencia y Tecnología permiten hacer mediciones acerca del desarrollo de la participación de la ciencia en los círculos de producción global y las discusiones con los investigadores más reputados del planeta. Sin embargo, las respuestas por las trayectorias científicas en las diferentes áreas de conocimiento están por resolverse: ¿A qué problemas estamos respondiendo? ¿Además de la investigación médica, qué otros campos se han desarrollado y en qué temas? A estas y otras preguntas el Atlas de la Ciencia de Antioquia realizado por el grupo de Investigación Redes y Actores Sociales de la Universidad de Antioquia propone algunas respuestas.
... Assim, outro aspecto característico da química é sua natureza relacional, que perpassa seus conceitos, métodos, esquemas de classificação e linguagem (Bernal;Daza, 2010). Além disso, o caráter fortemente experimental (Chamizo, 2013;Schummer, 1997) e sua presença quase ubíqua em aplicações no cotidiano e no sistema produtivo (Hoffmann, 2007;Knight, 1992) são atributos da química com presença destacada também no discurso dos educadores da área (Silva et al., 2010;Bennett;Holman, 2002). ...
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Kritik am Gutachtersystem - und natürlich konkret an Gutachtern - bekommt auch die Redaktion der Angewandten Chemie nur zu häufig zu hören. Da waren wir froh, als 1990 die Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker H.-D. Daniel erlaubte, im Rahmen des Schwerpunktprogramms „Wissenschaftsforschung” der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft unter strikter Wahrung der Anonymität von Gutachtern und Autoren unser Gutachtersystem zu untersuchen. Ein Teil der Ergebnisse, der schon Diskussionsstoff genug bieten dürfte, ist hier zusammengefaßt. Ausführlich werden die Ergebnisse in einem Buch präsentiert, das im Sommer bei VCH erscheint.
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The number of chemical substances is considered as a cumulative measure of the cognitive growth of preparative chemistry. During the past 200 years there is approximately exponential growth without saturation. Separate analysis of organic and inorganic chemistry suggests at least a two-phase model either. Detailed discussion of the results (considering also the growth of chemists, chemical papers, patents, and chemical elements) reveals that an external (socio-economical) explanation is insufficient. Instead, an internal (methodological) approach is suggested to explain the exponential growth as well as balancing phenomena in war and post-war times.
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A method for rapid quantitative determination of free amino acids and several vitamins in intravenous solutions and beverages has been developed. The separation was performed on a NH2 column with an acetonitrile/phosphate buffer gradient. The samples, injected without a derivatization procedure, were separated within 30 min. With a time programmable wave-length detector, the required high sensitivity was achieved. The relative standard deviations for quantitative results were 1-2%. Quality and stability testing of intravenous solutions are immediate applications of this method.
and Daniel 1993a, p. 248f. regarding the year 1984. His comparison between offered and published manuscripts shows that the thematic profile is already pre-shaped by the offers
  • Cf
  • Daniel
Cf. Daniel 1993b, pp. 35-42 and Daniel 1993a, p. 248f. regarding the year 1984. His comparison between offered and published manuscripts shows that the thematic profile is already pre-shaped by the offers.
A Bibliography of Bibliometrics and Citation Indexing & Analysis The Royal Institute of Technology-Library Kontrastive Fachsprachetzfi)rschun~,; Narr; Tfibingen
  • R Hierppe
  • H L Kre~izenbacher
  • M Thurmair
HIERPPE, R., A Bibliography of Bibliometrics and Citation Indexing & Analysis, The Royal Institute of Technology-Library, Stockholm, 1980. KRE~IZENBACHER, H. L., THURMAIR, M., Textvergleich als Grundlage zur Beschreibung einer wissenschaftlichen Textsorte: Das Peer Review, in: K. D. BAUMANN, H. KALVERKflJvlPER (Eds), Kontrastive Fachsprachetzfi)rschun~,; Narr; Tfibingen, 1992, pp. 135-146.
Guardians ()f Science. Fairness and Reliability qf Peer Review The highest-impact, highest-influence chemistry, journals, The Scientist
  • H.-D. Daniel
  • A Grissom
DANIEL, H.-D., Guardians ()f Science. Fairness and Reliability qf Peer Review, VCH, Weinheim, 1993b. GRISSOM, A., The highest-impact, highest-influence chemistry, journals, The Scientist, April 1 (1991) 14.
SCIENTOMETRIC STUDIES ON CHEMISTRY II. chemistry, analytical chemistry is the most prominent topic of scientometric studies, mostly published in chemical journals; cf., e.g
  • J Schummer
J. SCHUMMER: SCIENTOMETRIC STUDIES ON CHEMISTRY II. chemistry, analytical chemistry is the most prominent topic of scientometric studies, mostly published in chemical journals; cf., e.g., Braun et al. 1980 and quoted literature.
The sweet and the sour of Chemical Abstract Service, CAS Statistical Summary 1907-19t05 Evaluation des Peer-Review-Verfahrens bei der Angewandten Chemie
  • T Braun
  • Gl~
  • W Nzel
  • H,-D Daniel
BRAUN, T., GL~,NZEL, W., The sweet and the sour of Journal Citation Rates, The Chemical Intelligencer, 1 (1995) 31 32. t3RUNNER, H., Editorial, Angewandte Chemie, 107 (1995) 4. Chemical Abstract Service, CAS Statistical Summary 1907-19t05, Columbus/Ohio 1996. DANIEL, H,-D., Evaluation des Peer-Review-Verfahrens bei der Angewandten Chemie, Angewandte Chemie, I05 (1993a) 247-251.
Chemical Sciences in the Modern World A critical analysis of the journal impact factors of
  • S H J Mauskopf
  • Schummer
  • Scientometric
  • Studies On Chemistry Ii
  • H F Moed
  • T N Van Leeuwen
  • J Reed1jk
MAUSKOPF, S. H. (Ed.), Chemical Sciences in the Modern World, Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1993. Scientometrics 39 (1997) J. SCHUMMER: SCIENTOMETRIC STUDIES ON CHEMISTRY II. MOED, H. F., VAN LEEUWEN, T. N., REED1JK, J., A critical analysis of the journal impact factors of Angewandte Chemic and the Journal of the American Chemical Society. Inaccuracies in published impact factors based on overall citations only, Scientometrics, 37 (1996) 105-116.
Daniel 1993b, p. 9f. The IS1 chemical journal impact factors have been questioned and corrected by Braun & Gldnzel
  • Cf Grissom
  • Moed
Cf. Grissom 1991; Daniel 1993b, p. 9f. The IS1 chemical journal impact factors have been questioned and corrected by Braun & Gldnzel 1995 and Moed et al. 1996.
33-35) points out that peer reviewer have a little but significant preference for manuscripts submitted by authors of higher academic status
  • Daniel
Daniel (1993b, pp. 33-35) points out that peer reviewer have a little but significant preference for manuscripts submitted by authors of higher academic status.
The sweet and the sour of Journal Citation Rates,The Chemical Intelligencer
  • T Braun
  • W Glänzel
Textvergleich als Grundlage zur Beschreibung einer wissenschaftlichen Textsorte: DasPeer Review
  • H L Kreitzenbacher
  • M Thurmair
A Bibliography of Bibliometrics and Citation Indexing & Analysis, The Royal Institute of Technology-Library
  • R Hierppe
  • R. Hierppe
The sweet and the sour of Journal Citation Rates
  • T Braun
  • W Glänzel
  • T. Braun
Bibliometrics: An Annotated Bibliography
  • M K Sellen
  • M. K. Sellen