Article

Nutrition of the Tamandua: I. Nutrient composition of termites (Nasutitermes spp.) and stomach contents from wild tamanduas (Tamandua tetradactyla)

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Abstract

Arboreal termites (Nasutitermes spp.) and stomach contents from tamanduas (Tamandua tetradactyla) were collected in central Venezuela during the mid part of the dry season (March) of 1993 and 1994. Nutritional analyses were performed on each caste (workers (n = 3), soldiers (n = 5), and alates (n = 1)), on mixed caste samples (n = 1), and on stomach contents from live (n = 5) and roadkill (n = 5) tamanduas. The chemical analysis, expressed on a dry matter (DM) basis, of termite workers, which constituted the majority of the nest populations, showed the highest crude protein (CP) (67%) and the lowest DM (25%) and fat (2%) values. Ash content varied from a low of 4% in alates to a high of 7% in soldiers. The alates contained substantially higher DM (41%) and fat (40%), which was reflected in a higher caloric value (6.88 kcal/g) (gross energy) (GE)), and relatively less CP (49%). Among the macrominerals, potassium (K) was consistently the highest, with an overall mean value of 0.54%, while the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels showed overall means of 0.26% and 0.67%, respectively. Iron (Fe) was the highest among the trace minerals but highly variable (soldiers, 1,000 ppm; alates, 246 ppm; workers, 394 ppm). Differences in the concentrations of vitamin A and E were found among termites castes, with soldiers showing the highest values (20 and 85 µg/g for retinol and a-tocopherol, respectively). Acid detergent fiber (ADF) was lower in the alates (13%) and workers (27%) compared to the soldiers (35%). Alates' fat was more saturated (39%), while soldiers and workers had a much higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration. In general, similar nutrient profiles were found between the tamandua stomach contents and the overall mean composition of Nasutitermes spp. However, stomach contents had much higher ADF, ash, and Fe concentrations (3 1%, 14%, and 2,748 ppm) than termites (25%, 5%, and 652 ppm) but lower CP, fat, GE, and Ca values (51%, 11%, 4.58 kcal/g, and 0.11% vs. 58%, 15%, 6.01 kcal/g, and 0.26% in termites). The relatively low concentrations of Ca in both stomach contents and termites may be indicative of a low requirement in Myrmecophaga compared to other mammalian species. Diets consumed by free-ranging

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... Moisture contents in the termite castes from the three sites were higher than those recorded for castes of Nasutitermes spp. (Oyarzun et al. 1996), Macrotermes subhyalinus (Ajayi & Adedire 2007) soldiers and workers (Nkutuyoh et al. 2012) and winged reproductive castes of M. bellicosus (Agomuo 2011). ...
... Fat contents compare well with those of soldiers and workers of M. bellicosus reported by Nkutuyoh et al. (2012) but lower than those of Nasutitermes spp. (Oyarzun et al. 1996) and M. subhyalinus (Ajayi & Adedire 2007). ...
... This agrees with the report of Ntukuyoh et al. (2012). Oyarzun et al. (1996) also reported higher concentration of Mg 2+ in alates (winged reproductives) than in the workers of Nasitutermes spp. Mg 2+ was reported to have a supernormal stimulus for egg laying as it significantly increased egg laying in dry bean weevil (Szentesi 1989). ...
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The consumption of insects, especially termites, has over the years gained attention. This study aims at evaluating the nutritional and heavy metal levels in workers, soldiers and primary reproductives of Macrotermes bellicosus (Smeathman) collected from farmland, a dump site and an industrial estate in Abeokuta, southwestern Nigeria. Proximate analysis was done using standard methods, vitamins were analysed spectrophotometrically while minerals and heavy metal analyses were done using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The soldiers and worker termites recorded higher values of ash, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate contents than reproductive termites (queen and king). The reproductives recorded higher fat content than workers and soldiers. The highest ash (2.27 ± 0.02 %), crude fibre (1.04 ± 0.02 %), crude protein (20.96 ± 0.01 %) and carbohydrate contents (3.65 ±0.01 %) were recorded for workers and soldiers collected from the industrial estate. The reproductives from farmland recorded the highest average vitamin contents, 16.96 ± 0.01 mg/g of vitamin A, 2.74 ± 0.01 mg/g of vitamin B and 7.15 ± 0.02 mg/100 g of vitamin C. The lowest vitamin A and B contents recorded for soldiers from the dump site were 15.12±0.01 mg/g and 2.09±0.01 mg/g, respectively, while soldiers from the industrial estate had the lowest (4.51 ± 0.01 mg/100 g) vitamin C content. Castes from the industrial estate had the highest amount of Cu2+ (0.076±0.001 mg/l) while the highest values of Cr2+ 0.226±0.001 mg/l and 0.223±0.003 mg/l were recorded for workers from farmland and the dumpsite, respectively. Lead Pb2+ was only detected in the soldier castes. From the results, it can be concluded that termites are rich in crude protein and have a very low tendency to accumulate heavy metals from the soil.
... The values of the studied termites were also higher than that of Nausitermes spp. termite (40.23 g/100 g) reported by Oyarzun et al. (1996). ...
... Values for zinc content are missing completely from the NFCT (Sehmi, 1993). The levels of calcium, iron and zinc of the insects obtained in this study are in agreement with previous studies on termites (Oyarzun et al., 1996;Christensen et al., 2006;Onigbinde and Adamolekun, 1998). However there was wide variability in iron content between M. bellicosus (115.97 mg/100 g) and the other species analyzed (53.33-64.77 ...
... Consumption of soil especially from termite moulds in western Kenya is a common practise (Geissler et al., 1997) and so possibility of insect contamination with soil does not hinder local consumption. Contrary to the high zinc and iron contents in insects, calcium content has been reported to be relatively low in other termite species as well as in other insects (Oyarzun et al., 1996;Onigbinde and Adamolekun, 1998;Kinyuru et al., 2010a;Banjo et al., 2006;Ekpo and Onigbinde, 2007). ...
... Los resultados obtenidos del análisis químico proximal de la dieta para tamandúa del ZooMAT (Tabla 3) arrojan un valor alto en proteína que sobrepasa el rango recomendado por Ward et al. (1995;25-40% MS). El valor de proteína obtenido en el análisis hecho a las termitas del ZooMAT fue de 52,47 % MS, ligeramente menor al valor reportado por Oyarzun et al. (1996;58,20 ± 3,67% MS). Este último valor es el reporte promedio para la combinación de castas consumidas. ...
... La energía aportada por la dieta para tamandúas del ZooMAT (5,19 Kcal/g) es más alta que la encontrada en las termitas Nasutitermes spp. analizadas (3,30 Kcal/g) pero cercana a los datos aportados por Oyarzun et al. (1996;6,01 Kcal/g) en la mezcla de castas (90% trabajadoras y 10% soldados) de Nasutitermes spp. En el caso de la fibra, la dieta del ZooMAT aparentemente es deficiente si se compara con los valores encontrados en las termitas tanto del ZooMAT como lo mencionado por Oyarzun et al. (1996; 0,035%, versus 20,36 y 15,22%, respectivamente). ...
... analizadas (3,30 Kcal/g) pero cercana a los datos aportados por Oyarzun et al. (1996;6,01 Kcal/g) en la mezcla de castas (90% trabajadoras y 10% soldados) de Nasutitermes spp. En el caso de la fibra, la dieta del ZooMAT aparentemente es deficiente si se compara con los valores encontrados en las termitas tanto del ZooMAT como lo mencionado por Oyarzun et al. (1996; 0,035%, versus 20,36 y 15,22%, respectivamente). Para incrementar el consumo de fibra de forma natural, se lleva a algunos tamandúas (enfermos o débiles) semanalmente a realizar "pastoreos" en termiteros naturales. ...
Article
One of the main problems in keeping lesser anteaters (Tamandua mexicana) in captivity is the formulation of an appropriate artificial diet. At “Miguel Álvarez del Toro” Zoo (ZooMAT), Chiapas, México, the lesser anteaters are fed with a mixture of chicken, orange juice, hard-boiled egg, vitamins, minerals, formic acid, and vinegar. Weak animals are sometimes allowed to naturally feed on termite mounds. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional value of the diet used at ZooMAT and compare it with the nutritional requirements for this species. Dry matter, fat, ash, crude fiber, and protein content of the mixture offered daily to the lesser anteaters were analyzed. The artificial diet covers the protein and energetic needs, while fiber contents are low. All lesser anteaters should be given access to termite mounds to increase fiber consumption. Furthermore, the change to a commercial diet for insectivores should be considered.
... The analysis of ash content indicated an ash value slightly lower than the values indicated for other edible insects such as alates of Nasutitermes spp. (3.7%) as reported by Oyarzun et al. (1996). The values obtained from the insects were however consistent with the values (2.1 -6.8%) of other edible insects (Christensen et al., 2006;Mbah and Elekima, 2007). ...
... But this is logical, as invertebrates have no bony skeletons. The values obtained were consistent with values reported by Oyarzun et al., (1996) for termites but far much higher than what Ekpo and Onigbinde (2005) reported (26.65 mg/100 g) in larva of palm weevil, Rhynchophorus phoenicis F. consumed in Nigeria. There was significant difference in calcium content between the green and brown grasshopper (pd"0.05). ...
... Iron was consistently the highest mineral of the trace minerals among the insects (Table 2) with t he values obtained being s ignificantly different between the two grasshoppers. The values observed in this study were, however, lower than the results reported by Oyarzun et al., (1996) (24.6 mg/100g) for Nasutitermes spp. of edible termites. The results show that the insects are a better source of iron in comparison to the mainly available sources with values of 1.1-3.3 ...
Article
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The longhorn grasshopper (Ruspolia differens) forms a major part of the food culture of communities in the Lake Victoria Region of East Africa. The aim of this research was therefore to assess the nutritional potential of this insect to the human diet in the region in combating nutritional deficiencies that are of public health concern. The green and brown coloured grasshoppers were studied. They were found to contain a protein content of 37.1% and 35.3%, fat content of 48.2% and 46.2%, ash content of 2.8% and 2.6%, a fibre content of 3.9% and 4.9% for the green and brown grasshoppers respectively. Among the macro minerals, potassium (K) was the most abundant with a value of 370.6 mg/100g and 259.7 mg/100g, phosphorus (P) 140.9 mg/100g and 121.0 mg/100g while calcium (Ca) levels showed overall means of 27.4 mg/100g and 24.5 mg/100g in the green and brown grasshopper respectively. Iron (Fe) was the most abundant among the trace minerals with a value of 16.6 mg/100g and 13.0 mg/100g while zinc showed a mean value of 17.3 mg/100g and 12.4 mg/100g in the green and brown grasshopper respectively. The insects showed a retinol concentration of 2.1 μg/g and 2.8 μg/g, α-tocopherol 201.0 μg/g and 152.0 μg/g, riboflavin 1.2 mg/100g and 1.4 mg/100g, 2.1 mg/100g and 2.4 mg/100g of niacin for the green and brown grasshopper respectively. Lipid analysis revealed that the insects' oil comprised of high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, 89.4% and 84.3% neutral lipids, 7.4% and 9.3% phospholipids, 3.2% and 6.4% glycolipids for green and brown grasshopper respectively. These values suggest that Ruspolia differens has potential for exploitation to combat nutritional deficiencies that are of public health concerns. The insect could form a base for new food products of considerable nutritive value.
... Moisture contents in the termite castes from the three sites were higher than those recorded for castes of Nasutitermes spp. (Oyarzun et al. 1996), Macrotermes subhyalinus (Ajayi & Adedire 2007) soldiers and workers (Nkutuyoh et al. 2012) and winged reproductive castes of M. bellicosus (Agomuo 2011). ...
... Fat contents compare well with those of soldiers and workers of M. bellicosus reported by Nkutuyoh et al. (2012) but lower than those of Nasutitermes spp. (Oyarzun et al. 1996) and M. subhyalinus (Ajayi & Adedire 2007). ...
... This agrees with the report of Ntukuyoh et al. (2012). Oyarzun et al. (1996) also reported higher concentration of Mg 2+ in alates (winged reproductives) than in the workers of Nasitutermes spp. Mg 2+ was reported to have a supernormal stimulus for egg laying as it significantly increased egg laying in dry bean weevil (Szentesi 1989). ...
Article
Full-text available
The consumption of insects, especially termites, has over the years gained attention. This study aims at evaluating the nutritional and heavy metal levels in workers, soldiers and primary reproductives of Macrotermes bellicosus (Smeathman) collected from farmland, a dump site and an industrial estate in Abeokuta, southwestern Nigeria. Proximate analysis was done using standard methods, vitamins were analysed spectrophotometrically while minerals and heavy metal analyses were done using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The soldiers and worker termites recorded higher values of ash, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate contents than reproductive termites (queen and king). The reproductives recorded higher fat content than workers and soldiers. The highest ash (2.27 ± 0.02 %), crude fibre (1.04 ± 0.02 %), crude protein (20.96 ± 0.01 %) and carbohydrate contents (3.65 ±0.01 %) were recorded for workers and soldiers collected from the industrial estate. The reproductives from farmland recorded the highest average vitamin contents, 16.96 ± 0.01 mg/g of vitamin A, 2.74 ± 0.01 mg/g of vitamin B and 7.15 ± 0.02 mg/100 g of vitamin C. The lowest vitamin A and B contents recorded for soldiers from the dump site were 15.12 ± 0.01 mg/g and 2.09 ± 0.01 mg/g, respectively, while soldiers from the industrial estate had the lowest (4.51 ± 0.01 mg/100 g) vitamin C content. Castes from the industrial estate had the highest amount of Cu2+ (0.076 ± 0.001 mg/1) while the highest values of Cr2+ 0.226 ± 0.001 mg/1 and 0.223 ± 0.003 mg/1 were recorded for workers from farmland and the dump site, respectively. Lead Pb2+ was only detected in the soldier castes. From the results, it can be concluded that termites are rich in crude protein and have a very low tendency to accumulate heavy metals from the soil.
... The values of the studied termites were also higher than that of Nausitermes spp. termite (40.23 g/100 g) reported by Oyarzun et al. (1996). ...
... Values for zinc content are missing completely from the NFCT (Sehmi, 1993). The levels of calcium, iron and zinc of the insects obtained in this study are in agreement with previous studies on termites (Oyarzun et al., 1996;Christensen et al., 2006;Onigbinde and Adamolekun, 1998). However there was wide variability in iron content between M. bellicosus (115.97 mg/100 g) and the other species analyzed (53.33-64.77 ...
... Consumption of soil especially from termite moulds in western Kenya is a common practise (Geissler et al., 1997) and so possibility of insect contamination with soil does not hinder local consumption. Contrary to the high zinc and iron contents in insects, calcium content has been reported to be relatively low in other termite species as well as in other insects (Oyarzun et al., 1996;Onigbinde and Adamolekun, 1998;Kinyuru et al., 2010a;Banjo et al., 2006;Ekpo and Onigbinde, 2007). ...
Article
The objective of this study was to gain knowledge on the nutrient composition of Macrotermes subhylanus, Pseudacanthotermes militaris, Macrotermes bellicosus and Pseudacanthotermes spiniger termite species consumed in western Kenya. Proximate, iron, zinc, calcium and fatty acid composition were analysed in order to ascertain their potential in food-based strategies to improve nutritional health. The fat content was 44.82–47.31 g/100 g, protein 33.51–39.74 g/100 g, available carbohydrate 0.72–8.73 g/ 100 g, iron 53.33–115.97 mg/100 g and zinc 7.10–12.86 mg/100 g. The level of unsaturated fatty acids was 50.54–67.83%, while n-6:n-3 ratio ranged between 5.80:1.00 and 57.70:1.00, signifying potential nutritional and public health significance. The termites may be exploited to provide high-quality diets especially in the developing countries, which have been plagued by iron and zinc deficiencies as well as poor supply of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid sources.
... However, when multiple species within a genus have been sampled, their wide range of variation is apparent (Banjo et al 2006;. The caste of termite also affects the nutritional content, so chimpanzees who fish for Macrotermes soldiers are utilizing a different nutritional source than humans who harvest swarms of alates (Oyarzun et al 1996;. ...
... Different methods used by different authors can also make the values in the literature incomparable, as is seen with estimates of gross energy (Matsumoto 1976;Oyarzun et al 1996;. Additionally, some studies of termites as food for humans examine their nutritional value as consumed which may include being fried in oil (Oliveira et al 1976) and thus limits our ability to extend the information to Plio-Pleistocene hominids. ...
... The most comprehensive study of the nutritional value of different species of termites to date is by Banjo et al (2006) and the nutrients of each caste within a species of Nasutitermes analyzed by Oyarzun et al (1996). Classic studies that are often referenced also appear here: Oliveira et al (1976) analyzed four species of insects as consumed in Angola, including Macrotermes subhyalinus alates that are fried in palm oil, and Phelps et al (1975) investigated the nutritive value of Macrotermes falciger alates when fed to white rats. ...
Article
Termites have recently become a subject of interest for paleoanthropologists. In 2001, Backwell and d???Errico reported evidence of termite foraging by the Swartkrans hominids as seen in the wear patterns on bone tools from the site. This conclusion has been credited by some to be a plausible explanation for unexpected carbon isotope signatures present in South African hominid teeth that suggest the diet was different from that of extant non-human great apes, consisting of a significant amount of resources not from woody plants. Grass-eating termites such as the genus Trinervitermes are one potential resource that could contribute to the carbon signature. However, not all termites forage for grass, and in fact, Macrotermes, the termites most widely consumed by chimpanzees and by many present-day human populations, almost exclusively forage on the remains of woody plants and therefore would not contribute to the signature. This dissertation focuses on how the bone tools were being used in order to address which termites were being consumed and their nutritional role in the hominid diet. One possibility is that they were used in a manner similar to ???perforating,??? a complex action utilized by the chimpanzees of the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo, to use a stick to reopen the exit/entry holes created by termites on their mounds. After analyzing observations of this action, the task was recreated with experimental bone tools and the wear patterns compared to those on the ends of the Swartkrans bone tools. Digging into Trinervitermes mounds was also investigated. The wear pattern analyses were inconclusive, and the best support for which termites would have been consumed comes from behavioral and ethnographic data. Termites of the genus Macrotermes may be the most likely resource for Plio-Pleistocene hominids since they are highly selected by both chimpanzees and humans. These termites would not contribute to the surprising carbon isotope signature, but if both the soldiers and alates were being consumed, they would provide a reliable source of protein and fat, which are valuable for larger brained hominids navigating the South African savanna.
... Domestic cricket, A domesticus 40,[48][49][50][51] Earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris 48,52 Silkworm, B mori 48,53 Mealworm larvae and beetles, T molitor 40,41,48,52,[54][55][56][57][58] Fruit flies, D melanogaster 42,47,52,58 Waxworm, G mellonella 48,52,59 Superworm larvae and beetle Zoophobas morio 48,52,58 Termites Nasutitermes spp. 60 Black soldier fly larvae or phoenix worm, H illucens 1,46 Madagascar hissing cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa 58 Butterworm worms, Chilecomadia moorei 47 Turkistan or red rusty cockroaches, Blatta Lateralis 47,58 Adult house flies, Musca domestica 47 Wood louse, Porcellio scaber 58 False katydid, Microcentrum rhombifolium 58 Migratory locust, L migratoria 42,61 Termites, Nasutitermes spp. 60 Six-spotted cockroach, Eublaberus distani 58 German cockroach, Blatella germanica 62 Honey bee, Apis mellifera 62 Gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar 62 Slugs, A subflavus 62 Dung beetle (unknown species) 62 Dragonfly nymphs (unknown species) 62 Updates on Amphibian Nutrition & Feeder Insect Nutritive Quality ...
... 60 Black soldier fly larvae or phoenix worm, H illucens 1,46 Madagascar hissing cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa 58 Butterworm worms, Chilecomadia moorei 47 Turkistan or red rusty cockroaches, Blatta Lateralis 47,58 Adult house flies, Musca domestica 47 Wood louse, Porcellio scaber 58 False katydid, Microcentrum rhombifolium 58 Migratory locust, L migratoria 42,61 Termites, Nasutitermes spp. 60 Six-spotted cockroach, Eublaberus distani 58 German cockroach, Blatella germanica 62 Honey bee, Apis mellifera 62 Gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar 62 Slugs, A subflavus 62 Dung beetle (unknown species) 62 Dragonfly nymphs (unknown species) 62 Updates on Amphibian Nutrition & Feeder Insect Nutritive Quality ...
... There are few studies that evaluate the fatty acid composition of invertebrate feeders and, among those reported, most insects contain significant quantities of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. 40,[46][47][48]60 The black soldier fly larva contains high levels of lauric acid. ...
Article
The study of amphibian nutrition requires a detailed review of species-specific natural prey analysis. Invertebrate nutrient composition has been formally studied for more than 60 years and presents the following conclusions: (1) in general, insects are poor in overall calcium content; (2) larval insects have high fat and protein components; and (3) altering the gut contents of some insects can improve their overall nutritive quality. The fat-soluble vitamin profile for most inverts is lacking. There are new guidelines for calcium and vitamin A supplementation that can help augment invertebrate nutrient profiles to match the minimum NRC requirements established for rats.
... Table 11.2 clearly reveals that, like most other edible insects, termites consist predominantly of fat (39.74%) and proteins (33.19%) on average (n = 13). These values agree strongly with those published in the literature on termites eaten in other continents (Oyarzun et al. 1996;Ramos-Elorduy et al. 1997). In a review on the nutrient composition of 236 edible insects, it was also shown that globally termites (n = 7) had mean fat and protein values of 32.74 and 35.34%, respectively (Rumpold and Schlüter 2013). ...
... Linoleic acid, the next abundant fatty acid, was about half that value (18.39%). These findings correlate well with results from other studies (Oyarzun et al. 1996;Kinyuru et al. 2013). ...
... Calcium, iron, and zinc contents were the minerals of interest, as M. bellicosus had the highest calcium and iron content, while Pseudacanthotermes militaris had the highest zinc content. The levels of calcium, iron, and zinc of African termites agree with similar studies in other parts of the globe (Oyarzun et al. 1996;Ramos-Elorduy et al. 1997). However, there was wide variability in iron content between M. bellicosus (115.97 mg/100 g) and other species recorded such as M. nigeriensis (0.96 mg/100 g) (Igwe et al. 2011;Kinyuru et al. 2013). ...
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Apart from their important role in the breakdown of organic matter in tropical regions, termites are an important food source across sub-Saharan Africa, where they are consumed as delicacies both in rural and urban areas. This chapter reviews termite species as an edible insect and the overall role it plays in food and nutrition security in Africa. The study shows that Macrotermes is the most eaten genus with the species M. bellicosus taking the lead. The insects are always harvested from the wild during the rainy seasons, the months of March to June and November to December being the most important. Several methods of capture are employed using water in basins and lamps to attract them at night. Termites are highly nutritious with high levels of protein, fats, key vitamins, and minerals. With very little or no anti-nutrient, noxious chemicals and microbial concerns, they seem a great food source. Their inclusion in complementary food formulations has proved very satisfactory. However, climate change, seasonality, and overexploitation seem to be the current challenges to their full-scale use.
... Likewise two species of commercially produced Lepidoptera larvae (waxworms -larvae of the waxmoth G. mellonella -and tebo worms -larvae of the tebo moth Chilecomadia moorei) contained little or no sodium (Finke, 2002(Finke, , 2013. There are fewer reports on the sodium and potassium content of both wild caught and commercially produced insects than exist for calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, but these data fall within the range of values previously published (Deblauwe and Janssens, 2008;Finke, 2002Finke, , 2005Finke, , 2013Levy and Cromroy, 1972;Oonincx and Dierenfeld, 2011;Oonincx and Van der Poel, 2010;Oyarzun et al., 1996;Razeng and Watson, 2015;Reicle et al., 1969;Studier et al., 1991;Studier and Sevick, 1992). All three species contain adequate amounts of chloride. ...
... Levels of the trace minerals iron, zinc, copper and manganese were variable but levels were within the range previously reported for both wild caught and commercially produced feeder insects (Barker et al., 1998;Deblauwe and Janssens, 2008;Finke, 2002Finke, , 2013Kinyuru et al., 2010b;Levy and Cromroy, 1972;Martin et al., 1976;Oonincx and Dierenfeld, 2011;Oonincx and Van der Poel, 2010;Oyarzun et al., 1996;Razeng and Watson, 2015;Studier and Sevick, 1992;Studier et al., 1991). None of the three species contained sufficient manganese to meet the requirement of growing broiler chickens (21, 27 and 20% of the requirement for grasshoppers, beetles and moths, respectively) although the levels were adequate for growing rats (155, 199 and 150% of the requirement, respectively). ...
... Consistent with what was observed here, not all species of commercially produced insects contained detectable levels of iodine but those that did contained levels similar to the levels seen here. Likewise there is little information on the selenium content of wild insects but the results seen here are within the range of values reported for both commercially produced feeder and wild caught insects (Finke, 2002(Finke, , 2013Oyarzun et al., 1996;Razeng and Watson, 2015). ...
Article
Insects serve as a major source of nutrients for many animal species, but complete nutritional information of wild insects is lacking. Wild pallid-winged grasshoppers, rhinoceros beetles and white-lined sphinx moths were caught in Rio Verde, Arizona, in the summer of 2013 (grasshoppers and beetle) or the spring of 2015 (moths). Pallid-winged grasshoppers, rhinoceros beetles and white-lined sphinx moths were analysed for moisture, crude protein, fat, ash, acid detergent fibre, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids and vitamins and values compared the nutrient requirements for both rats and poultry as reported by the National Research Council (NRC). The acid detergent fibre was also analysed for nitrogen. When compared to the nutrient requirements as established by the NRC for growing rats, grasshoppers were deficient in calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, thiamine and vitamin B12, beetles were deficient in calcium, vitamin A, vitamin E, thiamine, pyridoxine and linoleic acid and moths were deficient in calcium, so...
... The values of the studied termites were also higher than that of Nausitermes spp. termite (40.23 g/100 g) reported by Oyarzun et al. (1996). ...
... Values for zinc content are missing completely from the NFCT (Sehmi, 1993). The levels of calcium, iron and zinc of the insects obtained in this study are in agreement with previous studies on termites (Oyarzun et al., 1996;Christensen et al., 2006;Onigbinde and Adamolekun, 1998). However there was wide variability in iron content between M. bellicosus (115.97 mg/100 g) and the other species analyzed (53.33-64.77 ...
... Consumption of soil especially from termite moulds in western Kenya is a common practise (Geissler et al., 1997) and so possibility of insect contamination with soil does not hinder local consumption. Contrary to the high zinc and iron contents in insects, calcium content has been reported to be relatively low in other termite species as well as in other insects (Oyarzun et al., 1996;Onigbinde and Adamolekun, 1998;Kinyuru et al., 2010a;Banjo et al., 2006;Ekpo and Onigbinde, 2007). ...
... In addition, giant anteaters have a lower basal metabolic requirement when compared to the mammalian average (McNab 1984) for which their diets have historically been designed, possibly making them susceptible to overfeeding and obesity (Stahl et al. 2012). Though there have been some systematic evaluations of myrmecophage diets, poor knowledge of their nutritional needs has led to a historically inadequate nutrition profile as well as numerous nutrition-related health problems such as rear limb paresis (possibly related to vitamin A toxicosis or excessive vitamin D and/ or calcium), other lesions associated with high levels of vitamin A, vitamin K deficiency, liquid faeces/diarrhoea, constipation, low blood and plasma taurine concentrations, tongue tip constriction, gastrointestinal tract obstruction, anorexia, obesity, or diabetes (Oyarzun et al. 1996;Steinmetz et al. 2007;Valdes and Brenes Soto 2012;Wyss et al. 2013;Gull et al. 2015). ...
... On a DM basis, the diet of wild tamandua consists of 14.0% ash and 31.0% ADF (Oyarzun et al. 1996). In contrast, the ash and ADF content in captive giant anteaters, aardvarks, and armadillo averaged 6.3% ash and 20.5% ADF; 7.1% ash and 21.6% ADF; and 5.6-7.2% ...
Article
A survey was conducted investigating the feeding practices, body condition, and faecal consistency of 26 giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), 13 aardvarks (Orycteropus afer), and 31 armadillos (Dasypodidae spp.) from 20 zoological collections in the UK. For the latter two, scores for body condition (BCS, from 1 – emaciated – to 5 – grossly obese) and faeces (Faecal Score (FS) from 1 – solid – to 5 – diarrhoea-like) were applied. The majority of the UK collections offered a 'complete' feed for anteaters and aardvarks as opposed to the traditional 'gruel' diet. Armadillos were fed mixed diets of fruits, vegetables, eggs, dog or cat food, and various other items. Grossly obese individuals (BCS >4) were only observed in two armadillo species. The average body mass recorded for giant anteaters was above values reported for wild animals, but this was not the case in aardvarks. Anteaters received on average 75% of the amount of dry matter offered to aardvarks, although their basal metabolism is only 60% that of aardvarks; hence, anteaters might have been offered more food than required. The FS for anteaters were higher than for aardvarks or armadillos. Dietary ash, acid detergent fibre and acid insoluble ash (AIA) levels did not correlate with either FS or faecal dry matter (DM). However, there were negative correlations between faecal ash and AIA content with faecal DM and FS, suggesting that measures increasing AIA intake above that achieved by current diets might beneficially influence FS. Only one anteater had a patent parasite infection; this animal had an FS of 5. Results of this survey will encourage careful monitoring of body mass and diet for giant anteaters and armadillos to avoid obesity. Further studies are needed to investigate the impact of higher levels of indigestible material in anteater diets on faecal consistency, growth, and body condition.
... Arthropods vary greatly in nutritional value, with studies of commercially raised (Studier et al. 1991, Bukkens 1997, Barker et al. 1998, Finke 2002) and wildcaught arthropods (Robel et al. 1995, Oyarzun et al. 1996, Arnold et al. 2010, Eeva et al. 2010) documenting major diff erences in macronutrient composition. Th e nutrient profi le of arthropods depends on multiple factors, including diet, life phase, soil type and season (Studier et al. 1991, Chen et al. 2004, Deblauwe and Janssens 2008, Arnold et al. 2010. ...
... Due to the nature of the information collected and the fact that the minimum sample mass required for reliable analysis far exceeds the mass of individual arthropods, quantitative analyses were not considered appropriate for macronutrients (after Studier et al. 1991, Robel et al. 1995, Oyarzun et al. 1996, Deblauwe and Janssens 2008. Duplicate samples were tested where possible, but insuffi cient arthropod material was collected to allow for further replication (Razeng 2011). ...
Article
Food availability is emerging as a key determinant of avian occurrence and habitat use in a variety of systems, but insectivores have received less attention than other groups and the potential influence of nutritional quality has rarely been considered. Rather than a uniform food source, arthropods vary greatly in terms of nutritional composition, but does this variation translate into differential consumption? Building on previous work that demonstrated clear preference for some arthropod groups by 13 species of ground-foraging insectivores, we compare the nutritional composition of these arthropod groups with other groups commonly encountered but seldom consumed in the same habitat types. Using samples of arthropods collected from a eucalypt woodland in southern Australia, we found the high frequency prey groups (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera and Araneae) consistently contained higher fractions of crude protein and total fat than the low frequency groups (Diptera, Hymenoptera and Odonata). Even more clear-cut differences were noted in terms of micronutrients; high frequency prey containing significantly greater concentrations of seven elements than low frequency prey and significantly greater amounts per individual arthropod for all eleven elements measured. These results indicate that the nutritional quality plays an important role in prey selection in insectivores and suggests that micronutrients may be more important determinants of prey choice than previously recognized. Integrating these findings with previous work suggesting food limitation may constrain distribution patterns of birds in fragmented landscapes, we contend that variation in nutritional quality helps explain observed patterns in insectivore diets and occurrence. In addition to explaining why smaller and more disturbed habitats are unable to support resident insectivore populations, this bottom-up mechanism may underlie the disproportionate sensitivity of insectivores to land-use intensification.
... This is consistent with most reports for both commercially raised and wild insects. Significant levels of vitamin A have been reported in only a few species of insects [Pennino et al., 1991;Oyarzun et al., 1996;Finke, 2002]. Locusts fed a grass diet supplemented with wheat bran and fresh carrots contained significantly more retinol than those fed only a grass diet, but the retinol levels (110-190 mg retinol or 366-633 IU Vitamin A/kg dry matter (DM) for all locusts are well below the requirements of the rat . ...
... Although there is relatively little data available, wild caught insects appear to contain more vitamin E (range approximately 16-171 IU/kg as is) than typical commercial feeder insects and the levels are comparable to those observed here for enhanced feeder insects [Pennino et al., 1991;Oyarzun et al., 1996;Cerda et al., 2001;Arnold et al., 2010]. Dierenfeld has reported vitamin E deficiency in zoo animals and has suggested their diets contain 75-300 IU vitamin E/kg of diet versus 27 and 10 IU/kg diet suggested by the NRC for rats and poultry respectively [Dierenfeld, 1989[Dierenfeld, , 1994. ...
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Commercially raised feeder insects used to feed captive insectivores are a good source of many nutrients but are deficient in several key nutrients. Current methods used to supplement insects include dusting and gut-loading. Here, we report on the nutrient composition of four species of commercially raised feeder insects fed a special diet to enhance their nutrient content. Crickets, mealworms, superworms, and waxworms were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, fat, ash, acid detergent fiber, total dietary fiber, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, taurine, carotenoids, inositol, and cholesterol. All four species contained enhanced levels of vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids when compared to previously published data for these species. Crickets, superworms, and mealworms contained β-carotene although using standard conversion factors only crickets and superworms would likely contain sufficient vitamin A activity for most species of insectivores. Waxworms did not contain any detectable β-carotene but did contain zeaxanthin which they likely converted from dietary β-carotene. All four species contained significant amounts of both inositol and cholesterol. Like previous reports all insects were a poor source of calcium and only superworms contained vitamin D above the limit of detection. When compared to the nutrient requirements as established by the NRC for growing rats or poultry, these species were good sources of most other nutrients although the high fat and low moisture content of both waxworms and superworms means when corrected for energy density these two species were deficient in more nutrients than crickets or mealworms. These data show the value of modifying the diet of commercially available insects as they are growing to enhance their nutrient content. They also suggest that for most insectivores properly supplemented lower fat insects such as crickets, or smaller mealworms should form the bulk of the diet.
... The assessment of the quality of a fat is often a complex issue, but the presence of both saturated (SFA) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) in these insects could be an advantage since they may complement each other's physiological functions. Odontotermes sp. with an SFA:UFA ratio of 1.123 (a little higher than the reported range of 0.262 to 0.96 for other insects of isopterans: Paoletti et al., 2003;Raksakantong et al., 2010;Oyarzun et al., 1996;Bukkens, 2005;Ekpo et al., 2009) might seem nutritionally undesirable, because of the linkage between SFAs and atherosclerotic disorders (Reiser, 1973). It is, however, important to stress that not all the saturated fatty acids have the same effect on cholesterol synthesis in the liver. ...
... In O. smaragdina UFAs dominated the fatty acid spectra and the value of 0.67 for the SFA:UFA ratio lay within the range (0.30-0.67) reported for many insects of different orders (Oyarzun et al., 1996;Paoletti et al., 2003;Yang et al., 2006;Ekpo et al., 2009;Bophimai and Siri, 2010;Raksakantong et al., 2010;Fontaneto et al., 2011;Rumpold and Schluter, 2013). The proportion of unsaturated fatty acid in this insect is higher than the reported values for pork, beef, veal, palm oil, coconut oil cocoa butter and comparable to egg and mustard oil (USDA database, 2015). ...
Article
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The nutritional potential of Oecophylla smaragdina and Odontotermes sp., two common species of insects used as food by tribal people of Arunachal Pradesh and elsewhere in India was assessed. O. smaragdina and Odontotermes sp. contained 55.28 and 33.67% protein, 14.99 and 50.93% fat, 19.84 and 6.30% fibre, 2.59 and 3.01% ash and 7.30 and 6.09% carbohydrates, respectively. The protein of both species involved 18 amino acids, including all of the essential ones with the exception of methionine, which satisfies the recommended level (score > 100). In O. smaragdina, the MUFA fraction (51.55%) dominated the lipids and was followed by SFA (40.26%) and PUFA (8.19%). In Odontotermes sp. SFAs (52.89%) were dominant, followed by MUFAs (44.52%) and PUFAs (2.59%). In both species iron, zinc and copper were the most abundant minerals and calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were present in substantial amounts. Respective values for anti-nutrients like phytic acid and tannin (mg/100 g) were 171.0 and 496.67 for O. smaragdina and 141.23 and 615.0 for Odontotermes sp., values much lower than corresponding ones from some common foods of plant origin. The two insects, once under controlled cultivation, could be a good choice as a replacement for some vertebrate animal food products.
... Potassium is found in higher concentrations in termites than most other elements, including Mg and Fe [14,57]. Although Cl levels have not been measured in termites, Cl and phosphates are generally the most common anions in insects [44]. ...
... Both K and Cl are important for homeostasis in insects and can be processed by multiple tissues, thus, consuming excess amounts of both nutrients may be more tolerable [58,59]. Phosphorus levels have been shown to be higher than Mg levels in Nasutitermes [57]. Phosphates are needed for energetic functions, protein synthesis, and even used to store Mg [44,55]. ...
Article
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Most studies on termite food selection have focused on a single nutrient per choice, however, termites, like all animals, must balance multiple nutrients in their diet. While most studies that use multi-nutrient approaches focus on macromolecules, the ability to balance the intake of inorganic nutrients is also vital to organisms. In this study, we used the geometric framework to test the effects of multiple inorganic nutrients on termite feeding. We presented the subsets of Reticulitermes flavipes colonies with food enriched with varying in levels of KCl, MgSO₄, and FePO₄. Each trial varied two of the three nutrients while the third nutrient was kept constant. The amount of food consumed was measured over two weeks. The termites' feeding patterns during the study suggested that they fed until they reached a limit for MgSO₄. This result suggests that the termites were using the rule of compromise such that the termites would over consume KCl or FePO₄ in order to avoid overeating MgSO₄. Thus, the termite colonies are able to regulate the intake of inorganic nutrients, and by doing so, adjust their intake from multiple resources in order to maintain an intake target.
... A. Food limitation 1. General (a) GCs increase in response to natural food limitation (i) GCs increase in the dry season and are negatively correlated with rainfall in African elephant (Loxodonta africana) [12] (ii) GCs were higher in a food-limited group versus a food-abundant group in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) [25] (b) GCs increases in response to experimental food limitation (i) GCs increase under food limitation in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) [27] (ii) Food limitation during development increases GCs in western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) [28] (iii) Food limitation and unpredictability increase GCs in mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli) [29] (iv) Food limitation increases GCs in barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) [30] 2. Access to anthropogenic food resources Negative (a) GCs decrease during anthropogenic food provisioning in Sykes' monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis albogularis) [18] (b) Refuse-feeding banded mongooses exhibit better physical condition than non-refuse-feeders [54] (c) Banded mongoose area use is concentrated around refuse sites [39,55] (i) GCs increase with increased foraging travel time in Mexican howlers (Alouatta palliata mexicana) [23] (ii) GCs increase under high food search demand effort in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) [22] (d) Banded mongoose escorts lose body mass while provisioning pups and exhibit increased fGCMs, but fGCMs are reduced in these animals if fed supplementally [43] 3. Fecal organic matter Negative (a) Indicator of organic matter intake in cattle (Bos taurus) and goats (Capra aegagrus) [56] (b) Complementary measures, fecal ash and ingested soil, also indicate food limitation (i) Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) increase soil ingestion as forage [57] and food supplementation [58,59] decrease and stocking rates increase [60] (ii) Aardwolves (Proteles cristata) have more fecal sand when termites are scarce [61] (iii) Tamanduas (Tamandua tetradactyla) ingest more substrate during behavioral or dietary deficits [62] (iv) Three-banded armadillos (Tolypeutes tricinctus) ingested more soil in dry seasons [63] (v) Giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) fecal nutrition markers were inversely related to fecal ash [64] 4. Recent rainfall Negative (a) Millipedes and (at times) termite alates dominate banded mongoose diet [65] (b) Rainfall affects banded mongoose prey availability: soil macroinvertebrates [66]; millipedes [67]; termite alates [68] (i) Residual effect of rain on millipede availability may last up to 8 days [67] 5. Soil macrofauna density Negative (a) Soil macrofauna densities at our study site vary by habitat type [66] B. Reproduction ...
... In seasons when their preferred termite prey, Trinervitermes sp., are scarce, aardwolves (Proteles cristata) exhibit more sand in their feces [61]. Captive tamanduas (Tamandua tetradactyla) ingest more substrate when they experience behavioral or dietary deficits [62]. Three-banded armadillos (Tolypeutes tricinctus) had no soil in their early wet season feces, when termite alates erupted, but ingested large quantities of soil during the dry season (as seen when comparing wet and dry season stomach contents post mortem) [63]. ...
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Background: Glucocorticoids mediate responses to perceived stressors, thereby restoring homeostasis. However, prolonged glucocorticoid elevation may cause homeostatic overload. Using extensive field investigations of banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) groups in northern Botswana, we assessed the influence of reproduction, predation risk, and food limitation on apparent homeostatic overload (n=13 groups, 1542 samples from 268 animals). We experimentally manipulated reproduction and regulated food supply in captive mongooses, and compared their glucocorticoid responses to those obtained from free-living groups. Results: At the population level, variation in glucocorticoid levels in free-living mongooses was explained by food limitation: fecal organic matter, recent rainfall, and access to concentrated anthropogenic food resources. Soil macrofauna density and reproductive events explained less and predation risk very little variation in glucocorticoid levels. Reproduction and its associated challenges alone (under regulated feeding conditions) increased glucocorticoid levels 19-fold in a captive group. Among free-living groups, glucocorticoid elevation was seasonal (occurring in late dry season or early wet season when natural food resources were less available), but the timing of peak glucocorticoid production was moderated by access to anthropogenic resources (groups with fewer anthropogenic food sources had peaks earlier in dry seasons). Peak months represented 12- and 16-fold increases in glucocorticoids relative to nadir months with some animals exhibiting 100-fold increases. Relative to the captive group nadir, some free-living groups exhibited 60-fold increases in peak glucocorticoid levels with some animals exhibiting up to 800-fold increases. Most of these animals exhibited 1- to 10-fold increases relative to the captive animal peak. Conclusions: Banded mongooses exhibit seasonal chronic glucocorticoid elevation, associated primarily with food limitation and secondarily with reproduction. Magnitude and duration of this elevation suggests that this may be maladaptive for some animals, with possible fitness consequences. In late dry season, this population may face a convergence of stressors (food limitation, agonistic encounters at concentrated food resources, evictions, estrus, mate competition, parturition, and predation pressure on pups), which may induce homeostatic overload.
... The termite sample contents of protein and ether extract in this study were 36.67 and 26.46% respectively. That value for termite protein is lower than 46.3% reported by Sogbesan and Ugwumba (2008), and 58.20% reported by Oyarzun, et al. (1996), but higher than 21.25% reported by Banjo, et al. (2006). The ether extract value was lower than 34.23% recorded by Igwe, et al. (2011), but higher than 15.04% reported by Oyarzun, et al. (1996) (1857g), and the highest mortality rate (33.33%) obtained in birds fed lizard meal may be as a result of the anti-nutritional factors in raw lizard as reported by Abulude, et al. (2007). ...
... That value for termite protein is lower than 46.3% reported by Sogbesan and Ugwumba (2008), and 58.20% reported by Oyarzun, et al. (1996), but higher than 21.25% reported by Banjo, et al. (2006). The ether extract value was lower than 34.23% recorded by Igwe, et al. (2011), but higher than 15.04% reported by Oyarzun, et al. (1996) (1857g), and the highest mortality rate (33.33%) obtained in birds fed lizard meal may be as a result of the anti-nutritional factors in raw lizard as reported by Abulude, et al. (2007). The authors reported that raw Agama agama lizard contained tannin, oxalate and phytate. ...
Article
Searching for least cost feed component should be extended to unconventional feedstuffs that are locally available and cheaper to come by. Therefore, an eight-week experiment was carried out to determine the effect of different protein sources (maggot, termite, grasshopper and lizard meal) on performance of broiler chickens. A total of one hundred and fifty (150), one day-old broiler chicks of Marshall Breed were used for the experiment. An eight-weekstudy was conducted to evaluate the performance of broiler chickens fed the four different sources of animal protein. Diet I contained 5% fish meal while Diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 contained 5% maggot meal, termite meal, grasshopper meal and lizard meal, respectively at the starter phase. The finisher phase contained 2.5kg each of the protein sources respectively. The chicks were allotted to five dietary treatments each replicated thrice with ten birds perreplicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). Proximate composition of the test ingredients showed that lizard meal had the highest (55.66%) crude protein and crude fibre (5.53%). Termite meal exhibited highest (26.46%) ether extract followed by maggot meal (9.79%) with the lowest (4.02%) from lizard meal. The feed intake value (4700.16g) in birds fed diet 1 was significantly (P<0.05) higher than others. Birds fed Diet 2 showed significant (P< 0.05) better final weight gain (2367g) than those fed other test ingredients. Birds fed diet 2 (maggot meal) performed better than others in absolute weight gain (2287g) which is very close to those fed fish meal (Diet 1). In conclusion, maggot meal in this study enhanced performance and is thus recommended as a replacement for fish meal.
... Feces of T. tetradactyla have cholesterol and 9 bile acids including lithocholic acid and deoxicolic acid but not chenodeoxycholic , cholic, or dehydrocholic acids (Araujo et al. 2007). On a dry matter basis, the stomach contents contained 4.58 kcallg gross energy, 50.90/0 crude protein, and 11.20/0 fat (Oyarzun et al. 1996). Semen (10-20 JlI) from 1 T. tetradactyla averaged 37.5 sperm cells with normal morphology that had an approximate head length of 14 urn, a width of 6 urn, and a tail length of 140 urn (Hay et al. 1994). ...
... A single sample of stomach contents contained 690/0 ants, 220/0 termite workers, and 90/0 termite soldiers. A 2nd sample contained 770/0 termite workers, 180/0 soldiers, 50/0 ants, and a substantial quantity of nest material (Oyarzun et al. 1996Ectoparasites include ticks: Amblyomma cajennense(Labruna et al. 2002), A. calcaratum (Martins and Guglielmone 1995), A. giildii, A. maculatum, A. nodosum (Amorim and Serra-Freire 1994; Aragao 1936; Bitencourth et al. 2007; Dantas-Torres et ale 2010; Labruna et al. 2002), and A. rotundatum (Barros and Baggio 1992); mites: Psoralges libertus (Fain 1965); and fleas: Pulex irritans and Tunga bondari (Hopkins and Rothschild 1953 ). Staphylococcus and Streptococcus bacteria were found in purulent skin (Diniz et al. 1997). ...
Article
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Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758), commonly called the southern tamandua, is 1 of 2 extant, primarily arboreal anteaters. It is distributed over northern and central South America east of the Andes and uses a diverse array of habitats including Chaco, grasslands, and transitional forests. Its diet is primarily one of social ants and termites. It is listed as “Least Concern” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources due to its wide distribution. Primary threats to T. tetradactyla are fire, habitat loss, highway mortality, and hunting.
... It seems likely that both calcium and magnesium form a complex with chitin in the larval cuticle in this species. There are few reports on the sodium and potassium content of captive bred insects (Finke, 2002, 2013; Oonincx and van der Poel, 2011; Oonincx and Dierenfeld, 2012), but these data are similar and comparable to the values obtained for wild-caught insects (Levy and Cromroy, 1973; Oyarzun et al., 1996; Reichle et al., 1969; Studier et al., 1991; Studier and Sevick, 1992). Levels of potassium generally range from 0.6% to 2.0% dry matter, whereas sodium levels are somewhat lower, ranging from 0.1% to 0.6% dry matter. ...
... Palabras clave: Attalea butyracea, dieta, fruto de la palma, tamandúa, Tamandua mexicana Anteaters (Myrmecophagidae and Cyclopedidae) are known in the wild to be obligate specialists on social insects, consuming primarily ants and termites, and occasionally bees, beetle larvae, and other aggregated arthropods (Silveira, 1968;Lubin et al., 1977;Best & Harada, 1985;Redford, 1985Redford, , 1986Medri et al., 2003;Miranda et al., 2003;Miranda et al., 2009). Nevertheless, anteaters in captivity are regularly maintained on diets that include a wide variety of fruit, in addition to meat, milk, dry animal chow, and honey (Meritt, 1976;Cuarón, 1987;Oyarzun et al., 1996;Morford & Meyers, 2003;Pérez Jimeno, 2003;Huff, 2010;Kusuda et al., 2011). It is unclear how fruits have become part of the standard captive diet since the scarce reports of wild anteaters consuming fruit have implied that the behavior is infrequent (Meritt, 1975). ...
Article
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Anteaters (Myrmecophagidae and Cyclopedidae) are known to be specialist predators of ants and termites. Many types of fruits are included in the diets of captive anteaters, even though fruit-eating in the wild has only rarely been reported. During a 2008–2010 telemetry study of northern tamanduas (Tamandua mexicana) on Barro Colorado Island, Panamá, several individuals were witnessed consuming ripe fruits of the palm tree Attalea butyracea. I propose that northern tamanduas regularly seek out fruit as a supplement to their insect diet. Attalea butyracea fruit is seasonally abundant throughout Central America and can pro-vide low-cost enrichment for captive tamanduas.
... Among the potential reasons for the relatively low metabolic rates of myrmecophageous mammals is their mode of food acquisition that usually does not allow them to select very efficiently between prey and detritus (such as soil) (McNab, 1984). Correspondingly, stomach contents or faeces of free-ranging myrmecophages contain indigestible material such as sand, soil or small stones (Bosque et al., 1996;Oyarzun et al., 1996). Note that the presence of soil in anteaters' stomach has also been interpreted as part of a 'gastric mill' (Pernkopf and Lehner, 1937); empirical data for this is, however, lacking. ...
Article
Giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) are among those mammals for which a particularly low metabolism has been reported. In order to verify presumably low requirements for energy, we used 8 captive adult anteaters (2 males, 6 females; aged 1-14 years; body mass between 46-64 kg) in a total of 64 individual experiments, in which a variety of intake levels was achieved on a variety of diets. Digestible energy (DE) intake was quantified by measuring food intake and faecal excretion and analyzing representative samples of gross energy, and animals were weighed regularly. Maintenance DE requirements were calculated by regression analysis for the DE intake that corresponded to no weight change; this resulted in an estimate of 347 kJ DE kg-0.75d-1, which is low compared to the 460-580 kJ DE kg-0.75 d-1 maintenance requirements of domestic dogs. In theory, metabolic requirements below the mammalian average could make species particularly susceptible to overfeeding, if amounts considered adequate for other mammals are given. Anecdotal reports on comparatively fast growth rates and high body masses in captive as compared to freeranging giant anteaters suggest that feeding regimes in captivity should be further assessed.
... The detergent system of fiber analysis was used to quantify neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) [80,as modified by 81] and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) were calculated by difference [28]. We used published values for invertebrate (termite and ant) nutritional composition [82,83]. Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) were calculated following [28]. ...
Article
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Bottom-up regulatory factors have been proposed to exert a strong influence on mammalian population density. Studies relating habitat quality to population density have typically made comparisons among distant species or communities without considering variation in food quality among localities. We compared dietary nutritional quality of two Bornean orangutan populations with differing population densities in peatland habitats, Tuanan and Sabangau, separated by 63 km. We hypothesized that because Tuanan is alluvial, the plant species included in the orangutan diet would be of higher nutritional quality compared to Sabangau, resulting in higher daily caloric intake in Tuanan. We also predicted that forest productivity would be greater in Tuanan compared to Sabangau. In support of these hypotheses, the overall quality of the diet and the quality of matched dietary items were higher in Tuanan, resulting in higher daily caloric intake compared to Sabangau. These differences in dietary nutritional quality may provide insights into why orangutan population density is almost two times greater in Tuanan compared to Sabangau, in agreement with a potentially important influence of diet quality on primate population density.
... There are few reports on the sodium and potassium content of captive bred insects (Finke 2002;Oonincx et al. 2012b;Finke 2013) but these data are similar and comparable to the values obtained for wild-caught insects (Reichle et al. 1969;Levy and Cromroy 1973;Studier, Keeler et al. 1991;Studier and Sevick 1992;Oyarzun, Crawshaw et al. 1996). Levels of potassium generally range from 0.6 -2.0% dry matter while sodium levels are somewhat lower ranging from 0.1 -0.6% dry matter. ...
... This study reveals that E. delegorguei has significant amounts of minerals.The results indicated an ash value that is supported by other authors (Phelps, Struthers, & Moyo, 1975; Oyarzun, Graham, & Eduardo, 1996; Kinyuru et al., 2009; Melo, Horaico, Hector, & Concepcion, 2011; Omotoso, 2006; Omotoso & Adedire, 2007). It was noted that subjecting the insect to heat processing by roasting significantly increased ash content.This increase might be attributed to continuous increase in the minerals present (Shadung, Maboko, & Mashel, 2012; Omotoso & Adedire, 2007). ...
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Three forms of Encosternum delegorguei consumed in Nerumedzo community, Bikita, Zimbabwe were analysed for their nutritional composition. Protein, fat, ash and mineral content were determined for the preprocessed, well prepared and spoiled bugs. The proximate composition and minerals of the insects were determined using standard methods. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used in analyzing data. They were found to contain 30-36% protein; 51-53% fat and 1-1.5% ash respectively. Spoiled bugs contained the lowest protein content of 30.76±0.98% and highest amount of magnesium of 120±2.2 mg/100g while the preprocessed and well processed contained 110±2.5 mg/100g and 112±2.4 mg/100g respectively. Phosphorous was the most abundant in all forms with a value of 570-575 mg/100g. Calcium levels for all the three forms showed an overall mean of 85-89 mg/100g. Among the trace elements, iron was the most abundant (19-22 mg/100g). Roasting increased the protein, ash and magnesium content. The findings suggest the consumption of E. delegorguei is not only based on its cultural and medical roles claimed by the community, but also on the nutrients present.
... A complete description of the methods used in this laboratory is provided by the Indonesian National Standardization Institute (BSN 1992). Collection, identification, and analysis of insect foods were beyond the scope of this study; thus, we used published values for invertebrate (termite) nutrient composition (Oyarzun et al. 1996). ...
Article
Data on energy intake and the effects of fluctuations in fruit availability on energy intake for African apes, and orangutans in mast-fruiting habitats, indicate that orangutans may face greater energetic challenges than do their African counterparts. Comparable data on orangutans in nonmasting forests, which experience lower fluctuations in fruit availability, have been lacking, however, complicating interpretations. We conducted a 46-mo study of orangutan energetics in the nonmasting Sabangau peat-swamp forest, Indonesian Borneo. Sabangau orangutans experienced periods of negative energy balance apparently even longer than in mast-fruiting habitats, as indicated by comparisons of observed energy intake with theoretical requirements and analysis of urinary ketones. Daily energy intake was positively related to fruit availability in flanged males, but not in adult females or unflanged males. This may represent different foraging strategies between age-sex classes and suggests that fruit availability is not always an accurate indicator of ape energy intake/balance. Urinary ketone levels were not generally related to fruit availability, daily energy intake, day range, or party size. This is probably due to low energy intake, and consequently high ketone production, throughout much of the study period. Comparisons with published results on African apes support the hypothesis that orangutans are unique among hominoids in regularly experiencing prolonged periods of negative energy balance. This has important effects on orangutan behavior and socioecology, and has likely been a key factor driving the evolutionary divergence of orangutans and African apes.
... Compared to ants, many termites are relatively easy prey because the numerically dominant workers move slowly along predictable foraging trails and have no defensive abilities (Scholtz et al. 2008). However, the soldier caste of Nasutitermes species produces a sticky defensive secretion through a long, pointed rostrum and mammalian Nasutitermes predators, including the tamandua, tend to show strong preferences for reproductive and worker castes over soldiers (Lubin & Montgomery 1981, Redford 1985, Oyarzun et al. 1996. Nasutitermes soldiers recruit rapidly and in large numbers to breaks in their carton nests, and mammalian predation on Nasutitermes is typically accompanied by intense grooming behavior (Lubin & Montgomery 1981, Redford 1985. ...
Article
Insectivorous mammals are hypothesized to reduce the abundance of their insect prey. Using a 14-yr mammal exclusion experiment, we demonstrate for the first time that a widespread and abundant Neotropical mammalian insectivore (Tamandua: Tamandua mexicana) reduced Azteca ant abundance. Azteca ant nests inside mammal exclosures were significantly larger than nests in control plots, where tamanduas were more abundant. These top-down effects were caused not only by direct consumption, but also through non-trophic direct effects, specifically nest damage. In contrast, tamanduas appeared to exert no significant top-down effect on termite prey, which have strong chemical defenses. Our results are consistent with theory that strong defenses against predation can mitigate the top-down effects of predators on some prey species. We argue that predicting the degree of top-down effects caused by predators requires both a quantitative knowledge of prey choice and an understanding of the anti-predator defenses of prey. Abstract in Spanish is available in the online version of this article.
... Identifying additional feeder insects with higher amounts of available calcium and morediverse nutrient profiles is of the utmost importance in our efforts to decrease the incidence of nutritional disorders (e.g., NSHP). Those that have been identified include black soldier fly (BSF) larvae (Hermetia illucens), common rough woodlice (Porcellio scaber), and soldier termites (Nasutitermes corniger) (Oyarzun et al., 1996;Oonincx and Dierenfeld, 2012;Finke, 2013). ...
... As explicit in this definition, the consumption of the same resource (e.g., insects) is not sufficient for delimiting a feeding guild because resources must also be exploited in a similar way. For example, giant anteaters (Tamandua tridactyla) and Rufous Gnateaters (Conopophaga lineata) eat predominantly ants and termites, but obtain food in very different ways (Oyarzun et al. 1996, Lopes et al. 2005a). Thus, the diets of birds are just one aspect of their feeding guild (Jaksic 1981); others include such things as habitat use, search strategy, time of activity, and prey size. ...
Article
Full-text available
Descriptions of avian diets currently lack consistent terminology and standardized methods. As a consequence, most available classifications, especially for tropical birds, are inconsistent and often misleading. We identified 23 food categories most commonly eaten by birds (e.g., seeds, fruits, and insects) and proposed standard names that accurately describe the diet type associated with each food category (e.g., granivore, frugivore, and insectivore). We also propose a classification scheme for avian diet types that takes into account the number of food categories consumed and the volumetric proportion (based on stomach content analysis) of each category eaten to indicate the diet type of a species, using a binomial terminology. Given that bird diets encompass a continuum between some extremes commonly treated as distinct categories, we adopted arbitrary breaking points to delimit distinct diet types. For example, species with different proportions of insects and fruits in their diets can be classified as insectivores (IN), insectivores secondarily frugivores (INFR), frugivores-insectivores (FR-IN), frugivore secondarily insectivores (FRIN), and frugivores (FR). Because many factors can influence avian diets, the diet types of species can also be classified based on age-related, sexual, seasonal, and/or geographic variation, e.g., young are insectivores and adults are frugivores, we believe that our classification scheme provides a standardized terminology that can contribute to a more consistent and effective exchange of information about avian diets.
... There are few reports on the sodium and potassium content of captive bred insects (Finke, 2002(Finke, , 2013Oonincx and van der Poel, 2011;Oonincx and Dierenfeld, 2012), but these data are similar and comparable to the values obtained for wild-caught insects (Levy and Cromroy, 1973;Oyarzun et al., 1996;Reichle et al., 1969;Studier et al., 1991;Studier and Sevick, 1992). Levels of potassium generally range from 0.6% to 2.0% dry matter, whereas sodium levels are somewhat lower, ranging from 0.1% to 0.6% dry matter. ...
... The mean value is much higher than the recommendations for adult cats or dogs based on Case, Daristotle, Hayek, &Raasch (2013) andNRC (2006). Native ants had an average concentration of 53.85% crude protein and termites have an average of 58.20% (Oyarzun, Crawshaw, & Valdes, 1996). Half of the diets came near the proportion of crude protein in the diet that is similar to ant species, with Sunda pangolin diets being closer than the Chinese pangolin diets (Figure 1). ...
Article
Pangolins are ant specialists which are under intense threat from the illegal wildlife trade. Nutrition has notoriously been their downfall in captivity and is still an issue in regards to rescue and rehabilitation. We analyzed the nutrient content of diets used by institutions that are successfully keeping Asian pangolins and to assess the variety of the ingredients and nutrients, compared these with the nutritional requirements of potential nutritional model species. We performed intake studies at five institutions and also had data from three other institutions. We also analyzed five different wild food items to use as a proxy of wild diet. We observed two categories of captive diets: those mostly or completely composed of insects and those high in commercial feeds or animal meat. Nutrient values were broad and there was no clear rule. The non-protein energy to protein energy ratio of the diets were much higher than the wild food items, more so for those which receive less insects. The average contribution of carbohydrate, fat, and protein energy were also further away from the wild samples the less insects they contained. The previously suggested nutritional model for pangolins is the domestic dog which is supported by our relatively large nutrient ranges of apparently successful diets, however, due to their highly carnivorous nature; the upper most nutrient intake data are not consistent with this and favor the feline nutrient recommendations. We are unable to render a conclusion of what model is more appropriate based on our data collected.
... The mean value is much higher than the recommendations for adult cats or dogs based on Case, Daristotle, Hayek, &Raasch (2013) andNRC (2006). Native ants had an average concentration of 53.85% crude protein and termites have an average of 58.20% (Oyarzun, Crawshaw, & Valdes, 1996). Half of the diets came near the proportion of crude protein in the diet that is similar to ant species, with Sunda pangolin diets being closer than the Chinese pangolin diets (Figure 1). ...
Article
Pangolins are ant specialists which are under intense threat from the illegal wildlife trade. Nutrition has notoriously been their downfall in captivity and is still an issue in regards to rescue and rehabilitation. We analyzed the nutrient content of diets used by institutions that are successfully keeping Asian pangolins and to assess the variety of the ingredients and nutrients, compared these with the nutritional requirements of potential nutritional model species. We performed intake studies at five institutions and also had data from three other institutions. We also analyzed five different wild food items to use as a proxy of wild diet. We observed two categories of captive diets: those mostly or completely composed of insects and those high in commercial feeds or animal meat. Nutrient values were broad and there was no clear rule. The non-protein energy to protein energy ratio of the diets were much higher than the wild food items, more so for those which receive less insects. The average contribution of carbohydrate, fat and protein energy were also further away from the wild samples the less insects they contained. The previously suggested nutritional model for pangolins is the domestic dog which is supported by our relatively large nutrient ranges of apparently successful diets, however due to their highly carnivorous nature; the upper most nutrient intake data are not consistent with this and favor the feline nutrient recommendations. We are unable to render a conclusion of what model is more appropriate based on our data collected.
... It seems likely that both calcium and magnesium form a complex with chitin in the larval cuticle in this species. There are few reports on the sodium and potassium content of captive bred insects ( Finke, 2002Finke, , 2013; Oonincx and van der Poel, 2011; Oonincx and Dierenfeld, 2012), but these data are similar and comparable to the values obtained for wild-caught insects ( Levy and Cromroy, 1973;Oyarzun et al., 1996;Reichle et al., 1969;Studier et al., 1991;Studier and Sevick, 1992). Levels of potassium generally range from 0.6% to 2.0% dry matter, whereas sodium levels are somewhat lower, ranging from 0.1% to 0.6% dry matter. ...
... Even assuming that they could have momentarily fed on wood particles present in their swarming area, this short-term diet (\ 15 h) could not have suddenly shaped their microbiota. The substantial fraction of lignocellulose reported in alates of Nasutitermes spp (Oyarzun et al. 1996) is consistent with our results. This suggests a wood-enrichment of their diet, either in the same way as soldiers, or by complementing the trophallactic food provided by workers by self-feeding as has already been suggested for some termites (Huang et al. 2008). ...
Article
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Studies on termite symbiosis have revealed that significant symbiont lineages are maintained across generations. However, most studies have focused only on the worker caste. Little is known about the gut microbiota of reproductives, the most probable vectors for transmitting these lineages to offspring. Using 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina MiSeq sequencing, we compared the gut microbiota of swarming alates of the higher termite Nasutitermes arborum with those of their nestmates from the parental colony. The OTU-based alpha diversity indices showed that the gut microbiota of the alates was at least as diverse as those of non-reproductive adults. It was largely dominated by Spirochaetes mostly of the Treponema I cluster (63.1% of reads), the same dominant taxa found in soldiers and workers of this species and in workers of closely related Nasutitermes species. The termite-specific lineages also included other representative taxa such as several clusters of Bacteroidetes and Fibrobacteres-TG3 group. The microbiota of alates was dominated by a core set of host-specific lineages (87% of reads, 77.6% of OTUs), which were always present across all castes/stages. This first comprehensive survey of the microbiota of the founding reproductives of these xylophagous higher termites shows that the bulk of the host endogenous symbionts, mostly taxa that cannot thrive outside the gut, are brought from the parent colony. The royal pair therefore seems to be a key player in the transmission of symbionts across generations and thereby in host-symbiont codiversification. The high proportion of fiber-degrading lineages in their gut suggests a wood-rich diet unlike the larval stages.
... soil) or diet. Soil ingestion during food limitation has been demonstrated in several species [53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61]. We indexed food limitation for mongoose groups using the median percentage fecal organic matter for each group (overall, and by season) and assumed that high organic matter content reflected low food limitation or high food availability. ...
Article
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Background Variation in animal space use reflects fitness trade-offs associated with ecological constraints. Associated theories such as the metabolic theory of ecology and the resource dispersion hypothesis generate predictions about what drives variation in animal space use. But, metabolic theory is usually tested in macro-ecological studies and is seldom invoked explicitly in within-species studies. Full evaluation of the resource dispersion hypothesis requires testing in more species. Neither have been evaluated in the context of anthropogenic landscape change. Methods In this study, we used data for banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) in northeastern Botswana, along a gradient of association with humans, to test for effects of space use drivers predicted by these theories. We used Bayesian parameter estimation and inference from linear models to test for seasonal differences in space use metrics and to model seasonal effects of space use drivers. Results Results suggest that space use is strongly associated with variation in the level of overlap that mongoose groups have with humans. Seasonality influences this association, reversing seasonal space use predictions historically-accepted by ecologists. We found support for predictions of the metabolic theory when moderated by seasonality, by association with humans and by their interaction. Space use of mongooses living in association with humans was more concentrated in the dry season than the wet season, when historically-accepted ecological theory predicted more dispersed space use. Resource richness factors such as building density were associated with space use only during the dry season. We found negligible support for predictions of the resource dispersion hypothesis in general or for metabolic theory where seasonality and association with humans were not included. For mongooses living in association with humans, space use was not associated with patch dispersion or group size over both seasons. Conclusions In our study, living in association with humans influenced space use patterns that diverged from historically-accepted predictions. There is growing need to explicitly incorporate human–animal interactions into ecological theory and research. Our results and methodology may contribute to understanding effects of anthropogenic landscape change on wildlife populations.
... The seasonal pattern of ant biomass and caste composition in the pangolin's diet was similar to the previous studies of ant activity in the field (Kaspari et al., 1999;Levings and Windsor, 1984). From the nutrition aspect, alate or nymphs of ants and termites was contained substantially higher percentages of fat and thus providing more calories than workers and soldiers (Redford and Dorea, 1984;Oyarzun et al., 1996). The nutritional value of various prey castes in the diet of myrmecophagous mammals have seldom been quantified and analyzed. ...
Conference Paper
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Ant and termite colonies are so-called superorganism and have great biomass in most tropical and subtropical ecosystems. Ant-and termite-eating, or myrmecophage, is a foraging behavior for many mammalian species. Seasonal climatic factors strongly affect the life cycles of ants and termites, including colony development and dispersal flight. Chinese pangolin is an obligate myrmecophagous mammal. Previous field observation indicated that the dietary content of Chinese pangolin is seasonal, however, the sample size and number of checking time points of the previous studies were very limited. In this study, we analyzed Chinese pangolin's fecal samples and estimate the approximate dietary biomass intake of ants and termites across all seasons. The results revealed that the dietary biomass and the prey caste composition of Chinese pangolin were seasonal. Pangolins consumed more ants in summer than in winter, while the quantity of termite intake significantly decreased from July to September. Termite alates consisted of the majority of termite biomass intake from April to June, which presents seasonality of food availability associated with termite colony development. Our results indicated that the food composition of Chinese pangolin changes seasonally. The species and castes compositions of ant and termite provide us further information on the feeding ecology of Chinese Pangolins.
... The detergent system of fiber analysis was used to quantify neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) [80,as modified by 81] and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) were calculated by difference [28]. We used published values for invertebrate (termite and ant) nutritional composition [82,83]. Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) were calculated following [28]. ...
... For example, the manganese concentrations in the alates of five termite species (2,710-5,150 mg/kg DM) were extremely high compared to mopane worms (Gonimbrasia belina; 39 mg/kg DM), house crickets (38 mg/kg DM), yellow mealworms (5 mg/kg DM), or migratory locusts (10 mg/kg DM) determined in the same study (Verspoor et al., 2020). However, other termite species from other regions, for instance Nasutitermes spp., from Venezuela, reportedly have lower manganese concentrations (32-115 mg/kg DM) (Oyarzun et al., 1996). Caste differences were apparent in the latter study; alates had a far lower manganese concentration than workers (37 vs 115 mg/kg DM). ...
Article
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This article reports on the nutrients present in insects and factors affecting their variability. Data on protein content and amino acid profiles of a variety of insect species are discussed and their amino acid profiles compared to nutrient requirements of growing broiler chicks, catfish, trout, swine, and human adults and young children. Both in vitro and in vivo protein digestibility data for a variety of insect species is presented and factors affecting these data are discussed. Furthermore, the fat content and fatty acid profiles of a variety of insect species is reviewed, with special attention on omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Information on carbohydrates, fibre and chitin in insects is shown along with potential effects on nutrient availability. This is followed by a discussion of essential minerals in insects with an emphasis on calcium and phosphorus. Data on insect vitamin content is shown along with a discussion of antinutritional factors such as phytate and thiaminase, which can adversely affect their nutritional value. Dietary effects on insect nutrient composition are reviewed with an emphasis on essential minerals, heavy metals, vitamin E, and carotenoids. Lastly, the effects of processing, including protein extraction and various cooking methods on insect composition are discussed. In summary, this article provides an overview of the nutrient content of insects, and how select nutrients can be altered.
... The ash contents of wood (sapwood and main trunk) ranged from 0.2 to 2.1% [28][29][30], while the ash contents of termite workers reached 3.72% for Nasutitermes spp. [31], 9.90% for Nasutitermes takasagoensis (Shiraki) [32], 7.494% for C. formosanus, and 8.850% for Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe [33]. The main components of ash are phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium as well as trace amounts of metal elements (minerals) such as aluminum, iron, zinc, sodium, copper, and silicic acid. ...
Article
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Termites are ecologically significant in positive and negative ways; their role in breaking down debris greatly benefits forest environments, but this activity renders them a pest in domestic environments. This study examines the effect of nutrition on the feeding preference of termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Among 11 nutrition options tested, dipotassium phosphate (DKP) most significantly increased feeding consumption in the multiple feeding choice test. The mean feeding amount of the DKP-treated sample was 2.5-fold higher than that of the deionized water-treated control. This result suggests that termite colonies are deficient in phosphorus, and an additional supply of phosphate can promote feeding. The result of a no-choice feeding test using DKP shows that DKP does not promote feeding in a small number of termites. The results obtained in this study suggest that phosphorus is needed in termite colonies, making DKP especially effective. DKP will help to improve bait technology, because it is inexpensive and safe for both humans and the environment.
... In vitamin compositions (Table 3), Vitamin A (0.17 AE 0.01 mg/100g) in O. rhinoceros was less compared to Z. variegatus (0.81 AE 0.01 mg/ 100g), but higher than the value for crickets (0.09 mg/100g), as reported by Oonincx (2010). Vitamin A has been reported in different species of insects' compound eyes and is rarely detected in some insects (Finke, 2002;Seki et al., 1998;Oyarzun et al., 1996) Finke (2015): B 12 , B 1 , and B 6 (193.0 mg/100g, 2.0 mg/100g and 2.13 mg/100g) respectively for crickets, and 1.3 mg/100g, 1.1 mg/100g, 6.90 mg/100g respectively for mealworm. B-vitamins act as co-enzymes in several enzymes catalyses in the body (Alamu et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Considerably large quotas of insect species worldwide are prospective sources of food with high nutrient value, which suggests their importance in human diets. This study investigates and compares the nutrient and anti-nutrient contents of Oryctes rhinoceros larva and Zonocerus variegatus. The nutrient and anti-nutrient compositions of both Oryctes rhinoceros larva (palm beetles) and Zonocerus variegatus (grasshopper) were determined following standard procedures. The proximate results revealed that Oryctes rhinoceros had higher amounts of crude protein (34.76 ± 0.44%) and carbohydrate (10.37 ± 1.73%) compared to those in Zonocerus variegatus ((30.73 ± 1.15%) and (5.36 ± 2.15%) respectively), while crude lipid (20.00 ± 0.00%) was higher in Zonocerus variegatus. Rich mineral components were also obtained in both insects. Potassium and sodium (1905.01 ± 185.01 mg/100g and 1656.00 ± 46.00 mg/100g) were moderately high in Zonocerus variegatus compared to Oryctes rhinoceros (1070.00 ± 260.00 mg/100g and 931.50 ± 11.50 mg/100g), while calcium (368.00 ± 16.00 mg/100g) was comparably higher in Oryctes rhinoceros. The anti-nutrient values of both insects fall within tolerable levels, and subsequently pose no threat to life, indicating that these insects are good sources of several macro and micronutrients. Oryctes rhinoceros, however, may likely serve as a better source of nutrients, considering its more valuable contents of macromolecules.
... En relación a su tamaño corporal, los osos hormigueros tienen una baja tasa metabólica. Su tasa de metabolismo, aparentemente, es una adaptación a su dieta de hormigas y termitas, recursos abundantes pero de pobre calidad nutritiva (McNab, 1982;Redford, 1987 a&b ;Ward et al., 1995;Oyarzun et al., 1996). Myrmecophaga tridactyla parece ser muy selectivo, visitando varios termiteros o nidos de hormigas consecutivamente abandonando el termitero o nido cuando las termitas o hormigas soldados llegan a defenderse con secreciones químicas y mordeduras (Lubin & Montgomery, 1981;Eisenberg & Redford, 1999). ...
Article
The present experiment was performed to determine the digestibility of nutrients and energy in carbohydrate-rich (rice bran, broken rice, maize, cassava root meal) and in protein-rich (dried fish, snails, earthworms, frogs, termites) feed resources that are commonly used to formulate diets for the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Laos. The apparent digestibility (AD) of organic matter ranged from 78.1 to 87.5 %, and was on average 83.2 % (SD 2.7). The AD of crude protein (CP) in the test diets ranged from 86.6 to 93.2 % (average 90.6 %, SD 2.4) and the AD of crude fat (EE) ranged from 79.9 to 91.2 % (average 87.0, SD 3.4). The AD of the carbohydrate components was lower than the AD for CP and EE. However, despite a larger variation in the AD between diets and ingredients, on average 72.2 % (SD 6.7) of the nitrogen-fee extracts and 77.7 % of the total carbohydrate fraction (SD 3.7) were digested. The AD of energy in the test diets was high and ranged from 80.3 to 88.2 % (average 84.5 %, SD 2.3). The estimated content of digestible energy (DE) ranged from 13.2 MJ/kg DM for rice bran to 18.1 MJ/kg DM for frogs. On average, the DE content of the carbohydrate-rich feed ingredients was lower than that of the protein-rich feed ingredients. The protein: energy ratio (P/E ratios) ranged from 2.2 to 6.4 g CP/MJ DE for the carbohydrate-rich feed ingredients, and from 17.4 to 26.1 g CP/MJ DE for the protein-rich feed ingredients. To reach optimum P/E ratios in the diet for growing African catfish (25-30 g CP/MJ DE) only the protein-rich feed ingredients has the potential to meet required levels. Thus, there is a need to search for other potentially useful feed ingredients for catfish production.
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Los osos hormigueros (Pilosa: Vermilingua) son de los mamíferos más antiguos que habitan en Suramérica. En Colombia se encuentran presentes las cuatro especies descritas para este grupo: el oso palmero (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), la tamandúa del norte (Tamandua mexicana), la tamandúa del sur (Tamandua tetradactyla) y el hormiguero de seda (Cyclopes didactylus). A pesar que estas especies tienen una amplia distribución histórica en el territorio nacional, es poco lo que actualmente se conoce de ellas, de sus amenazas y de sus estatus de conservación. De esta forma se gesta un proyecto de conservación con el objetivo de caracterizar una de estas cuatro especies: la población de oso palmero (Myrmecophaga tridactyla); Investigación apoyada por la compañía GEOPARK COLOMBIA S.A.S., quienes se interesaron en esta importante especie y abrieron las posibilidades de estudiar sus poblaciones en su área de influencia en el municipio de Pore en el departamento de Casanare. Para esto se diseñaron tres líneas de trabajo: una orientada a generar nuevo conocimiento sobre la especie, otra dirigida a reconocer y resaltar la percepción de la comunidad hacia la especie e implementar estrategias como la educación ambiental para promover su conservación, y una tercera línea enfocada a la divulgación del conocimiento para mejorar las condiciones de manejo de la especie. A partir de esta última línea de trabajo se pudo evidenciar que los esfuerzos podían ser mancomunados y que no solo CUNAGUARO está trabajando sobre esta especie, sino que existe un grupo representativo de investigadores e instituciones en diferentes lugares del país y del exterior, trabajando por la conservación de estas conspicuas especies; por esta razón se consideró pertinente unir esfuerzos e integrar no solo las investigaciones en torno al Oso Palmero, si no incluir todos aquellos avances de las especies que conforman el grupo de Vermilingua. Con la presente publicación se da un paso importante para conocer acciones que se están desarrollando en el país y toda Latinoamérica en torno a los Xenarthra, siendo éste un aporte representativo para el manejo de estas especies en cautiverio y para el diseño de estrategias más efectivas para su conservación. El presente “Manual de rehabilitación y liberación de hormigueros de Colombia”, se ha diseñado para orientar a los profesionales colombianos que día a día se ven enfrentados al manejo y rehabilitación de individuos de este grupo. Asimismo se constituye como el primer documento sobre los Vermilingua en el país, resaltando la participación de médicos veterinarios, zootecnistas, biólogos, ecólogos e ingenieros de diferentes países como Colombia, Perú, Argentina, Brasil y Estados Unidos. Este documento cuenta con información sobre legislación, ética, taxonomía, manejo, anestesia, nutrición, neonatología, clínica, patologías, cuarentena, medicinas alternativas, rehabilitación, hábitat, monitoreo, educación ambiental y conservación, entre otros temas.
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This study set out to review the nutritional composition of termites and earthworms and their potential value as alternative sources of animal protein in poultry diets. It has been demonstrated that termites and earthworms have high nutritional value and that they may be an important source of protein, carbohydrate, fats, vitamins and minerals. In Botswana, feed costs account for over 70% of the total production costs in commercial poultry production, as nearly all the ingredients used in manufacturing feeds are imported. This makes the prospect of utilizing insects which are available in nature for most part of the year as alternative sources of proteins feasible. Nutritionally, it has been shown that termites and earthworms compare favourably with fish meal, which is the main animal protein source in poultry diets. Based on the high nutritive value of termites and earthworms, it seems that there is need to carry out extensive research on their production in order to enable their use in smallholder poultry production.
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Short-beaked echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus) are myrmecophages, or ant and termite insectivore specialists, and replicating their exact diet in captivity is problematic. Diets for captive animals often incorporate raw meat, eggs and cat food mixed together with water, and vitamin and mineral supplements. These diets have promoted a number of health problems in captive echidnas, such as gastritis, cystitis, gut impaction, obesity, and diarrhea. A manufactured diet was designed and three echidnas from two zoos were transitioned onto this diet to assess the acceptability and digestibility of this diet for echidnas. The new "test" diet was readily accepted by the echidnas with a 1 week transition period. Daily digestible energy intake was 280 kJ kg(-0.75) d(-1) , similar to another myrmecophagous species. Digestibility values were above 74% for all macronutrients. It was determined that this diet was an acceptable replacement for the previous diets and it was decided that the remaining echidnas at both institutions would be transitioned to the new diet. The diet will also be used for wild echidnas being rehabilitated in the zoo hospitals prior to release and commercially available within Australia. Further data are being collected to assess the use of this diet for seasonal weight management, transitioning hand-reared puggles and effects on gastrointestinal tract health. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Dietary deficiencies in Fe and Zn are globally widespread, causing serious health problems such as anaemia, poor pregnancy outcomes, increased risk of morbidity and mortality, stunted growth and impaired physical and cognitive development. Edible insects, of which a diversity of over 2000 species is available, are dietary components for about 2 billion individuals and are a valuable source of animal protein. In the present paper, we review the available information on Fe and Zn in edible insects and their potential as a source of these micronutrients for the rapidly growing human population. The levels of Fe and Zn present in eleven edible insect species that are mass-reared and six species that are collected from nature are similar to or higher than in other animal-based food sources. High protein levels in edible insect species are associated with high Fe and Zn levels. Fe and Zn levels are significantly positively correlated. Biochemically, Fe and Zn in insects occur predominantly in non-haem forms, bound to the proteins ferritin, transferrin and other transport and storage proteins. Knowledge gaps exist for bioavailability in the human alimentary tract, the effect of anti-nutritional factors in other dietary components such as grains on Fe and Zn absorption and the effect of food preparation methods. We conclude that edible insects present unique opportunities for improving the micronutrient status of both resource-poor and Western populations.
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Water, ash, total N and fat contents were determined for the worker and soldier castes of 9 species of central Brazilian termites. Most invertebrate-eating mammals choose prey based on availability and other aspects of prey biology and not on gross nutritional factors. The problems associated with eating ants and termites are discussed and include low nutritional value of prey, small prey size and forms of defense relying on the sociality of the prey.-from Authors
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Arboreal carton nests of four speces of termites (Nasutitermes corniger, N. columbicus, N. nigriceps. and Microcerotermes exiguus) and of ants (genus Azteca) were monitored periodically for one year on Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone. The nests were examined for signs of damage, new growth, and nest abandonment. Nest damage was attributable to predation by anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla), to nesting activities of birds, or to unknown causes. Nest damage due to anteater predation occurred frequently, but rarely resulted in destruction of the nest. Small nests of Microcerotermes termites were most prone to anteater damage, while large nests of Nasutitermes termites suffered more damage from nesting birds. Azteca ant nests were attacked by anteaters, but not by nesting birds. Fewer Azteca nests than termite nests showed signs of predation during the year's census, with 37 percent of the ant nests damaged as compared with 91 percent of the termite nests. There were few instances of multiple damage to ant nests, while 60 percent of termite nests were damaged two or more times. No Azteca ant nests were abandoned during the census, but 16 percent of termite nests were; most abandonments followed tree or nest-falls. The significance of predation on nests by anteaters and of nest damage by nesting birds is discussed in relation to seasonality, nest longevity, nest defense, and anteater feeding behavior. The census data and estimates of the daily attack rates of anteaters on termite and Azteca ant nests are used to estimate the impact of anteaters on these nests, and population densities of anteaters.
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Hyperostosis of the thoracolumbar and coccygeal spine was seen in five captive tamanduas (Tamandua tetradactyla and Tamandua mexicana). Radiologic signs of the condition, evident within the first year of captivity, progressed from a small subvertebral linear density to massive vertebral hyperostosis and fusion. Clinical signs only developed in one tamandua with advanced hyperostosis. Soft tissue mineralization, observed during postmortem examination, is common in tamanduas in other zoos. Plasma calcium levels were not significantly higher in captive tamanduas than in nine wild animals sampled. Plasma phosphorus, vitamin A, and vitamin D levels were considered normal, but liver vitamin A levels were higher than levels in most normal domestic animals. Vitamin levels in the diet were progressively reduced over 5 yr from a high of 57,000 IU/ kg vitamin A and 6,700 IU/kg vitamin D (dry matter basis) to 22,000 IU/kg and 1,900 IU/kg, respectively. Hyperostosis developed more slowly in animals fed diets containing the lower levels of vitamins A and D, concentrations still considered excessive for this genus. The condition is most likely caused by chronic hypervitaminoses A and/or D.
Article
A study was undertaken to determine the composition of the body material of alates of Macrotermes falciger and to investigate the nutritional value of termite material when fed to white rats. Termites were found to contain 44,3 % fat and 41,8 % protein, on a dry mass basis, and to have a calorific value of 3,2 ± 0,042 Megajoules/100 g. Incorporating termite material into commercial rat pellets at various levels produced no adverse effects on the rats. A full amino-acid analysis of termite protein is given and three unidentified amino-acids were recorded. A protein efficiency ratio of 1,7± 0,1 was obtained for termite protein, and digestibility of termite material was found to be poor, compared to that of casein, when fed to white rats.
A precise, accurate, and comparatively rapid fluorometric method for the determination of selenium in the nanogram range is described and results are presented for Youden's uniformity and ruggedness tests. The sample is digested in a nitric-sulfuricperchloric acid mixture, potential interferences are masked with disodium EDTA, and selenium is complexed with freshly-prepared 2,3-diaminonaphthalene solution and estimated fluorometrically after extraction into cyclohexane. On the basis of its performance, collaborative study of the method is recommended
Article
When carton nests or covered trails of Nasutitermes termites were breached experimentally, nasute soldiers were recruited rapidly to the break, while workers retreated into the nest or trail. Nasutes mobilized both in larger numbers and more rapidly to breaks in nests than at sites away from the nest. Nasutitermes formed an important part of the diets of two species of Tamandua anteaters. Anteaters, however, ignored or actively rejected most nests of Nasutitermes that they encountered, and fed primarily at concentrations of Nasutitermes in logs, branches, and covered trails away from the nest. Feeding at carton nests occurred mainly when these nests contained winged reproductives and nymphs or ants living in association with the termites. Feeding on Nasutitermes was often accompanied by grooming behavior. A captive T. mexicana rejected recently killed nasute soldiers while accepting both workers and reproductives of the same species. We suggest that the nasute soldiers are an effective defense against predation by anteaters on the nest and speculate on the role of mammalian termite-eaters in maintaining the Nasutitermes defense system.
Article
1. Density of nests, population number, biomass, nitrogen and carbon content, calorific content and respiration rate of termites were studied at Pasoh Forest, West Malaysia mainly with four dominant species of epigeous nest builders, Macrotermes carbonarius, Dicuspiditermes nemorosus type-a, type-b and Homallotermes foraminifer, to reveal their role in the ecosystem. 2. The density of nests or mounds was 15–41/ha in M. carbonarius, 60–110/ha in the two types of D. nemorosus and 85–165/ha in H. foraminifer. 3. The population number per nest or mound was about 88,000 in M. carbonarius, 45,000 in D. nemorosus type-a, 47,000 in D. nemorosus type-b and 13,000 in H. foraminifer. The population number per hectare was about 1.8x106 for M. carbonarius, 4.3x106 for D. nemorosus type-a, 5.2x106 for D. nemorosus type-b and 2.1x106 for H. foraminifer. 4. The ratio in number of workers to soldiers was 6.4 for M. carbonarius, 19.0 for D. nemorosus type-a, 23.1 for D. nemorosus type-b and 8.9 for H. foraminifer. The ratio in number of adults (workers plus soldiers) to larvae was 1.4 for M. carbonarius, 0.59 for D. nemorosus type-a, 1.76 for D. nemorosus type-b and 3.84 for H. foraminifer. 5. The number of adults per nest of D. nemorosus type-a, type-b and H. foraminifer was linearly correlated with the weight of nest on the log-log coordinates. 6. The ratio of dry body weight to live weight was 0.24–0.30 for workers, 0.19–0.29 for soldiers and 0.15–0.22 for larvae. 7. The ash content of termite body was 26–66% for workers, 2–24% for soldiers and 1–4% for larvae. 8. The carbon content ranged from 45% to 66% of ash-free dry weight and the nitrogen content from 5.6% to 12.6%. 9. The mean calorific value of termite body was 5.3 gcal/mg in workers and soldiers on an ash-free weight basis, but was greater in nymphs and winged reproductives in the nest (6.7–6.9 gcal/mg) owing probably to their large fat storage. 10. The relation of CO2 evolution rate to temperature in these termites was similar to what has been found in other insects. 11. The total biomass of the four termite species was estimated at 6.01 kg ash-free dry weight/ha, equivalent to 0.55 kg nitrogen/ha and 3.09 kg carbon/ha. 12. The role of the fungi cultivated by M. carbonarius on their fungus combs was discussed in relation to the nutrition of termites and the decomposition of leaf-litter with special reference to their nitrogen metabolism. The high nitrogen content of fungus spherules growing on fungus combs seemed to have an important bearing on the nutrition of termites. 13. It was concluded that the termites played a very important role in the organic matter decomposition cycle of Pasoh Forest.
Article
There is a need to standardize the NDF procedure. Procedures have varied because of the use of different amylases in attempts to remove starch interference. The original Bacillus subtilis enzyme Type IIIA (XIA) no longer is available and has been replaced by a less effective enzyme. For fiber work, a new enzyme has received AOAC approval and is rapidly displacing other amylases in analytical work. This enzyme is available from Sigma (Number A3306; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO). The original publications for NDF and ADF (43, 53) and the Agricultural Handbook 379 (14) are obsolete and of historical interest only. Up to date procedures should be followed. Triethylene glycol has replaced 2-ethoxyethanol because of reported toxicity. Considerable development in regard to fiber methods has occurred over the past 5 yr because of a redefinition of dietary fiber for man and monogastric animals that includes lignin and all polysaccharides resistant to mammalian digestive enzymes. In addition to NDF, new improved methods for total dietary fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides including pectin and beta-glucans now are available. The latter are also of interest in rumen fermentation. Unlike starch, their fermentations are like that of cellulose but faster and yield no lactic acid. Physical and biological properties of carbohydrate fractions are more important than their intrinsic composition.
The amino acid analysis method using precolumn phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) derivatization and liquid chromatography was modified for accurate determination of methionine (as methionine sulfone), cysteine/cystine (as cysteic acid), and all other amino acids, except tryptophan, in hydrolyzed samples of foods and feces. A simple liquid chromatographic method (requiring no derivatization) for the determination of tryptophan in alkaline hydrolysates of foods and feces was also developed. Separation of all amino acids by liquid chromatography was completed in 12 min compared with 60-90 min by ion-exchange chromatography. Variation expressed as coefficients of variation (CV) for the determination of most amino acids in the food and feces samples was not more than 4%, which compared favorably with the reproducibility of ion-exchange methods. Data for amino acids and recoveries of amino acid nitrogen obtained by liquid chromatographic methods were also similar to those obtained by conventional ion-exchange procedures.
Preliminary information on the nutritional content of mulberry silk moth (Bombyx mori) larvae
  • F L Frye
  • C C Calvert
Frye, FL.; Calvert, C.C. Preliminary information on the nutritional content of mulberry silk moth (Bombyx mori) larvae. JOURNAL OF ZOO AND WILDLIFE MEDICINE 20:73-75, 1989.
José Manuel Pernalete, and the staff of the Parque ZoolOgico Miguel Romero Antoni
  • Ing
  • Agr
  • Dr Mariela Romero De Lopez
Ing. Agr. Mariela Romero de Lopez, Dr. José Manuel Pernalete, and the staff of the Parque ZoolOgico Miguel Romero Antoni; Elizabeth Frank (Milwaukee County Zoo);
Impact of vermilinguas (Cydopes, Tamandua:Xenarthra = Edentata) on arboreal ant populations
  • G G Montgomery
Montgomery, G.G. Impact of vermilinguas (Cydopes, Tamandua:Xenarthra = Edentata) on arboreal ant populations. Pp. 351-363 in THE EVOLUTION AND ECOLOGY OF ARMADILLOS, SLOTHS, AND VERMLLINGUAS. G.G. Montgomery, ed. Washington, DC, Smithsonian Institution Press, l985a.
Prey influences on movements of neotropical anteaters. Pp. 103 – 131 in PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1975 PREDATOR SYMPOSIUM
  • G G Montgomery
  • Y D Lubin
Montgomery, G.G.; Lubin, Y.D. Prey influences on movements of neotropical anteaters. Pp. 103 – 131 in PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1975 PREDATOR SYMPOSIUM. R.L. Phillips; C. Jonkel, eds. Missoula, MT, University of Montana Printing Department, 1977.
Tamandua tetradactyla)
  • From S E Wild Tamanduas
  • G J Oyarzun
  • E V Crawshaw
  • Valdes
From Wild Tamanduas (Tamandua tetradactyla). S.E. Oyarzun, G.J. Crawshaw, E.V. Valdes. Zoo Biology. Copyright©1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Reproduced with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Precise fluorimetric microdetermination of selenium in agricultural materials
  • J Hoffman
  • R J Westerly
  • M Hidiroglou
Hoffman, J.; Westerly, R.J.; Hidiroglou, M. Precise fluorimetric microdetermination of selenium in agricultural materials. JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION OF OFFICIAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTS 51:1039-1042, 1968.
The nutrition of edentates
  • D A Menu
Menu, D.A. The nutrition of edentates. INTERNATIONAL ZOO YEARBOOK 16:38-46, 1976.
Movements, foraging and good habits of the four extant species of neotropical Vermilinguas (Mammalia: Myrmecophagidae)
  • G G Montgomery
Montgomery, G.G. Movements, foraging and good habits of the four extant species of neotropical Vermilinguas (Mammalia: Myrmecophagidae). Pp. 365-377 in THE EVOLUTION AND ECOLOGY OF ARMADILLOS, SLOTHS, AND VERMILINGUAS. G.G. Montgomery, ed. Washington, DC, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985b.
National Research Council. NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF DOGS
  • G G Montgomery
  • Y D Lubin
Montgomery, G.G.; Lubin, Y.D. Prey influences on movements of neotropical anteaters. Pp. 103 -131 in PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1975 PREDATOR SYMPOSIUM. R.L. Phillips; C. Jonkel, eds. Missoula, MT, University of Montana Printing Department, 1977. National Research Council. NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF DOGS. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1985. National Research Council. NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF CATS. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1986.