Article

Extraction of Henna Leaf Dye and its Dyeing Effects on Textile Fibre

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Abstract

Henna plant leaves (Lawsonia inermis) contains dye along with other ingredients. The dye component was extracted and applied on silk fibre in order to investigate the dyeing characteristics, e.g. dyeability, fastness etc. It is found that the dye up take by silk fibre was decreased with the increase of dye concentration. Similarly the absorp- tion of dye was increased with the decrease of dye concentration. The maximum dye absorption has been observed at 0.9 % dye with 10 % alum for the period of 65 min- utes at temperature 80 O C and pH 4. At this optimum condition the dye absorption was 93 %. The effects of sunlight in air on silk fibre have been studied to investigate the colourfastness. The colourfastness of dyed silk fibre of water and soap solution at different treatment temperature was satisfactory. Considering dyeability and colour- fastness, dye from henna matured leaves was highly applicable on dyeing of silk fibre as well as other protein fibre.

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... The natural dyestuffs imply and refer to all the coloring materials derived or extracted from nature i.e. of the plant, animal, mineral and microbial origins are used for coloration of a variety of textile materials (Saxena and Raja, 2014). These dyes have been used for the dyeing of textile materials and have become a regular ritual of human lives from time immemorial (Alam et al., 2007). However, with the advent of synthetic dyes in the second half of the nineteenth century alongside an extensive research in the field of synthetic dyestuffs has led to a drastic decline in the use of natural dyes in textiles because of their limited range of colors, lack of reproducibility and uneven shades, poor color yield and poor to moderate colorfastness properties as well as the dearth of information regarding methods of improving the fastness and color value (Samanta et al., 2007). ...
... Lawsone is the active ingredient of henna leaves along with gallic acid, white resin, sugars, tannin and xanthones (Bhadane et al., 2015). Fresh henna leaves are generally used in the powder form ( Fig. 1) after drying and separating the branches and twigs from the dried henna leaves through manual and mechanical methods to render the purest and most intense color (Alam et al., 2007). The conversion of dried leaves to powder is carried out by pulverization, and moisture is usually removed from henna powder upon heating in the oven. ...
... The application of mordants on silk fiber not only enhances the color yield but also improves the fastness properties by forming an insoluble complex between the dye and the mordant within the fiber interior leading to a bright and fast colored material (Saxena and Raja, 2014). Another study (Alam et al., 2007) has shown the effect of electrolyte concentration and temperature on the exhaustion of henna dye. The results have revealed that the exhaustion of dye increases with the increment of electrolyte concentration and dyeing temperature (Table 7). ...
Article
The natural dye henna usually being recognized as lawsone is a red-orange pigment that has long been used for the coloration of skin and hair as well as textile materials. This natural colorant garners the attention of researchers throughout the globe for the coloration of textile materials due to the fact that its color can easily be harmonized with nature besides its slight chemical reactivity without posing any environmental problems. So, a large number of studies were carried out on both extraction and application of henna dye in textile fibers along with the standardization and simplification of dyeing techniques. This review article is mainly focused on the contemporary research works on henna dye highlighting the general characteristics alongside its chemical composition and chromatic properties. A greater emphasis is also placed on the dyeing chemistry of the natural dye henna as well as its applications in the dyeing of cellulosic, protein and synthetic textile fibers including the effects of different mordants and mordanting methods on the dye uptake. Moreover, the scope of improvement in terms of dyeability and overall colorfastness properties through chemical modification of textile fibers has also been mentioned.
... UV koruma işlemlerinde kullanılan kimyasal maddeler birçok sentetik maddede olduğu gibi insan sağlığına zarar verme riski taşıyabilmektedir. Dünya'da ve Anadolu'da binlerce yıldır doğal renklendirici olarak kullanılan doğal boyalar ekolojiye ve cildimize karşı zararsızdır [31][32][33]. Aynı zamanda bu ürünler sürdürülebilir, yenilenebilir ve biyo-bozunur maddelerdir [33]. Bu ürünlerin çeşitli koruyucu özellikleri de bulunmaktadır [34]. ...
... Dünya'da ve Anadolu'da binlerce yıldır doğal renklendirici olarak kullanılan doğal boyalar ekolojiye ve cildimize karşı zararsızdır [31][32][33]. Aynı zamanda bu ürünler sürdürülebilir, yenilenebilir ve biyo-bozunur maddelerdir [33]. Bu ürünlerin çeşitli koruyucu özellikleri de bulunmaktadır [34]. ...
... Mordan olarak mazı [68], kalsine sodyum karbonat [68], bakır sülfat [68], sitrik asit [68], demir sülfat [68], potasyum bitartarat [37] Bunun yanında doğal boyalar ile işlem görmüş kumaşların oldukça iyi UV koruma değerleri sergiledikleri belirlenmiştir. Maksimum UV koruma değerlerine erik-demir sülfat ön-mordanlama işlemi uygulanmış kumaşlarda rastlanmaktadır (UPF; [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. Ayrıca yine ön-mordanlamış kumaşlar içinde çok iyi UV koruma seviyelerine (UPF; 30-35) sahip olan numuneler babool boyası ile boyanmış numunelerdir [71]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sun, which is a life source for humans, plants and animals, radiates rays with different wavelengths. A part of these rays are referred to UV rays, and high dosage of these rays can result in many negative effects on humans such as allergies, sunburns, skin aging and even skin cancer. Textile products can be used to prevent these negative effects. Various chemical agents can be applied to textile materials to impart UV protection. Various alternatives have been investigated instead of these chemicals due to their potential problems such as their environmental issues. Natural dyes can impart UV protection properties to textile materials without giving damage to environment and human health. In the literature, there are many studies in respect of UV protection properties of textile materials treated with natural dyes. In this review, detailed information about UV protection of textile materials provided by the natural dyes is given.
... Natural dyes are environmentally friendly and very compliant with the environment, as they can be derived either from plants, animals, or minerals. They have beauty, depth of color, and less bright than synthetic dyes, but these natural color components were sustainable and biodegradable [4][5][6][7]. ...
... There is a reason to suppose that natural consumables are better than manufactured goods because they naturally have been made. If they are more commonly and commercially used, the safety of natural dyes must be demonstrated [5]. With respect to environmental considerations, the use of renewable non toxic and gentle natural colors needs to be reconsidered. ...
Conference Paper
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Although synthetic dyes are commonly used, natural dyes are still being utilized and used to improve their intrinsic aesthetic properties as the main material for the body's beauty. For example, research results have shown that henna plant leaves comprise dye together with other additives. This provides a hint that if color from henna is properly studied, it can be used not only as body decoration but may also have fiber-substrates affinity. This paper explores the dyeing possibility-the ability to dye and the fastness qualities of henna dye extracted from henna leaves on cotton fabric compared to reactive dyeing using the same dyeing technique as reactive dyeing. Also, color fastness tests have been performed according to the ISO test methods. The implications of henna dye have been shown to have poor to moderate dyeing capability towards cotton fabrics as opposed to the reactive dyes when henna dyeing is accompanied by reactive dyeing. Similarly, henna dye demonstrated satisfactory properties of fastness as opposed to reactive dye. For henna dye with 50% shade, it gives an outstanding color tone with a good level of coloration. Taken into account the ability to dye and the fastness of color, the dyeing of matured henna leaves is equally advantageous to the dyeing of cotton fabrics.
... The ingestion of color from the color bath at harmony coloring time is 88 % separately. The ingestion remains the same on the additional expansion of coloring time [24]. ...
... It is seen that with the progress of time of exposure to the daylight in the air, the shade of raw silk suddenly changes from brilliant yellow to dull yellow. However, in the instance of degummed silk, just a slight tone change happens from white to yellowish-white even following exposure for 250 hours [24]. ...
Article
Synthetic dyes and all the processing used in general dyeing is harmful to our health. Dye from natural sources can reduce the risk of synthetic dyes. As indigo has been used for thousands of years for the coloration of textiles as a natural source. This review is aimed at a discussion of different raw materials used for the extraction of natural dyes, the extraction process for different natural dyes, and the properties of fabric dyed by those dyestuffs. Most of the natural dyes showed a very good fastness property in researches. The dyes can be extracted from trees, bark, leaves, flowers, and many more sources. Most of the natural dyes exhibit special properties like anti-microbial, less toxicity, less allergenic, UV protection.
... The ingestion of color from the color bath at harmony coloring time is 88 % separately. The ingestion remains the same on the additional expansion of coloring time [24]. ...
... It is seen that with the progress of time of exposure to the daylight in the air, the shade of raw silk suddenly changes from brilliant yellow to dull yellow. However, in the instance of degummed silk, just a slight tone change happens from white to yellowish-white even following exposure for 250 hours [24]. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Synthetic dyes and all the processing used in general dyeing is harmful to our health. Dye from natural sources can reduce the risk of synthetic dyes. As indigo has been used for thousands of years for the coloration of textiles as a natural source. This review is aimed at a discussion of different raw materials used for the extraction of natural dyes, the extraction process for different natural dyes, and the properties of fabric dyed by those dyestuffs. Most of the natural dyes showed a very good fastness property in researches. The dyes can be extracted from trees, bark, leaves, flowers, and many more sources. Most of the natural dyes exhibit special properties like anti-microbial, less toxicity, less allergenic, UV protection.
... It is known that intermolecular interaction have an effect on the absorption spectrum of a molecule. Solvent solute interaction can have various influences on an absorption spectrum in case of natural dye it was found that variation in the polarity and also the solvating power of solvent leads to a noticable shift as presented in fig (7,8).At the same time, the formation of the hydrogen bonding with the solvent stabilizes the form. Increase in polarity of the solvent such as (CH 3 OH or ETOH) shifts the equilibrium towards more polar structure. ...
... Effect of postmordanting on L*, a*, b*, c* and h with copper, cobalt, nickel and chrome at optimized conditions is given in Table (7,8). L* represents lightness value, the higher the lightness value represent lower the colour yield. ...
... This occurred due to the limitation of the absorption of henna extract towards substrate, since the inhibitor adsorption on the active sites of steel surface was liable for the hindrance from aggressive species access to metal surface [21]. According to Alam et al., (2007) [22], increasing the henna extract concentration decreased the absorption performance and it clearly can be explained that the absolute quantity diminished with the increasing henna concentration. The value of corrosion rate decreased with the increased value of inhibition efficiency for 60 days of immersion. ...
... This occurred due to the limitation of the absorption of henna extract towards substrate, since the inhibitor adsorption on the active sites of steel surface was liable for the hindrance from aggressive species access to metal surface [21]. According to Alam et al., (2007) [22], increasing the henna extract concentration decreased the absorption performance and it clearly can be explained that the absolute quantity diminished with the increasing henna concentration. The value of corrosion rate decreased with the increased value of inhibition efficiency for 60 days of immersion. ...
Article
Full-text available
Henna is identified as an excellent corrosion inhibitor and due to this reason, a research project was conducted in order to investigate the ability of henna extracts to act as an anti-corrosive agent with the compatible composition for paint systems. The paint composition consisted of colophony (WW types), plasticiser (oleic acid), pigment (calcium carbonate), solvent (mixture of xylene/white spirit) and additives (zinc oxide and henna leaf extract). These ingredients were mixed until they were soluble and stirred using a high-speed disperser. In order to measure the effectiveness of the new paint system, several non-destructive tests were conducted to investigate the inhibitive properties of henna extract including measurement of substrate mass loss. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increased with the increasing amounts of inhibitor. The highest IE (%) was 77.63% and this was produced by the paint with 8% inhibitor (P3). However, the IE value started to decrease when 12% of henna extract was incorporated into the paint matrix (P4: 58.40%). Thus, P3 acted as an optimum paint with respect to its performance on the corrosion inhibition efficiency based on mass loss measurement and electrochemical studies. Surface analyses were carried out using infrared thermography and scanning electron microscopy. These surface analysis test was carried out to support mass loss and electrochemical study. Based on the results, the performance of henna extract as a corrosion inhibitor on aluminium surface showed a great impact with the 8% of henna extract presence in the paint formulation.
... The significant effect of water temperature on the legibility of the identification marks suggests that hot water (high temperature) facilitated more release of the dye lawsone in the hot water preparation than in the cold water preparation. This finding agrees with the report on Henna page (Anonymous 2003) and that of Alam et al (2007) that, higher water temperature releases lawsone (dye) faster than lower temperatures. Verma et al (2008) also reported that boiled water preparation of henna produced good colour imprints compared to cold water preparation. ...
... This suggests that, the interactive effect of water temperature and henna paste preparation time affected the release of lawsone. This finding agrees with previous reports (Anonymous 2003;Alam et al 2007;Verma et al 2008) in which high water temperatures increased release of lawsone and hence produced good colour imprints compared to cold water preparations. Also, Dalglies (1949) opined that the longer the paste preparation time, the higher the lawsone released. ...
Article
Full-text available
The traditional animal identification systems such as ear tagging, tattooing, branding, and ear notching are easy to apply, but they present certain disadvantages such as cost implications, problems of reading, loss or damage and animal welfare concerns. Henna leaf paste has been proposed as a suitable alternative for use in animal identification. This study aimed to determine the effects of water temperature (WT), paste preparation time (PPT) and coat colour (CC) of an animal on the legibility of henna paste used as an animal identification marker. Henna paste was prepared in a manner to form a 2x3 (i.e. cold water [CW] and hot water [HW] each at 6 [SH], 15 [FH] and 24 [TH] hours paste preparation time) factorial experiment with six treatment combinations (CWSH, CWFH, CWTH, HWSH, HWFH, HWTH). Each treatment (henna paste mixture) was applied on the coat of 10 matured Djallonke sheep to create identification marks, and the legibility of the marks read from a distance using GPS receiver. The experiment was conducted in both rainy and dry seasons, each lasting for 16 weeks. From ANOVA, water temperature significantly (p < 0.05) affected the average legible distances from the 4th and 7th weeks for rainy and dry seasons applications respectively. Hot water preparations yielded significantly higher average legible distances irrespective of the season. Henna paste preparation time showed significant effect (p = 0.011) on average legible distances from 6 th week as 24 h preparation time yielded the highest distance of 68.53 m in dry season while the 6 h preparation time yielded the shortest distance of 38.75 m in rainy season. Animal’s coat colour significantly (p < 0.001) affected average legible distances as white coats had longest while black coats had shortest average distances. The interaction of WT and PPT significantly (p < 0.01) affected average legible distances from the 4th and 7th weeks for rainy and dry seasons respectively. Henna paste prepared with hot water and used after 24 h yielded highest average legible distances of the identification marks especially on animals with white coat colour.
... Natural dyes have become part of human life from time immemorial. The alchemy of colours started its use from an early time (Alam et al., 2007), with the textile dyeing industry being in existence for more than 4000 years. For all but the last 150 years, dyes were obtained from natural sources such as plants, lichens, insects and shellfish. ...
... Nowadays, in a world full of colours produced by bright, fast, inexpensive synthetic dyes, it is hard to imagine a time when a good quality dye was as valuable as gold or silver (Surowiec et al., 2003 andFerreira et al., 2004). However, nowadays the increasing use of natural dyes in colouration of textile materials and other purposes is just a consequence of the greater environmental awareness, since they exhibit better biodegradability, have better compatibility with the environment and possess lower toxicity and allergic reactions than synthetic dyes (Alam et al., 2007). ...
Article
This paper describes a mini-project developed with 10th grade Portuguese students where, by using an experimental activity involving the use of natural dyes to colour wool, students acquired a better understanding of the concepts and relationship between the colour, the electromagnetic spectrum, and chemical bonding. As demonstrated by the results of a laboratory activity interest survey, the interdisciplinary nature of the mini-project contributed to raise student awareness to the existing relationship between science, culture and daily life, promoting their overall interest in scientific topics.
... Since the dawn of human civilisation, people have used vegetable and animal fats in cosmetics and other items [1,2]. It is well known that both men and women frequently utilize a combination of natural materials, such as original hair color changes with chemical dye application [3,4]. Colors are crucial to human existence. ...
Article
One of the oldest and most well-known cosmetics, hair color has been used by numerous ancient cultures throughout history on both men and women. It involves treating hair with various chemical compounds for changing hair color. According to how long they remain in the hair, these products are primarily divided into two categories: temporary and permanent. This classification is consistent with the types of active substances used in the dyeing process as well as the dyeing method itself, which are referred to as non-oxidative and oxidative hair dye products, respectively. Permanent hair dyes often consist of active chemicals that are not dyed but are oxidized to provide the desired color. As a result, the phrase "oxidative hair dye" was emerged. The precursor part and coupler part are the two main ingredients in formulations for oxidative hair dyes. Quinonediimine intermediates are momentary compounds that are generated when combined with hydrogen peroxide (developer). As a result, the coupler agent and these compounds interact to form the appropriate hair dye molecule. Notably, the entire dyeing process requires both an alkaline medium and an oxidizing agent, often hydrogen peroxide, to ensure that the staining agents reach the cuticle widely. This review's objective is to provide information about hair dye formulations and mechanisms of action as well as repairing damaged hair and new applications.
... 18 However, water is taking over from aggressive solvents for the dye extraction due to growing environmental concerns. 19,20 Water is a potential green solvent as it is harmless for the environment and health. 21 Therefore, the present research aims to introduce water as a solvent to extract natural dye and mordant from food waste and examine its application to dye the cotton fabric. ...
Article
Due to the environmental burden of synthetic dyes, there has been a revival in practicing natural dyes globally. Natural dyeing uses metallic mordants for improving the dye's fastness properties. However, metallic mordants are toxic also. Herein, both the dyes and mordants were extracted from plant waste using water as a green solvent. The extracted dyes were then applied to the cotton fabric using a natural mordant. The dyed fabric samples were characterized for color yield, fastness properties, UV protection, and antibacterial activity. For the said purpose, the wastes of sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, and rice husk were used for dye and mordant extraction. It was found that with increasing extraction temperature from 30 to 60°C, the dye yield increased. From the K/S value, it was observed that pre‐mordanting gave better color strength than post or meta‐mordanting. The overall rating of washing and crocking was 3‐4 and 4‐5, respectively. No significant antibacterial activity was observed in the dyed samples. However, excellent UV protection was observed.
... Natural dyes have the advantage of having a renewable source and are biogradable in nature having low environmental impact [1], but are still associated with problems of poor to moderate colour fastness [2], absence of standardised procedure for extraction and application [3], non-reproducibility of shades [2], pollution caused by use of metallic mordants [4], high energy consumption during extraction and exhaust dyeing [5] and, high cost [6]. Natural dyes also have a significantly lower affinity for fibres resulting in lower dye-exhaustion from the dye-bath on to the fibre surface [7]. ...
Chapter
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Agriculture and food processing industries generate a large amount of organic waste that still contains colouring pigments. Their sustainable use in dyeing textiles will expectedly solve the problem of their disposal. Some studies involving the use of agro and industrial waste have been documented in this chapter to provide a guideline for further research. Information on some selected wastes that have been used in dyeing of textiles by several authors have been listed, their composition and production details highlighted and their use is explained systematically. The documented studies have been placed in the form of case studies to highlight the different approaches of the authors for explaining the effectiveness of such wastes as a source for textile colourants. As reported in some studies, the extracted dye from the waste doubled up as a mordant itself. Most studies also indicate good dyeability with appreciable fastness with respect to the textiles dyed with such wastes. Some wastes have also reportedly rendered antibacterial and sun/light protective properties to the dyed fabric.
... The dye uptake of cotton and silk fabrics was found to be maximum at 90 • C for cotton and 80 • C for silk fabrics and hence they were selected as optimum temperatures for dyeing for the respective fabrics. The results of the present study concur with the finding of Alam et al. (2007), who reported maximum dye uptake at 80 • C for silk fabric dyed with Henna leaf dye extract. Colour strength increases with rise in temperature due to the opening of molecular structure of fiber and enhanced movement of dye molecules towards the fabric, while very higher temperatures degrade the colourant molecules (Basant andJahan, 2016 andPaul et al., 2017). ...
Article
Exploitation of synthetic dyes in a variety of manufacturing sectors including textiles poses serious problems to the environment. Natural dyes are becoming vital alternatives to toxic synthetic dyes, however, with limitations such as availability and process standardization. Herein, we explore the dyeing potential of a sawdust, Pterocarpus indicus Willd., which is widely available as a waste from timber industry in South Asia and other parts of the world. Ultrasound assisted extraction method was carried out to extract natural dye from the sawdust. The extract was used to dye cotton and silk fabrics using various metallic and natural mordants such as alum, stannous chloride, copper sulphate, gallnut, pomegranate rind and gooseberry and the process was optimized. The effect of different pretreatments such as chitosan and myrobalan on dyeing fabrics was also studied. Colour properties of the naturally dyed fabrics such as colour strength, colour co-ordinates and various fastness were assessed. The natural mordants such as gallnut, pomegranate rind and gooseberry provided comparable fastness property to metallic mordants, thereby suggesting the use of the extracted dye with natural mordants for exclusive eco-friendly dyeing. We also demonstrate that chitosan and myrobalan pretreatments significantly enhance the colour strength, colour fastness and UV protection properties of naturally colored cotton and silk fabrics. Overall, the results suggest copper sulphate mordanting with chitosan pretreatment and stannous chloride mordanting with myrobalan pretreatment as the best combination for cotton and silk fabrics, respectively considering the color fastness and UV protection properties. The results provide ample scope for the upcycling of timber industry waste into a natural dye for eco-friendly coloration of fabrics.
... At 6 wt%, the coating resistance reached its best value. This limitation was probably due to the coating not being able to absorb the extract and mix it well due to the excessive amount of the KLE [31]. Figure 6 shows the Tafel plot of coated and uncoated substrates for different immersion times. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the trend for green technology, the study focused on utilizing a forgotten herb to produce an eco-friendly coating. Andrographis paniculata or the kalmegh leaves extract (KLE) has been investigated for its abilities in retarding the corrosion process due to its excellent anti-oxidative and antimicrobial properties. Here, KLE was employed as a novel additive in coatings and formulations were made by varying its wt%: 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12. These were applied to stainless steel 316L immersed in seawater for up to 50 days. The samples were characterized and analyzed to measure effectiveness of inhibition of corrosion and microbial growth. The best concentration was revealed to be 6 wt% KLE; it exhibited the highest performance in improving the ionic resistance of the coating and reducing the growth of bacteria.
... Natural dyes have the advantage of having a renewable source and are biogradable in nature having low environmental impact [1], but are still associated with problems of poor to moderate colour fastness [2], absence of standardised procedure for extraction and application [3], non-reproducibility of shades [2], pollution caused by use of metallic mordants [4], high energy consumption during extraction and exhaust dyeing [5] and, high cost [6]. Natural dyes also have a significantly lower affinity for fibres resulting in lower dye-exhaustion from the dye-bath on to the fibre surface [7]. ...
... Advantages of natural dyes over synthetic are manifolds [57] as they are ecofriendly, safe for body contact and are harmonized as reported by Brian [58]. Many scientists have also suggested and reported the medicinal and antibacterial importance of natural dyes [59,60]. Yellow dye from rhizome of turmeric has been reported to be traditionally used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory drug [61]. ...
... In this study, the diameter of Nyquist plots starts to fluctuate, reduce and increase for CSP reinforced hybrid aluminum composites. Higher Rp value suggests better corrosion resistance as has been reported by previous researchers [17][18][19][20]. This observation suggests that the presence of inhibitors hinder the adsorption to the metal matrix surfaces. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study enveloped innovative uses of a hybrid agro waste and silica carbide incorporated with aluminium as a new hybrid composite materials for marine application. In this study, the purpose of adding coconut shell powder (CSP) from the agro waste and silicon carbide (SiC) as reinforcement aluminium composites materials for combating corrosion problem. The CSP was incorporated into the molten aluminium alloys varies from 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of weight percentages. The corrosion behaviour was determined by weight gain measurement (WGM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP). As a results, 5% CSP reinforcement in hybrid aluminum composites contribute to excellent corrosion resistance performance by shifting the polarization curve towards the positive region, increases the value of polarization resistance, R p and reduces the I corr value. It can be concluded that, by adding CSP into aluminium composite has significantly increase the corrosion resistance towards a severe biofilm attack.
... It also indicates the substantivity of the dye for the fibre (Yogesh, 2017). Lawsone is known to have a high substantivity to protein fabric (Umadevi et al., 2016;Alam et al., 2007). As the amount of amino groups present on a fabric increases, the fabric's dye exhaustion degree also increases (Hasan et al., 2015). ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to develop a new method of protein detection in fabric using purified henna extract targeted to be used as a precautionary step by protein contact dermatitis (PCD) patients. Design/methodology/approach Henna contains lawsone, which is known for its reaction with amino acid, resulting in the formation of a highly coloured compound. Dye exhaustion test of 2 per cent purified henna extract was done on both protein and non-protein fabric, and the results were analysed using independent samples t-test to assess the significant differences of the comparison. Then, protein fabric indicator was developed by incorporating purified henna extract. It was tested for its dye ability and stability. Findings Protein fabrics showed a significant higher dye exhaustion ( p = 0.001) in which pure silk came in first with 21.70 per cent ± 2.53, silk/rayon, 13.96 per cent ± 0.55, viscose/wool, 9.57 per cent ± 1.36, cotton/spandex, 5.89 per cent ± 0.86, linen/cotton, 5.26 per cent ± 1.29, cotton, 4.87 per cent ± 1.51, polyester/viscose, 4.69 per cent ± 1.09, linen, 4.56 per cent ± 0.86, polyester/cotton, 3.90 per cent ± 0.29 and polyester and 3.88 per cent ± 0.66. Two different forms of protein fabric indicator were developed: capsule and tablet. Both indicators showed good observable dye exhaustion and fixation results. Orange henna dye was fixed on protein fabric while non-protein fabric returned to its original colour after washing procedure. However, the tablet form showed better performance in terms of functionality and stability. Originality/value This study will help general community to better understand fibre and its constituents, especially protein where clothing is an integral part of human life because it comes in direct contact with the human skin. As PCD caused by clothing and textile is an uncommon disease, it may also help in creating awareness on how some people may develop contact dermatitis through fabric. This is because the fabric’s protein content is a causative allergen, which most people tend to overlook. For the researcher, this study helps to elucidate some critical areas in PCD for clothing and textile as this topic can be considered an understudy. There is no standard method to detect protein in fabric, especially blended fabric. Thus, a portable kit to detect protein in fabric will be developed in this study. This kit will benefit PCD patients to ease them in finding the right fabric for their skin.
... Further, in spite of the low efficiency and life span, natural dyes have always attracted the interest of researchers. Easy availability, compatibility and biodegradability with the environment are the major advantages of natural dye [8] . Natural dye extracts generally contain phytochemicals like quinones, flavonoids; anthraquinones, anthocyanin and coumarines, and they play a vital role in DSSC. ...
... This occurrence maybe due to the limitation of henna extract itself. This may be explained by the presence of more ions which hinders the absorption of dye to fibre where rare ions favour it and it has mentioned that due to the increment of henna concentration, the absolute quantity is diminished [22]. On the other hand, there is a report about the limitation of the henna extract can be incorporated into paint matrix where the presence of more inhibitor ions hinders the adsorption to the metal surface. ...
Article
Full-text available
Metallic materials are the most applicable materials in various industries. They are useful due to their excellent mechanical properties. However, they are exposed to corrosion because the environment contains oxygen, humidity and some other factors. This paper describes about a paint incorporated with organic inhibitor, i.e., henna extract. This paint was produced to enhance its anticorrosive property. Henna extract was chosen as the corrosion inhibitor as it is organic, environmentally acceptable, readily available and a renewable source of material for a wide range of corrosion problems. The extractions were characterised by using Fourier Transform Infrared. Meanwhile, the inhibitive action of henna extract was investigated through an electrochemical technique. The inhibitive effects of henna extract were investigated with percentages of 0%, 4%, 8% and 10% incorporated into a rosin (epoxy)-based matrix. The specimens were characterised by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement. The morphology study was investigated through surface analysis by using scanning electron microscopy. The inhibition efficiency increased as the concentration of henna extract was increased. The results showed that Paint 3 has the lowest corrosion rate of 0.001767 mm/yr as compared to Paint 1 with 0.005148 mm/yr. The inhibitive action of the henna extract is discussed. Paint 3 was proposed as the most effective paint that contains a natural inhibitor for aluminium alloy.
... Interest in natural dyes has increased considerably because of their non-hazardous nature. The study of naturalcolourants is an extensive and active area of investigation dueto the growing interest of substituting synthetic colourants withtoxic effects in humans (15), (16) as well as the availability of various natural coloring resources such as from plants, insects, minerals and fungi.Use of natural dyes in coloration of textile materials and other purpose is just one of the consequences of increased environmental awareness (17) , and some natural dyes can not only dye fabrics in unique and elegant colors but also impart antibacterial and ultraviolet protective functions (13) . The history and origin of Henna are hard to trace with centuries of migration and cultural interaction it is difficult to determine where particular traditions began. ...
... In ancient time all natural dyes were obtained from natural sources 9 . Natural dye exhibit better biodegradability, compatibility with the environment and possess lower toxicity and non allergic reaction on human body 10,11 . Some natural dye give long life shade on cotton fibre 12 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Lac dye was isolated from washings of stick lac and Arjun dye was extracted from Arjun fruits and its mixed dyeing properties on silk and cotton fibre were studied on silk it produced deep coffee colour and cotton deep brown colour shades using alum as mordant .shades varied is colour when other mordents like copper sulphate chromium, sulphate and stannus chloride were used.
... Various national and international organization are engaged in extracting color for dyeing from natural sources and efforts are still being made by researchers to overcome various drawbacks of natural dyes such as availability, poor reproducibility, lack of desirable fastness properties on textiles and lack of scientific information on the chemistry of dyeing and standardized dyeing methods [10]. Furthermore, natural dyes are known to exhibit better biodegradability, less toxicity, eco-friendly alternative to synthetic dyes*6 and some dyes also possess medicinal properties [11,12]. ...
... Before the advent of synthetic colorants, all colorants were derived directly from vegetables or animal sources [7]. There are plenty of plants that can be the source for natural colorants such as pomegranate [8], henna leaves [9] and marigold flower [10]. Lokhande et al. [4] reported the dyeing of nylon fabric with three natural dyes derived from Onion (Allium cepa), Lac (Laccifer Lacca) and Tumeric (Curcuma longa) using various mordants. ...
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Nowadays, interests on natural colorant have increased as the public are more aware and concern to environmental-related issues. In the continuing replacement of synthetic colorant, applications of natural colorant have extended to synthetic fibres. In this study, Melastoma malabathricum L. was extracted through boiling and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The colorant from UAE was dried in an oven before being converted into powder form using ball mill grinder. The colorant produced was dyed on polyester fabric at 85 °C. The polyester fabric was treated with sodium hydroxide as an alkaline treatment and chitosan prior to dyeing in an attempt to increase the dye uptake. The evaluation of the dyed fabrics was measured using colour spectrophotometer and tested for washfastness. Samples dyed using the UAE method gave lower value of L* which indicate higher dye uptake and darker colour. The fabric which was treated with sodium hydroxide gave deeper shade in comparison with the fabric treated with chitosan. The ratings for colourfastness to washing were between 3 and 5 which show moderate to good range.
... Various national and international organizations are engaged in extracting colors for dyeing from natural sources and efforts are still being made by researchers to overcome various drawbacks of natural dyes such as availability, poor reproducibility and lack of desirable fastness properties on textiles. Furthermore, natural dyes are known to exhibit better biodegradability, less toxicity, eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic dyes 6 and some dyes also possess medicinal properties 7,8 . ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of natural dyes as an alternative to synthetic dyes has attracted increasing attention in view of hazards and environmental pollution caused by synthetic dyes and pigments. Natural dye was extracted from Casuarina equisetifolia bark, which hitherto was treated as waste material. The dye uptake and fixation as well as the influence of mordants on the colorimetric and fastness properties have been demonstrated. K/S values of the dyed fabrics were also evaluated and the effect of mordant type with different mordanting methods on dyeing was studied. The extracted dye was tested against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria for antimicrobial activity. The eco-friendliness of the dye was verified by analyzing the metal content, pesticides and amines. The mordant dyed samples showed improved colour values and fastness properties besides exhibiting antibacterial property indicating its potential for use in the textile industry.
... Various national and international organizations are engaged in extracting colors for dyeing from natural sources and efforts are still being made by researchers to overcome various drawbacks of natural dyes such as availability, poor reproducibility and lack of desirable fastness properties on textiles. Furthermore, natural dyes are known to exhibit better biodegradability, less toxicity, eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic dyes 6 and some dyes also possess medicinal properties 7,8 . ...
... The pollution is caused due to application of synthetic dyes and the intermediates formed during their synthesis, and has compelled the textile researchers and users to think about the use of safe and ecofriendly products (Alam et al., 2007; Batool et al., 2013). Around the globe, growing consciousness about organic value of such eco-friendly products has generated new interest of consumers towards the use of textiles which are soft, lustrous and soothing to human eyes (Smanta and Konar, 2011). ...
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... The pollution is caused due to application of synthetic dyes and the intermediates formed during their synthesis, and has compelled the textile researchers and users to think about the use of safe and ecofriendly products (Alam et al., 2007; Batool et al., 2013). Around the globe, growing consciousness about organic value of such eco-friendly products has generated new interest of consumers towards the use of textiles which are soft, lustrous and soothing to human eyes (Smanta and Konar, 2011). ...
Data
The optimal absorbed dose obtained for surface modification of cotton (RC) is 4 kGy. The optimal absorbed dose for extraction of colorant from onion shell powder (RP) is 4 kGy. Optimum dying conditions: 60 1C, 1 30 as M:L. Optimum pre-mordant 10% alum and 6% alum as post-mordant. At these optimum conditions: color strength and fastness properties are improved. a b s t r a c t Powder of Onion shells as a source of natural flavonoid dye (Quercetin) and cotton fabrics were exposed to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Irradiated and un-irradiated dye powder was used for extraction of quercetin as well as antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant activities were also determined to observe the effect of radiation. Furthermore, color strength and colourfastness of irradiated fabrics were improved by using pre and post-mordants such as alum and iron. It is found that 4 kGy is the optimal absorbed dose for extraction of natural quercetin extracted from onion shells while maximum color strength and acceptable fastness properties are obtained on dyeing of irradiated fabric at 60 1C keeping M:L of 1:30 using 10% alum as pre-mordant and 6% alum as post-mordant. Gamma irradiation has not only improved the color strength of the dye using irradiated cotton but also that of colourfastness properties.
Conference Paper
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Quantum dots (QDs), which have wide and diverse potential applications, are frequently encountered in scientific research today. Quantum physics is a fascinating subject for physics undergraduates and many interdisciplinary students. Combining the theoretical lessons of quantum physics with experimental studies can make the subject more understandable and interesting for students. The aim of this study is to design an experiment for undergraduate students. The experiment covers the synthesis and optical characterization of semiconductor CdTe QDs in aqueous medium. The study consists of two parts, the first part is the synthesis and growth of CdTe QDs using an analytical technique and the second part is the optical characterization of these nanoparticles of different sizes. The main scientific and educational aims of this experiment are to facilitate the understanding of the subject with a less dangerous and practical method compared to others and to encourage students to research nanoscience and nanotechnology.
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We use natural dyes for material as a result of we wish one thing non-carcinogenic and not harmful to the environment. Natural coloring is bit by bit creating its means within the world market and therefore the production of naturally unreal eco-friendly textiles itself may be a boon to save lots of the setting from unsafe artificial dyes. Not all natural materials can turn out a dye, and a few turn out colours that square measure nothing just like the original plant it came from. .Natural dyes will come back from varied components of a plant-the flower, the berry, the leaves, branches or roots or from the bark, wood or cones. Flowers are often used as they're or crushed. Berries ought to be crushed. Leaves, branches, and roots (or rhizomes) ought to be sliced as finely as potential and allowed to soak in lukewarm water for twelve hours, then heated and stewed for 1-2 hours. Wood, bark and cones ought to be within the kind of woodchips, wood or crushed and soaked for three days before slowly heating and boiling for 2-3 hours. material ought to then be strained out and therefore the dye tub cooled to temperature. Pre-wetted, mordanted fiber will then be additional to the dye tub.. A written cloth are often created by a good style of ways like stencil printing, block printing, screen printing, roller printing etc. textile printing has evolved itself over the course of last century terribly} very systematic and scientific means. Among all the printing techniques, screen printing and block printing square measure the foremost vital industrially and commercially used. Thickeners utilized in textile printing square measure high relative molecular mass compounds giving viscose paste in water
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Natural dyeing is an eco-friendly technique to dye textile fabrics with colors extracted from natural sources like plants, flowers, fruits, minerals, etc. During the last few decades with the increased environmental awareness attention has been paid to natural dye. Worldwide many researchers and research groups are working to develop a better and optimized dyeing process using natural dyes. This research work is concerned with natural dye extraction from Acacia nilotica seed pods and its application for textile dyeing. The extracted dyeing agent was characterized by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. UV-Vis absorbance maximum was found to be 250 nm, confirming the presence of phenolic compounds. Alkaline extract of seed pods was applied on silk and cotton fabrics in presence of mordant and without mordant. The effects of washing and sunlight on dyed silk and cotton fabrics have been studied to investigate the fastness properties. The dyed silk fabrics showed good fastness properties than that of dyed cotton. The dyed fabrics without any metal mordant showed promising washing and light fastness properties. This novel approach for A. nilotica seed pod based dyeing process of silk and cotton fabrics without any mordant could open new paths to green dyeing and be beneficial to the environment.
Chapter
Jute is a lignocellulosic fiber, having three principal chemical constituents: alpha-cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, while jute stick leftover after fiber extraction is also lingocellulosic. This chapter deals with the brief composition of lignin, cellulose, hemicelluloses and other minor components together with linkages of lignin with other components. Locations of major jute constituents as well as chemical composition of jute fiber at different stages of plant growth are discussed. The effects of common chemicals and light on jute as well as methods for estimation of major jute constituents have been described. Some important chemical processes such as bleaching, dyeing, woollenization for the production of high-value jute diversified products are briefly reported. Several useful products, developed by utilizing jute chemistry, have been mentioned, viz. pulp and paper, activated charcoal, furfural, oxalic acid, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, and nanocellulose. In the end, major environmental impacts of natural jute fiber vis-à-vis synthetic fiber have also been mentioned.KeywordsJute fiberLigninHemicellulosesBleachingDyeingNatural dyesWoollenizationEnvironment-friendly
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Antibiotics are used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. They may act as bactericidal or bacteriostatic. Products obtained from natural sources are closely linked to medicine as they are used for the treatment and prevention of different diseases. In response to external stimuli, plants and microorganisms produce natural products which are considered secondary metabolites. These natural products show wide pharmacological activities due to which they have remarkable importance in pharmaceutical industries. Lawsoniainermis (Lanthraceae) which is commonly known as ‗Henna' is widely used in the cosmetic industry as a stain for hands and hair. It is also active against some skin diseases. The use of henna in jaundice, enlargement of the spleen is reported. Antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of the whole plant of henna is also reported. So the present work is performed with the objective to study the antibacterial activity of extract of henna leaves. It is considered that quinones and naphthoquinones are present as secondary metabolites in henna leaves. The antibacterial activity of quinones is also reported. The cold aqueous extraction of henna leaves was carried out here. The antibacterial activity of the extract of henna leaves has been performed on Staphylococcus aureus and E. Coli. The extract shows better activity against S. aureus.
Article
An important concern has been reached a growing interest in natural dyes in the textile dyeing industry for coloring fabrics due to growing environmental consciousness of preventing toxic synthetic dyes. Moreover, the use of metallic mordants does not make them entirely eco-friendly. Being aware of this, this report examines cotton knit fabric dyeing with natural mordants with dyes derived from onion skin executed using aqueous boiling technique. Diverse mordants, e.g., alum, ferrous sulphate, iron water, myrobalan, eucalyptus bark, and their combinations on cotton knit fabrics were used for pre-mordanting and together mordanting procedures. Several techniques and different types of equipment were used to measure various results. As a result, the mordanting techniques were reported to impact the outcomes of the dyeing procedure. That diverse mordants and mordanting techniques influenced the colour values produced a wide variety of gentle colors; thus, intermixing of natural and synthetic mordant gave the best result in together mordantation. Also, the pre-mordanting method gave averagely better results and dyeing properties than together mordanting, but eucalyptus gave the best results in together mordantation. Fading was found a little dissatisfactory in washing in case of natural mordants, yet staining properties were quite impressive. For other dyeing properties, satisfactory results were found for both natural and synthetic mordants. Their intermixing also contributed better results. Hence, it was evident that eucalyptus bark might be used as a suitable natural mordant for onion skin dyeing since eucalyptus showed the best result as an individual mordant or intermixing with synthetic mordant.
Article
O setor têxtil brasileiro se destaca mundialmente e tem grande representação no PIB nacional. No entanto, é um grande gerador de efluentes contendo elevada coloração, devido aos corantes sintéticos que possuem carcinogenicidade e recalcitrância na remoção. A utilização de corantes naturais reduziria a carga poluente, evitando ainda extração de produtos derivados do petróleo, utilizados na fabricação de corantes sintéticos. Estudos têm sido realizados com corantes naturais, porém poucos abordam a aplicação em fibras sintéticas. O diferencial deste trabalho está no estudo da viabilidade de aplicação do corante natural de urucum em fibra sintética de poliamida. Utilizou-se urucum com duas distintas origens: “comercial” (obtido da empresa Duas Rodas) e “in natura” (extraído diretamente da planta Bixa orellana). Realizou-se uma caracterização em espectrofotometria UV/VIS, apontando similaridade entre ambos. Foram tingidas amostras de tecidos em condições convencionais de processo (100°C, pH 4,0), alcançando 99,6% e 99,8% de esgotamento, respectivamente, indicando alta adsorção do corante ao tecido em ambos casos. Os testes da qualidade realizados nas amostras tingidas apontaram fixação da cor, com boa solidez à lavação e à fricção, atingindo valores de até 4/5 nas notas de transferência da cor, nos dois casos. Os resultados sinalizam potencial uso do corante de urucum no setor têxtil para tingimento da poliamida.
Article
Interest in natural hair dyes is continuously growing as these are green alternatives to synthetic dyes. A single natural dye may not be the right color for many people. In this study three different mixtures of famous natural hair dye Lawsonia inermis with different other plants were evaluated for their new shades and dyeing properties. Color strengths of naturally dyed hair were also compared with synthetic dyes and individual plants as well. Mordanting was carried out using some metals and a natural mordant which increased the color strength and wash durability of natural dyes. Colorimetric properties of dyed hair were obtained in terms of CIEL*a*b* and K/S values. Maximum value of K/S was obtained by postmordanting of dyed hair with ferrous sulfate. Yellowish brown to brown shades were obtained by natural dye combinations which were changed to black after application of mordants. The color strength was acceptable even after twenty washes. Overall color strength values of naturally dyed hair with plant mixtures were much higher than individual plants extract. However, these color strength values are very comparable with the synthetic hair dyes proving natural dye combinations be successful candidates for natural hair dyeing with good performance and properties.
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Fresh neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) consist of quercetin (flavonoid) compound, responsible for yellow colour as a natural dye. The study investigated the variable optimization in fresh neem leaf extraction process and its application. The optimization was conducted using response surface methodology (RSM) and ANOVA test. The coefficients of determination (R2) were generalized at 96.46 and 96.39 % for optimizing extraction process and application process parameter of natural dyes from neem leaves, respectively. The optimum variables for the extraction process were obtained at 50 % w/v feed-solvent ratio, the temperature of 80 ºC and extraction duration of 80 min with the response concentration of 46.19 g/L. Furthermore, the optimum variable on the application of natural dyes from neem leaves was recorded when alum was applied as fixator as much as 14.09 g/L and Turkish red oil (TRO) as mordant at 11.16 g/L resulted the response of 0 % on the degree of faded.
Chapter
The public demand in recent times has compelled different industries to move toward the frequent use of plant-derived natural colors that do not cause any detrimental effects on the environment and ecosystem. Advanced changes for the natural bio-resources and their sustainable use for multifunctional purposes are gaining widespread step now. The present chapter represents the environmental, functional properties, extraction methodology, and the application of natural dyes in various walks of life. It is expected that this chapter will fulfill the needs of the researchers, traders, and industrialists who are working on resurgence of natural dyes.
Chapter
The public demand in recent times has compelled different industries to move toward the frequent use of plant-derived natural colors that do not cause any detrimental effects on the environment and ecosystem. Advanced changes for the natural bio-resources and their sustainable use for multifunctional purposes are gaining widespread step now. The present chapter represents the environmental, functional properties, extraction methodology, and the application of natural dyes in various walks of life. It is expected that this chapter will fulfill the needs of the researchers, traders, and industrialists who are working on resurgence of natural dyes.
Article
Search for better photo sensitizers has always been a challenge in the field of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). This paper suggests a new method to identify a good dye for DSSC through the evaluation of energy levels of dye–TiO2 complex. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels of the complex are evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and spectroscopic technique. These energy levels have been used to predict the performance of the solar cell even without fabricating a cell. The authenticity of this method is also revalidated through the correlation of efficiency of practical cell. Copyright
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Lawsonia inermis is a small flowering shrub which is commonly known as Henna and its leaves produces a natural dye. The main dyeing component present in a henna leaves is Lawsone or 2-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone (HNQ) which confers the dark orange colour when it strongly binds to proteins via Michael addition causing a permanent dye stain. Natural fibres of animal origin such as silk, and wool are protein based while, plant origin fabric for instance cotton are cellulose based. Synthetic fabrics are made up from synthesized polymers. Contact dermatitis occurs when a substance comes in contact with the skin developing a red, itchy rash for example from some synthetic fabrics and latex may cause such allergic reactions. In this research henna dye was used to stain and differentiate between organic animal-based and synthetic fabric allergens. Water extracts of L. inermis and commercial cone henna was used to stain seven different types of fabric. Pure lawsone (97%) was used as a positive control dye. Cotton, wool, silk and latex fabrics were stained by lawsone and washed with bleach, silk and latex maintained the orange stain while cotton returned to its original white colour. However, synthetic cotton, silk and wool fabrics did not bind to lawsone. Analytical methods were used to examine the effect of pH, absorbance and stain permanence. Quantitative spectroscopic methods were used to measure lawsone concentration found in L. inermis extracts comparing it to pure HNQ measurements. Results of this study may enable quick and easy organic fabric integrity evaluation for patients with contact dermatitis.
Article
This paper explores the potential uses of the aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera L. leaves in dyeing linen and silk fabrics without a metal mordant. The focus will be on investigating the tinctorial potential of Vitis vinifera L. leaves and its dyeing properties. The anthocyanins amounts of leaves from different Vitis vinifera L. varieties were determined by the spectrophotometry method. The effect of the main dyeing parameters (pH of the dye bath, temperature, and dyeing duration) on the dyeing quality results has been studied. Tannic acid and pomegranate peel extract have been used as a natural mordant. Experimental results have shown that fastness properties of dyed fabrics ranged from average to very good.
Article
The main focus of the project was to dye the silk fabric using Lawsonia Inermis dye (Henna). Dyeing of silk using henna would be possible using mordant. Potash Alum was chosen as the mordant because of its environment friendly nature. Four dyed samples were prepared as follows- sample dyed without mordant, sample dyed premordanted, sample dyed post mordanted, and simultaneous mordented. Better results were obtained when dye extraction was carried out in alkaline condition (pH 9) and dyeing in acidic medium (pH 5). Different hues were obtained on silk fabric samples from the same dye extract. Their fastness properties were studied and it was found that the simultaneous mordanted samples displayed a better fastness properties compared to the others.
Article
Silk fibre has been grafted with poly(congored) (PCR) dye in an aqueous medium under different experimental conditions like temperature, weight of silk fibre and concentration of CR dye in the absence of mordant's and fixing agents. The grafting kinetics of PCR onto silk fibre is quantitatively followed by spectroscopy (UV-visible and fluorescence spectra) method. The thermodynamic parameters, number of binding sites, binding constant, and nature of quenching system are determined from the kinetic data. The chemical grafting of PCR onto silk fibre is confirmed by FTIR, UV-visible and fluorescence spectra. The conductivity measurements, cyclic voltammetry measurement and FE-SEM analysis also supports the chemical grafting of PCR onto silk fibre.
Article
In recent years there has been a phenomenal increase in the use of natural colorants in a variety of areas. They exhibit high biodegradability, low toxicity, and green chemistry and have potential to greatly impact the textile dyeing and finishing industry. Natural colorants from plant sources have been recently discovered as novel agents in imparting multifunctional properties to textiles such as antimicrobial, insect repellent, deodorizing, and UV-protective. Among all textile surface modifications, antimicrobial finishing has become a very promising, high growth research area due to their potential to provide quality and safety benefits to different kinds of textile materials. The use of natural colorants offers promise in developing antimicrobial textiles for aesthetic, hygienic, and medical applications owing to the presence of potent highly active agents such as tannins, flavonoids, quinines carotenoids, and alkaloids in their extracts. This article presents a concise account of the state-of-the art sustainable technology derived from natural colorants and will be useful to the textile and polymer chemists engaged in development of health care bioactive textiles. In particular, it discusses recent developments in coloring and antimicrobial finishing of textiles with different class of compounds isolated from natural colorants, highlights current challenges, and finally concludes by providing a perspective on future research directions in this area.
Article
Dye-sensitized solar cell is a promising technology that converts sunlight into electricity, with broad potential in contributing significantly to solve the future energy problem that humans are facing. The use of natural pigments as sensitizing dye for the conversion of solar energy in electricity enhances the economical aspect, as well as is beneficial from the environmental point of view. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCC) were assembled by using natural dye by using two different fruit which contain anthocyanine dye: red grapes and orange. The performance of DSCC is based on natural dyes extracted from fruits .The extracts were characterized using ultraviolet–voltage and typical current–voltage curves were obtained for the cells. The best performance was obtained from red grapes.
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Some study of natural yellow dye
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