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Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training

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The Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training series provides a coherent and integrated approach to understanding and controlling dog behavior. In Volume 3, various themes introduced in Volumes 1 and 2 are expanded upon, especially causally significant social, biological, and behavioral influences that impact on the etiology of behavior problems and their treatment. Ethological observations, relevant behavioral and neurobiological research, and dog behavior clinical findings are reviewed and critiqued in detail. Many of the training concepts, procedures, and protocols described have not been previously published, making this book a unique contribution to dog behavior and training literature.

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... First, relaxation can be induced in dogs using various techniques. First, there are methods based on physical contact by the owner, such as massage, posture facilitated relaxation, relaxation soft method, Tellinghon TTouch methods, or pressure on the body using body wraps or a ThunderShirt ® [29][30][31][32][33]. Second, relaxation can be induced using operant procedures, where the animal is reinforced for showing relaxed behaviour [31]. ...
... First, relaxation can be induced in dogs using various techniques. First, there are methods based on physical contact by the owner, such as massage, posture facilitated relaxation, relaxation soft method, Tellinghon TTouch methods, or pressure on the body using body wraps or a ThunderShirt ® [29][30][31][32][33]. Second, relaxation can be induced using operant procedures, where the animal is reinforced for showing relaxed behaviour [31]. Initially, the smallest physical sign of relaxation is reinforced, following which the owner can progress to more and then complete relaxation in the dog. ...
... The combination of both has been known to work well for dogs with other behaviour problems, such as anxiety towards strangers and other dogs. [27,31,35]. Research in dogs and other species has revealed, however, that desensitization alone is also and sometimes even more effective [55,62]. ...
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Many domestic dogs are uncomfortable when humans perform trivial and benign actions that the animals perceive as threatening. A common technique for addressing canine emotional discomfort involves desensitization, where the intensity of a problematic stimulus is gradually increased while the dog remains relaxed. Desensitization requires a skillful owner and is complicated when actions of the owner are the stimuli to be desensitised. This paper introduces a behaviour modification programme for dogs with impaired social functioning in relation to the (inter)actions by their owners, consisting of (1) increasing owner knowledge and awareness regarding dog body language and perception of owner actions, (2) management of the daily life of the dog through general stress reduction and avoidance of stressful situations, and (3) behaviour modification through training. The latter component entails a non-threatening, predictable exercise in which the dog has control over any perceived threats, the introduction of the safety cue with subsequent desensitization, and engaging activities with the owner that the dog finds enjoyable. We also present a case series report to examine a selection of dogs with impaired social functioning, from signalment to outcome, when treated with the proposed behaviour modification and examine which adaptations were made to the plan according to individual dogs. Finally, we avenues for future research.
... The behavioral component of the tool utilizes response to approach by a stranger as a surrogate measure of socialization toward people. An ethogram consisting of 43 different variables, including the dog's position in the kennel when initially approached by a stranger (Table 2) was developed for test use based on established indicators of affiliative, maintenance and defensive behaviors in dogs (Beerda et al. 1997;Lindsay 2001;Boissy et al. 2007;Sontag and Overall 2014). Ninety seven dogs maintained at five commercial breeding kennels that were licensed by the USDA in Indiana, USA were scored on the physical and behavioral metrics compiled. ...
... Categories were adjusted such that manifestations of the freeze, flight, and fight responses (Lindsay 2001), were captured in a single category, Fearful. Behaviors that were never or only rarely observed during pilot testing were removed and behaviors that were observed and classified as "other" were added (Table 3). ...
... There has been debate about the validity of behavioral assessment tools in predicting aggressive behavior in dogs (Kis et al. 2014;Patronek and Bradley 2016). Although the tool studied in this paper focused on capturing fearful behaviors and fear may manifest in aggression (Lindsay 2001;Sonntag and Overall 2014), additional testing of its validity is needed before anything might be concluded about its predictive power. Instead, our initial testing focused on reliability given the need for consistency of behavior identification in those tasked with on-site evaluations of dogs. ...
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Field assessments of the health and welfare of kenneled dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) must be both accurate and rapid. In order to facilitate such evaluations, especially by individuals with limited training in canine behavior and welfare, a non-invasive tool was developed and pilot-tested utilizing dogs housed in commercial breeding facilities. Behavioral responses to approach were organized into three categories: red, indicating a fearful response to approach, green, indicating an affiliative or neutral response to approach, and yellow, indicating an ambivalent response to approach. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) of the tool when used by both behavioral experts and novice raters was evaluated with and without the presence of the dog’s familiar caretaker. Utilizing Cohen’s kappa, the experts had almost perfect levels of agreement (kappa=0.87). The novice raters had substantial levels of agreement (kappa=0.74). Overall, the dogs assessed by the novice raters had high proportions of green responses to approach and there was no statistically significant effect of caretaker presence on the proportion of green responses to approach. The assessment tool evaluated herein appears to have a high degree of IRR whether used by experts in canine behavior or by novice raters and may be a useful screening tool to determine the need for more in-depth welfare assessments.
... Second, the dogs relied on their knowledge of how humans used the urban spaces on a regular basis (e.g., work patterns, meeting times in public or recreational spaces and rubbish collection times), and not only on a daily basis but apparently on a weekly one too (e.g., antiques fair on Saturdays and absence of students in the university sector on Sundays, which the familiar stray dogs avoided). Ethologists currently attribute this apparent temporal knowledge not to temporal cognition but to learning (i.e., an association of cues, as already mentioned above; see [9,40,104,105]). The set of activities, therefore, varied according to the possibilities the city had to offer (see also the pet dog-owner dyad in the city of Lyon, France [20]). ...
... The familiar stray dogs, therefore, exhibited a peculiar degree of adaptation in this urban context, as well as all their usual sociality skills. Their territoriality patterns were built on adjustments and learning practices that enabled them to, for example, empty certain types of rubbish bins by tilting them (for dogs' ability to manipulate objects to obtain food, see [21,108]), approach humans to obtain some kind of food either directly or indirectly, in the form of leftovers (learning, see [40]), or cross one-way and even two-way roads by looking both ways to see if cars were coming (social learning [83,84]) or follow a group of pedestrians using a crosswalk (for a recent review of experiments on dogs' imitation of social agents, see [81]). We calculated that the familiar stray dogs in a pack crossed at least 8-10 streets per day. ...
... Urban dogs' behaviors are good examples of adjustment processes. Our observations enabled us to show the plasticity of dogs' learning processes (e.g., territoriality) in both their individual and collective attitudes [1,[39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46]. Urban landscapes, associated with human interactions, require a broad range of potential adjustments from dogs. ...
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Stray dogs are a common sight in cities all over the world, especially in Latin America, but research on their behavior is scarce. Studying their very considerable presence in Concepción (Chile) provided a unique opportunity to learn more about the extent of the sociality and territoriality patterns of the dog species. Interestingly, a wide range of socialities with humans (and with other dogs) were shown to be dependent on human activities and urban zoning signaled by passages, physical boundaries and landmarks. New forms of sociality were also evidenced, with dogs exhibiting intermediate degrees of sociality between the pet and stray dog categories. We postulate that this unique diversity of sociospatial positioning and level of adjustment (e.g., dogs using crosswalks either alone or with people) is made possible by the city’s specific human culture and range of urban areas. The dog species thus exhibits a considerable potential for social and spatial adjustment. The fact that it depends on the spatial layout and human culture of their environment explains the presence of dogs wherever humans are. Furthermore, it has implications for coping with the presence of dogs in numerous and varied human societies.
... Overall, the clicker is pressed when a desired behavior occurs, and is typically followed by the presentation of food (as a primary reinforcer) as soon as possible [6][7][8][9]. After some repetitions, the clicker-sound can be associated with a reward and becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and a secondary reinforcer (SR) [2,10]. In applied settings, it has been proposed that clicker training can decrease the required time to perform a task and can also help animals be more motivated to work during a training trial [6,7,11,12]. ...
... While luring is used to guide animals towards the desired behavior and then reinforce it, capturing consists in reinforcing the behavior once it is observed. Given that some behaviors are infrequently or are never displayed by an individual, shaping can use luring and capturing to reinforce successive closer approximations to unlike behavior [6,10,21]. According to some studies [11,12,22], animal trainers consider that dogs trained with a clicker learn more quickly and that a clicker is easier to use to teach behaviors than training with a primary ...
... While luring is used to guide animals towards the desired behavior and then reinforce it, capturing consists in reinforcing the behavior once it is observed. Given that some behaviors are infrequently or are never displayed by an individual, shaping can use luring and capturing to reinforce successive closer approximations to unlike behavior [6,10,21]. According to some studies [11,12,22], animal trainers consider that dogs trained with a clicker learn more quickly and that a clicker is easier to use to teach behaviors than training with a primary reinforcer alone. ...
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Animal training is meant to teach specific behavioral responses to specific cues. Clicker training (CT) is a popular training method based on the use of a device that emits a sound of double-click to be associated as a first-order conditioned stimulus in contingency with positive reinforcements. After some repetitions, the clicker sound gains some incentive value and can be paired with the desired behavior. Animal trainers believed that CT can decrease training time compared to other types of training. Herein, we used two-month old miniature piglets to evaluate whether CT decreased the number of repetitions required to learn complex behaviors as compared with animals trained with voice instead of the clicker. In addition, we compared the number of correct choices of animals from both groups when exposed to object discriminative tests. Results indicated that CT decreased the number of repetitions required for pigs to learn to fetch an object but reduced the ability of animals to make correct choices during the discriminate trials. This suggests that CT is more efficient than voice to teach complex behaviors but reduces the ability of animals to use cognitive processes required to discriminate and select objects associated with reward.
... Behavioral modeling depends on learning, but learning is only possible to the extent that an animal is biologically equipped and prepared to learn (LINDSAY, 2000). According to PAVLOV (1927), sensory inputs stimulate the nervous system in two opposite directions: arousal or inhibition. ...
... Over a brief period of 3 to 16 weeks of age, most dogs will most likely learn more than in their entire lives, forming a lasting emotional and cognitive scheme of a social and physical environment. At about 4 months of age, the rate of conditioned reflex formation begins to slow down, probably not because the nervous system deteriorates, but because what the puppy has already learned begins to interfere with new learning (LINDSAY, 2000). ...
... Nothing is more motivational and important in dog training than the game, and the playful interaction continues only as long as players remain friendly and confident. Playing and training are not contrary things but complementary activities (LINDSAY, 2000). ...
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Considered one of the best odor detectors, dogs go through a rigorous selection and training process. Based on learning theories, modern techniques are used for dog training, respecting individual characteristics, efficiency, and well-being. Since narcotics detection work is perceived as a “play” for the dog, in practice, this promotes a high use rate in the service. The performance of handlers influences the work of the dogs, and well-trained and well-run dogs must work comfortably and accurately. This paper aimed to review the aspects related to the selection, training, and performance of narcotics detection dogs.
... Dog aggressive behaviors are broadly divided in two main categories: predatory behavior and affective aggression [19]. They mainly differ in their aims and neural regulation. ...
... They mainly differ in their aims and neural regulation. Predatory motor patterns are part of feeding behavior: they aim at obtaining food by killing and consuming prey [19][20][21]. In dogs, the predatory sequence includes different motor patterns (more generally defined as predatory behaviors): orienting towards prey, eye stalk, chase, grab bite, kill bite (or head shake), dissection and consumption [20]. ...
... In dogs, the predatory sequence includes different motor patterns (more generally defined as predatory behaviors): orienting towards prey, eye stalk, chase, grab bite, kill bite (or head shake), dissection and consumption [20]. In the literature, it is reported that dogs might engage in predation toward both conspecifics and heterospecifics (e.g., humans [19]). This behavior is widely described as "predatory aggression". ...
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Dog biting events pose severe public health and animal welfare concerns. They result in several consequences for both humans (including physical and psychological trauma) and the dog involved in the biting episode (abandonment, relocation to shelter and euthanasia). Although numerous epidemiological studies have analyzed the different factors influencing the occurrence of such events, to date the role of emotions in the expression of predatory attacks toward humans has been scarcely investigated. This paper focuses on the influence of emotional states on triggering predatory attacks in dogs, particularly in some breeds whose aggression causes severe consequences to human victims. We suggest that a comprehensive analysis of the dog bite phenomenon should consider the emotional state of biting dogs in order to collect reliable and realistic data about bite episodes.
... Archaeological evidence suggests that cats were domesticated 9500 years ago (Vigne, Guilaine, Debue, Haye, & Gerard, 2004) but mitochondrial DNA suggests that cats were domesticated 130,000 years ago (Driscoll et al., 2007). This recent research makes domestic cats about as old as domestic dogs, who were domesticated 14,000 years ago based on archeological evidence (Lindsay, 2000) or up to 135,000 years ago based on mitochondrial DNA (Vila et al., 1997). ...
... It has been suggested that some less-fearful wolves associated with human camps to scavenge food. Then they functioned as barking signalers to alert against camp invaders (Lindsay, 2000). The selection from living with humans allowed this new group to diverge from wolves (Driscoll et al., 2009b). ...
... Neocortex size is also correlated with ecological complexity (Barton, 1996). However, domestic cats have small brains relative to body size (Kitchener, 1991) and the domestication of the dog led to a reduced cranial capacity (Lindsay, 2000). The ability of the cat and dog to thrive in a novel environment, despite their brain size, may be due to living among humans and having a stable food resource. ...
Thesis
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/79456/1/kerei.pdf
... Os artefatos arqueológicos associando seres humanos aos lobos são ainda mais antigos, datando entre 200.000 e 500.000 anos e tendo sido encontrados na China (Lindsay, 2000). Cães e lobos são animais da mesma espécie, canis lúpus, contudo, existem subespécies distintas, entre elas a do cão doméstico, canis lupus familiaris. ...
... Essa longa história de convivência interespecífica resultou no cão doméstico como um animal plenamente adaptado ao seu nicho ecológico, a vida na sociedade humana (Miklósi, Topál, & Csányi, 2004). Seja como companheiro, guia de deficientes visuais, caçador, guarda ou auxiliar no desenvolvimento infantil, típico ou atípico, o cão está presente (Lindsay, 2000;Udell & Wynne, 2008). Para Udell e Wynne (2008) as pesquisas recentes com cães inspiramse em questões do desenvolvimento e cognição de primatas humanos e não humanos na procura por processos comuns entre essas espécies. ...
Thesis
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O cão é um animal que, após dezenas de milhares de anos, está ecologicamente adaptado à vida na sociedade humana. Dessa maneira, desempenha diversos papéis na sociedade e sua cognição e comportamentos têm sido do interesse de pesquisas experimentais. Pesquisas com o objetivo de descrever o desempenho de resolução de problemas com cães, geralmente, têm buscado por processos cognitivos comuns entre esse animal e o humano. Contudo, os experimentos de resolução de problemas não expuseram cães às condições dos experimentos clássicos da psicologia com a tarefa de deslocamento de caixa. O presente estudo teve como objetivo observar o desempenho de cães em dois experimentos de resolução de problemas. No primeiro experimento foi disponibilizada para o cão uma placa branca e uma caixa no ambiente experimental. A resolução do problema se daria acaso o cão emitisse as classes operantes de empurrar a caixa em direção à placa branca, parar de empurrar debaixo desta, subir na caixa e tocar com o focinho na placa branca. No segundo experimento foi disponibilizado um pedaço de alimento dependurado e uma caixa no ambiente experimental. A satisfatória resolução do problema compreenderia a emissão das classes operantes de empurrar a caixa em direção ao pedaço de alimento, parando-a por debaixo do alimento, subindo e pegando o alimento. Os cães dos dois experimentos foram expostos a um pré-teste com essas duas situações problema configuradas, uma situação para cada participante em cada experimento. Após foram treinados a emitir as duas classes operantes pré-requisito. A primeira foi a classe operante de empurrar a caixa em direção a um estímulo monocromático. A segunda foi subir na caixa, fixa no chão, e tocar com o focinho em uma placa branca, Experimento 1; subir na caixa, fixada no chão, e pegar o pedaço de alimento, Experimento 2. Ambos os participantes solucionaram as situações problema apresentando um desempenho “súbito” e direcionado, característico do insight. CPB, Experimento 1, solucionou a situação problema empurrando a caixa em direção à placa branca, o fez na primeira tentativa do teste de resolução que a caixa esteve presente na posição do treino, assim, após iniciada a tentativa e o cão tocar a primeira vez na caixa, a empurrou em direção à placa branca, parou de empurrar debaixo desta, ajeitou a caixa com a pata e 30 segundos depois de iniciar a classe operante de empurrar, subiu na caixa e tocou com o focinho na placa branca. O participante CAL, Experimento 2, também solucionou a situação problema no teste de resolução, assim, engajou-se na classe operante de empurrar em direção à vasilha contendo o pedaço de alimento, parou de empurrar debaixo desta, subiu e pegou o alimento, essa resolução transcorreu em 4 segundos após iniciar a classe operante de empurrar.
... Dorey et al. (2012) also found that several dog training books lacked methods that identified and addressed the function of inappropriate behavior. Many authors suggested old and outdated methods such as punishment procedures (i.e., kneeing a dog in the stomach) and antecedent interventions (i.e., standing on the animal's leash) for undesirable behavior such as jumping (Bridwell 2007;Koehler 1996;Lindsay 2003;Pitcairn & Pitcairn 2005). Some authors did suggest teaching alternative behaviors such as sitting or lying down; none of these treatments addressed the function of inappropriate behavior. ...
... This makes the science of altering behavior an important one in the realm of animal shelters. FA is empirically tested and standardized and may be an appropriate alternative to current shelter behavior assessments and training techniques (Bridwell 2007;Koehler 1996;Lindsay 2003;Pitcairn & Pitcairn 2005;Sternberg 2004;Weiss 2006). As there is a great concern regarding the accuracy of current shelter assessments (Mornement et al. 2010), the field of dog training may greatly benefit from the use of FA and function-based behavior interventions (Dorey et al. 2012). ...
... A relação cooperativa entre seres humanos e cães (Canis familiaris) existe a mais de 140 mil anos (Moody et al. 2006), mas a utilização de suas habilidades de trabalho começaram a se aperfeiçoar nos últimos 10 mil anos (Lindsay 2000). Durante esse período, os animais passaram pela domesticação, um intrincado processo que envolveu alterações genéticas e uma seleção rigorosa das raças (Lindsay 2000). ...
... A relação cooperativa entre seres humanos e cães (Canis familiaris) existe a mais de 140 mil anos (Moody et al. 2006), mas a utilização de suas habilidades de trabalho começaram a se aperfeiçoar nos últimos 10 mil anos (Lindsay 2000). Durante esse período, os animais passaram pela domesticação, um intrincado processo que envolveu alterações genéticas e uma seleção rigorosa das raças (Lindsay 2000). ...
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O presente artigo visou estudar os efeitos fisiológicos e comportamentais no desempenho olfativo de cães policiais, após situações cotidianas de estresse que ocorriam previamente à execução da tarefa de detecção de drogas e explosivos. O efeito do estresse foi analisado a partir da simulação de confinamento desses animais até o local da detecção de drogas ou explosivos, em diferentes tempos de transporte, utilizando três tipos de confinamento em caixas de transporte, 30 minutos (30”) 3 horas e 30 minutos (03’30”) e 5 horas e 30 minutos (05’30”). Para avaliar os níveis de cortisol impactados das condições de estresse (confinamentos) nos indivíduos do estudo foi necessário fazer coletas não-invasivas de saliva. Este procedimento se apresenta eficiente, no caso de cães, pois é de fácil utilização e não provoca alterações significativas no estado fisiológico dos investigados. Os resultados apresentados demonstraram o aparecimento do estresse e alterações comportamentais, indicando uma diminuição do desempenho olfativo de cães detectores de drogas e explosivos.
... Temperament tests can be used as an objective tool for evaluating a variety of social, emotional, cognitive, and motivational dimensions in dogs and several behavioural assays for dogs have been developed (Lindsay, 2001). A commonly used test in 7-8 week-old puppies is Campbell's test. ...
... Another assay is the PAT test (Puppy Aptitude Testing), consisting of 10 sub-tests (Volhard, 2007). The PAT test incorporates tasks included in the Campbell test (Pérez-Guisado et al., 2008) and Puppy Temperament Test (Lindsay, 2001). It also includes an additional three tasks to test responses to touch, sound and the sudden opening of an umbrella. ...
Article
Domestic dogs experience a sensitive period for learning during early life and conditions during this time can have important consequences in the adult. We investigated the effects of kennel environment during early life, comparing the temperaments of puppies reared in indoor kennels, located in the breeder’s house, with those reared in outdoor kennels, located outside the breeder’s house and with limited human contact. The study was conducted on 264 puppies from 44 litters belonging to 21 breeds. Of these, 160 puppies were reared in indoor kennels (70 female and 90 male puppies, 27 litters) and 104 in outdoor kennels (52 female and 52 male, 17 litters). We conducted PAT (Puppy Aptitude Testing) tests to measure puppy temperament at an age of seven or eight weeks. Using a gamma GLMM fitted using Bayesian inference, we showed a statistically important effect of kennelling on posterior mean PAT scores. Puppies kennelled outdoors scored higher on PAT testing, irrespective of sex or age, and after accommodating for dependency in the data due to litter identity. Puppies raised outdoors showed an elevated tendency for submissive behaviour, a greater risk of aggression through fear, and a lowered capacity for coping with novel conditions. These findings have direct implications for dog breeders and illustrates that enrichment of the environment of dam and puppies can mitigate the risk of behavioural problems in adult dogs.
... La distinction entre les chiens sauvages et les chiens errants/de quartier/de village est une question de degré (Nesbitt, 1975 ; voir aussi les chiens à Moscou : film de Riolon, 2017, sur la base du travail de Poyarkov publié en russe), et les chiens peuvent changer de catégorie au cours de leur vie. L'ajustement social, basé sur l'apprentissage, est l'une des caractéristiques cognitives les plus distinctives de l'espèce, comme le montre régulièrement l'éthologie cognitive (Coppinger & Coppinger, 2002 ;Lindsay, 2013 ;Elgier et al., 2009 ;Barrera et al., 2012 ;Scott & Fuller, 1965 ;Fox, 1978 ;Bradshaw, 2011 ;Wynne, 2016 ;Bhattacharjee et al., 2017). Par exemple, il a été démontré (Font, 1987) que lorsque les chiens sont abandonnés, ils s'organisent en meute, c'est-à-dire qu'ils se rassemblent et présentent les comportements les plus sociables de l'espèce (Daniels, 1983). ...
... Deuxièmement, les chiens se basaient sur leur apprentissage de la manière dont les humains utilisaient régulièrement les espaces urbains (par exemple, le déplacement vers le bureau, heures de réunion des personnes dans des espaces publics ou de loisirs, heures de collecte des ordures), et pas seulement sur une base quotidienne, mais apparemment hebdomadaire (par exemple, la foire aux antiquités le samedi et l'absence des étudiants du secteur universitaire le dimanche, que les chiens errants familiers évitaient). Les éthologues attribuent actuellement cette connaissance temporelle apparente non pas à la cognition temporelle, mais à l'apprentissage (c'est-à-dire l'association de signaux comme déjà mentionné ci-dessus ; voir Lindsay, 2013 ;Johnston, 2014 ;Duranton et al., 2017). L'ensemble des activités variait donc en fonction des possibilités offertes par la ville (voir aussi les dyades propriétaires de chiens de compagnie et leurs chiens de la ville de Lyon, en France ; . ...
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La ville de Concepción (Chili) présente l'originalité d'avoir en son sein des chiens en liberté. Nous avons analysé les modalités de présence des chiens de cette ville avec une méthodologie qualitative de sciences sociales (prise de notes des observations et interrogation des citoyens). Un premier résultat est qu'un tiers de l'ensemble des chiens de Concepción étaient en liberté. Un deuxième résultat est que l'ensemble des chiens de cette ville relève de six catégories : les chiens en liberté qui comprenaient les chiens errants agressifs ou non envers les humains et les chiens sauvages, ainsi que les chiens de compagnie, les chiens de garde et de mendiants. Nous avons également remis à jour l'inventaire des chiens vivant dans les villes. Ainsi, un troisième résultat est la découverte de trois variantes des catégories existantes : des chiens errants en meute non agressifs envers l'humain et particulièrement proches de lui spatialement et socialement (Sir Perro) ; un chien errant de compagnie vivant dans une rue semblable aux chiens de village, ayant des interactions très étroites avec les gens (Snoopy) ; des chiens de compagnie errants (le vieux basset et Cachupín). Nous concluons que le lien bidirectionnel entre les chiens et les humains explique :-comment ces chiens urbains deviennent partie intégrante de l'identité urbaine de la ville ;-la plasticité comportementale des chiens errants, à travers leur adaptation à des habitats urbains très diversifiés. Nous postulons que la culture humaine ainsi que les diverses zones urbaines à Concepción ont permis cette unique diversité de positionnement sociospatial des chiens (huit catégories) ainsi que leurs adaptations et réinventions socio-spatiales (les chiens traversant des passages pour piétons).
... However, these studies do not further specify if any of the investigated aggressive incidents involved preferred items, for example toys, sticks, or bowls that the dog may have tried to guard from the victim. Guy et al. (2001a) and Lindsay (2005) reported that human interactions, such as reaching toward, leaning over, snuggling, petting, or playing tug while the dog is engaging with the preferred item, may result in the display of aggressive responses. In their large-scale study (n ¼ 3226), Guy et al. (2001b) stated that approximately 20% of dogs showed aggressive behaviors while in the possession of a preferred item. ...
... In their large-scale study (n ¼ 3226), Guy et al. (2001b) stated that approximately 20% of dogs showed aggressive behaviors while in the possession of a preferred item. This type of undesired behavior, typically labeled as object guarding, is accompanied by physiological arousal (e.g., tense body posture, dilated pupils) and may co-occur with an underlying anxiety that preferred items will be removed when the dog is approached (Landsberg et al., 2013;Lindsay, 2005). In an important effort to deescalate the situation, owners may often inadvertently negatively reinforce tense body posture, growling, barking, lunging, snapping, or biting by backing away when the dog engages in 1 or more of these responses (Landsberg et al., 2013). ...
Article
Aggressive behaviors in companion dogs are a serious problem to owners, which often result in important physical and emotional damage on the victims. Aggressive incidents frequently happen during human-dog interactions (i.e., reaching toward the dog or petting it) while the dog is engaging with a preferred item (e.g., a toy, sock or shoe). The current study investigated whether a clicker-training approach, backward chaining, could decrease the frequency of category-II (e.g., ears flattened and/or hovering over object) and category-III (e.g., staring and/or stiffening up) behaviors by establishing an alternative target response of releasing preferred item on cue. Four dogs were exposed to the intervention using a nonconcurrent multiple-baseline single-case experimental design. Each dog experienced a total of 14 conditions, including baseline condition (i.e., rate of preferred item release on request prior to any training), treatment conditions (i.e., different steps of the backward-chaining procedure, such as release or place, sit) and probe conditions (i.e., same procedure as baseline but conducted after varying steps during treatment condition). Success rates of the target response more than doubled in all dogs after implementation of the backward-chaining procedure, ranging from 2% to 85%. Rates for category-II responses showed an important reduction in three out of the four dogs ranging from 39% to 55%. In the case of category-III aggressive responses, there was a reduction in frequency relative to baseline rates ranging from 58% to 69% across all dogs. During follow-up probes conducted 3 months after the intervention ended average rates of category-II behaviors decreased by 23% for the dog in human-dog dyad 1 and 35% for the dog in dyad 2, while rates of category-III responses reverted back to baseline levels in dogs in dyads 1 (D01) and 2 (D02). Success rates during follow-up probes more than doubled for dog D01 from 2% to 45%, and reverted to baseline levels for D02. Overall, the current study showed that backward chaining is an effective procedure to teach dogs to release a highly preferred item on cue and to importantly reduce category-II and –III behaviors, at least short-term. Considering the scarcity of studies on the effectiveness of backward chaining in aggression-related behaviors, further research could extend these promising findings, including determining whether ongoing maintenance training would extend this effect, and addressing the current study’s limitations (e.g., utilizing a refined categorization of aggressive responses).
... Similarly, attention-seeking behavior is evident in both humans and other social animals, such as dogs. Attentionis egens (Odendaal 2000), which is Latin for needing attention, describes the motivation behind interspecies social bonding, stemming from our mutual capacity to give and receive affection and comfort (Lindsay 2005). Recent brain studies even show that neurons in the amygdala on the right side of the brain react differently to animal images as opposed to human images, landmarks, or known objects; even infants have a distinct preference for images of animals rather than toys or other objects (Serpell et al. 2017). ...
... An owner's attribution of secondary emotions to dogs may create risks to canine welfare. Lindsay [15] and Rajecki et al. [16] suggest that owners use punishments when problem behaviours are ascribed to internal motivations, e.g., an internal emotional drive, such as spite. As punishment-based training methods are implicated in poor canine welfare [17][18][19], understanding factors linked to canine emotional attributions is therefore potentially important in identifying dogs at risk of poor welfare. ...
Article
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Assumptions about dogs’ personality are influenced by their appearance, which may lead to differences in ownership styles and subsequent canine welfare. The influence of canine appearance on observers’ emotion attributions to dogs remains largely unexplored. This study investigated whether canine head shape is related to how both dog owners and non-dog owning adults in the U.K. attribute emotions to still images of dogs, and in the case of dog owners, to their own dogs. Attachment, respondent personality and dog trainability were assessed as potential influences on emotional attribution in owners. Overall, 2451 participant responses were received. Still images of mesocephalic dogs were attributed primary and positively valenced emotion with more strength and frequency than other groups. Mesocephalic images were also attributed negatively valenced emotions less frequently and with less strength than other groups. Apart from empathy, no significant differences were found in emotional attribution to owned dogs of different head shapes; however, human personality influenced attribution of emotions to owned dogs. The finding that some dogs are attributed emotions more readily based on their appearance alone has applied importance, given, for example, the potential for misattribution of positive emotions to dogs in negative emotional states, and potential prejudice against dogs considered in negative emotional states.
... Tarkastelemassamme koulutuskontekstissa koiraa on alettu määritellä ja tulkita entistä tarkemmin ja sen oppimiskykyä ja opettamisen pedagogisia lähtökohtia perustellaan uusin, tietorakenteisiin sitoutuvin muutoksin (esim. Lindsay 2005). Näissä rakenteissa koira saa myös moraalisia määrityksiä: koirilla katsotaan olevan hyviä ja huonoja ominaisuuksia sekä oikeaa ja väärää käyttäytymistä, jotka aktivoituvat erityisesti koiran koulutettavuuden ja arjen hallinnan kysymyksinä siinä kontekstissa, johon koira luonnon ja yhteiskunnan välisessä rajankäynnissä kulloinkin asettuu. ...
... Care, as a theoretical term, has deep roots in sociology, in which it has been attached to different professional groups whose members provide care for pay, such as nurses, doctors, teachers and child care providers (England, 2005, p. 381). In its traditional meaning, care refers to providing empathy, compassion, altruism and social justice (Lindsay, 2008). To us, caring is a set of values, a philosophical and ethical question (Holmberg, 2011;Warren, 2008) and a set of material practices (McGregor, 2004) that involve daily actions, emotional attachment and the development of empathy towards others, nurturance and reproductive labour (Duffy, 2005). ...
Article
What could the underdeveloped research area of canine–human companionship teach us about gendered body work as well as offer to the field of organization studies more broadly? This article responds to recent discussions on the animal in the organizational academy. We share an autoethnographic story of female–canine companionship as experienced by one of the authors of the article and her beloved dog, who is currently living on the borderlines between life and death, joy and mourning. We find this example relevant for raising important feminist concerns among organizational scholars about silenced questions around care and grief as well as for developing more inclusive and ethically grounded approaches to exploring research topics dealing with vulnerability. Finally, this article offers a critical reflection on the potential and limitations of alternative research in the field of organization studies that recognizes our affective relations with animals.
... For instance, on several occasions during training the sessions would be momentarily interrupted by arriving staff or volunteers, at which time the training would be paused and picked up at a later instance to ensure there were minimal opportunities for the cats to become distracted. This was also to ensure that the novel behaviours being reinforced in the training sessions were brought under stimulus control, and the subjects would only be rewarded for performing a behaviour when prompted by the experimenters' cue, rather than any other sort of signal offered by any other visitors to the cattery (Lindsay, 2013). It was also observed that as the study took place during the winter months, during times of extreme weather conditions the subjects would momentarily appear to be visibly distracted by noises emitting from outside the cattery, such as heavy rain or strong winds. ...
Article
The rescue shelter environment is known to be stressful for domestic cats, which can lead to them becoming less active, playful and exploratory as well as spending a long time hiding. Early adoption can prevent long term stress in shelter cats, but adopters often look at behaviour and friendliness as criteria when choosing a cat to rehome. This study aimed to test the efficacy of a clicker training intervention to promote behaviours indicative of improved welfare and increase the potential adoptability of cats in rescue shelters. Twelve cats were clicker trained over two weeks their behaviour and response to humans was recorded before and after the training schedule. Cats showed significantly more exploratory behaviour, a decrease in inactivity and spent more time at the front of their enclosures after training. Four of the cats which failed the human approach test initially, passed it after training but this result was nonsignificant. Clicker training may be a simple and rapid way to improve welfare and adoptability in rescue cats.
... Includes shaking (trembling), excessive panting, lip-licking, urination, tail between the legs, running away, flinching, corners of the mouth retracted down, and back. May be maintaining distance from the E1 (Lindsay, 2005). ...
Article
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Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are remarkably sensitive and responsive while interacting with humans. Pet dogs are known to have social skills and abilities to display situation-specific responses, but there is lack of information regarding free-ranging dogs which constitute majority of the world's dog population. Free-ranging dogs found in most of the developing countries interact constantly with familiar and unfamiliar humans receiving both positive and negative behavior. Thus, understanding human intentions and subsequent behavioral adjustments are crucial for dogs that share habitats with humans. Here we subjected free-ranging dogs to different human social communicative cues (friendly and threatening-low and high), followed by a food provisioning phase, and tested their responsiveness. Dogs exhibited higher proximity seeking behavior as a reaction to friendly gesture whereas, they were prompted to maintain distance depending on the impact of the threatening cues. Interestingly, only the high-impact threatening had a persistent effect which also remained during the subsequent food provisioning phase. An elevated approach in the food provisioning phase elicited the dependency of free-ranging dogs on humans for sustenance. Our findings suggest that free-ranging dogs demonstrate behavioral plasticity in interactions with humans; which provides significant insights into the establishment of the dog-human relationship on streets.
... Motivaatiossa on otettava huomioon vahvisteen laadun, vahvistehistorian ja koulutushetken valinnan lisäksi myös koiran temperamentti, mikä määrää hyvin pitkälle koiran koulutettavuuden (Lindsay, 2005). Temperamenttiin taas vaikuttaa koiran rotu. ...
Thesis
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Kun koira ei opi eikä halua käyttäytyä omistajan toimivalla tavalla, omistajat usein syyttävät koiraa, vaikka vika olisikin aivan jossain muualla kuin koiran oppimiskyvyssä. Onko omistaja ottanut selvää, mikä juuri tätä koiraa motivoi, ja osaako omistaja vastata juuri tämän koiran haluihin ja tarpeisiin? Tässä opinnäytetyössäni tutkin koiria, joilla on ongelmia oppimismotivaation kanssa koulutus-tilanteissa. Yritän löytää keinoja, millä saada koirat motivoitumaan oppimiseen ja käyttäy-tymään halutulla tavalla. Olen käyttänyt apunani Canine Reinforcement Asseessment-arvioin-tilomaketta, minkä avulla yritän etsiä mahdollisimman parhaat motivointikeinot kullekin koiralle sekä kartoittaa ympäristöstä ne ärsykkeet, mitkä haittaavat eniten koulutustilannetta ja vaikuttavat koiran yksilölliseen oppimismotivaatioon. Olen muunnellut arviointilomaketta omaan opinnäytetyöhöni paremmin sopivaksi. Olen valinnut viisi vaikeasti motivoituvaa koiraa tähän opinnäytetyöhöni. Koirilla ei ole mitään omistajan raportoimaa ongelmakäytöstä eikä aggressiivisuutta muita eläimiä tai ihmisiä kohtaan: ne vain eivät motivoidu koulutustilanteissa ja koirien kouluttaminen on tästä syystä koettu hankalaksi. Opinnäytetyöni tarkoituksena on kehittää jokaista koiraa varten oma jatkosuunnitelma tekemäni arviointien pohjalta ottaen huomioon sekä koiran omat mielenkiinnon kohteet, että omistajien resurssit koiran kouluttamiseen.
... Aim is to support animal's engagement into rewarding activities, such as social interactions with humans and conspecifics, enriched eating possibilities, and other rewarding behaviors, such as exploration of environment [ibid.]. When considering dogs, the most typical reasons for lowered welfare include, for example, being alone for long periods of time, separation anxiety (state of fear), lack of environmental stimuli or inability to express natural behaviors [11,12,20,32,33]. When turning to technology, anxiety and fear caused by the use of technologies or tools that create aversive stimuli (e.g., ultrasonic, citronella & electric collars) can be reasons for lowered welfare as well. ...
Conference Paper
Today, the markets are populated with dozens of devices for dog activity tracking and monitoring. Our aim was to get detailed insights on how dog owners use these devices in their everyday life. Two studies, an interview study with Finnish dog owners (N=7) and an international online questionnaire (N=35) were done to capture the motivations for using dog activity trackers, their utility, user experience, gained insights, and impacts of use. The results showed that the use of the devices was motivated by monitoring health, behavior, learning related issues, and by balancing the amount of activity and rest to an appropriate level. The tracker inspired the owners to spend more time with the dog and to be more observant to his/her behavior. In return, this had the potential to improve their relationship. The owners wanted to keep their dog happy, and in turn, perceiving the dog as happy made the owners happy. Based on the results, we also briefly discuss development needs for dog activity monitoring solutions.
... Although most methods used for training working dogs rely on the routine application of operant conditioning principles (Lindsay, 2000;Pryor, 1999; see the Training Effect section for potential new, cognitive-based methods for this type of training), it is worth considering other methods. Given the explosion of interest in canine social cognition in the past 20 years, there is growing interest in the potential value of a range of more novel social-learning-oriented protocols. ...
Article
Scent detection dogs are used in a variety of contexts; however, very few dogs successfully complete their training, and many others are withdrawn from service prematurely due to both detection accuracy issues in the field and wider behavioral issues. This article aims to review our understanding of the factors affecting variation in scent detection dogs' learning of the tasks and performance in the field. For this we deconstructed the scent detection task into its key behavioral elements and examined the literature relating to the factors affecting variation in the dogs' success all across their development. We first consider factors that affect individuality and individual performance, in general, such as temperament, arousal, the handler-dog relationship, training regimes, and the housing and management of scent detections dogs. We then focus on tasks specific to scent detection dogs and critically appraise relevant literature relating to the learning and performance of these tasks by dogs. This includes prenatal and early life exposure and later environment, training regime, and the human-dog relationship, as well as performance limiting factors such as the need to pant in hot environments during work.
... The most important features of training to be effective are its accuracy and reliability. Many trainers therefore use a clicker to shape the dog's behavior by eliciting prompt and correct response to commands (Feng, Howell, & Bennett, 2017, 2018Lindsay, 2000;Tillman, 2000). The advantage of this classically conditioned secondary reinforcer (Skinner, 1938) is the exact timing ("split-second precision") and the high reproducibility (Pryor, 1999(Pryor, , 2005. ...
Article
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In recent years, two well-developed methods of studying mental processes in humans have been successively applied to dogs. First, eye-tracking has been used to study visual cognition without distraction in unrestrained dogs. Second, noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used for assessing the brain functions of dogs in vivo. Both methods, however, require dogs to sit, stand, or lie motionless while yet remaining attentive for several minutes, during which time their brain activity and eye movements are measured. Whereas eye-tracking in dogs is performed in a quiet and, apart from the experimental stimuli, nonstimulating and highly controlled environment, MRI scanning can only be performed in a very noisy and spatially restraining MRI scanner, in which dogs need to feel relaxed and stay motionless in order to study their brain and cognition with high precision. Here we describe in detail a training regime that is perfectly suited to train dogs in the required skills, with a high success probability and while keeping to the highest ethical standards of animal welfare—that is, without using aversive training methods or any other compromises to the dog’s well-being for both methods. By reporting data from 41 dogs that successfully participated in eye-tracking training and 24 dogs IN fMRI training, we provide robust qualitative and quantitative evidence for the quality and efficiency of our training methods. By documenting and validating our training approach here, we aim to inspire others to use our methods to apply eye-tracking or fMRI for their investigations of canine behavior and cognition.
... For domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), previous research has demonstrated the same relationship between right hemisphere activation in the canine brain and observed responses and reactions to alarming and threatening stimuli (Siniscalchi et al., 2010), negative withdrawal emotions (Ahern & Schwartz, 1985;Davidson, 1992), aggression and fear (Casperd & Dunbar, 1996), and unexpected situations (Rogers, 2010). Additional evidence from individual case studies show ear temperature associated with the right hemisphere shifts in response to stressful situations (Lindsay, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Studies combining brain activity measures with behavior have the potential to reveal more about animal cognition than either on their own. However, brain measure procedures in animal studies are often practically challenging and cost-prohibitive. Therefore, we test whether a simple measure of ear temperature can be used to index hemispheric brain activation using a handheld thermoscanner. Cortisol levels are correlated with the activation of the right cortical region, implying that, when stressful situations are experienced, increased right hemisphere activation occurs. This leads to corresponding locally detectable increases in ipsilateral ear temperature. Methods: We compared right-and left-ear temperatures of 32 domestic dogs under non-stressful and partially stressful conditions. Results: We detected significant elevations in right-ear temperature - but not left-ear temperature - relative to baseline readings in the partially stressful condition that were not detected in the non-stressful condition. Discussion: These findings provide encouraging support for the notion that tympanic membrane temperature readings can provide a simple index for canine hemispheric brain activation, which can be combined with data on behavioral decision-making, expectancy violations, or other measures of emotional processing. Devices are cheap, simple to use, portable, and only minimally invasive providing a means for realtime brain and behavior measurements to be conducted in real-world settings.
... Similarly, attention-seeking behavior is evident in both humans and other social animals, such as dogs. Attentionis egens (Odendaal 2000), which is Latin for needing attention, describes the motivation behind interspecies social bonding, stemming from our mutual capacity to give and receive affection and comfort (Lindsay 2005). Recent brain studies even show that neurons in the amygdala on the right side of the brain react differently to animal images as opposed to human images, landmarks, or known objects; even infants have a distinct preference for images of animals rather than toys or other objects (Serpell et al. 2017). ...
Chapter
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This chapter begins with a review of prison-based animal programs (PAPs), with an emphasis on the welfare of dogs being cared for and trained in corrections contexts. Next, it explores various methods for engaging in the compassionate and humane care and training of dogs for adoption or service animal work, without any exploitation. For example, program organizers need to understand canine communication, including animal body language and stress signals, as well as basic dog behavior and force-free training techniques. The chapter concludes with best practice recommendations for dog rehabilitation and training programs within correctional facilities. Overall, administrators and trainers must manage the unique needs of innovative programs that incorporate another sentient being into the milieu.
... Hay fuentes como el trabajo de Vilà (1997) que afirman que el ancestro de esta subespecie es el lobo. Probablemente, la domesticación del lobo y su progresiva transformación en el perro se produjo con los años, por una relación de mutualismo en la que el hombre se aprovechaba de la capacidad de rastreo y caza del lobo/perro, así como de su capacidad para alertar de peligros, y el perro de las sobras de comida del hombre, lo que facilitaba su supervivencia (Lindsay, 2000). ...
... At the beginning of the early socialisation period the central nervous system has reached a level of maturity that allows conditioning and associative learning (Scott, 1958), and as the pup interacts with its environment and learns about relevant stimuli, the connections between neural synapses become stronger and neural circuits more stable (Coppinger & Coppinger, 2001;Knudsen, 2004). Between three and five weeks of age, a drop in heart rate can be detected in pups, followed by an increase in heart rate that peaks at 7-8 weeks (Scott & Fuller, 1965;Lindsay, 2013). Simultaneous with this increase in sympathetic activity, the maturation of the central nervous system, and the ending of the SHRP, pups show another change in behaviour. ...
Article
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Behavioural disorders are a major reason for euthanasia and sheltering of pet dogs. The prevention and treatment of behavioural disorders requires a better understanding of the underlying causes. Early life experiences, such as maternal care, attachment and socialisation, have long lasting and serious consequences for the behavioural and physiological development of an individual. The complex interplay between these factors is likely to have consequences for the future dog-owner bond and the vulnerability to develop behavioural disorders. Here, we summarise the current literature on the interactions between maternal care, attachment formation, and the sensitive socialisation period and their potential consequences on adult dog behaviour. Based on the findings we highlight gaps in knowledge and provide suggestions for future research which are necessary to formulate recommendations for pet dog breeding and socialisation.
... This has not gone unnoticed in current HDB assessment tools with the inclusion of questions such as "My dog gets excited when I come home" [30], and "My dog is constantly attentive to me" [31] in attempt to obtain a reading of how the dog might exhibit bond-affirming behaviours towards their humans. However, from a dog's point of view, several emotional states could be associated with these contexts, e.g., excitement, fear, anxiety, or multiple conflicting states associated with previous learnt experience [32]. Alternatively, they may be related to previous positive reinforcement history, such as maintaining proximity to the human that feeds them. ...
Article
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Dogs play an important role in many western societies, providing companionship, emotional support, and assistance, as well as other more specialist roles. The literature reveals that many human–animal interaction (HAI) questionnaires exist to measure the human–dog bond (HDB). The first part of this study assessed how far existing questionnaires went in measuring HDB (defined as the unique, dynamic and reciprocated relationship between a person and dog, one in which each member can influence the other’s psychological and physiological state). A systematic literature review revealed that a common limitation in HDB questionnaires was a lack of questions based on the dog’s investment in the bond and, therefore, a failure to measure the two-way characteristic of the HDB. This led to the second part of the study: to identify novel themes relating to dog investment in the HDB from which new tool questions could be developed. This was investigated qualitatively using twelve semi-structured interviews on HDB, undertaken with participants from a variety of dog–guardian relationship types. HDB themes that emerged included ‘adaptation’, ‘understanding of a dog’s preferences, likes, and dislikes’, and ‘affirmation’. Subthemes included ‘boundaries’ and ‘expectations’ (within adaptation), ‘excitement’, ‘proximity’, ‘affection’, and ‘recall’ (within affirmation). The themes that arose provide a foundation from which to build new lines of questioning within HDB tools. Such questioning can better represent a dog’s investment in the HDB and, therefore, help create tools that reflect the reciprocal nature of a bond more accurately.
... Las neuronas dopaminérgicas forman un sistema neurotransmisor, el cual se origina en la sustancia negra pars compacta, el área tegmental ventral y el hipotálamo. Esto proyecta axones a grandes partes del cerebro mediante cuatro vías (Dodman y Shuster, 1998), donde dos de ellas, la mesolímbica y la mesocortical, están implicadas en el desarrollo de severos desórdenes cognitivos y comportamentales (Lindsay, 2000). El aumento de la actividad dopaminérgica en el cerebro a través de sus múltiples receptores produce un incremento de las respuestas agresivas ante los estímulos del medio, interviniendo tanto en la iniciación, como en la ejecución del comportamiento agresivo (Miczek et al., 2002;Siever, 2008). ...
Article
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Se investigó la relación entre el colesterol total (Colt) y la dopamina (DA) a fin de disponer de un examen accesible en consulta como es la medición del colesterol total (Colt) de manera de proyectar el comportamiento de la DA sérica. Se determinó el Colt a 50 caninos y con base a los resultados se formaron tres grupos estudio, Grupo I: 6 pacientes con Colt entre 77 y 200 mg/dl; Grupo II: 6 pacientes entre 250 y 300 mg/dl; Grupo III: 6 pacientes entre 400 y 470 mg/dl. A los 18 pacientes se les midió la DA sérica a través de HPLC acoplado a un detector electroquímico. Se encontró una amplia distribución de datos respecto de la determinación de Colt (291.8 ± 62.0 mg/ dl) y DA (68.8 ± 17.8 μg/ml) con una baja correlación entre ellos. El análisis por grupo de estudio muestra una mayor correlación de DA para bajas concentraciones de colesterol sérico, y el análisis de pendientes muestra que la variación en la concentración de DA es mayor ante pequeñas variaciones de colesterol en el grupo II.
... Genel olarak köpeklerin ne tip davranış sergilediğini eğitmenler, veterinerler veya sahipleri geleneksel yöntemlerle anlamaya çalışmaktadırlar [4]. Ancak böyle durumlarda bazen köpeklerin davranışları tam olarak kestirilemediğinden ortaya istenmeyen sonuçlar çıkabilmektedir. ...
... Although adolescent dogs may be sexually mature, dogs do not tend to show fully adult behaviour until 2-3 years of age [80]. Most adolescent dogs go through a hormonal surge which affects their behaviour, decreasing their ability to pay attention and respond to previously learned cues [81,82]. High activity levels and motivation, as well as deficiencies in executive control during this period, might result in owners interpreting their dog's behaviour as an expression of dominance, and lead them to conclude that the dog is dominant. ...
Article
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Social dominance is an important and widely used concept, however, different interpretations have led to ambiguity in the scientific literature and in popular science. Even though in ethology dominance is an attribute of dyadic encounters, and not a characteristic of the individual, ‘dominance’ has often been referred to as a personality trait in animals. Since few studies have specifically examined the link between personality traits and dominance status, we investigated this in dogs living in multi-dog households using a questionnaire, which required owners to specify whether the dog had a dominant or submissive status, and comprised items of both the features of the individual (i.e. personality traits) and previous social experience (interactions with group members and strangers). Four distinct personality factors emerged from 23 behavioural items by principal component analysis, labelled as assertiveness, trainability, intraspecific aggression and independence. Binomial logistic regression was used to examine how the demographic information of the dogs and the personality factors predicted the owner’s estimate of the dog’ status as dominant or submissive. The personality factor assertiveness accounted for 34% of the variance in dominance status, trainability 5% and dog age contributed 4%. Dogs perceived as dominant scored more highly on the factors assertiveness and trainability, which can help explain why ‘dominance’ has often been suggested to be a personality trait, rather than a dyad-specific social status according to different traditions in behavioural research. Similar to the ‘social dominance’ trait in humans, owner ascribed dominance showed a quadratic trajectory in cross-sectional mean change across the lifespan, increasing during adulthood and then maintaining high levels until old age. Overall, our study proposes a multifactorial background of dominance relationships in pet dogs, suggesting that not only previous experience of social interactions between individuals but also age and personality traits influence owner perceived dominance status in multi-dog households.
... In general, the olfactory bulb and its projection structures, including the olfactory tract and striae, are larger in dogs than in humans in absolute terms and relative to brain size (Kavoi and Jameela 2011), suggesting higher olfactory functionality (Haehner et al. 2008). In numbers, olfactory receptors are 30 times more in dogs ( ≈ 200 million) compared to humans ( ≈ 6 million) (Horowitz 2014;Lindsay 2013). In particular, however, the actual size of the olfactory epithelium varies largely across breeds (Quignon et al. 2003), paralled by inter-breed differences in behavioural outcome: Dog breeds selected for olfactory tasks (scenting breeds) and wolves performed better in detecting one of four pots baited with a food reward than short-nosed and non-scent breeds (Polgár et al. 2016). ...
Article
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The extraordinary olfactory capabilities in detection and rescue dogs are well-known. However, the olfactory performance varies by breed and search environment (Jezierski et al. in Forensic Sci Int 237:112–118, 2014), as well as by the quantity of training (Horowitz et al. in Learn Motivation 44(4):207–217, 2013). While detection of an olfactory cue inherently demands a judgment regarding the presence or absence of a cue at a given location, olfactory discrimination requires an assessment of quantity, a task demanding more attention and, hence, decreasing reliability as an informational source (Horowitz et al. 2013). This study aims at gaining more clarity on detection and discrimination of olfactory cues in untrained dogs and in a variety of dog breeds. Using a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) paradigm, we assessed olfactory detection scores by presenting a varied quantity of food reward under one or the other hidden cup, and discrimination scores by presenting two varied quantities of food reward under both hidden cups. We found relatively reliable detection performances across all breeds and limited discrimination abilities, modulated by breed. We discuss our findings in relation to the cognitive demands imposed by the tasks and the cephalic index of the dog breeds.
... Information provided within a specific social and environmental context will condition a required response then contingent upon a package of stimuli for its performance (Mills, 2005). As multimodal cues provide several elements of salience, they are typically used when training pet dogs general obedience behaviours (Lindsay, 2005). Subsequently, for learned behaviours to become controlled by a unimodal component (verbal cue), literature suggests that it is necessary to systematically fade out the remaining controlling stimuli (Reid, 1996). ...
Article
Human-canine communication technology for the home-alone domestic dog is in its infancy. Many criteria need to be fulfilled in order for successful communication to be achieved remotely via artificial agents. Notably, the dogs’ capacity for correct behavioural responses to unimodal verbal cues is of primary consideration. Previous studies of verbal cues given to dogs alone in the test room have revealed a deterioration in correct behavioural responses in the absence of a source of attentional focus and reward. The present study demonstrates the ability of domestic pet dogs to respond correctly to an artificial agent. Positioned at average human eye level to replicate typical human-dog interaction, the agent issues a recall sound followed by two pre-recorded, owner spoken verbal cues known to each dog, and dispenses food rewards for correct behavioural responses. The agent was used to elicit behavioural responses in three test conditions; owner and experimenter present; experimenter present; and dog alone in the test room. During the fourth (baseline) condition, the same cues were given in person by the owner of each dog. The experiments comprised a familiarisation phase followed by a test phase of the four conditions, using a counterbalanced design. Data recorded included latency to correct response, number of errors before correct response given and behavioural welfare indicators during agent interaction. In all four conditions, at least 16/20 dogs performed the correct recall, cue 1 response, and cue 2 response sequence; there were no significant differences in the number of dogs who responded correctly to the sequence between the four conditions (p = 0.972). The order of test conditions had no effect on the dogs’ performances (p = 0.675). Significantly shorter response times were observed when cues were given in person than from the agent (p = 0.001). Behavioural indicators of poor welfare recorded were in response to owners leaving the test room, rather than as a direct result of agent interaction. Dogs left alone in the test room approached and responded correctly to verbal cues issued from an artificial agent, where rapid generalisation of learned behaviours and adjustment to the condition was achieved.
... In fact, multiple elements might have contributed to such differences: lower manipulation time could be due to having had fewer chances to interact with novel human artefacts making former shelter dogs more neophobic [32] or less persistent [33] than constant family dogs. Traumatic experiences connected to the relinquishment or their stay in the shelter may have led to the development of learned helplessness [34,35], hindering their motivation to engage in problem-solving activities. Moreover, differences in the interaction with the social partner (i.e. ...
Article
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Domestic dogs display behavioural patterns towards their owners that fulfil the four criteria of attachment. As such, they use their owners as a secure base, exploring the environment and manipulating objects more when accompanied by their owners than when alone. Although there are some indications that owners serve as a better secure base than other human beings, the evidence regarding a strong owner-stranger differentiation in a manipulative context is not straightforward. In the present study, we conducted two experiments in which pet dogs were tested in an object-manipulation task in the presence of the owner and of a stranger, varying how the human partner would behave (i.e. remaining silent or encouraging the dog, Experiment 1), and when alone (Experiment 2). Further, to gain a better insight into the mechanisms behind a potential owner-stranger differentiation, we investigated the effect of dogs’ previous life history (i.e. having lived in a shelter or having lived in the same household since puppyhood). Overall, we found that strangers do not provide a secure base effect and that former shelter dogs show a stronger owner-stranger differentiation than other family dogs. As former shelter dogs show more behavioural signs correlated with anxiety towards the novel environment and the stranger, we concluded that having been re-homed does not necessarily affect the likelihood of forming a secure bond with the new owner but might have an impact on how dogs interact with novel stimuli, including unfamiliar humans. These results confirm the owner’s unique role in providing security to their dogs and have practical implications for the bond formation in pet dogs with a past in a shelter.
... Siendo necesario más estudios que constituyan a las diversas implicaciones y aplicaciones pertinentes a la formación y evaluación de los perros de trabajo. El proceso de selección de los caninos fue realizada inicialmente con base a su apariencia y capacidad de trabajo, coincidiendo con la prohibición en Inglaterra de las peleas entre perros y toros en el año de 1835 ( Lindsay, 2000). La mayoría de las razas de perros fueron desarrolladas en Europa en la década de 1800 y cada una fue creada para realizar una determinada función y tarea en caza, guardia y conducción de rebaños ( Ostrander, 2007). ...
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La Policía Nacional de Colombia (PNC), en el desarrollo de programas educativos que emplean equipos caninos (Perro-Manejador), utiliza pruebas de selección, fundamentales para determinar cuáles animales son Aptos o No Aptos para iniciar el adiestramiento, continuarlo y finalizar su certificación. Por lo anterior los objetivos de esta investigación fueron: 1). Proponer un conjunto de indicadores etológicos para evaluar el perro detector de sustancias, a partir de una prueba empírica de campo con base a instrumentos y 2). Determinar los criterios de calificación para el perro detector de sustancias durante el proceso de asociación, potenciación y certificación para cada una de las pruebas evaluadas. Lo anterior permite que los instrumentos se validen para que sean confiables y predecir los perros que aprueban o desaprueban las evaluaciones comportamentales, aportando al desarrollo de los programas académicos. Para alcanzar el propósito del estudio, se efectúo un análisis univariado utilizando tablas de contingecia de 2 por 2, estimando la Sensibilidad y Especificidad para cada una de las pruebas realizadas en los caninos detectores de sustancias narcóticas y explosivas (n=549); determinando los valores predictivos de los Test: Instrumento No 1 (Test-retest), Instrumento No 2 (Potenciación y Asociación) e Instrumento No 3 (certificación final). Estableciendo el nivel de acuerdo entre los evaluadores (Kappa de Cohen), correlacionando las 17 variables comportamentales individuales y agrupadas para predecir los caninos Aptos y No Aptos para el servicio policial. Dentro de los principales hallazgos se evidencia una sensibilidad y especificidad altas, con resultados estadísticamente significativos para la mayoría de las variables comportamentales analizadas individualmente (P<0,05). Siendo la “perseverancia”, la prueba que más influye en los Test antes del adiestramiento (Kappa de 1,0), además de un nivel de acuerdo “casi perfecto” entre los evaluadores para la mayoría de las pruebas, prediciendo en un alto grado los caninos Aptos y No Aptos para el servicio policial (Perros No Aptos en la certificación final, n=12; 3%). Es fundamental que los programas académicos que emplean binomios, validen sus pruebas, estableciendo cuales son las variables más representativas para cada evaluación en particular. Lo anterior mejora y ajusta los instrumentos de acuerdo a las necesidades de cada institución o especialidad del servicio canino, disminuyendo costos y mejorando los estándares de calidad, dependiendo del contexto operativo a desempeñar por cada binomio.
... Because our hypotheses addressed links between OT, AVP and aggression, we restricted these analyses to C-BARQ factor scores for dog-directed aggression, (human) stranger-directed aggression, and dog-and human-directed fear. The latter two items were included because fear has been reported as a common motivation for aggressive behavior in dogs (Borchelt, 1983;Galac & Knol, 1997;Lindsay, 2013). For free OT and AVP, these analyses revealed a negative association between baseline free AVP and dog-directed aggression (low AVP → high aggression), with no other significant associations (Table S4). ...
... Distracted dogs were more punished and got a lower performance score. Attention reflects dog's disposition to learn and vice versa (Lindsay, 2000). In this study, distraction might be explained by the young age of the dog population (Vas et al., 2006) or by novelty as the training field was unknown to most of the dogs; or by any other highly motivating stimulus (i.e. the presence of the decoy). ...
... Dogs exhibiting submissive body postures such as crouching, ears laid back, tail between the legs or urination might respond with aggression when the threat of an approaching human continues and the animal is unable to withdraw or escape (King et al., 2003). This feature is frequently lacking in dominant aggressors that may attack without noticeable warning (Lindsay, 2001). A fearful dog usually attacks in an inhibited and nervous manner, biting only hard enough and long enough to escape the feared situation. ...
... Stimulant medications (methylphenidate) are the most frequent medications prescribed in human medicine ( Bradley, 1937 ;Spencer et al., 1996 ;Cortese et al., 2018 ). In veterinary medicine, methylphenidate is used to diagnose or treat hyperactivity ( Lindsay, 2008 ;Overall, 2013 ). ...
Article
Hyperactivity in dogs is discussed as being increasingly linked with human Attention Deficit Hyperactiv-ity Disorder. The French veterinary psychiatry community has proposed a precise definition of an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-like syndrome in dogs called Hypersensitivity-Hyperactivity syndrome (HSHA). Dogs suffering from severe HSHA present 3 main symptoms: hypermotricity, lack of satiety, and shorter sleep duration with normal cycles. Because these symptoms suggest involvement of the serotoner-gic pathway, fluoxetine is the main medication proposed by the French veterinary psychiatry community to treat these dogs. We present the results of a retrospective study of dogs suffering from severe HSHA syndrome and treated with fluoxetine at dosages of 2 mg/kg/day and above. Ninety-eight dogs' file were studied with the help of 23 French veterinary behaviorists and 89 dogs were included in the final sample. The 3 main symptoms of severe HSHA and 5 main adverse effects were evaluated according to the dog's file at the first consultation and at a follow-up 4-8 weeks later. Eighty-eight dogs showed at least some degree of improvement. Improvement was quite high or perfect for 48 of the 89 dogs in motricity, 63 of the 89 in sleep, and 44 of the 89 in satiety. Fifty-four of the 89 dogs (61%) showed adverse events at various levels, with very few dogs experiencing severe adverse effects. In 6 cases the dosage was reduced due to adverse effects but remained at least 2mg/kg. Given the positive reactions to the treatment within our sample, fluoxetine at a dosage of 2-4 mg/kg PO q. 24 hour may be considered as a safe and effective treatment for some dogs suffering from severe HSHA. Further prospective studies also using a lower range of dosages are required for validation.
... (including one German shepherd, one Labrador, and one Border gypsy) were intensively trained by the classical conditioning method for seven weeks(31)(32)(33). For the rst phase of the study, the training set included the pharyngeal secretions of both healthy individuals and COVID-19 positive patients. ...
Preprint
Background: Sniffer dogs have been shown to detect certain chemical particles and to help diagnose many diseases and complications, such as colorectal cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer, and even dangerous states such as hypoglycemia in DM-1 patients. With the spread of COVID-19 throughout the world and the need to have a real-time screening of the population, especially in crowded places, this study aimed to investigate the applicability of these sniffer dogs. Methods: This study was done in two phases. In the first step, three dogs (including one German shepherd, one German black, one Labrador) were intensively trained by the classical conditioning method for seven weeks. Human specimens were obtained from the throat culture and pharyngeal secretions of both definitely positive and negative COVID-19 participants. During the first seven weeks, each dog underwent the conditioning process for averagely 1000 times. In the verification process, 80 pharyngeal secretion samples consisting of 26 positive samples of hospitalized patients and 54 negative samples of hospitalized patients for other medical reasons were provided to the training team in a single-blind manner. The verification test was done using three dogs (Lexi, Sami, and Kozhi). Another similar conditioning process was done using COVID-19 patients’ clothes and masks and the verification test was done using 50 positive and 70 negative samples by three other trained dogs (one Labrador, one Border gypsy, and one Golden retriever). Results: In the pharyngeal secretions verification test, the sniffer dogs showed 65% sensitivity and 89% specificity. In this process, they could identify 17 out of the 26 true positive samples and 48 out of the 54 true negative samples. According to the results, the positive predictive value and negative predictive value for this experiment were 74% and 84%, respectively. In the next verification test for the patients’ face masks and clothes, 43 out of the 50 positive samples were correctly identified by the dogs. Moreover, out of the 70 negative samples, 65 samples were correctly found to be negative by the canines. The sensitivity of this method was as high as 86% and its specificity was 92.9%. In addition, the positive and negative predictive values were 89.6% and 90.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Dogs are capable of being trained as the identifier of people with COVID-19 by detecting their odor and can be used as a reliable tool in limited screening.
... These three dogs (including one German shepherd, one Labrador, and one Border Gypsy) were intensively trained for seven weeks by the classical conditioning method. [31][32][33] For the first phase of the study, the training set was chosen to be a pharyngeal secretion of both healthy and COVID-19 positive patients. These specimens were transported daily from the hospital laboratory to the training site under safe and standard conditions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sniffer dogs have been shown to detect certain chemical particles and help to diagnose many diseases and complications such as colorectal cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer, and even dangerous state such as hypoglycemia in DM-1 patients. With the spread of the COVID-19 throughout the world and the need to have a real time-screening of the population, especially in crowded places, we aimed to investigate the applicability of these Sniffer dogs. Methods: The study was done in two phases. In the first step, three dogs (including one German shepherd, one German black, one Labrador) were intensively trained in seven weeks by the classical conditioning method. Human specimens were obtained from the throat culture, pharyngeal secretions of both definitely positive and negative COVID-19 participants of our study. During the first seven weeks, each dog underwent the conditioning process on average about 1000 times during the course. In the verification process, 80 pharyngeal secretions samples consisting of 26 positive samples of hospitalized patients and 54 negative samples of hospitalized patients for other medical reasons and provided to the training team in a single-blind manner. The verification test was done using three dogs (Lexi, Sami, and Kozhi). Another similar conditioning process underwent using COVID-19 patients’ clothes and masks and the verification test was done using 50 positive and 70 negative samples, by three other trained dogs (one Labrador, one Border gypsy and one Golden retriever). Results: In the pharyngeal secretions verification test, the sniffer dogs could obtain 65% in sensitivity and 89% in specificity. In this process, they could identify 17 out of total 26 true positive samples and 48 out of total 54 true negative samples. According to this results, the PPV and NPV levels for this experiment were 74% and 84%, respectively. In the next verification test for face mask and clothes of patients, 43 samples were correctly identified out of 50 positive samples by dogs. Moreover, out of 70 negative samples, 65 samples were correctly found to be negative by canines. The sensitivity of this method was high as 86%, and the specificity was 92·9%. Concerning the positive and negative predictive values, the numbers are high as 89·6% and 90·3%, respectively. Conclusion: Dogs are capable of being trained as an identifier of people with COVID-19 by detecting their odor and can be used as a reliable tool in limited screening.
... Three dogs including one German shepherd, one Labrador, and one Border gypsy were intensively trained by the classical conditioning method for seven weeks (31)(32)(33). They were introduced to the pharyngeal secretions of both and COVID-19 patients and healthy individuals. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Sniffer dogs are able to detect certain chemical particles and are suggest to be capable of helping diagnose some medical conditions and complications, such as colorectal cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer, and even critical states such as hypoglycemia in diabetic patients. With the global spread of COVID-19 throughout the world and the need to have a real-time screening of the population, especially in crowded places, this study aimed to investigate the applicability of sniffer dogs to carry out such a task. Methods: Firstly, three male and female dogs from German shepherd (Saray), German black (Kuzhi) and Labrador (Marco) breeds had been intensively trained throughout the classical conditioning method for seven weeks. They were introduced to human specimens obtained from the throat and pharyngeal secretions of participants who were already reported positive or negative for SARS-COV-2 infection be RT-PCR. Each dog underwent the conditioning process for almost 1000 times. In the meantime another similar condition process was conducted on clothes and masks of COVID-19 patient using another three male and female dogs from Labrador (Lexi), Border gypsy (Sami), and Golden retriever (Zhico) breeds. In verification test for the first three dogs, 80 pharyngeal secretion samples consisting of 26 positive and 54 negative samples from different medical centers who underwent RT-PCR test were in a single-blind method. In the second verification test for the other three dogs, masks and clothes of 50 RT-PCR positive and 70 RT-PCR negative cases from different medical center were used. Results: In verification test using pharyngeal secretion, the sniffer dogs’ detection capability was associated with a 65% of sensitivity and 89% of specificity and they amanged to identify 17 out of the 26 positive and 48 out of the 54 true negative samples. In the next verification test using patients’ face masks and clothes, 43 out of the 50 positive samples were correctly identified by the dogs. Moreover, out of the 70 negative samples, 65 samples were correctly found to be negative. The sensitivity of this test was as high as 86% and its specificity was 92.9%. In addition, the positive and negative predictive values were 89.6% and 90.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Dogs are capable of being trained to identify COVID-19 cases by sniffing their odour, so they can be used as a reliable tool in limited screening.
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This study aims to compare behavioral and hematological parameters before and after treatment in 12 dogs with demodectic mange infection. As a result of the parasitological examination, an appropriate treatment protocol was planned for dogs diagnosed with demodex canis. Before and after the treatment, blood samples were collected from the cephalic vein of the dogs and transferred into vacuum tubes containing EDTA, following the procedure, and a complete blood count was performed. Behavioral parameters before and after treatment were obtained with a video camera recording system. Compared to pre-treatment values, WBC, Mon (%), Neu (%), MCHC, Eos (%) values were significantly lower after treatment, and Lymph (%), RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH values were significantly higher after treatment, and the difference between the values was found to be statistically significant (P
Chapter
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Physiological and behavioral responses of dogs while wearing two different types of collars were compared: a traditional buckle nylon neck collar, and a newly developed nylon head collar. Before and following tests of obedience training and restraint, measurements were made of blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and pupillary dilation to compare quantitative and qualitative measures of behavior during physiological measurements and during the tests of responses to training. Plasma ACTH and cortisol levels were measured at the conclusion of testing. Results indicated no significant differences in the physiological responses to the two types of collars. There was a trend for physiological responses to diminish during the course of the testing with both collars which indicated a physiological accommodation to handling and training. Evaluation of behavioral responses indicated that during testing dogs were more unruly and disobedient and pulled on the leash while wearing traditional neck collars, but pawed at their noses more and watched the handler less while wearing head collars. The dogs more frequently lowered their heads and ears when wearing the head collar. Owners of dogs wearing head collars may be interested to know that their dogs are not physiologically stressed when the collars are initially applied, despite nose pawing.
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The eleven different functions for which mammals use urine marking are reviewed in this paper, and the urine marking behavior of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is described in detail. A new hypothesis is advanced that urine marking may serve as a "book keeping system" in the red fox's scavenging behavior. Foxes consistently investigate and urine mark inedible food remnants (e.g., bones, bird wings, and dried out pieces of hide). When a fox re-investigates a marked remnant, the urine mark signals "no food present," and the fox investigates this object for only a brief period of time. This use of urine marking may increase the efficiency of its scavenging behavior, i.e. more food-items found per hour of scavenging. This efficiency may be particularly important during periods of food shortage. The hypothesis is tested in three different experiments, using free-ranging red foxes as subjects. Experiment I establishes that fox do urine mark food remnants. Experiment II shows that foxes investigate for a significantly shorter period of time (P<0.001) food remnants exhibiting both the odor of food and the odor of urine as compared to remnants exhibiting just the odor of food. Experiment III suggests that there a hierarchy of stimuli which determines different responses in the fox's scavenging behavior. The experiments also suggest that there is a degree of social behavior in the scavenging activities of red foxes. Foxes appear to use each other's urine marks to increase the efficiency of their scavenging behavior. Thus this study definitely support LEYHAUSEN'S (1965) statement that the social life of solitary animals is frequently more complex than we realize. Solitary species probably show many ingeniously adapted mechanisms for occupying niches where highly social species could not be maintained. The social evolution and ecological advantages of solitary species deserve to be the focus of future research.
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The morphological and behavioral development of three litters (1 male; two females; two males and two females) of coyotes reared in confinement is presented. The data include: patterns of behavior and associated morphological changes in ingestive, eliminative, contactual, and care-seeking processes; interactions among sibs and between adults and neonates; and the development of agonistic behavior in coyote pups.
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The study of animal behaviour problems is an area of increasing interest in applied ethology. As with the study of abnormal behaviour in humans, there are two broad approaches to this subject, one emphasising the role of the environment and biology of the species in shaping behaviour and other the importance of pathological processes within the individual. The latter is based on a medical model as is the tradition in human psychiatry. Blind adherence to a medical model causes serious problems when it comes to the scientific investigation of problem behaviour. These stem from the way problems are categorised, the emphasis that is frequently given to the results of drug trials and the perception that the animal is malfunctioning. This paper argues that primary emphasis needs to be given to the study of the regulation of normal behaviour using psychobiological models, which provide construct validity for the processes observed. This shifts emphasis away from specific defining signs and towards an analysis of the ultimate functional value of the behaviour seen as a problem. This approach also allows the parsimonious explanation of the effects of a range of therapeutic interventions, whose effects might otherwise be poorly predictable.
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Canine compulsive disorder (canine CD) is a syndrome of abnormal behaviours that are believed to result from conflict or frustration. The behaviours are hypothesised to become emancipated from the original context and to generalise to situations where there is no apparent conflict or frustration. When evaluating treatments for these behaviours, valid measures of outcome are required. In this study, two rating scales were developed to measure the outcome of a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, AB–BA crossover clinical trial of clomipramine in dogs with CD (n=51). Both rating scales measured behavioural severity. One was a 5-point Likert scale; the other was adapted from an existing scale and provided ratings from 0 to 10. On the final day of each treatment during the trial, owners used the scales to rate their dogs' behaviour. At the end of the trial, each dog was classified as `Better', `Same' or `Worse', based on changes in their ratings on each of the scales. In addition, on the last 5 days of each treatment, owners recorded the daily frequency and duration of their dogs' compulsive behaviour, as well as the daily number of eliciting contexts. These data were then used to test predictions about the construct validity of `Better', `Same' and `Worse'. The results provide general support for the validity of changes in the behavioural severity derived from both the Likert scale and the 10-point scale.
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From a study of 247 (102 male dogs and 145 bitches) case histories presenting varying degrees of fear and phobia, both generalised and specific, it has been possible to define standard patterns of behaviour. This was done on the basis of severity of the fear, the type of fear response displayed and the nature of the stimulus (James and Rogerson, 1995).Before treatment commenced, the extent of the fear response was noted using the dogs recovery time once the fear inducing stimulus was removed.The treatment programme presented has proven to be 100% successful in all of the cases (n = 89) presented in the period August 1993–August 1995. Cases have ranged from fear of gunfire, hot air balloons, fireworks, bees, high altitude aircraft, crows, thunderstorms and any other sounds, smells and sights where it has been possible to obtain a reasonable degree of stimulus control.