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Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Cow Urine

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Abstract

Number of plants and animal derived materials were reported to have antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The present study relates to such precious and holy animal derived material cow urine, which has these activities. Antioxidant activity was done using two in vitro models, DPPH radical scavenging activity and Superoxide scavenging activity. Ascorbic acid was used as the reference standard. The anti microbial activity of cow urine and its distillate was tested by agar well method using the microbes like Escherichia coli, Staphylococcos aureus, Staphylococcos epidermitis, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris. The cow urine and its distillate tested for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities exhibited the mentioned activities and comparatively fresh cow urine was found to be better than its distillate. These results indicate that the cow urine has antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, which supports the claim of traditional practitioners.
Global Journal of Pharmacology 2 (2): 20-22, 2008
ISSN 1992-0075
© IDOSI Publications, 2008
Corresponding Author: Dr. E. Edwin, Department of Natural Drug Research, B.R. Nahata College Pharmacy and Research Center,
Mhow-Neemuch Road, Post Box No-6, Mandsur - 458001 Madhya Pradesh, India
20
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Cow Urine
Edwin Jarald, Sheeja Edwin, Vaibhav Tiwari, Rajesh Garg and Emmanuel Toppo
Department of Natural Drug Research, B.R. Nahata College of Pharmacy and Research Center,
Mandsaur-458001, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract: Number of plants and animal derived materials were reported to have antioxidant and antimicrobial
activity. The present study relates to such precious and holy animal derived material cow urine, which has these
activities. Antioxidant activity was done using two in vitro models, DPPH radical scavenging activity and
Superoxide scavenging activity. Ascorbic acid was used as the reference standard. The anti microbial activity
of cow urine and its distillate was tested by agar well method using the microbes like Escherichia coli,
Staphylococcos aureus, Staphylococcos epidermitis, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus
vulgaris. The cow urine and its distillate tested for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities exhibited the
mentioned activities and comparatively fresh cow urine was found to be better than its distillate. These results
indicate that the cow urine has antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, which supports the claim of traditional
practitioners.
Key words: Bos indicus % Free radicals % Agar well method % Antimicrobial % Gomutra
INTRODUCTION scientifically. Local traditional healers in Mandsaur
Cow, Bos indicus is a most valuable animal in all immunity and to avoid aging. They suggest 10-25 ml of
Veda and it is called as the Mother of all. The composition cow urine to be taken in empty stomach for the same.
containing cow's excretions, urine, dung, milk, curd and Since free radicals are implicated in the process of
ghee, five ingredients together known as "Panchagawya" aging and presence of inorganic substances in cow
is given to women after she delivers a baby. Panchagawya urine, our aim was devoted to investigate its antioxidant
is the main ingredient of many of our ayurvedic and antimicrobial properties. According to ancient
preparations [1]. Cow urine one of the ingredients in literatures distillate of cow urine was the one to be used
panchagawya is believed to have therapeutic value. In mainly and the distillate was found to exhibit antioxidant
India cow urine is used by majority of rural population as effect [3]. So in our present study we have compared fresh
folklore remedy in almost all the states. Agencies in cow urine and its distillate for the above-mentioned
Gujarat have been marketing the cow urine preparations activities.
from multiple outlets, advertising that they are sterilized
and completely fresh, with prices ranging from Rs. 20 MATERIALS AND METHODS
to Rs. 30 per bottle. Urine therapy was not only used
in India, but for several Centuries in many parts of Procurement of cow urine: The urine of Gujarati Indian
the Globe. As per Ayurvedic literatures gomutra is cow known as Geer cow was used in the study. The
useful in number of diseases particularly in gulma, study was performed after getting a certificate from
kusta, ascitis, filaria, aburda (cancer), etc. Cow urine the Veterinary doctor stating that it is free from
is also used along with herbs to treat various diseases. Fresh urine was collected and filtered.
diseases like fever, epilepsy, anemia, abdominal pain, Chemoprofiling confirmed the presence of protein, urea,
constipation, etc by the traditional healers [2, 3]. uric acid, creatinine, phenol, aromatic acids, enzymes like
Immunomodulatory [4], hypoglycemic [5] and cardio- acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase and
respiratory effects [6] of cow urine were established vitamins [7].
prescribe cow urine for worm complaints, to develop
Global J. Pharmacol., 2 (2): 20-22, 2008
21
Antioxidant activity: The antioxidant activity of fresh was introduced. Ofloxacin 10 µg mlG was used as the
urine and its distillates was carried out using two standard for the study. The petri dishes were then
methods, DPPH radical scavenging activity and incubated at 37°C for 24 h and the zone of inhibition was
Superoxide scavenging activity [8]. Ascorbic acid was measured [9].
used as the standard.
DPPH radical scavenging activity was measured by RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
spectrophotometric method. To a methanolic solution
of DPPH (100 µM, 2.95 ml), 0.05 ml test compound
dissolved in methanol was added at different
concentrations (1-5 mg mlG ). Equal amount of methanol
1
was added to the control. Absorbance was recorded at
517 nm at regular intervals of 10 minutes for 20 minutes.
The percentage reduction was calculated as per the
formula
Control absorbance-Test absorbance
% Reduction = -------------------------------------------------------- x 100
Control absorbance
Superoxide scavenging actyivity was carried out by
using alkaline DMSO method. Solid potassium
superoxide was allowed to stand in contact with dry
DMSO for at least 24 hours and the solution was filtered
immediately before use. Filtrate (200 µl) was added to
2.8 ml of an aqueous solution containing nitro blue
tetrazolium (56 µM), EDTA (10 µM) and potassium
phosphate buffer (10 mM). Sample of urine 1 ml at various
concentrations (1-5 mg mlG ) was added and the
1
absorbance was recorded at 560 nm against a control in
which pure DMSO has been added instead of alkaline
DMSO. The percentage reduction was calculated using
the formula
Control absorbance-Test absorbance
% Reduction =--------------------------------------------------------x 100
Control absorbance
Statistics: The decolorization was plotted against the
sample extract concentration and a linear regression curve
was established in order to calculate the IC (µg mlG )
50
1
being the amount of sample necessary to decrease by
50% the absorbance of radicals.
Antimicrobial activity: The antimicrobial activity of cow
urine and its distillates was tested by agar well diffusion
method for the following strains of microbes like
Escherichia coli (NCIM 2931), Staphylococcus aureus
(NCIM 2079), Staphylococcus epidermitis (NCIM 2493),
Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 2063), Klebsiella pneumoniae
(NCIM 2957) and Proteus vulgaris (NCIM 2027). Size of
the well was 10 mm and 0.5 ml of urine and its distillate
1
The result shows that cow urine and its distillate
inhibited the free radicals as seen from scavenging of
super oxide and DPPH radicals (Table 1). Comparatively
fresh cow urine was found to be more active than its
distillate. As far as the antimicrobial study is concerned,
the samples, fresh cow urine and its distillate have
exhibited antimicrobial activity and comparatively fresh
cow urine has exhibited better antimicrobial activity
(Table 2). The activity of fresh cow urine was comparable
with that of the standard, Ofloxacin.
Keeping in view the enormous role of cow’s urine in
medicinal and veterinary medicine, a scientific experiment
was undertaken to elucidate the antioxidant and
antimicrobial activitie of cow urine. Cow urine was found
to be effective against free radicals and microbes. An
antioxidant is a chemical that prevents the oxidation of
other chemicals and the formation of free radicals. They
protect key cell components by neutralizing the damaging
effects of free radicals, which are natural by products of
cell metabolism [10]. Free radical reaction is an important
Table 1: Free radical scavenging activity of cow urine and its distillate by
DPPH and NBT method (in vitro)
IC mg mlG / µg mlG
50
1 * 1
--------------------------------------------------
Products NBT method DDPH method
Fresh cow urine 2.9 3.0
Distillate of cow urine 5.0 5.1
Ascorbic acid 3.0 2.9
* *
Table 2: Antimicrobial activity of cow urine and its distillate by well plate
method
Zone of inhibition (mm )
---------------------------------
Organisms V V V
1 2 3
Escherichia coli (NCIM 2931) 23 20 30
Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 2063) 24 21 32
Staphylococcus epidermitis (NCIM 2493) 22 20 28
Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2079) 24 18 25
Klebsiella pneumoniae (NCIM 2957) 25 20 28
Proteus vulgaris (NCIM 2027) 23 20 28
V -cow urine, V -distillate of cow urine, V -Ofloxacin
1 2 3
Values are expressed in mean of triplicates
Global J. Pharmacol., 2 (2): 20-22, 2008
22
pathway in a wide range of unrelated biological systems. 4. Chauhan, R.S., B.P. Singh and L.K. Singhal, 2001.
A vast amount of circumstantial evidence implicates free Immunomodulation with kamdhenu Ark in mice. J.
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of more amount of phenol in cow urine compared to S. Mehrotra, 2003. Free radical scavenging potential
distillate may be the reason for its better activity. The of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. Ind. J. Exp.
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importance of Panchyagavya as medicine. Sachitra of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. Indian J. Pharm. Sci.,
Ayurveda, 5: 56-59. 65: 27-30.
2. Pathak, M.L. and A. Kumar, 2003. Gomutra a 12. Linton, A.H. and H.M. Dick, 1990. Topley and
descriptive study. Sachitra Ayurveda, 7: 81-84. Wilson's principles of bacteriology, virology and
3. Krishnamurthi, K., D. Dutta, S.S. Devi and immunity. 8th Edn. Edward Arnold, London, Vol: 1.
T. Chakrabarti, 2004. Protective effect of
diatillate and redistillate of cow,s urine in human
polymorphonuclear leukocytes challenged with
established genotoxic chemicals. Biomed. Environ.
Sci., 17: 57-66.
Oxidants, antioxidants and the degenerative diseases
11. Soni, K., K.P. Suresh and M.N. Saraf, 2003. Free
... Several authors reported cow urine distillate is used as a bioenhancer [1,3,4,10,11,16,19,21,22,25,26] . It is an animal origin bioenhancer that at low doses promote and augment the bioavailability or biological activity of drugs by reducing the dose of drug, shorten the treatment period and thus reducing drug-resistance problems [7,27] . ...
... The revealed antioxidant property of cow urine its distillate may provide potential therapeutic intervention against oxidative threats, both in health and disease. The result suggests that the antioxidant action is attributed to the free radical scavenging activity of the urine components and these components may prevent the process of aging [10] . ...
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Gomutra (Cow urine) is an important part of Indian tradition. From the ancient period cow's urine has been used as a medicine. Cow (Bos indicus) urine/Gomutra has been elaborately explained in Ayurveda and described in "Sushruta Samhita", "Ashtanga Sangraha" and other Ayurvedic texts as an effective medicinal substance/secretion of animal origin with innumerable therapeutic properties. It has various important medicinal and therapeutic values. Cow urine is one of the five contents of Panchagavya which obtain from cow (Urine, milk, ghee, curd and dung). The treatment done by using Panchgavya products of cow called, Cowpathy (Panchgavya chikitsa). Several diseases like cancer, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, AIDS, GI disturbances etc. are increasing day by day. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in higher amount is also responsible for increase in antibiotic resistant infectious diseases like Tuberculosis. Gomutra (Cow urine) is scientifically proven to act as Bioenhancer. Various actions and researches on cow urine are summarized in this article. However, more studies experimental as well as clinical trials can throw better light on it.
... The findings related to cow urine are in conjugation with the findings by Jarald E et al. (2008) who evaluated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of cow urine indicating positive correlation and acclaiming the traditional values of cow urine. 28 Sathasivam A et al. (2010) also conducted a study to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of cow urine distillate against some clinical pathogens and found that cow urine distillate has antibacterial activities and the inhibitory activity can be used in the control of bacteria of various origins. ...
... The findings related to cow urine are in conjugation with the findings by Jarald E et al. (2008) who evaluated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of cow urine indicating positive correlation and acclaiming the traditional values of cow urine. 28 Sathasivam A et al. (2010) also conducted a study to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of cow urine distillate against some clinical pathogens and found that cow urine distillate has antibacterial activities and the inhibitory activity can be used in the control of bacteria of various origins. 29 In microbiology, the MIC is the lowest concentration of an antimicrobial that inhibits the visible growth of a microorganism after overnight incubation 30 . ...
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Background- The emergence of resistant bacterial strains due to overuse of antibiotics has led to increase in use of natural animal products with known antimicrobial properties as therapeutic agents. Objectives: To assess the antimicrobial potential and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of cow urine and goat urine against common dental caries pathogens. Materials and method: Distillates prepared from cow urine and goat urine samples were assessed for its antimicrobial activity and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using agar well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was performed with One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 19. Results: Both urine samples showed potent antimicrobial activity with MIC values ranging from 5-10µg/ml against dental caries pathogens. In particular, goat urine sample showed least MIC values of 5µg/ml against S. mutans, L. acidophilus. A statistically significant (p<0.05) zone of inhibition was observed for all samples against S. mutans at highest concentration (50µg/ml). Goat urine resisted the micro-organisms effectively compared to cow urine. Conclusion: Samples of cow urine and goat urinewere found to be effective with therapeutic potential against dental caries pathogens. On comparison, goat urine was found to be more potent.
... Cow excreta (bos indicus) represent a significant part of the materials used in Ayurvedic medicine and the properties of cow urine have been particularly studied in India. Cow urine is rich in fatty acids and phenolic acids and has a high antioxidant potential [78][79][80]. The antimicrobial activity of cow urine has been tested in vitro on strains of pathogenic bacteria [80][81][82][83]. ...
... Cow urine is rich in fatty acids and phenolic acids and has a high antioxidant potential [78][79][80]. The antimicrobial activity of cow urine has been tested in vitro on strains of pathogenic bacteria [80][81][82][83]. In vivo, immunostimulant properties have been demonstrated in rats [84,85]; one study showed that external application of cow urine hastened the healing process on wounded rats [86]. ...
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Background Despite a widespread aversion towards faeces and urine, animal excreta are used in traditional medicine in many countries since centuries, but records are scattered and few therapeutic uses have been accurately documented while in the current context of emerging zoonoses such records may be of major interest. Methodology In this study, we investigated the therapeutic uses that mahouts in Xayaboury province, Lao PDR make of elephant urine and faeces as well as of the brood chamber that beetles ( Heliocopris dominus ) fashion from elephant dung. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with mahouts on elephant diet, health problems and responses to disease, andwhether they use elephant products. Data were supplemented by interviews with traditional healers. Results Seven respondents reported the use of elephant urine in ethnoveterinary care for elephants and in human medicine in case of diabetes and otitis. 25 respondents reported therapeutic use of elephant faeces (EF) and elephant dung beetle brood chambers. The major indications are gastrointestinal and skin problems. Macerations or decoctions are drunk or used externally as a lotion. The mahouts attribute the therapeutic effectiveness of EFs to their content which includes the remains of many species from the elephant diet which they consider to be medicinal. Discussion The indications of these uses are consistent with pharmacological and clinical studies highlighting the properties of different animals’ urine and faeces and their curative potential tested in vivo. The acknowledgement by the mahouts of medicinal properties of elephant faecal bolus contrasts with the rare justifications of animal material use recorded in zootherapeutic studies, which falls within the symbolic domain. However, numerous studies highlight the preponderant role of the microbiota in physiological processes, raising the hypothesis of a curative action of EF, by rebalancing the user’s microbiota. Conclusion The therapeutic uses of EF preparations despite their possible curative properties are a potential source of zoonotic transmission from elephants to humans. In the current context of globalisation of trade which favours the emergence of zoonoses and in relation with the issue of One Health, it becomes crucial to further document the zootherapeutic practices to prevent emerging diseases. As elephants and local related ethnoethological knowledge are threatened, documenting them is urgent to contribute to their preservation.
... Fresh urine was found to be more active than distillate. Fresh CU exhibited better antimicrobial activity [7]. Fresh CU contains higher amounts of phenols than cow urine distillate (CUD) makes it more effective against microbes [8]. ...
... Treated cow urine samples at low pH showed minimum growth (CU02 > CU01).At pH 3.8 no bacterial growth was found after 30 days. Cow urine, photoactivated and distillates exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris (7,18). Antibacterial activity was analyzed against the Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella sp ( Table 2, Fig.3,Fig.4). ...
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Cow urine has been used as medicine since ancient times andthe ancient scriptures of Ayurveda consider cow urine to be the elixir of life. The present study analyzes the inhibitory effects of fresh cow urine at different pH (8.2,4.4,3.8) at the intervals of 5,10, 20,30 days and antibacterial activity of cow urine at different pH was analyzed against the Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella sp. It was found that no bacterial growth was present in fresh cow urine at pH 3.8 after 30 days. Shelf life of cow urine could be extended after lowering the pHwhich also makes it palatable as it becomes odourless. Maximum antibacterial activity was also observed in fresh cow urine sample at pH 3.8 against gram positive and gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (24mm ± 2.0), Staphylococcus aureus (22mm ± 2.0) and Klebsiella sp (22mm ± 1.0).Fresh cow urine at pH 3.8 was found to be more active and exhibited better antibacterial activity.It can be used in the control of bacteria.
... They play a major role as a media and some of them actively participate in curing the skin infections [30,31]. The antibacterial properties of cow's urine against several human pathogens causing skin diseases is also reported [30][31][32][33]. ...
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Ethno-botanical study is now of immense importance in medical science. Traditional medicine and ethno-botanical information play an important role in scientific research. India is one of the twelve mega biodiversity countries with a wide variety of medicinal plant and 65% of rural India still depends on medicinal plant for their health care needs. The present investigation was conducted to survey traditional and folk medicines used against skin disease. The district is situated between 19.383˚ N latitude and 85.05˚ E longitude. We selected Mahurikalua hill side with tribal villages like Darubhadra, Lathi , Mahuda for our study. The information was gathered from tribal people, vaidyas , and ethnic peoples. A total of 30 species belonging to 21 families and 30 genera were collected from the different parts and locations of the study area. Out of these 18 families belonged to dicots, 3 to monocots. Most dominating family is Fabaceae. Whereas Asclepiadaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae are contributed with two species each. Other 17 are least represented families with only one species. These are commonly occurring medicinally important plants used to treat various type of diseases like ringworm, , wound, wrinkle, abscesses, boils, sores, spots or warts, skin pigmentation, crack or heel, leprosy , itching, dandruff (psoriasis),hair treatment, eczema, herpes, leucoderma , fungal infection and scabies. Forty percentage tree species are the most commonly used plants followed by thirty four percentage herb species and fourteen percentage shrub species. Out of all collected species, only one climber was recorded. Comparison of the plant parts used as a medicinal source indicates that the leaf predominates followed by seed, bark, fruit, latex, root, whole plant, rhizome and bulb. Preparation of paste, juice and oil for the treatment of ailments is a common practice of tribal people of Ganjam. In this study it is found that the plant species Argemone mexicana L., Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link, Millettia pinnata(L.) Panigrahi , Mimosa pudica L.and, Phyllanthus niruri L.(1.50 each) have high use value is the indication of its importance in the herbal medicine practice.
... Athavale et al. (2012) evaluated the free radicals scavenging activity of PG and the results of the DPPH assay and superoxide assay were agreed with our findings. Previous studies confirmed that cow urine and cow dung alone have free radical scavenging activity (Jarald et al., 2008;Jirankalgikar et al., 2014), when it is used in a combination it exhibits an exceptional free radical scavenging activity. ...
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... Fresh cow urine was comparatively more effective than distillate. Ofloxacin was considered the standard, and the anti-microbial activity of fresh cow urine was comparable with Ofloxacin [71]. ...
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Panchgavya represents milk, urine, dung, ghee, and curd, derived from cow and serves irreplaceable medicinal importance in Ayurveda and traditional Indian clinical practices. In Ayurveda, Panchgavya treatment is termed as ‘Cowpathy’. In India, the cow is worshipped as a god called ‘Gaumata,’ indicating its nourishing nature like a mother. Ayurveda recommends Panchagavya to treat diseases of multiple systems, including severe conditions, with almost no side-effects. It can help build a healthy population, alternative sources of energy, complete nutritional requirements, eradicate poverty, pollution-free environment, organic farming, etc. Panchgavya can also give back to mother nature by promoting soil fertility, earthworm production, protecting crops from bacterial and fungal infections, etc. Scientific efforts shall be taken to build evidence for the clinical application of Cowpathy. The present review aims to summarize the health and medicinal benefits of Panchgavya.
Chapter
Cow worship in India has a long history dating back to the Vedic era, several thousand years ago. Cow being a domestic animal, its milk is as nourishing as one’s mother’s milk, and its utility in a primarily agricultural civilization like India made it a highly beneficial animal whose dung and urine played a key role in Indian medicine system as well as ancient India’s religious rituals. Ayurveda and Charaka Samhita are the examples of Indian writings having detailed description of immense medical, health and general wellbeing benefits of various products obtained from cow. Cow products such as milk, yoghurt, refined butter ghee and even cow dung were regarded as highly useful medicines in ancient India’s medicine system and till date continue to be utilized in Indian household as medicines of great value. Cow products are examined in modern science as well and have been discovered to be quite effective in the treatment and prevention of numerous ailments. Studies on deep microbial diversity of cow dung have been carried out using modern scientific equipment, and these studies provide a coherent insight into the microorganism’s synergistic potential. Compost (dung manure) is widely used in Indian agriculture, indicating its potential for increasing crop output. Considering many uses of cow dung, the scientific community is becoming increasingly interested in its scientific analysis and use, especially now that organic farming and indigenous medicines are garnering a lot of attention across the world.KeywordsCow dungPanchgavyaCow urineBiofertilizerAntibacterialAntifungal materials
Chapter
In India, cow dung is a low-cost and widely available bioresource used for a variety of traditional purposes, including fire, insect repellent and cleaning. Cow dung contains a varied array of bacteria that, due to their ability to produce a variety of metabolites, may be helpful to humans. Many cow dung microbes have proven inherent potential to boost soil fertility by phosphate solubilization, in addition to producing unique compounds. Nowadays, there is a growing interest in researching applications of cow dung microbes for biofuel generation and environmental pollution management. Anaerobic digestion is a process that converts organic wastes such as cattle manure, dairies solid wastes, etc. into methane and agricultural residues as a sustainable bioresource (biogas and biomethane). The composition of biogas produced by anaerobic digestion varies, but it primarily consists of methane and carbon dioxide, with a small amount of trace gases. The type of substrate being digested, operating temperature, pH, hydraulic retention duration, organic loading rate and digester design are all elements that influence biogas composition. As a result, the goal of this review study is to provide a complete examination of cattle organic waste (cow dung) that has been utilized as a substrate for the long-term production of biogas and/or biomethane, as well as its subsequent applications.KeywordsCow manureBiogasBiomethaneAnaerobic digestionMicroorganism
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Cow urine is one of the important components of ancient ethnic medicine in the Indian subcontinent. Native cow urine is highly valuable owing to its diet consisting of wild plant species. The composition of urine depends on the cow breed as well as its diet. In Ayurveda, cow urine is used in three forms (raw, sterile and photo-activated urine). All these urine types are endowed with a variety of biochemical components with potent bioactivities. Among the urine of two cow breeds tested (Kasargod Dwarf and Deoni), all types of urine of Deoni possess a higher quantity of total phenolics and tannins, while flavonoid content was higher in Kasargod Dwarf. The ferrous ion-chelation capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity were higher in all urine samples of Deoni, while the total antioxidant activity was higher in Kasargod Dwarf. Photo-activated urine samples showed the highest antibacterial as well as antifungal activity with minimum inhibition concentration. This study contributes toward the validation of cow urine as a potential source of bioactive compounds and opens up new ways for its applications in human medicine. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Biochemical profile, Bioactivity, Cow breed, Photo-activation, Traditional medicine
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From the ancient period cow's urine has been used as a medicine. In Veda, cow's urine was compared to the nectar. In Susrut, several medicinal properties of cow's urine have been mentioned and are known to cause weight loss, reversal of certain cardiac and kidney problems, indigestion, stomach ache, edema, etc. However, the literature and scripture did not mention the antigenotoxic properties of cow's urine. In the present investigation, the antigenotoxic/antioxidant properties of cow's urine distillate and redistillate were studied in vitro. The antioxidant status and volatile fatty acid levels were determined. Actinomycin-D (0.1 micromol/L) and hydrogen peroxide (150 micromol/L) were used for inducing DNA strand break with 0.1% DMSO as negative control. Dose for the antigenotoxic effect of cow's urine was chosen from the dose response study carried out earlier. Both actinomycin-D and H202 caused statistically significant DNA unwinding of 80% & 75% respectively (P < 0.001) as revealed by fluorimetric analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU), and the damage could be protected with the redistilled cow's urine distillate (1, 50 & 100 microL) in simultaneous treatment with genotoxic chemicals. The redistillate of cow's urine was found to possess total antioxidant status of around 2.6 mmol, contributed mainly by volatile fatty acids (1500 mg/L) as revealed by the GC-MS studies. These fatty acids and other antioxidants might cause the observed protective effects.
Topley and descriptive study
  • M L Pathak
  • A Kumar
Pathak, M.L. and A. Kumar, 2003. Gomutra a 12. Linton, A.H. and H.M. Dick, 1990. Topley and descriptive study. Sachitra Ayurveda, 7: 81-84.
Cow praising and radical scavenging and antilipidperoxidation activity importance of Panchyagavya as medicine. Sachitra of Tephrosia purpurea Linn
  • M L Pathak
  • A Kumar
Pathak, M.L. and A. Kumar, 2003. Cow praising and radical scavenging and antilipidperoxidation activity importance of Panchyagavya as medicine. Sachitra of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., Ayurveda, 5: 56-59. 65: 27-30.