ArticlePDF Available

Preparing Teachers to Work with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children

Authors:
Beyond the Journal
Young Children
on the Web • November 2005
1
Embracing Diversity
arly childhood educators
across the United States must be
prepared to teach an increas-
ingly diverse population of
young children. More children
from immigrant households are
enrolled in early childhood
programs than ever before, and
the trend is expected to con-
tinue into the next decade. The
2000 census shows that in just
10 years the number of children
in immigrant families increased
by 63 percent—and not just in
large cities but in many areas of
the country (Beavers & D’Amico
2005). The Black population
(immigrant and nonimmigrant)
grew at a rate exceeding that of
the general population (McKinnon 2001) between 1990 and 2000; the Latino
population (both immigrant and nonimmigrant) grew by more than 50 percent
Preparing Teachers to Work with
Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children
Jerlean Daniel and Susan Friedman
The Head Start Program operated by the Community Action Partnership of Ramsey
and Washington Counties in St. Paul, Minnesota, provides services for 1,400
children and their families. The families come from many cultural backgrounds
and countries including Laos, Somalia, Mexico, Sudan, Eritrea, and Vietnam. In
a typical classroom, children’s home languages include Hmong, Spanish,
Oromo, Somali, Amharic, Tigrigna, English, and Vietnamese. Teachers must know
how to support the learning of all of the children in their classes.
The Argonne Child Development Center in San Francisco serves 66 general education
and 18 special education children and their families representing countries and cultures
from around the world. In a typical classroom, teachers interact with children whose home
languages include Vietnamese, English, Spanish, and Chinese dialects such as Mandarin,
Cantonese, Chiu Chow, and Toi Shang. All teachers communicate with children mainly in English.
Jerlean Daniel, PhD, is a deputy
executive director of NAEYC.
Susan Friedman, MEd, is assistant
editor of Young Children and
coordinator of Beyond the Journal.
Illustration © Nicole Tadgell.
E
More children from
immigrant households
are enrolled in early
childhood programs
than ever before, and
the trend is expected
to continue into the
next decade.
William Geiger
Taking the Next Step
Beyond the Journal
Young Children
on the Web • November 2005
2
Embracing Diversity
during those same years and is now the single largest group contributing to the
nation’s diversity (Guzmán 2001).
In this article we consider how teacher-training programs are preparing
teachers to work with young children who are linguistically and culturally
diverse. Overall there has been much progress over the last quarter century in
preparing teachers to meet the education needs of linguistically and culturally
diverse children. Most early childhood teacher education programs now require
students to take some general course work related to the topic of diversity (Ray,
Bowman, & Robbins 2005). Of course, the adult students in these programs are
themselves from a variety of cultural and linguistic backgrounds; they present
teacher educators with challenges in meeting their diverse needs (NAEYC,
NAECTE, & ACCESS 2004) but also opportunities to learn.
Despite such progress, however, recent research indicates that teachers
believe they have not been adequately prepared to teach children from cultural
and linguistic backgrounds different from their own and that they need to learn
more specific skills to do so (Ray & Bowman 2003; Ryan, Ackerman, & Song
2005). As early childhood educators continue to look for ways to address the
needs of diverse children and families, it is important to pay attention to this
request from classroom teachers for specific information about good practice.
As early childhood educators continue to look for ways to address the needs of
diverse children and families, it is important to pay attention to this request
from classroom teachers for specific information about good practice. More
specific training in working with diverse children may be one way to help
teachers address the persistent academic achievement gaps between White and
Black and Latino children (CEP 2001). The question is, how can early childhood
education preparation programs provide their students with the specific
strategies and diverse student teaching opportunities that will allow them to
competently meet the needs of the diverse children in their classrooms?
Teachers feel unprepared
NAEYC’s position statement “Responding to Linguistic and Cultural Diver-
sity” (1995) indicates that it is important for teachers to have the skills and
understanding to recognize that all children are cognitively, linguistically, and
emotionally connected to the language and culture of their home; this under-
standing should be manifested in their training and practice. When program
settings and teachers acknowledge and support children’s home language and
culture, ties between the family and school are strengthened. In fact, this is the
essence of being culturally competent in an educational setting.
Although many institutions require education students to take some course
work related to diversity issues, there is evidence that many teachers do not
feel prepared to support the learning of the diverse children they find in their
classrooms. Clearly, cultural competence is one of the critical goals of teachers
striving to be effective, reflective practitioners serving all children. Some
headway has been made in the strength-based approaches of the family support
movement, and there is now greater awareness of the need for teachers to be
responsive to children’s and families’ diversity. But according to Aisha Ray of
the Erikson Institute, “The diversity training teachers are getting is not specific
enough” (pers. comm.). Examples of the specific strategies teachers could use
include appropriate practices for teaching children with a home language other
than English or approaches for providing meaningful curriculum for both native
English speakers and English-language learners who are in the same classroom.
These strategies could be learned through course work or internship place-
ments, among other possibilities.
Recent research
indicates that teach-
ers believe they have
not been adequately
prepared to teach
children from cultural
and linguistic back-
grounds different
from their own and
that they need to
learn more specific
skills to do so.
© NAEYC
Beyond the Journal
Young Children
on the Web • November 2005
3
Embracing Diversity
In a study conducted in Chicago, in which teachers explored their own
competence in teaching culturally and linguistically diverse children, the
majority felt they had learned how to work with culturally different children
and families from other teachers and through their own hard-won knowledge—
not from their teacher training experience or professional development
workshops on diversity (Ray & Bowman 2003). And in a recent study of New
Jersey preschool teachers, nearly one-third of the teachers questioned indi-
cated they did not have adequate preparation to work with children whose first
language was not English. They described their course work in this area as
being less applicable to their current classroom context than their course work
on all other topics (Ryan, Ackerman, & Song 2005). Sharon Ryan of Rutgers
University, one of the study’s authors, states: “Teachers would get more from
learning about specific teaching strategies throughout their early childhood
classes rather than only in a general topic course on diversity” (pers. comm.).
In this way, teachers learn that differentiating instruction in response to the
cultural backgrounds of students is part of their everyday work.
Some innovative teacher training programs
The research by Ryan and her colleagues (2005) and Ray and her colleagues
(2003, 2005) indicates that although many teacher training and professional
development programs offer general course work on diversity, teacher educa-
tion programs should consider adding or requiring more specific course work
and internship programs to adequately prepare teachers to meet the needs of
today’s diverse early childhood classes (see also Lobman, Ryan, & McLaughlin
in press). In talking with educators from across the country, we learned of
several interesting and innovative teacher training programs that address some
of these specific issues. At the end of this article we solicit additional descrip-
tions of other teacher education and professional development programs that
are addressing teachers’ need for specificity regarding practice in culturally and
linguistically diverse classrooms.
Diverse internship sites
One important aspect of teacher education is the internship or student teach-
ing experience. Very few programs offer or require internships in diverse set-
tings. Wheelock College in Boston is an exception; it focuses on partnering with
urban schools to provide student teachers with many
opportunities to actively learn in diverse settings. As
Cheryl Render Brown, an associate professor of early
childhood education at Wheelock, describes, “We like
to see the marriage of theory and practice. Students
are really getting out there in our communities that
are different than the communities they come from.
We specifically place students in settings where they
will be faced with the issues that come up when a
class has children who do not speak English, where
the children are very diverse” (pers. comm.). These
student teachers participate simultaneously in Reflec-
tive Seminars during which they explore the issues
that arise at their internship sites through discussion
and further readings. For more information, visit
www.wheelock.edu/fld/fldhome.asp.
Although many
teacher training and
professional develop-
ment programs offer
general course work
on diversity, teacher
education programs
should consider adding
or requiring more
specific course work
and internship pro-
grams to adequately
prepare teachers to
meet the needs of
today’s diverse early
childhood classes.
William Geiger
Beyond the Journal
Young Children
on the Web • November 2005
4
Embracing Diversity
Outreach to infuse diversity in preservice education
In North Carolina, the Crosswalks Project is developing and testing a frame-
work to support early childhood faculty in preparing students to work effec-
tively with culturally and linguistically diverse children and families. The
program is designed to integrate diversity-related strategies into course work,
field experiences, and program practices through collaboration between
faculty on the campuses of about 20 public and private colleges and universi-
ties across the state. Crosswalks is also building a database framed by various
national standards in early childhood education that will enable faculty to
search for high-quality, low-cost resources that address both required content
and diversity. Among the project’s goals: increase faculty knowledge related to
integrating diversity into course work, field experiences, and programs;
increase the capacity of graduates to work effectively with diverse children,
families, and colleagues; disseminate a model (measures, framework, toolbox)
that can be used by any faculty member or preservice program to prepare
students to be comfortable, confident, and capable resources for diverse
children and families. For further information, visit
www.fpg.unc.edu//projects/project_detail.cfm?projectID=371.
An integrated approach
In Virginia, the Unified Transformative Early Education Model (UTEEM) Early
Childhood Program at George Mason University takes an integrated approach
to preparing teachers to work with culturally, linguistically, and ability diverse
young children and their families. Faculty have blended three separate master’s-
level programs to create a comprehensive course of study with significant
emphasis on diversity and exceptionality—Early Childhood Education (pre-K to
grade 3), Early Childhood Special Education (birth to age five), and English as a
Second Language Education (pre-K to grade 12). Graduates receive Virginia
licensure in each of the three areas.
Diversification of the teacher/practitioner pipeline
Early childhood educators who speak a home language other than English
often face major hurdles when trying to obtain an associate or bachelor’s
degree. One of these hurdles is meeting an English-language requirement
before beginning early childhood course work. Typically, to pass English
language competency tests entails five to seven years of studying English
(Juanita Santana, pers. comm.).
The Oregon Child Development Coalition in Portland, in collaboration with
Pacific Oaks College Northwest, designed an innovative way to address this
challenge. Through a three-year Bilingual P–3 (preschool through third grade)
Teacher Education Program funded by the U.S. Department of Education’s
Office of English Language Acquisition, the coalition provided early childhood
courses in both English and Spanish, with translation provided during the first
year. Translation services were gradually decreased over time, and by the third
year, translation was not included. Half of the students enrolled in the program
were Spanish dominant and half were English dominant. The program required
that participants become fluent and literate in Spanish, Academic Spanish,
English, and Academic English.
By the end of the three-year period, the 40 graduates were bilingual early
childhood teachers. This model is currently being used at the Praxis Institute
for Early Childhood Education in Seattle, Washington (Praxis Institute–Early
Learning, 1133 34th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98122; 206-328-6436).
Early childhood
educators who speak
a home language
other than English
often face big hurdles
when trying to obtain
an associate or
bachelor’s degree.
© NAEYC
Beyond the Journal
Young Children
on the Web • November 2005
5
Embracing Diversity
Getting from here to there
The programs described above can offer
lessons learned and serve as models for future
efforts. In general terms, all teacher educators—
including faculty from both two- and four-year
institutions—can serve as role models of lifelong
learning, teaching practice, and service in
relation to cultural and linguistic diversity. As
members of a broader community of learners,
teacher educators can gain knowledge and
insights from the diverse backgrounds of their
students as they provide a powerful and dynamic
image that inspires others to reflect on their
practice. Faculty can encourage all capable
students to pursue advanced study to reach their
full potential, thus enriching the academic
environment with diverse perspectives and
increasing the pool of diverse educators who can help future students to
achieve cultural competence.
In an effort to move the field toward greater teacher competency in address-
ing the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse children, it might be help-
ful to consider conditions that could position teacher preparation programs to
offer more specifics on effective practice in diverse classrooms. Aisha Ray of
the Erikson Institute proposes the following conditions, based on her current
research inquiries (pers. comm.).
Preparation of teachers: Working toward greater cultural
and linguistic competence
1. Increased faculty knowledge—To what extent do teacher education
faculty have significant depth and breadth of knowledge to support student
understanding of both theory and research-based strategies regarding culture,
language, race, social class, special needs, and other dimensions of diversity?
In the area of language, such specifics involve acquiring knowledge and learn-
ing appropriate practices related to language acquisition for these three
groups: monolinguals, bilinguals, and speakers of English dialects.
2. Enhanced faculty dispositions and willingness to adapt and change
Education has come a long way in integrating special needs expertise among
faculty and into course offerings. How can faculty engage in collegial discus-
sions to develop and critique their own knowledge base regarding the complex
areas of child development and diversity? To what extent are faculty members
disposed to grapple with the real issues of diversity and racism?
3. Ongoing faculty practice—To what extent are faculty members working
effectively with diverse communities and sharing with students how they
themselves are challenged by such experiences ? How do faculty model for
students ways to deal with feelings of bias? Including students in the reciprocal
partnerships among faculty and diverse communities that are often created
through faculty research and/or service is one way to access this kind of
meaningful dialogue.
To what extent are
faculty members
working effectively
with diverse communi-
ties and sharing with
students how they
themselves are
challenged by such
experiences?
William Geiger
Beyond the Journal
Young Children
on the Web • November 2005
6
Embracing Diversity
4. Required student practicums and internships in diverse settings—In a
current study that looks at diversity requirements in 226 bachelor’s-level early
childhood teacher education programs across the country, only seven percent
of programs report that they require students to teach in a diverse setting
(Ray, Bowman, & Robbins 2005). When students placed in internships are
teaching children whose home language is a language other than English and
who come from many diverse cultures, faculty should provide support in the
form of discussion groups, reflective advising, and further reading.
5. Integration of significant diversity content in all course work
Required course work for early childhood education students must sufficiently
address issues of diversity. This cannot be done with one or two classes
devoted to “urban,” “minority,” or “second-language learners.” Recently
analyzed data indicate that the majority of programs require, on average, only
eight semester hours (about two courses) on diversity issues. That represents
12 percent of the average 67 professional semester hours a student must
complete in his or her course of study (Ray, Bowman, & Robbins 2005).
6. Required ESL courses for teachersGiven the increasing number of
young children who are English-language learners, early childhood education
students must be required to take course work that will teach them about ESL
(English as a second language). This is not occurring in most programs, but is
absolutely essential given the number of children with home languages other
than English in early childhood classrooms.
We hope these conditions can be considered from several different
perspectives, including those of faculty and administrators, students,
current teachers seeking inservice professional development, and all
advocates with high expectations for more effective, inclusive responses to
the needs of diverse young children. Discussions among these stakeholders
can enrich the field’s progress toward meeting the needs of all young
children and families.
Discussions among
these many groups of
stakeholders can enrich
the field’s progress
toward meeting the
needs of all young
children and families.
Please e-mail
the authors at
editorial@naeyc.org
with information about
your programs.
NAEYC would like to gather additional profiles of innovative teacher
preparation programs and professional development systems that model
ways to prepare culturally and linguistically competent professionals.
Please e-mail the authors at editorial@naeyc.org with information about
such programs. Write Diversity and professional preparation in the
subject line of the e-mail. An update on this topic will be featured in a future
issue of Beyond the Journal (www.journal.naeyc.org/btj).
We also invite your feedback on the initial list of proposed conditions that
might advance the field’s work in preparing teachers to support the learning
of children from diverse cultures. The perspectives of faculty, administrators,
teachers, trainers, students, and others can enrich our intentionally reflec-
tive dialogue and advance our practice. Please send your comments to
editorial@naeyc.org.
Join the Discussion . . .
Beyond the Journal
Young Children
on the Web • November 2005
7
Embracing Diversity
Copyright © 2005 by the National Association for
the Education of Young Children. See
Permissions and Reprints online at
www.journal.naeyc.org/about/permissions.asp.
Conclusion
As the 2000 U.S. Census indicates, this country’s
population of young children will continue to
become more diverse. Teachers need to learn
specific strategies for working effectively with
linguistically and culturally diverse children and
families. Although a few innovative programs exist,
it is clear that much more needs to be done.
Teachers have said they need greater specificity
around issues of cultural and linguistic diversity.
Together we can learn and implement approaches
that work for children. In the process we will raise
new questions and suggest research queries, all in
an effort to demystify an important goal for all of
us, cultural competence.
References
Beavers, L., & J. D’Amico. 2005. Children in immigrant families: U.S. and state-level findings
from the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000. Baltimore: The Annie E.
Casey Foundation; Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau.
CEP (Center on Education Policy). 2001. It takes more than testing: Closing the achievement
gap. Washington, DC: Author.
Guzmán, B. 2001. The Hispanic population, Census 2000 brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Depart-
ment of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau. Online:
www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-3.pdf.
Lobman, C., S. Ryan, & J. McLaughlin. In press. Reconstructing teacher education to prepare
qualified preschool teachers: Lessons from New Jersey. Early Childhood Research and Practice.
McKinnon, J. 2001. The Black population 2000, Census 2000 brief. Washington, DC: U.S. De-
partment of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau.
Online: www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-5.pdf.
NAEYC. 1995. Position statement. Responding to linguistic and cultural diversity: Recommen-
dations for effective early childhood education. Online:
www.naeyc.org/about/positions/pdf/PSDIV98.pdf.
NAEYC, NAECTE (National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators), & ACCESS
(American Associate Degree Early Childhood Teacher Educators). 2004. Code of Ethical
Conduct supplement for early childhood adult educators. Online:
www.naeyc.org/about/positions/pdf/ethics04.pdf.
Ray, A., & B. Bowman. 2003. Learning multicultural competence: Developing early childhood
practitioners’ effectiveness in working with children from culturally diverse communities.
Final report to the A.L. Mailman Family Foundation. Initiative on Race, Class, and Culture in
Early Childhood. Chicago, IL: Erikson Institute.
Ray, A., B. Bowman, & J. Robbins. 2005. Educating early childhood teachers about diversity:
The contributions of state teacher certification policies, professional accreditation, and
higher education. Preliminary findings. Presentation at the NAEYC National Institute for
Early Childhood Professional Development, Miami Beach, Florida.
Ryan, S., D.J. Ackerman, & H. Song. 2005. Getting qualified and becoming knowledgeable:
Preschool teachers’ perspectives on their professional preparation. Manuscript. Rutgers,
the State University of New Jersey.
A first step . . .
Read Screening and Assessment of Young
English-Language Learners, a supplement to “Early
Childhood Curriculum, Assessment, and Program
Evaluation,” a joint position statement of NAEYC and the
National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in
State Departments of Education. Available online at
www.naeyc.org/about/positions/pdf/ELL_Supplement.pdf.
... In the United States, diverse student populations are expected to grow quickly in early childhood education settings (Daniel & Friedman, 2005;Wright, Gottfried, & Le, 2017). However, current early childhood education teachers are not prepared to work with multi-ethnic children and many demonstrate cultural insensitivity and lack culturally responsive training (Weinstein, Curran, & Tomlinson-Clarke, 2003;Wright et al., 2017). ...
Article
By critiquing universal approaches to addressing children’s play, this study aims to examine early childhood pre-service teachers’ discourse on young children’s play in a local context. With a multivocal ethnography, pre-service teachers in Myanmar, South Korea, and the United States participated in a project in which they created, exchanged, and discussed digital photo essays cross-culturally. The findings suggest the prevalence of dominant play discourse (i.e., western developmental psychology in children’s play) in pre-service teachers’ digital photo essays. However, the way participants interpret play varies depending on the local context and cultural values. Cross-cultural exchange on digital photo essays and further discussion enabled pre-service teachers to understand the complex interplay between global discourse and local experiences on the conceptualization of young children’s play. We discuss the implications of encouraging pre-service teachers to promote culturally inclusive and contextually appropriate conceptualizations of children’s play in various cultural settings.
... The most common challenges concern how to appropriately adapt ECE programmes for multicultural education (Tobin 2020;Chan 2011;Onchwari, Ariri, and Keengwe 2008), to deal with stereotypes and prejudices toward immigrant children and families (Keys Adair 2012), to overcome challenges related to language learning (Moin, Schwartz, and Breitkopf 2011;Pacini-Ketchabaw and Armstrong de Almeida 2006), to provide an inclusive environment and facilitate a successful collaboration with parents (Lazzari et al. 2020;Block et al. 2014;Souto-Manning 2007). Research also shows that teachers often report they feel unprepared to work with immigrant children, mostly because they received little or no preparation for teaching in a multicultural educational environment (Licardo 2020;Tobin 2020;Tobin, Keys Adair, and Arzubiaga 2013;Jerlean and Friedman 2005). They mostly develop their competences in work with immigrant children in everyday practice, which is based on their attitudes, values, beliefs, experiences, environment support, and self-education; all of which can broadly differ between individual teachers (Tobin, Keys Adair, and Arzubiaga 2013;Ray and Bowman 2003;Firstater, Sigad, and Frankel 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to analyse which ecological conditions (professional background and support from the environment) and interpersonal skills (values, attitudes and emotional competences) predict ECE teacher competences in working with immigrant children. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis revealed that interpersonal skills are stronger predictors of teachers’ competences than ecological conditions. The results of network analysis indicate specific in-depth relations among teachers’ competences and the analysed variables. The study is important as it combines ecological conditions as contextual factors and interpersonal skills to better understand how to support ECE teachers in a multicultural environment.
Chapter
This chapter discusses ways of understanding and supporting immigrant children and families. Sociocultural theory and a funds of knowledge framework are introduced to provide pertinent guidelines for early childhood education leadership who is working with immigrant children and families. Looking deeply at the experiences and challenges of immigrant children and families, this chapter proposes that leaders need to ask new questions about the complex realities of immigrants in the U.S. schools in order to respond more effectively to their needs and provide more equitable education for all children. Recommended practices include employing the lens of culturally responsive teaching. It challenges deficit views and negative labels against immigrant children and families, invites early childhood education leadership to rethink curriculum and assessment, and explores ways of empowering immigrant families and communities.
Chapter
The successful provision of education for migrant groups rests on the shoulders of teachers. This is premised on the valid view that a teacher is a crucial mediator between migrant families and the host country or community. The teacher enjoys the greatest contact with migrant learners and can influence progress of these migrant learners directly and indirectly which informs transformation. Indeed, experts believe that teacher training should aim to improve knowledge, understanding and practical implementation of teaching ideas, materials and methods to facilitate effective learning on the part of migrants. This spelt the entry point of this paper, the need to explore areas in which teacher training or staff development should be conceived in order to transform migrant education. This was done in tandem with intriguing characteristics of migrant learners as well as a closer look at expected structural and managerial adjustments in education courtesy of migration and refugee crisis.
Chapter
This chapter discusses ways of understanding and supporting immigrant children and families. Sociocultural theory and a funds of knowledge framework are introduced to provide pertinent guidelines for early childhood education leadership who is working with immigrant children and families. Looking deeply at the experiences and challenges of immigrant children and families, this chapter proposes that leaders need to ask new questions about the complex realities of immigrants in the U.S. schools in order to respond more effectively to their needs and provide more equitable education for all children. Recommended practices include employing the lens of culturally responsive teaching. It challenges deficit views and negative labels against immigrant children and families, invites early childhood education leadership to rethink curriculum and assessment, and explores ways of empowering immigrant families and communities.
Chapter
This chapter outlines the roles of families and communities as well as the importance of early learning classrooms as they relate to integrating activities designed to promote children's development. Specific focuses of the chapter will delve into family dynamics, including various parenting styles and meta-emotion approaches, as they relate to affecting children's development. The chapter will also uncover the role of children's play interactions as they relate to how the activity itself fosters children's development as well as how play may be viewed as a vehicle in which to promote children's appreciation and understanding of diversity and multiculturalism. Specific program models typically seen within early learning classrooms and standards created by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) will be discussed in this chapter.
Article
Full-text available
Language Policy in education demands that preschool children be taught in their mother tongue. This is challenging, particularly when the language of the teacher and that of the preschool children are different. Previous research studies both global and local have majorly concentrated on the importance of using mother tongue as the language of instruction in preschool, but do not identify the challenges faced by pre-school teachers in instructing children from diverse linguistic backgrounds. The objective of this study was to establish the linguistic diversity among pre-school children entering preschool. The study is anchored on Linguistic relativity theory by Sapir and Whorf (1884-1939) which states that the way people think is strongly influenced by their native languages. This study used a descriptive research design. The study was conducted in Nyakach Sub- County in Kisumu County. The study found that preschool children enrolled into the schools within Nyakach sub-county are linguistically diverse. The challenges faced by teachers of children who do not speak and comprehend the language used by the teachers are; language barrier, limited learning and inactive children in class activities. It is recommended that linguistic diversity be considered when employing pre-school teachers, while in areas and schools with diverse linguistic composition, teachers be equipped with skills to handle diverse learners. Keywords: Linguistic diversity, pre-school children, diverse linguistic composition, teachers, language challenges, class activities, code-switching, languages, curriculum content, language barrier, limited learning, in active children
Chapter
Full-text available
The successful provision of education for migrant groups rests on the shoulders of teachers. This is premised on the valid view that a teacher is a crucial mediator between migrant families and the host country or community. The teacher enjoys the greatest contact with migrant learners and can influence progress of these migrant learners directly and indirectly which informs transformation. Indeed, experts believe that teacher training should aim to improve knowledge, understanding and practical implementation of teaching ideas, materials and methods to facilitate effective learning on the part of migrants. This spelt the entry point of this paper, the need to explore areas in which teacher training or staff development should be conceived in order to transform migrant education. This was done in tandem with intriguing characteristics of migrant learners as well as a closer look at expected structural and managerial adjustments in education courtesy of migration and refugee crisis.
Article
New Jersey provides a unique context from which to explore the issue of preschool teacher certification and preparation because of the 1998 and 2000 Supreme Court decisions related to the Abbott districts. These decisions ruled that the 30 poorest districts were to create systems of high-quality preschool for all 3- and 4-year-old children beginning in the 1999-2000 school year. This paper reports on the state’s efforts to create a new system of preschool teacher certification and explores how current practices compare to national standards for the content and capacity of high-quality teacher preparation. The findings from this study indicate that it is possible, in a relatively short period of time, to put in place a system of early childhood teacher preparation that has the capacity to upgrade the credentials of the state’s workforce. Lessons from this case suggest that policy makers and teacher educators must focus on the coordination of human and financial resources to ensure equity and quality of teacher education programs.
Educating early childhood teachers about diversity: The contributions of state teacher certification policies, professional accreditation, and higher education. Preliminary findings. Presentation at the NAEYC National Institute for Early Childhood Professional Development
  • A Ray
  • B Bowman
  • J Robbins
Ray, A., B. Bowman, & J. Robbins. 2005. Educating early childhood teachers about diversity: The contributions of state teacher certification policies, professional accreditation, and higher education. Preliminary findings. Presentation at the NAEYC National Institute for Early Childhood Professional Development, Miami Beach, Florida.
Children in immigrant families: U.S. and state-level findings from the Baltimore: The Annie E. Casey Foundation It takes more than testing: Closing the achievement gap
  • L Beavers
  • J D Amico
Beavers, L., & J. D'Amico. 2005. Children in immigrant families: U.S. and state-level findings from the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000. Baltimore: The Annie E. Casey Foundation; Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau. CEP (Center on Education Policy). 2001. It takes more than testing: Closing the achievement gap. Washington, DC: Author.
Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration
  • B Guzmán
Guzmán, B. 2001. The Hispanic population, Census 2000 brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau. Online: www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-3.pdf.
The Black population
  • J Mckinnon
McKinnon, J. 2001. The Black population 2000, Census 2000 brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau. Online: www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-5.pdf.
Read Screening and Assessment of Young English-Language Learners, a supplement toEarly Childhood Curriculum, Assessment, and Program Evaluation," a joint position statement of NAEYC and the National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education Available online at
  • A First
A first step... Read Screening and Assessment of Young English-Language Learners, a supplement to "Early Childhood Curriculum, Assessment, and Program Evaluation," a joint position statement of NAEYC and the National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education. Available online at
It takes more than testing: Closing the achievement gap
CEP (Center on Education Policy). 2001. It takes more than testing: Closing the achievement gap. Washington, DC: Author.