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j. innov.dev.strategy. 2(1): April 2008
39
PERFORMANCE OF TOMATO UNDER GHORANEEM AND SISSOO BASED AGROFERESTRY
SYSTEMS
M.M.U. MIAH1, M.S. ISLAM2, M.S.I SIKDER2, M.A.S. MONDOL3 AND S. HUDA3
1Assistant Professor, Dept. of Agroforestry, 2Assistant Professor, Dept of Agronomy and 3Assistant Professor, Agricultural Extension, Hajee
Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur.
Accepted for publication: March 15, 2008
ABSTRACT
Miah M.M.U., Islam M.S., Sikder M.S.I, Mondol M.A.S. and Huda S. 2008. Performance of Tomato under Ghoraneem and Sissoo
Based Agroferestry Systems. j. innov.dev.strategy 1(1): 39-42
A field experiment was conducted at the farmer’s field adjacent to the Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science
and Technology University, Dinajpur during October 2005 to March 2006 to investigate the growth and
yield performance of tomato under eight years old Sissoo and three years old Ghora neem trees. The
treatments were two timber species i.e T2: Ghoraneem (Melia azedarach) and T3: Sissoo (Dalbergia
sissoo) with one control plot (T1: open field). Except plant height all the growth and yield contributing
characters of tomato showed the highest values under open field followed by ghoraneem. Under sissoo
significantly tallest plant (12.3 cm) was recorded but all other parameters were found significantly lowest.
The study revealed that tomato can easily be grown under three years ghoraneem orchard without
significant yield loss although open field produced the highest yield (71.11 t ha-1) eight years sissoo
orchard should not be allowed for tomato production as the yield under sissoo was severely poor.
Keywords: Growth and yield, agroforestry system, Sissoo, Ghoraneem
INTRODUCTION
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is a well known and very popular vegetable grown successfully
throughout the Bangladesh. This fruit vegetable is popular for its nutritional value and diversified use like salad,
juice, sauce etc. It contains 1.98g protein, 320 IU vitamin-A, 1.8 mg iron and 31 mg vitamin-C in 100 g edible
tomato (Bose and Som, 1986). The average consumption of vegetable in Bangladesh is 70g per head per day
including potato and sweet potato. Except tuber crops, it is only 30 g as against the FAO recommendation of
200g. To supply the minimum daily requirement of 200g vegetable/head/day, national production of vegetable
should be over 10 million ton in addition, population of Bangladesh is increasing rapidly ,therefore ,demand for
vegetable is increasing simultaneously whereas as the areas under vegetable production including tuber crops
are 3,27,000 ha that produce 2.76 million metric tons of vegetable yearly (BBS,1998). Unfortunately these
limited areas are decreasing due to increasing the area of Boro rice and wheat in winter season. Under the
circumstances agroforestry may be the best alternative to minimize the gap between demand and production.
Agroforestry, the integration of tree and crop vegetable on the same area of land is a promising production
system for maximizing yield (Nair, 1990) and maintaining friendly environment. Growing annual crops in
association with trees is becoming popular day by day for their higher productivity. In Bangladesh, a large
number of vegetable are grown of which most of them are grown in winter season. Among the different winter
vegetable, tomato is the important one. Though Tomato is very common to all and has good production potential
in our climate but it was not systematically tested in agroforestry system or in natural shade condition to see its
production ability under partial shade condition. A vary little scientific research work was done in this field.
Many fruit orchard and woodlot are found in the northern part of the country. But a very few orchards are used
for cultivation of vegetable. For identifying the compatible tree-vegetable combination, particularly under story
species i.e. different vegetable should be screened out in terms of their adaptability and yield under different tree
canopies of various shade levels. For this purpose, tomato is selected to grow under two MPTs to know its shade
tolerances limits in the northern part of Bangladesh in terms of growth and yield
METERIALS AND METHODS
A field experiment was conducted at the farmer’s field adjacent to the Hajee Mohammad Danesh
Science and Technology University, Dinajpur during the period from October 2005 to March 2006
under upland condition. The site of the experiment was situated between 25028 to 25047 North
latitude and 88034 to 88047 East longitudes at the elevation of 37.58 meter above the sea level.
The experiment was laid out in a medium high land belonging to the AEZ-1(Old Himalayan
Piedmont Plain). The soil texture was sandy loam (sand, silt and clay are 62, 25 and 13 %
respectively) with a pH 5.1 and the organic matter content was around 1.20 percent. The
characteristics of the soil were previously tested in the soil science department, HSTU, Dinajpur.
The seedlings of tomato (variety Ratan) were colleted from BADC, Dinajpur. Tomato was grown
under two tree species namely, Ghora neem (T2) and Sissoo (T3). There was also a control plots in
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open field (T1) adjacent to the orchard. The study was done under eight years old Sissoo and three
years old Ghora neem established maintaining 3m x 3m distance. Each Tree species was pruned
every year. The structural characteristics of two tree species were as follows:
Timber plants Plant height
(m)
Diameter at breast
height (cm)
Average light intensity of the
study period (lux day-1)
Shade status (%)
Ghora neem 11.65 38.5 31250 Moderate (Approx. 40%)
Sissoo 15.3 45.6 20050 Heaviest (Approx. 68%)
The experiment was followed Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications.
Individual plot size was 2.5 m X 2.5 m. Fertilizer doses were 5 ton, 140 kg, 30 kg and100 kg as cow
dung, N, P and K per hectare, respectively. After a few days of transplanting gap filling was done
by the healthy seedlings of the same variety previously planted in the border area. Sticking,
watering and weeding were done as per requirement. Tomato was harvested in several picking when
the fruits appeared at just yellow color during 90 to 115 days after planting (DAP). Ten plants of
tomato were selected randomly from each plot for data collection, plant height, number of primary
branches per plant, number of leaves per plant and number of effective cluster per plant were
determine from the sample plant during final harvesting. Number of fruits per plants, number of
fruits per cluster, fruit diameter and fruit wet were measured when fruit attained to addible size.
Fresh yield was determined from summation of each fruit weight of a plant and than converted to
ton per hectare.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Plant Height
Tomato plant cultivated under different tree shade grew more vigorously than these grew in the
open field. It exhibit significantly longer height irrespective of treatments of tree shade with the
increased of shade levels (decreased of light levels), plant height increased significantly. The
shortest plant was (89.27 cm) found in open field ( T1) and the tallest plant (121.1 cm) was recorded
under Sissoo canopy (T3) due to its heaviest shade condition. The moderate plant height (99.53 cm)
observed under Ghora neem canopy (T2). Significantly taller plant height under heavy shade in Okra
was reported by Ali (1999). Plant grown in low light levels was found to be more applicably
dominant than those grown in high light environment resulting in the taller plant under shade
(Hillman, 1984).
Primary Branch
Primary branches per plant were influenced by shade of different tree canopies. Number of primary
branches per plant was also decreased gradually with the increased of shade levels. The maximum
number of primary branches (9.53) obtained in open field was statistically identical to that of under
Ghora neem canopy (9.20). Significantly the lowest number of primary branches (5.50) was
recorded under Sissoo canopy compared to other treatment (Table1). The lower number of primary
branches under shaded conditions might be due to higher auxin production in plant grown under
shaded condition which ultimately suppressed the growth of lateral branches (Miah, et al., 1999).
Leaf Number
Number of leafs [per plant was significantly varied by different shade levels. Significantly the
height number of leaves per plant (95.07) was recorded under Ghora neeem canopy (T2). The second
highest number of leaves per plant (86.27) was observed in open field (T1) which was statistically
similar to that of Gora neeem canopy. The lowest number of leaves per plant (70.40) was observed
under Sissoo canopy (T3) (Table 1). Similar result was also reported by Ali (1999). The Lowest
number of leaves per plant at the heaviest shade condition may be due to lower production of
photosynthates under low light conditions for a longer period (Miah, et al., 1999). Also similar
result was reported by (Miah, 2001).
Effective Clusters Plant-1
The highest number of cluster per plant (10.15) was recorded in open field (T1) which was
statistically similar to that of found under Ghora neem (9.92). Significantly the lowest number of
clusters per plant (8.33) was recorded under Sissoo canopy which was the heaviest shade condition
among the three treatments (Table 1).
M.M.U Miah et al
j. innov.dev.strategy. 2(1): April 2008
41
Table 1. Growth characters of Tomato under different tree canopies of various shade levels.
Treatments Plant height (cm) No. of primary
branches/plant No. of leaves/plant No. of effective clusters/plant
T1
T2
T3
89.27c
99.53b
121.1a
9.53a
9.20a
5.50b
86.27a
95.07a
70.40b
10.15a
9.92a
8.33b
Mean followed by a common letters are not significantly different at the 5% level of DMRT.
Fruits Plant-1
Number of fruits per plant is the most important yield contributing characters which also
significantly influenced by different shade levels. The maximum number of fruits per plant was
found in the open field (29.30), which was statistically similar to that of found under moderate
shade of Ghora neem canopy (26.63) and significantly the lowest number of fruits per plant was
found under heaviest shade of Sissoo canopy (10.40) (Table 2). The lower number of fruits per
plant under relatively more and prolonged shaded condition was probably due to poor
photosynthetic capacity of plants. The decreased in photosynthetic capacity of shaded plant was
attributed to both stomatal and mesophyll cell properties. These results indicate that Tomato can be
grown even under moderate shade of Ghora neeem canopy without significant loss the number of
fruits per plant as compared to open field.
Fruits Cluster-1
Number of fruits per cluster gradually decreased with the increased of shade levels. The highest
number of fruits per cluster (2.90) was found under full sunlight, which was followed by Ghora
neem shade (2.33). The lowest number of clusters per plant (1.15) was observed under treatment
Sissoo shade. The values of number of fruits per cluster of different treatments were statistically
different (Table 2).
Table 2. Yield and yield contributing characters of Tomato under different tree canopies of various
shade levels
Treatments No. of
fruit/plant No. of fruit/cluster Fruit diameter
(mm) Weight /fruit
(g)
Yield/plant
(g)
T1
T2
T3
29.30a
26.63a
10.40b
2.90a
2.33b
1.15c
44.82a
43.91a
29.31b
63.44a
61.70a
24.97b
1853.00a
1631.00a
753.60b
Mean followed by a common letters are not significantly different at the 5% level of DMRT.
Fruit Diameter
Fruit diameter of tomato grown under different shade levels followed almost a similar pattern of
variation like number of fruits per plant. The maximum fruits diameter recorded under full sunlight
was (44.82 mm).Followed by the fruit diameter (43.91 mm) found under Ghora neem canopy which
was statistically similar to that of full sunlight. Significantly the lowest fruit diameter (29.31mm)
was recorded under Sissoo canopy. The lower fruit diameter under the heaviest shade level may be
associated with the lower mobilization of reserved assimilates to reproductive organ. Similar
findings in case of Mungbean was also reported by Ali (1998).
Fruit Weight
Individual fruit weight also decreased as the shade levels increased. The fruit weight of open field
and grown under Ghora neem canopy varied significantly. The maximum fruit weight was observed
under full sunlight (63.44 g) grown under Ghora neem canopy. Which was closely followed by the
fruit weight (61.70 g) whereas, the plants grown under Sissoo canopy in artificial shade condition
produced significantly the lowest fruit weight (24.97 g). Similar results were also reported by Miah
(2001).
Yield
Tomato yield per plant was also significantly influenced by different shade level of different tree
canopies. The trend of yield per plant was almost similar to that of number of fruits per plant.
Among the tree light levels, the highest yield per plant (1853.00 g) was recorded in the open field
which was statistically identical to that of grown under Ghora neem canopy (1631.00 g).
Significantly the lowest yield per plant (753.6 g) was found under Sisso canopy. Tomato yield per
plant was converted to total yield in ton/ha. The total yield of Tomato showed almost similar
Performance of Tomato under Ghoraneem and Sissoo Based Agroferestry Systems
j. innov.dev.strategy. 2(1): April 2008
42
pattern of variations among the three light levels as tomato yield per plant. The highest yield in
(71.11 t/ha) was recorded under full sunlight. The yield (65.24 t/ha) was recorded under Ghora
neem canpopy was statistically similar to that of full sunlight. Significantly the lowest yield (33.14
t/ha) was recorded under heaviest shade of Sissoo canopy.
REFERENCES
Ali, M.A.1999.Performance of Redamaranth and Lady`s finger growth at different oriantations and
distance under Guava and Drumstick trees. M.S. Thesis, Bangabadhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh
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.M.U Miah et al
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Performance of Redamaranth and Lady`s finger growth at different oriantations and distance under Guava and Drumstick trees
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Ali, M.A.1999.Performance of Redamaranth and Lady`s finger growth at different oriantations and distance under Guava and Drumstick trees. M.S. Thesis, Bangabadhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh
Growth and yield of mungbean genotype under sun and shade condition
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Ali, M.A.1998. Growth and yield of mungbean genotype under sun and shade condition. M.S. Thesis, Bangabadhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh BBS, 1998. Statistical Year book of Bangladesh, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Ministry of Planning, Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Vegetable crops i India
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Bose, T.K. and Som, M.G. 1986. Vegetable crops i India, Mitra, B. Naya Prokash, Bidhansanani, Calcutta. 70006, India. pp.293-342
ed.) advances plant physiology
  • J R Hillman
Hillman, J.R. 1984. Apical dominance. In: Wilking, M.B. (ed.) advances plant physiology. Pitman, London, pp. 127-148
Performance of onion under different reduced light levels for Agroforestry and intercropping system
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