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Two creeping Ceramium species (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) from the Florida Keys: C. reptans sp. nov. and recircumscription of C. codii (Richards) Mazoyer

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On the basis of comparative morphology, a new creeping Ceramium species with incomplete and narrow nodal cortication, C. reptans sp. nov. is described from the Florida Keys, USA, where it co-occurs epiphytically with C. codii on the same host, Hypnea spinella. Ceramium reptans sp. nov. is recognized by a prostrate axis producing unbranched upright axes dorsally; five periaxial cells per axial cell; three cortical cells cut off per periaxial cell, with the first acropetal cortical cell becoming the pseudoperiaxial cell that extends longitudinally parallel to the level of neighboring periaxial cells, a second acropetal and third basipetal horizontal cortical cell; and cruciately divided tetrasporangia in whorls bulging from a single node appressed to the contiguous node below on upright axes, 3-6 segments below the apex. Ceramium codii, described from Bermuda, is recognized by a prostrate axis producing unbranched, upright axes dorsally, four periaxial cells per axial cell, three cortical cells cut off per periaxial cell with the basipetal cortical cell cut off horizontally on the prostrate axis, and 1-2 tetrahedrally divided tetrasporangia produced per periaxial cell. Among the described creeping Ceramiaun species; C. codii, C. bisporum, C. cingulatum, C. cingulum, C. dorsiventrale, C. incospicuum, C. jolyi, C. luetzelburgii, C. procumbens, C. poeppigianum, C. punctiforme, C. serpens, and C. tenerrimum var. brevizonatum f. repens, none has the characteristic pseudoperiaxial cells of C. reptans. Ceramium codii may not be a widespread species as is widely reported in the literature.
... Ceramium deslongchampsii, a species not found in this study, also has prostrate axes, but not predominantly so, and bears numerous densely tufted and densely branched erect axes. These features are in contrast to C. codii, which has unbranched erect axes and apices (Itono 1972, Maggs and Hommersand 1993, Cho and Fredericq 2006. C. deslongchampii also differs from C. codii in that the tetrasporangia are formed in groups in a row around nodes (one or two tetrasporangia develop from a single periaxial cell in C. codii), by 5-6 periaxial cells per axial cell, each periaxial cell produces two acropetal and two basipetal cortical filament (only 4 in C. codii and two acropetal, one basipetal cortical filament). ...
... The species is likely to be simply overlooked when collecting or sorting due to its small size. On the other hand, C. codii may not be as widespread a species as is widely reported in the literature, and it may comprise several distinct entities (Coppejans 1977, Cho andFredericq 2006). This is the first record of this species from the Moroccan Atlantic coast. ...
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A taxonomic study was recently carried out on species of the tribe Ceramieae (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta), following an evaluation of previously published records and on the basis of field and laboratory investigations. In Morocco, the tribe is represented by 5 genera: Ceramium (21 taxa at specific and infraspecific levels), Gayliella (3 species), and by one species each of Centroceras, Corallophila and Microcladia. Among these, there are five new records for Morocco: Centroceras gasparrinii, Ceramium botryocarpum, Ceramium cingulatum, Ceramium echionotum var. mediterraneum, and Gayliella taylorii. The report of C. echionotum var. mediterraneum from the Atlantic coast of Morocco is one of the rare records from outside the Mediterranean. Ceramium ciliatum var. robustum and Ceramium codii are recorded for the first time from the Atlantic coast of Morocco. Centroceras clavulatum is excluded from Moroccan flora having been misidentified for C. gasparrinii. This paper summarizes the taxonomic characters of these species with images and presents a key for their identification. This report is the first detailed record of the species of the tribe Ceramieae for Morocco. As a result, the total number of taxa at both specific and infraspecific levels accepted in the tribe Ceramieae for Morocco, under current taxonomy and nomenclature, is 27.
... In the Western Atlantic, there are six Ceramium species with nodal cortication similar to C. bisporum: C. affine Setchell and Gardner, C. cimbricum f. flaccidum (Petersen) Furnari and Serio, C. codii (Richards) Mazoyer, C. comptum Børgesen, C. leptozonum Howe, and C. reptans Cho and Fredericq. However, these species differ from our specimen in the following characteristics (Table 1): C. affine has a node formed by 2-3 cortical bands (Setchell and Gardner, 1930), while our specimen has only one band (Fig. 2); C. cimbricum f. flaccidum and C. codii have tetrasporangia partially covered by short cortical cells (Setchell and Gardner, 1930;Schneider and Searles, 1990: p. 379, as C. fastigiatum f. flaccidum; Cho and Fredericq, 2006), while in our specimen the tetrasporangia are naked (Figs. 3, 4); C. comptum has a much larger thallus and axes with a diameter at least twice the size of our specimen (Taylor, 1960), as well as more than four pericentral cells (Børgesen, 1924). C. leptozonum and C. reptans also have a greater number of pericentral cells, eight to ten cells longitudinally elongated in C. leptozonum (Littler et al., 2008), five in C. reptans (Cho and Fredericq, 2006), compared to just four in our specimen. ...
... However, these species differ from our specimen in the following characteristics (Table 1): C. affine has a node formed by 2-3 cortical bands (Setchell and Gardner, 1930), while our specimen has only one band (Fig. 2); C. cimbricum f. flaccidum and C. codii have tetrasporangia partially covered by short cortical cells (Setchell and Gardner, 1930;Schneider and Searles, 1990: p. 379, as C. fastigiatum f. flaccidum; Cho and Fredericq, 2006), while in our specimen the tetrasporangia are naked (Figs. 3, 4); C. comptum has a much larger thallus and axes with a diameter at least twice the size of our specimen (Taylor, 1960), as well as more than four pericentral cells (Børgesen, 1924). C. leptozonum and C. reptans also have a greater number of pericentral cells, eight to ten cells longitudinally elongated in C. leptozonum (Littler et al., 2008), five in C. reptans (Cho and Fredericq, 2006), compared to just four in our specimen. Our alga is small in size, and while has a total height of 1.2 mm, larger than 1 mm exceptionally large specimens reported by Ballantine (1990), the diameter of the axes, the number of pericentral cells, and the nodal cortication fits the description of Ceramium bisporum. ...
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The presence of tetrahedrally divided tatrasporangia in Ceramium bisporum Ballantine is reported for the first time. The plant was found as epiphytic on calcareous Halimeda tuna in coral reef environment in Caribbean Colombia. The taxon represents a new record for the country.Presencia de tetrasporangios en Ceramium bisporum(Ceramiales, Rhodophyta)Se reporta por primera vez la presencia de tetrasporangios divididos tetrahedricamente para la especie Ceramium bisporum. El alga fue encontrada epífita del alga calcárea Halimeda tuna en arrecifes coralinos en el Caribe colombiano. El taxón representa un nuevo registro para el país.
... The genus Ceramium is one of the largest rhodophyte genera in the world, and recent monographic studies (South and Skelton 2000, Cho et al. 2001a, Cho and Fredericq 2006 have added new species to the genus. Approximately 59 species are currently recognized from the North Pacific Ocean (Setchell and Gardner 1924, Dawson 1962, Nakamura 1965, Itono 1977, Abbott 1999, Cho et al. 2003a. ...
... Within the genus, three cortical initials per periaxial cell have been reported in C. codii (Richards) Mazoyer, two of which are acropetal and one basipetal, especially on prostrate axes, and in C. reptans T.O. Cho et Fredericq in which three cortical initials are cut off per periaxial cell on prostrate axes, with the basipetal cortical cell cut off horizontally (Cho and Fredericq 2006). C. periconicum differs from these species in that two cortical initials are directed acropetally and the third is directed laterally, having been cut off vertically from the periaxial cell and maturing without further divisions between the two adjacent periaxial cells. ...
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Ceramium periconicum sp. nov. is described from Baja California Sur, Mexico based on the developmental morphology of vegetative and reproductive plants. The new species is characterized by 4-5 periaxial cells, three cortical initials per periaxial cell (a third of which are produced by vertical division and situated between adjacent periaxial cells), absence of basipetal cortical filaments, and by projecting tetrahedral tetrasporangia in seriate series in an abaxial row. Thalli are less than 3 mm tall and occur in dense tufts. C. periconicum differs from most incompletely corticated Ceramium species in that each periaxial cell divides to produce three cortical initials. Within the genus, three cortical initials per periaxial cell have been reported in C. codii and C. reptans. C. periconicum differs from these species in that two cortical initials are directed acropetally and the third is directed laterally, having been cut off vertically from the periaxial cell and maturing without further divisions between the two adjacent periaxial cells. C. periconicum is also distinguishable from other Ceramium species, such as C. australe, C. clarionense, C. macilentum, C. shepherdii, C. caudatum, C. mazatlanense, and C. personatum by the absence of basipetal cortical filaments and by the sequential production of tetrasporangia from the abaxial sides of fertile axes.
... Number of species Primary sources of information Multiple taxa Voss and Voss (1955); Smith et al. (2007); NOAA (1995); FLDEP (2018), GBIF (2019) Marine algae 544 Tabb and Manning (1961); Humm (1963Humm ( , 1964; Ballantine (1996); Croley and Dawes (1970); Hine and Humm (1971); Mathieson and Dawes (1975); Zieman et al. (1989); Frankovich and Fourqureane (1997); Dawes et al. (1999); Cho and Fredericq (2006) Treadwell (1911); Monro (1933); Hartman (1951Hartman ( , 1959; Taylor (1966); Ebbs (1966); Perkins (1979Perkins ( , 1980Perkins ( , 1981Perkins ( , 1984Perkins ( , 1985; San Martín (1991Martín ( , 1992; Fauchald (1992); Rouse (1994) 184 Thomas (1962Thomas ( , 1964; Kier and Grant (1965) Clark (1994); Mikkelsen and Bieler (2000; Bieler and Mikkelsen (2003, 2004a, 2004b behind those of vertebrates and flowering plants and the GBIF data holdings do not yet reflect the majority of actual collections-based records for many groups (e.g. Sierwald et al. 2018). ...
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The anthropogenic transfer of non-indigenous marine species (NIMS) into new areas of the oceans is a key issue. Despite increasing research effort in recent years many fundamental questions remain to be answered before we can effectively manage the issue. One question is whether the greater number of NIMS thus far documented in temperate waters is real or an artefact of fewer surveys being undertaken in tropical environments. Another one is whether poor taxonomic knowledge of the biodiverse tropics hides NIMS that actually occur there. Extensive taxonomic work in three Pacific localities (Guam, northern Western Australia and Singapore) has been collated in previous papers showing that there are relatively few NIMS in these biodiverse environments. The present paper replicates investigations for a low latitude environment in southern Florida in the Atlantic Ocean. The focus area includes the extensive Florida Keys coral reef environment, the southern margin of the Everglades on Florida Bay and the major PortMiami. Only 48 NIMS were identified in a literature-based compilation of 4,615 species; 15 species were represented by isolated records and have not established populations, leaving only 33 NIMS that are established or whose status is unknown. Records for Mollusca, the group with the most species (1,153) in the compilation, were individually researched and taxonomically verified. It is argued that the relative paucity of NIMS is not a straightforward temperature-driven tropical/temperate issue, but instead there are biological factor(s) restricting the ability of NIMS to colonise biodiverse environments compared to less diverse areas.
... Vegetative and reproductive structures were sectioned manually using a stainless steel razor blade. Longitudinal, cross and oblique sections were stained with 1% aqueous aniline blue (Cho and Fredericq 2006). Slides were than mounted in a 50% Karo/water solution with phenol to retard microbial growth. ...
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Gloiosaccion Harvey, with type G. brownii (Rhodymeniaceae, Rhodymeniales), is a red algal genus characterized by the presence of large, hollow and saccate vesicle-shaped thalli arising from small solid axes. Whereas Gloiosaccion has traditionally been viewed as being closely related to Botryocladia (Agardh) Kylin, a multi-marker phylogenetic analysis based on chloroplast-encoded rbcL and UPA and nuclear LSU rDNA sequences instead places Gloiosaccion brownii and G. pumila in the Chrysymenia clade that includes the generitype C. ventricosa (Lamouroux) J. Agardh. Gloiosaccion is reduced to synonymy with Chrysymenia J. Agardh, a taxonomic move first advocated by De Toni in 1900. In addition to C. brownie (Harvey) De Toni, “Gloiosaccion” brownii var. firmum Harvey and “G.” pumilum J. Agardh are recognized as the distinct species Chrysymenia coriacea comb. et stat. nov. and C. pumila (J. Agardh) Weber-van Bosse, respectively. A new species,C. pseudoventricosa sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate specimens going under the name C. ventricosa (J.V. Lamouroux) J. Agardh from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea
... The genus Ceramium is one of the largest genera in the rhodophytes, and monographic studies have added new members to the genus (South and Skelton 2000, Cho et al. 2003a, Cho and Fredericq 2006. Ceramium is characterized by cylindrical axial cells that are incompletely to completely covered by cortical cells, alternate to pseudo-dichotomous branching, straight to inrolled apices, tetrasporangia produced from periaxial to cortical cells, spermatangia occurring on cortical nodes, and spherical cystocarps surrounded with involucral branches (Dixon 1960, Hommersand 1963, Womersley 1978, Cho et al. 2001. ...
Article
Ceramium riosmenae sp. nov. is described from Baja California Sur, Mexico based on morphological and molecular data. The new species is characterized by erect thalli only, penetrating rhizoids on Gracilaria, 7-8 periaxial cells, five cortical initials per periaxial cell, complete cortication throughout, an average of 11-12 segments between branching points, rare adventitious branchlets, and cruciate tetrasporangia. Although C. riosmenae sp. nov. is similar to C. interruptum, C. sinicola, and C. codicola reported from Baja California Sur, Mexico in size and habit, it differs from these species in the number of cortical initials, habit, degree of cortication, host, and the shape of rhizoidal tips. C. riosmenae is separated from C. interruptum with interrupted cortication and four cortical initials from C. sinicola with spins near the apex and incomplete cortication near the base and from C. codicola with bulbous rhizoids on Codium. Our rbcL sequences reveal sufficient sequence divergence (2.4-3.9%) between C. riosmenae and C. interruptum, C. sinicola, and C. codicola to warrant species recognition and to separate C. riosmenae from these species on a phylogenetic tree.
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