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In vitro bioactivities of essential oils used for acne control

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Abstract

Essential oils are used in skincare products for perfuming and aromatherapy purposes. In this study, the bioactivities of seven essential oils commonly used and claimed for skincare namely citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus L.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC), Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC), holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were investigated. Investigation of the in vitro susceptibility of the oils against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) using the broth microdilution technique revealed that citronella grass oil exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 0.005–0.3 and 0.6–1.2 μl/ml, respectively. The MIC and MBC values of lemongrass oil were 0.6 μl/ml and those of kaffir lime oil and holy basil oil were 5 μl/ml. Antioxidant activity using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay showed that the IC50 values of holy basil oil (0.03 μl/ml), plai oil (6.9 μl/ml) and citronella grass oil (2 μl/ml) were lower than that of ascorbic acid (7.9 μl/ml). Anti-inflammatory activity of the oils determined using the 5-lipoxygenase inhibition assay found that IC50 values of holy basil oil (0.04 μl/ml), kaffir lime oil (0.05 μl/ml) and citronella grass oil (0.15 μl/ml) were less than that of nordihydroquaretic acid (1.7 μg/ml). Since P. acnes has a role in the inflammation of acne leading to scar formation, citronella grass oil may help to relieve acne blemishes. However, further investigation in the form of clinical studies would be necessary.

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... One of the most common uses of EOs in skin care is to prevent the emergence of acne, taking advantage of the ability of EOs for inhibiting the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes [140][141][142][143]. Furthermore, EOs can contribute to the reduction of the inflammation and post-acne scar formation. ...
... One of the most common uses of EOs in skin care is to prevent the emergence of acne, taking advantage of the ability of EOs for inhibiting the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes [140][141][142][143]. Furthermore, EOs can contribute to the reduction of the inflammation and post-acne scar formation. Lertsatitthanakorn et al. [142] demonstrated that the antibacterial power of citronella grass essential oil against Propionibacterium acnes, combined with its good free radical scavenging activity and its ability of inhibiting the activity of the 5LOX enzyme, contributed to the reduction of the inflammatory processes associated with acne emergence. Mahant et al. [144] showed that the topical application of the essential oil of Cymbopogan martini (palmarosa oil) at a relative low dose also presents a high potential for mitigating the effects of the acne, which was ascribed to the role of its main component (geraniol). ...
... Antiacne citronella grass Cymbopogon nardus [142] palmarosa Cymbopogan martini [144] Artemisin Artemisia annua [143] Geranium Geranium rotundifolium [148] n.a. 1 Nigella sativa [146] Skin aging geranium Geranium rotundifolium [148] patchouli Pogostemon cablin [149] nutmeg Myristica fragrans [149] citronella Cymbopogon nardus [149] Clove Syzygium aromaticum [149] n.a. 1 Pluchea dioscoridis [150] n.a. 1 Erigeron bonariensis [150] shell ginger Alpinia zerumbet [151] lemon Citrus lemon [152] lavender Lavandula officinalis [153] Sage Salvia officinalis [153] rosehip Rosa canina [154] carrot Daucus carota [57] Anti-wrinkle patchouli Pogostemon cablin [149,155] nutmeg Myristica fragrans [149] citronella Cymbopogon nardus [149] Clove Syzygium aromaticum [149] ylang-ylang Cananga odorata [156] carrot Daucus carota [57] neroli Citrus sinensis [157] rosehip Rosa canina [154] Moisturizer n.a. 1 Hypericum perforatum [117] rosehip Rosa canina [158][159][160] sandalwood Santalum spicatum [161] chamomile Matricaria chamomilla [162] Oily skin geranium Geranium rotundifolium [141] neroli Citrus sinensis [157] ylang-ylang Cananga odorata [156] 1 There is no defined a name for the specific essential oil. ...
Article
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The current consumer demands together with the international regulations have pushed the cosmetic industry to seek new active ingredients from natural renewable sources for manufacturing more eco-sustainability and safe products, with botanical extract being an almost unlimited source of these new actives. Essential oils (EOs) emerge as very common natural ingredients in cosmetics and toiletries as a result of both their odorous character for the design and manufacturing of fragrances and perfumes, and the many beneficial properties of their individual components (EOCs), e.g., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, nowadays, the cosmetic industry includes EOs or different mixtures of their individual components (EOCs), either as active ingredients or as preservatives, in various product ranges (e.g., moisturizers, lotions and cleanser in skin care cosmetics; conditioners, masks or antidandruff products in hair care products; lipsticks, or fragrances in perfumery). However, the unique chemical profile of each individual essential oil is associated with different benefits, and hence it is difficult to generalize their potential applications in cosmetics and toiletries, which often require the effort of formulators in seeking suitable mixtures of EOs or EOCs for obtaining specific benefits in the final products. This work presents an updated review of the available literature related to the most recent advances in the application of EOs and EOCs in the manufacturing of cosmetic products. Furthermore, some specific aspects related to the safety of EOs and EOCs in cosmetics will be discussed. It is expected that the information contained in this comprehensive review can be exploited by formulators in the design and optimization of cosmetic formulations containing botanical extracts.
... MICs are summarized in Table 5. [26], which attributed the antibacterial activity of C. nardus EO to citronellal because of its high concentration; it must be admitted here that we cannot draw the same conclusions. Indeed, the EO from BF, although having a higher citronellal content (74.9%) than that of Benin (27.3%), was nevertheless found to be less active. ...
... This activity is similar to that found by Hussain et al. in 2008 [31] who obtained a MIC of 0.15% w/v on the MSSA strain (ATCC 25923). According to the conclusions of Lertsatitthanakorn et al. [26], the pharmacophore is linalool, which was present here at a level of 60.8%. Indeed, according to Hussain et al. [31], linalool has a MIC on S. aureus of 400 µg mL -1 (i.e. ...
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During the last decade, the advent of multi-drug resistant pathogens responsible for skin infections tends to make conventional treatments obsolete. Even though many studies have reported the antimicrobial properties of essential oils (EOs), the inconsistent use of various susceptibility testing methods has made information on antimicrobial potential of many EO varieties fragmentary. Using a single method approach, the objective of this work was to assess and to compare the antibacterial and antifungal properties, against skin pathogens, of EOs extracted from West African aromatic plants. Twenty-three plant samples collected in Benin and Burkina Faso were screened against 20 bacterial and fungal isolates obtained from skin lesions. Activity was evaluated by the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), with readings facilitated by the use of resazurin, a blue dye metabolized into pink resorufin by viable cells. Following this screening, nine EOs were found particularly active with MICs lower than 0.35% v/v. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was used to determine the phytochemical profile of these active EOs which were found exceptionally rich in oxygenated monoterpenes, especially aldehydes, alcohols or phenols and their derivatives. Through this study, we demonstrated that several West African EOs have a significant antimicrobial potential which could, however, be considerably impacted by plant growing or harvesting place due to phytochemical composition variation. These EOs, even if their antimicrobial effects appeared lower than those of conventional antibiotics, constitute easily available mixtures of active compounds and could nevertheless be considered, in the context of increasing multidrug resistance, as complementary or alternative therapies in common skin infections management.
... Previous study showed that the leaf of this plant contains alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoid, tannin, and saponin compounds. On the other hand, Kaffir lime leaves and fruit extract were revealed to have antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging ability, antimicrobial activity, and anti-inflammatory activity (Lertsatitthanakorn et al. 2006). With regard to cancer research, Kaffir lime essential oil has been shown to have antiproliferative activity on human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines (Manosroi et al. 2006). ...
... Some of the acids found in Kaffir limes can help to neutralize free radicals, the dangerous by-products of cellular respiration that can cause cell mutation or apoptosis, as well as cancer. Antioxidant compounds also slow the breakdown of cells and minimize the appearance of age marks, scars, and pimples (Lertsatitthanakorn et al. 2006). One of the less well-known applications of Kaffir lime juice and leaves is in the hair. ...
Chapter
One of the main problems affecting the citrus industry worldwide is caused by fungal diseases at postharvest stage. This leads to huge amounts of lemon fruit being unnecessarily discarded which contributed to the overall generation of agricultural wastes. Synthetic fungicides are nowadays the major agents used to control diseases of fungal origin. However, long-term and uncontrolled usage may lead to environmental problems such as growing restrictions that are mainly due to its toxicity. Among biocontrol agents, killer yeasts appear as efficient candidates especially for combating fungal postharvest decay in lemons.
... Reactive oxygen species in the skin is generated by UV radiation, leading to damaging reactions, which have been associated with premature skin ageing, photosensitivity or photocarcinogenesis. [8,9] Thus, initiated the mechanism of action underlying skin protective effects of antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species. [10,11] However, it has been proved that several antioxidants exhibit biological properties indirectly related to antioxidant activities. They may trigger cell cycle progression, influence cellular signaling pathways, cell growth and repair systems. ...
... An ultrasound device with a frequency of 20 MHz (Derma Scan C, with 2-D configuration, Cortex Technology, Denmark) was used for noninvasive differentiation of individual tissue structures. [10] Skin thickness (dermis and epidermis) is given in millimeters. Two hundred and fifty-six randomly chosen colors are assigned to the different echo amplitudes, which helps to determine even the slight differences in the reflection behavior. ...
Article
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Objective: To study the effect of two different microemulsions containing Beackea frutescence supplements composed of nerolidool, selenium and vitamin E on absorption effect related to skin health and skin aging. Materials and methods: A total of 39 volunteers with normal and healthy skin were divided into three groups (n = 13) and supplemented for a period of 12 weeks. Group 1 received a mixture of lutein (3 mg/day), lycopene (3 mg/day), α-tocopherol (10 mg/day), selenium (75 μg/day) and β-nerolidool (4.8 mg/day) and Group 2 was supplemented with a mixture of β-nerolidool (4.8 mg/day), lycopene (6 mg/day), selenium (75 μg/day) and α-tocopherol (10 mg/day). Group 3 was the placebo control. Wrinkling, smoothness, scaling and roughness of the skin were determined by Surface Evaluation of Living Skin (Visioscan). Results: Upon supplementation, serum levels of selected nerolidool increased in both groups. Skin thickness and density were determined by ultrasound measurements. A significant increase for both parameters was determined in the serum groups. Roughness and scaling were improved by the supplementation with antioxidant micronutrients. In the placebo group, no changes were found for any of the parameters. Conclusion: Beackea frutescence microemulsion supplements have shown significant change in the texture of human skin as well as scaling, wrinkling, smoothness and roughness were improved by the supplementation.
... 17 If these antimicrobial results of Cymbopogon citratus are oriented, a potential use could be identified in the area of cosmetics, depending on their action against gram positive and negative bacteria, and could be used in products such as disinfectants or liquid antibacterial soaps, considering that most studies define activity on bacteria that are responsible for cutaneous conditions such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and even Propionobacterium acnes ATCC 1951, according to research in Thailand in which it concludes an action of essential oil on the pathogen with one (IMC and one CMB of 0.6 μl/ml). 18 According to research in Thailand demonstrating the action of the essential oil on the pathogen with one (IMC and one BMC of 0.6 μl/ml. 18 This information becomes the basis for considering Cymbopogon citratus as a natural active to treat skin pathologies such as acne, which occur by an infection where most of the agents mentioned are the cause. ...
... 18 According to research in Thailand demonstrating the action of the essential oil on the pathogen with one (IMC and one BMC of 0.6 μl/ml. 18 This information becomes the basis for considering Cymbopogon citratus as a natural active to treat skin pathologies such as acne, which occur by an infection where most of the agents mentioned are the cause. The antioxidant activity of extracts of Cymbopogon citratus demonstrates a high DPPH uptake activity The following IC 50 values (μg/ml) for aqueous extract 1615.7 +/-302.2; ...
Article
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The present work makes a general bibliographical review around a variety of issues around Cymbopogon citrates and tries to summarize the most important aspect and qualities of the plant that make it a potential element in the research and defining of cosmetics with natural ingredients. The biological antibacterial and antifungal activities of the species Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, have been identified by several authors by highlighting a potential action on a large number of pathogens, some of them related to dermal problems. Various other activities have been evaluated, such as antioxidant and insecticide; allowing the extract to be incorporated in cosmetic and insecticide formulations. Several studies consider the species for patented formulations that include microencapsulation as a viable option. Non-invasive in-vivo studies have been reviewed in this work to analyse any potential toxicology and to define the best concentrations of use.
... Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix D.C) has been used for a long time in folk medicine. 1 Preclinical studies have shown that the phytochemicals compound of kaffir lime leaf (KLL) and fruit have antioxidant activity, 2 free radical scavenging ability, 2 anti-inflammatory activity, 3 antibacterial activity, 4 antifungal activity, [1][2][3][4][5] and anticarcinogenic activity. 6 Phytochemical studies have shown that citronellal is the main compound found in KLL. ...
... Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix D.C) has been used for a long time in folk medicine. 1 Preclinical studies have shown that the phytochemicals compound of kaffir lime leaf (KLL) and fruit have antioxidant activity, 2 free radical scavenging ability, 2 anti-inflammatory activity, 3 antibacterial activity, 4 antifungal activity, [1][2][3][4][5] and anticarcinogenic activity. 6 Phytochemical studies have shown that citronellal is the main compound found in KLL. ...
... The ethiology of acne is an inflamed and painful swollen unpleasant topical situation, which is associated with Propionibacterium sp. and Staphylococcus sp. etc. pathogenic microorganisms located on the skin pores (Athikomkulchai et al., 2008;Lertsatitthanakorn et al., 2006;Perry & Lambert, 2006;Serpi et al. 2012). Today, resistance of P. acnes to antibiotics (Abascal& Yarnell, 2002;Chomnawang et al., 2005;Ergin et al., 2007;Akolade et al., 2012), and the extensive use of external antimicrobials may cause dryness, irritation and peeling among others which urged the need for new treatment approaches (Lertsatitthanakorn et al., 2006). ...
... etc. pathogenic microorganisms located on the skin pores (Athikomkulchai et al., 2008;Lertsatitthanakorn et al., 2006;Perry & Lambert, 2006;Serpi et al. 2012). Today, resistance of P. acnes to antibiotics (Abascal& Yarnell, 2002;Chomnawang et al., 2005;Ergin et al., 2007;Akolade et al., 2012), and the extensive use of external antimicrobials may cause dryness, irritation and peeling among others which urged the need for new treatment approaches (Lertsatitthanakorn et al., 2006). For many years, essential oils (EOs) are used to treat and protect from diseases due to their pharmacological effects. ...
Article
Eradication of Propionibacterium acnes and associated skin pathogenic species such as Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis involve anti-oxidant as well as anti-inflammatory effects besides antimicrobial action. For this purpose, Pharmacopoeia Grade (PhEur) Eucalyptus globulus essential oil was evaluated against the human pathogenic species such as P. acnes ATCC 6919, P. acnes ATCC 11827, S. aureus ATCC 6538 and S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 using an in vitro microdilution method. The composition and quality of the essential oil was confirmed both by GC/FID and GC/MS techniques, respectively. The in vitro radical-scavenging activity was evaluated using the photometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay; the anti-inflammatory activity assay performed by using the in vitro lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme inhibition assay. Essential oil analysis confirmed the presence of 1,8-cineole (80.2 %), p-cymene (6.6 %), and limonene (5 %) as main components. The antibacterial performance of the tested oil was more susceptible against Staphylococcus species (MIC=625 µg/mL) compared to P. acnes (MIC=1250 µg/mL). 5-LOX inhibitory activity was determined as IC50 = 58 ±1,4 µg/mL for the essential oil, compared to the inhibition of the standard nordihydroguaiaretic acid = NDGA. The preliminary experimental results suggest that the Eucalyptus essential oil and its major constituent 1,8-cineole acts against skin pathogenic bacteria as a mild natural antimicrobial with anti-inflammatory effects, for further potential topical applications.
... Previous study showed that the leaf of this plant contains alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoid, tannin and saponin compounds. On the other hand, Kaffir lime leaves and fruit extract was revealed to have antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging ability, antimicrobial activity, and anti-inflammatory activity (Lertsatitthanakorn et al. 2006). In regard to cancer research, Kaffir lime essential oil has been shown to have anti-proliferative activity on human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines (Manosroi et al. 2006). ...
... Some of the acids found in Kaffir limes can help to neutralize free radicals, the dangerous byproducts of cellular respiration that can cause cell mutation or apoptosis, as well as cancer. Antioxidant compounds also slow the breakdown of cells and minimize the appearance of age marks, scars, and pimples (Lertsatitthanakorn et al. 2006). ...
Chapter
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The presence of cockroaches in homes and buildings is common. They are one of the most important agents in transmission of bacteria, yeast, protozoa, and parasite worm species to human life either mechanically or biologically. In this work, the potential of Kaffir lime peel toward cockroaches is reported. The peel of Kaffir lime was extracted by hydrodistillation to obtain its essential oil. The repellency of the essential oil was evaluated at different concentrations (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, v/v). The duration of the observation for 3 and 6 h was conducted to the cockroaches at lab scale. From the result obtained, the essential oil of Kaffir lime peel exhibited complete repellency at concentration of 50% v/v and above. Such results may be considered as novel findings in the course of searching for potent botanical insecticides against the cockroaches. The result of the present study will provide knowledge and information about Kaffir lime peel as an insect repellent.
... Previous study showed that the leaf of this plant contains alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoid, tannin, and saponin compounds. On the other hand, Kaffir lime leaves and fruit extract were revealed to have antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging ability, antimicrobial activity, and anti-inflammatory activity (Lertsatitthanakorn et al. 2006). With regard to cancer research, Kaffir lime essential oil has been shown to have antiproliferative activity on human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines (Manosroi et al. 2006). ...
... Some of the acids found in Kaffir limes can help to neutralize free radicals, the dangerous by-products of cellular respiration that can cause cell mutation or apoptosis, as well as cancer. Antioxidant compounds also slow the breakdown of cells and minimize the appearance of age marks, scars, and pimples (Lertsatitthanakorn et al. 2006). One of the less well-known applications of Kaffir lime juice and leaves is in the hair. ...
Chapter
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Recently more and more researches have focused on the preparation of novel biochars for specific use in soil amendment. A series of novel biochars (MS) produced by maize straw mixed with different fermentation wastewater are introduced for their preparation and application for soil health. Preparation methods of novel biochars include physical activation, chemical activation, and blending modification. Physical activations are more efficient than chemical activations in enhancing pristine biochar’s surface structure, while the chemical activations are more capable in creating special functional groups. Blending modification method, mixing different kinds of additives with waste biomass together before pyrolysis, is usually used to increase the nutrient contents. The modified novel biochars have excellent properties such as high surface area and pore volume, rich functional groups, and high nutrient contents. The application of novel biochars to soil can improve soil fertility, promote plant growth, and increase crop yield. After the application of the novel MS biochars in soil, the contents of soil organic carbon and nitrogen were significantly increased. The addition of 5% novel biochar to soil showed the best performance for ryegrass growth and H2O2 enzymatic activity enhancement.
... As a newly discovered hepatoprotective agent, citral (C 10 H 16 O) is the main ingredient of lemongrass oil, and this component may reduce the side effects of diabetes complications. Citral has been used as an anti-inflammatory substance in several studies (Lertsatitthanakorn et al. 2006). However, no studies have tested citral's anti-inflammatory impacts on the serum inflammatory parameters, including IL-6, TNF-α, haptoglobin, and α2-macroglobulin, and the gene expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in type 1 diabetes. ...
... Non-similar letters on each bar at each sampling day show significant differences at P < 0.005 inflammatory effects (Figueirinha et al. 2008;González-Gallego et al. 2007). Because NF-B plays a crucial role in inflammation and its inhibition is one of the main approaches used to alleviate chronic inflammation, lemongrass extract, especially its polyphenol-rich fractions, is an encouraging source for the development of new anti-inflammatory agents (Lee et al. 2008;Lertsatitthanakorn et al. 2006). ...
Article
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Citral is the main ingredient of the lemongrass plant with anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the effects of citral on reducing inflammation in experimental diabetes in rats were investigated. Forty rats were randomly divided into four groups. There were two control groups (healthy controls (H) and citral alone-treated control (HC)) and two diabetic groups (diabetes (D) and diabetes+citral treatment (DC)). After diabetes confirmation on day 7, treatment with citral (300 mg/kg) was started for 2 weeks by gavage in the DC and HC groups. On days 0, 7, and 21 of the study, inflammatory elements of blood serum, IL-6, TNF-α, haptoglobin, and α2-macroglobulin were compared between the four groups. Also, on day 21 of the study, the expression level of IL-6 and TNF-α in the liver tissue was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. On day 21 of the study, following treatment with citral for 14 days, there was a significant difference in the DC group’s inflammatory factors compared to the D group (P < 0.005). However, no significant difference was observed in DC and the two control groups’ inflammatory factors. Regarding gene expression, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the liver were significantly downregulated in the DC group compared to those in the D group (P < 0.05). According to the results of this study, citral can be used as a suitable ingredient to reduce the inflammatory complications of diabetes.
... If these antimicrobial results of Cymbopogon citratus are oriented, a potential use could be identified in the area of cosmetics, depending on their action against gram positive and negative bacteria, and could be used in products such as disinfectants or liquid antibacterial soaps, considering that most Of studies define activity on bacteria that are responsible for cutaneous conditions such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and even Propionobacterium acnes ATCC 1951, according to research in Thailand in which it concludes an action of essential oil on the pathogen with one (IMC and one CMB of 0.6 μl / ml) 18. According to research in Thailand demonstrating the action of the essential oil on the pathogen with one (IMC and one BMC of 0.6 μl / ml) (18). This information becomes the basis for considering Cymbopogon citratus as a natural active to treat skin pathologies such as acne, which occur by an infection where most of the agents mentioned are the cause. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present work makes a general bibliographical review around a variety of issues around Cymbopogon citratus and tries to summarize the most important aspect and qualities of the plant that make it a potential element in the research and defining of cosmetics with natural ingredients. The biological antibacterial and antifungal activities of the species Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, have been identified by several authors by highlighting a potential action on a large number of pathogens, some of them related to dermal problems. Various other activities have been evaluated, such as antioxidant and insecticide; allowing the extract to be incorporated in cosmetic and insecticide formulations. Several studies consider the species for patented formulations that include microencapsulation as a viable option. Non-invasive in-vivo studies have been reviewed in this work to analyse any potential toxicology and to define the best concentrations of use.
... Previous studies reported that kaffir lime leaves exhibited anti-bacterial 8 and antioxidant properties 7 , antiviral action against the Herpes virus 9 , cytotoxicity against cervix and neuroblastoma cancer cells 10 , hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity 6 , usefulness as a mosquito repellent 11 , and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acne 12 and edema inducing compound on ICR mouse ears 13 . In addition, kaffir lime leaf extracts are also reported to reduce acne scar formation and relieve acne blemishes 12 . ...
Article
Previous studies have reported that a number of organic compounds are present in kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) leaf extracts. Further research is needed to purify these compounds and determine which are biologically active. The objective of this study is to identify the volatile organic compounds of kaffir lime leaf crude extracts and fractions and to study their bioactivity. Fractionation was performed by the double maceration method, using hexane as the second solvent. TLC was performed to analyze the qualitative separation, whereas the individual constituents were detected using GC-MS. Our results showed that chloroform and ethyl acetate crude extracts contained various volatile organic compounds such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, prenol lipids, sterol lipids, terpenoids and long chain alkanes. Fractionation separated these compounds into non-hexane fractions, which contained less volatile compounds, and hexane fractions. The volatile compounds of non-hexane fractions were identified to be long chain alkanes, meanwhile the hexane fractions contained terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, prenol lipids and sterol lipids. Palmitic acid and terpenoids, such as citronellyl propionate, nerolidol, citronella and caryophyllene oxide were found to be the most dominant bioactive compounds in chloroform and ethyl acetate crude extract and their hexane fractions, which were reported to possess cytotoxicity against cancer cells. Meanwhile in non-hexane fractions, long chain alkanes such as triacontane and hentriacontane were found to be the most dominant bioactive compound which also possessed cytotoxic effect. In conclusion, fractionation using the double maceration method yielded different volatile organic compounds composition with different biological activities. The crude extracts and fractions of kaffir lime leaves were potential to be developed as a traditional medicine for cancer treatment.
... Researchers found several compounds to be present in L. stoechas essential oils are known to possess antioxidant activities. These include eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, terpinolene, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene [37], and terpinen-4-ol [38]. Matos et al. [39] reported that chemical composition of L. stoechas were fenchone (42%), camphor (35%) and oxygen-containing monoterpenes (87%). ...
Article
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Foodborne pathogens are microorganisms as well as a number of parasites, which are capable of infecting humans via contaminated food or water. In recent years, diseases caused by foodborne pathogens have become an important public health problem in the world, producing a significant rate of morbidity and mortality. In traditional medicine, numerous plants and their extracts have used for thousands of years to treat health disorders. Although many studies were made on natural herbs, those involving the antimicrobial, antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of the herb species are rather rare. This study researches the biological activities of ethanol and methanol extracts of Lavandula stoechas L., which are prevalent in Turkey. In this study, 8 food pathogens were used for antimicrobial activity studies. Antimicrobial activity studies were done by disk diffusion assay and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration). DPPH method was used for non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The Lavandula extracts were screened for their antimutagenic activity against sodium azide by Ames test in absence of rat microsomal liver enzyme (-S9). The ethanol and methanol extracts of Lavandula stoechas showed antibacterial activity (7 mm) against most of bacteria. The antifungal activity of L. stoechas was not determined against C. albicans RSKK02029. The lowest MIC value was determined as 3250 μg/mL. The highest radical inhibition was determined as 79 % by Lavandula stoechas flower methanol extract. The flower extract of L. stoechas (12500 μg/plate) was found to have its highest antimutagenic activity for Salmonella Typhimurium TA98. This inhibition value is 42 %. L. stoechas leaves extracts (6250 and 3125 μg/plate) showed a moderate positive inhibitory effect for Salmonella Typhimurium TA98, and TA100. L. stoechas flower extracts (12500 and 6250 μg/plate) showed a moderate positive inhibitory effect (respectively 31 and 30 %) for Salmonella Typhimurium TA100. The extracts of L. stoechas have antimicrobial, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities.
... Researchers found several compounds to be present in L. stoechas essential oils are known to possess antioxidant activities. These include eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, terpinolene, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene [37], and terpinen-4-ol [38]. Matos et al. [39] reported that chemical composition of L. stoechas were fenchone (42%), camphor (35%) and oxygen-containing monoterpenes (87%). ...
... Citral is obtained from multiple plant species. In addition to being an important odor component in cosmetics and foods, citral also shows good biological activities in vitro, including antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects [17][18][19]. Furthermore, citral has potential therapeutic significance as a local anesthetic and relaxant for smooth muscle due to its capability of promoting the relaxation of uterine, tracheal and aortic smooth muscle [20][21][22][23]. ...
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We synthesized a series of quinazolinone derivates as tyrosinase inhibitors and evaluated their inhibition constants. We synthesized 2-(2,6-dimethylhepta-1,5-dien-1-yl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (Q1) from the natural citral. The concentration, which led to 50% activity loss of Q1, was 103 ± 2 μM (IC50 = 103 ± 2 μM). Furthermore, we considered Q1 to be a mixed-type and reversible tyrosinase inhibitor, and determined the KI and KIS inhibition constants to be 117.07 μM and 423.63 μM, respectively. Our fluorescence experiment revealed that Q1 could interact with the substrates of tyrosine and L-DOPA in addition to tyrosinase. Molecular docking studies showed that the binding of Q1 to tyrosinase was driven by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity. Briefly, the current study confirmed a new tyrosinase inhibitor, which is expected to be developed into a novel pigmentation drug.
... Citral has diversified biological effects, including anti-fungal, anti- bacterial and antioxidant activities [20], as well as carminative, diuretic, deodorant, antitumoral [21,22], anti-inflammatory [23] and central nervous system stimulating effects [24]. Besides, Nishijima et al. [25] described its prophylactic and therapeutic anti-nociceptive effects in experimental models of acute and chronic pain and showed that this monoterpenoid promotes gastroprotective effect against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric. ...
... The antibacterial activity of lemongrass has the potential to be used as disinfectants or liquid antibacterial soaps depending on the activities of gram positive and negative bacteria (Mosquera 2016). Actions of the lemongrass EO on the pathogen and bacteria suggests its likelihood to treat human skin problems like acne (Lertsatitthanakorn et al. 2006;Melo et al. 2015). It has been shown that the EO of lemongrass has the ability to repel insects, which opens the opportunity to be used as a repellent lotion (Lima et al. 2009). ...
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This review addresses the structure, properties, applications and future scope of lemongrass, which constitutes an abundant source of plant material around the world. As a source of cellulose, it has been successfully used for the adsorption of metal ions and dyes and for manufacturing paper and pulp. Recently, it has shown promise in the production of composites and bio energy, as well as obtaining silica and other metal oxides. However, previous research studies have mostly concentrated on utilizing the biological activities of the constituents in therapeutic uses, food preservation, cosmetics and agriculture. Therefore, this review covers literature on all areas of current studies on lemongrass and identifies its multidimensional potential. Furthermore, this review describes the intended application of lemongrass as a source of cellulosic matter, more specifically in the materials science field. Keywords: Cymbopogon Biomass Lignocellulose Cellulose Hemicellulose Material http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10570-018-1965-2
... OIL The antimicrobial activities essential oil of citrus among others, has been of interest to foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries [20]. Many essential oils were used in preparation of skin care and for acne control [51]. The antimicrobial activity can be testes using well-diffusion method and disc diffusion methods [50; 52] property against some medically important microbes such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Micrococcus aureus [53]. ...
Article
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This review examined the composition and antimicrobial activities of citrus peel essential oils. Citrus peels are the waste product of fruit processing industry rich in essential oil (EO) with many phytochemical compounds of excellent antimicrobial properties against many bacteria and fungi. The citrus peel EOs has been widely used in pharmaceuticals, foods and other industries as preservatives, and its generally regarded as safe (GRAS). The extract can be obtained through extraction different techniques such steam and hydro-distillation. The components of the EOs are important and their quality depends on the qualitative and quantitative characteristic of the oils. Equipment such as gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector (FID) and GC-MS are widely used for their analysis. The growing concern on the serious microbial spoilage and the interest in shifting from synthetic to natural antimicrobial agents leads to research and screening of plant and other vegetable sources to identify new compounds for the manufacturing and industrial uses. Although the antimicrobial properties of EOs have been reviewed extensively, the antimicrobial properties of citrus peels oil have not been extensively discussed. The hydro-distillation methods appeared to be more widely used by many researchers, perhaps due to its efficiency, inexpensive and yield of excellent quality EOs.
... Limonene in kaffir lime leaf contributes to the anti-inflammatory activity of kaffir lime oil against Propionibacterium acnes, a skin commensal bacteria which causes the chronic skin disease acne vulgaris [5] . In addition, limonene can promote wound-healing and reduce post-acne scarring and help to remove acne blemishes 6 . All of these volatile compounds are generally obtained from essential oil extraction. ...
Article
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Kaffir lime oil has many health benefits. However, an obstacle to its commercial use is oxidation during storage. Nanoemulsions (particulate colloidal systems) have been shown to be suitable carriers for lipophilic essential oil constituents due to amphipathic compounds that facilitate solubility. The objectives of this study were to formulate thermodynamically stable kaffir lime oil nanoemulsions and to investigate their physicochemical properties. Air-dried leaves of kaffir lime were subjected to steam distillation to obtain essential oil. Preparation of nanoemulsions was done using the spontaneous emulsification method. Tween 80 and propylene glycol were selected as surfactant mix components. The oil phase consisted of Miglyol 812 as a carrier oil for kaffir lime oil while double-distilled water was used in the aqueous phase. The best formula with transmittance above 95% and highest essential oil content was selected. It contained 20% of Tween 80, 10% of propylene glycol, 1.25% Miglyol 812, and 3.75% kaffir lime essential oil. This formula was then characterized and its thermodynamic stability determined. . The results showed that kaffir lime oil nanoemulsions were thermodynamically stable and robustly withstood variations in temperature, centrifugation, and long-term storage. Additionally, the nanoemulsions had low viscosity, which may facilitate its development as a pharmaceutical compound.
... The inhibition of bacterial colony growth was seen at the lowest concentration used (0.25%), and the zone was widening with increasing concentrations. In the same study the anti-inflammatory activity of this essential oil was confirmed 34 . ...
Article
The essential oil obtained from the peel of Citrus hystrix fruits is a colourless or light yellow liquid with a strong citrus scent. It was analysed for its constituents using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The major components of the oil were β-pinene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol, α-pinene, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, and α-terpineol. The antibacterial activity of C. hystrix essential oil was tested by disc diffusion and serial macrodilution methods against 50 multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains. The results confirmed its good activity expressed by minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 0.125–1 µl/ml. The effect on the viability and proliferation of normal human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and the human melanoma cells (WM793 and A375) was also examined. The observed cytostatic and cytotoxic activities were dependent on the dose of tested oil and the incubation time. Melanoma cells (WM793 and A375) were more sensitive to the essential oil from C. hystrix peel than normal cells (HSF). These results suggest a need for more detailed research on its possible use in therapy. © 2017, Science Society of Thailand under Royal Patronage. All rights reserved.
... Preparations from peel, flowers and leaves of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) are popularly used in the treatment of central nervous system disorders (4). Some essential oils were used in skincare products and for acne control (5). Pakistan is one of the most important countries amongst Citrus fruits producer. ...
Article
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The current study investigated the physicochemical composition, mineral analysis, antibacterial and antifungal activity of Citrus aurantium (sour orange), Citrus sinensis (sweet orange), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) and Citrus limon (lemon) peel waste. The proximate composition was determined according to the described standardized methods. The fiber content was 18.00 ± 2% in sweet orange, protein content was 7.20 ± 0.5% in grapefruit and total sugar was 3.1 ± 0.10% in C. aurantium (sour orange). The mineral analysis was carried out by atomic absorption spectroscopy and flame photometry. Increased levels of Na (21750 ± 20 ppm) and Fe (38.0 ± 2 ppm) were found in C. aurantium (sour orange). Similarly, higher levels of K (218000 ± 60 ppm), Pb (3.0 ± 01 ppm), Ag (5 ± 01 ppm), Zn (10.0 ± 01 ppm) and Cr (20 ± 01 ppm) were reported in C. limon (lemon). Likewise, increased levels of Ca (11623 ± 10 ppm) and Mg (1508 ± 5 ppm) were observed in C. paradisi (grapefruit), while levels of Al (39.5 ± 4 ppm) and Mn (5.5 ± 1 ppm) were found higher in C. sinensis (sweet orange). The aqueous extract of Citrus peel waste showed strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. C. sinensis (sweet orange) peel extract showed the highest zone of inhibition (21 ± 0 mm) against Escherichia coli. C. aurantium (sour orange) possessed good antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (17 ± 1 mm). © 2016, SILAE (Italo-Latin American Society of Ethnomedicine). All rights reserved.
... Besides, it has also been reported antifungal and antimicrobial [1,2,[5][6][7][8]. It has been used as an alternative to commercial antibiotics in aquaculture [2] and also in aromatherapy for acne cures [9]. As an antimicrobial, citronella essential oil (CEO) has been shown to be inhibitory for about 50% strains of bacteria and fungi [7]. ...
Article
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The study on citronella essential oil (CEO) sensitivity of 217 microbial strains of 65 species and isolated from animals with different disease conditions, revealed that citronella oil inhibited the growth of only 10.6% strains. CEO inhibited Candida but of no Aspergillus strain. CEO inhibited 22 of 211 bacterial strains. Ampicillin was the least effective antibiotic and but inhibited 41.2% bacterial strains. Gram-positive bacteria (GPBs) were 4.5 more sensitive (p, 0.0006) to CEO than Gram-negative bacteria (GNBs). More GNB strains (p, 0.02) were multi-drug resistant (MDR) type than GPB strains. The probability of CEO resistant was high in MDR strains (p, 0.006). Most of the Brucella abortus strains had MDR (83.3%). Strains of swamp buffalo origin were more (p, 0.08) commonly CEO (96.6%) resistant than strains of dog (81.3%) origin. MDR was the maximum in abortion associated (51.2%) strains and minimum in diarrhea associated strains (25%). The study indicated that CEO is not an effective antimicrobial against veterinary clinical isolates. Antimicrobial drug and CEO resistance patterns of bacteria were dependent on the type of pathogen, its source and association with disease in animals and may be important for deciding an effective antimicrobial therapy.
... Lemon grass has been used in traditional Indian medicine for a long time to treat fever, rheumatism, headaches,cold and stomach pain. Lemongrass oil has been reported to have various activties like antimicrobial [1,2], antiinflammatory, astringent [3],carminative [4], insecticidal [5], antioxidant and antifungal [6]. ...
Article
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Obective:The present study deals with in vitro antioxidant activity of lemon grass essential oil of family Poaceae Methods:by using DPPH assay,Nitrogen Oxide assay , reducing power assay and β-carotene bleaching assay. Results:IC50 values observed for DPPH and NO scavenging method was 0.5 mg/ml and 2mg/ml respectively. The reducing activity gave positive results of increase in absorbance with increase in the concentration of oil,in β-carotene bleaching method also there is 84.1% bleaching in first one hour and it went to 46.8% by the completion of second hour. In all the methods BHT and Gallic acid were kept as standards. Conclusion:The results clearly indicate lemon grass essential oil is effective in scavanging free radical and has the potential to be powerful antioxidant.
... It prevents the injuries and wounds from getting septic, owing to its antiseptic nature. Its numerous skin benefits lead to its use in skin care products like acne removal creams, sunscreen lotions and oil control crams [66]. ...
Article
Mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, filariasis, chikunguniya, yellow fever, dengue and Japanese encephalitis are the major cause of remarkable morbidity and mortality in livestock and humans worldwide. Since ancient times, aromatic plants are used for their medicinal value. Essential oils derived from these plants may be used as effective alternatives/adjuvents in pharmaceuticals, biomedical, cosmetic, food, veterinary and agriculture applications. These oils have also gained popularity and interest for prevention and treatment of various disorders. However, several reports on adverse effects including skin eruption, contact artricaria or toxic encephalopathy in children are available for synthetic repellent in literature. Thus, natural insect repellents like essential oils have been explored recently as an alternative. One such essential oil studied widely, is citronella oil, extracted mainly from Cymbopogon nardus. This essential oil has exhibited good efficacy against mosquitoes. It is a mixture of components including citronellal, citronellol, geraniol as major constituents contributing to various activities (antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antioxidant, anticonvulsant antitrypanosomal and wound healing), besides mosquito repellent action. Citronella essential oil is registered in US EPA (Environmental protection agency) as insect repellent due to its high efficacy, low toxicity and customer satisfaction. However, poor stability in the presence of air and high temperature limits its practical applications. Since, specific knowledge on properties and chemical composition of oil is fundamental for its effective application, the present review compiles and discusses biological properties of citronella oil. It also sheds light on various formulations and applications of this essential oil.
... However, the development of antibiotic resistance, the cost of the conventional therapies and their side effects have led to search for alternative remedies, including plants, plant extracts and phytomolecules [15][16][17][18]. In particular, some essential oils exhibited an interesting antibacterial activity against C. acnes [19][20][21]. The aim of the present study was to assess the in vitro inhibitory effect of some essential oils obtained from Sardinian plants against a strain of C. acnes. ...
Article
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The in vitro antibacterial activity of some essential oils from Sardinian flora, both alone and in combination with chitosan, was investigated against a strain of Cutibacterium acnes, a bacterium involved in pathogenesis of acne. The composition of the essential oils was determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results of this investigation demonstrated that some of the oils examined, characterised by different chemical profiles, possessed some activity against C. acnes. Interestingly, this antibacterial effect was enhanced by sub-inhibitory concentrations of chitosan. These observations suggest the potential application of this synergy in the development of innovative topical formulations useful in the management of acne.
... D-limonene could inhibit the P. acne and reduce inflammation as well as reduce the post-acne scar formation and help to relieve acne blemishes. 42 Methanolic extract of leaves tested to measure the anti-inflammatory activity by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induces Drug Invention Today Vol. 6 ...
Article
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Citrus hystrix, commonly known as kaffir lime and medicinal lime as mentioned in ancient literature and belonging to Rutaceae family and it is native to everywhere within India and South East Asia. The fruits are green when raw and greenish yellow when fully ripe. They are used to prepare juice, pickles and as acidulant in curries. In the traditional Indian system of medicine the Ayurveda and various folk systems of medicine, the fruit peel and leaves are used to treat various inflammatory ailments. Chemical studies have shown that fruit contains various phytoconstituents like glycerolglycolipids, tannins, tocopherols, furanocoumarins and flavonoids and alkaloids. Pre clinical studies have shown that some of its phytochemicals possess antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, chemopreventive, antioxidant, anticholinesterase, cardio and hepatoprotective effects. The present paper deals with review of phytoconstituents and pharmacological action of underutilized C. hystrix fruit.
... The DPPH assay was performed according to the method previously described by Lertsatitthanakorn et al [14]. Briefly, clove essential oil was diluted with DMSO to give a final concentration of 16% v/v and 50 µl was added to 50 µl of absolute ethanol in 96-well round-bottomed microtiter plates (Corning Incorporated, USA). ...
Article
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Avian dermatophytosis is a disease caused by Microsporum gallinae. The disease can cause economic loss in farmed chickens. We investigated the antifungal activity of clove essential oil (CO) against M. gallinae ATCC 90749. The main components of CO were identified by GC-MS, eugenol (98.87%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.13%) were found. The antioxidant activity of CO was determined by DPPH assay, the antioxidation index (AI) ranged from 86.55 ± 0.77 to 92.37 ± 0.25%, which was significantly higher than vitamin E and BHT (p < 0.05). The antifungal activity was determined by broth microdilution method and time-kill kinetics assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of CO against M. gallinae were 0.005 and 0.01% v/v, respectively. Time-kill assay showed that the antifungal activity of CO was dose and time-dependent. The time taken to reduce the number of viable M. gallinae by more than 99.99% was 15 min and 3 h for 2 and 1% v/v CO, respectively. Ointments and cream formulations containing CO were tested for antifungal activity using time-kill kinetics assay. Both the 2 and 4% w/w formulations of the CO ointments and creams reduced the number of viable M. gallinae by more than 99.999% within 15 min. The results of this study show that CO has the potential to be developed as a drug for treating fungal skin diseases in poultry. Further studies on the stability and efficacy of these CO formulations in vivo are needed.
... Many researchers reported that essential oils are effective in treating acne such as tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) [103], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), guava (Psidium guajava) [104], Abies koreana [105], Jeju citrus native species: Citrus obovoides and Citrus natsudaidai [106], Cryptomeria japonica [107], citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) [108], mint (Mentha spicata), thyme (T. vulgaris), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) [109], sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) [110], bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus radiata), juniper (Juniperus communis), rose geranium (Pelargonium asperum), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), and benzoin (Styrax benzoe) [111]. ...
Article
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Thymus quinquecostatus Celak. (Korean name: bak-ri-hyang) is an important medicinal and aromatic herb in Korea, which is named for the spread of its fragrance over a distance of approximately 40 km. In traditional Korean systems of medicine, T. quinquecostatus has been used to treat cancer, constipation, hepatic disease, arteriosclerosis, poor circulation in women, constipation, and menstrual irregularities. At present, T. quinquecostatus is used only for ornamental and ground cover purposes. A literature search was conducted to retrieve information regarding the essential oil composition and biological properties of T. quinquecostatus from PubMed, Science Direct, Wiley, Springer, Taylor and Francis, Wiley, and other literature databases. T. quinquecostatus can be divided into different chemotypes, such as γ-terpinene, thymol, phenol, carvacrol, and geraniol, according to the presence of major components in its essential oil. Further, the essential oil from T. quinquecostatus has been reported to possess various therapeutic properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, sleep prolonging, soothing, skin protection and whitening, anti-aging, anti-obesity, and anti-acne properties. In conclusion, this review will be helpful for utilizing the T. quinquecostatus plant in different industries including food, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, perfumery, and cosmetics.
... It is a mixture of two isomers, cisand trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6octadienal (i.e., neral and geranial), which have been proven to block the in vitro enzymatic activity of mushroom tyrosinase [8]. In addition to its importance as odorous ingredient in beverages, foods, and cosmetics, citral has shown promising in vitro biological activities including anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects [9][10][11]. Moreover, recent studies have highlighted that citral has potential therapeutic significance as a smooth muscle relaxer and local anesthetic, as it promotes relaxation in tracheal, uterine, and aortic smooth muscles and inhibits nerve excitability in animal models [12][13][14][15]. ...
... The DPPH assay was performed according to the method previously described by Lertsatitthanakorn et al. (2006). Briefly, the asam gelugor extract was diluted with absolute ethanol to give a final concentration of 10 mg/ml and 50 µl was added to 50 µl of absolute ethanol in 96-well round-bottomed microtiter plates (Corning Incorporated, USA). ...
Article
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Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide problem in both public health and veterinary medicine. Therefore, many natural substances have been studied to find out more about their antimicrobial activities. The asam gelugor plant has various pharmacological properties, especially antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, but there is limited information about the bioactivities of asam gelugor fruit. This study investigated the antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effects of asam gelugor fruit extract. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity of 2.5 mg/ml ethanolic asam gelugor fruit extract was 1.13 times higher than 2.5 mg/ml tocopheryl acetate (antioxidation index 81.30±4.40% vs 72.06±0.83%, p<0.05). In addition, the fruit extract concentration of 50-200 mg/ml showed antimicrobial activity in agar well diffusion assays against Streptococcus agalactiae ATCC 27956, Staphylococcus aureus DMST 4745, S. intermedius DMST 5024, S. epidermidis DMST 12853, Bacillus subtilis DMST 3763 and Escherichia coli TISTR 073, but no activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Malassezia pachydermatis (isolated from dogs). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values determined via broth microdilution ranged from 3.13 to 12.5 mg/ml for the tested bacterial strains and were 50 mg/ml for both of the tested yeast isolates. The results demonstrated that ethanolic asam gelugor fruit extract could potentially be used as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. However, further study should be conducted to determine its activity against other microbial strains and to develop suitable formulations.
... Plai oil obtained from frying with vegetable oil (hot oil extract) has been widely used as a rubbing oil in Thai folk medicine to relieve musculoskeletal pain. A randomized placebo-controlled clinical study of Plai oil extracted by frying with hot palm oil revealed a similar analgesic effect as 1% diclofenac gel (Wisuitiprot et al., 2019 Previous studies have been reported that essential oil from Z. montanum possessed several biological activities such as anti-oxidant (Leelapornpisid et al., 2007), antimicrobial (Boonyanugomol et al, 2017;Lertsatitthanakorn et al., 2006;Pithayanukul, Tubprasert, & Wuthi Udomlert, 2007), and insect repellent (Cotchakaew & Soonwera, 2019). Sabinene, terpinen-4-ol, and DMPBD are the major active constituents found in Plai essential oil from Thailand by using gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and GC with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) (Bua-in & Paisooksantivatana, 2009;Chaiyana et al., 2017;Leelarungrayub, Manorsoi & Manorsoi, 2017;Manaprasersak & Karpkird, 2020;Mektrirat et al., 2020;Huong et al., 2020). ...
Conference Paper
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This study aimed to develop a headspace GC-FID method for the analysis of terpinen-4-ol in Zingiber montanum (Plai) essential oil. The volatile oil was extracted from fresh Z. montanum rhizomes by steam distillation. The amount of terpinen-4-ol was determined by a headspace gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (HS GC-FID) method using benzyl alcohol as an internal standard. The developed method was validated according to the parameters recommended by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH). Linearity was accessed across the concentration range of 2.5-15 µL/mL. The plot of the peak area ratio versus the concentration provided a good linear of this method with a correlation coefficient (r 2) of 0.9989. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.20 and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively, which indicated a high sensitivity of the method. The instrument (n = 6), intra-day (n = 9), and inter-day (n = 3) precision as indicated by %RSD were 1.77, 1.73, and 1.77 %, respectively. The recoveries at 3 different levels of terpinen-4-ol were between 100.23 to 100.85%. The content of terpinen-4-ol in Plai essential oil was 15.53 ± 0.27 % v/v. The developed method can be used in routine analysis of Plai essential oil and its products in both cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
... It is a mixture of two isomers, cisand trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6octadienal (i.e., neral and geranial), which have been proven to block the in vitro enzymatic activity of mushroom tyrosinase [8]. In addition to its importance as odorous ingredient in beverages, foods, and cosmetics, citral has shown promising in vitro biological activities including anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects [9][10][11]. Moreover, recent studies have highlighted that citral has potential therapeutic significance as a smooth muscle relaxer and local anesthetic, as it promotes relaxation in tracheal, uterine, and aortic smooth muscles and inhibits nerve excitability in animal models [12][13][14][15]. ...
Article
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Excessive melanin production causes serious dermatological conditions as well as minor aesthetic problems (i.e., freckles and solar lentigo). The downregulation of tyrosinase is a widespread approach for the treatment of such disorders, and plant extracts have often proven to be valuable sources of tyrosinase inhibitors. Citral (a mixture of neral and geranial) is an important fragrance ingredient that has shown anti-tyrosinase potential. It is highly concentrated in the essential oils (EOs) of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., Melissa officinalis L., and Verbena officinalis L. However, only L. cubeba EO has been investigated for use as a potential skin-whitening agent. This work evaluates the in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity of these EOs and studies, using bio-assay oriented fractionation, whether their differing chemical compositions influence the overall EO inhibitory activities via possible synergistic, additive, and/or competitive interactions between EOs components. The inhibitory activity of C. schoenanthus EO and that of M. officinalis EOs, with negligible (+)-citronellal amounts, were in-line with their citral content. On the other hand, L. cubeba and V. officinalis EOs inhibited tyrosinase to considerably greater extents as they contained β-myrcene, which contributed to the overall EO activities. Similar observations were made for M. officinalis EO, which bears high (+)-citronellal content which increased citral activity.
... Citrus essential oils proved to have many pharmacological properties, i.e., antioxidant [1], anticancer [2], anti-inflammatory [3], antiparasitic [4], antifungal [5], antibacterial [6], antimicrobial [7], larvacidal [8], stress release, and sleep [9]. One Citrus spp., kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC) is also rich in essential oil both in leaves and fruit [10] with numerous biological activities, such as anti-acne [11], anticancer [12], biolarvacidal [13], antimicrobial [14], and mood enhancer [15]. ...
Article
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Previous studies revealed the impact growing location has on the quantity and quality of essential oils derived from numerous Citrus spp., except on the kaffir lime. This study aims to analyze the relationship shared by agroclimatic variables and soil-plant nutrient status to kaffir lime leaves essential oil yield and main composition. The experiment was conducted between February and April 2019 in four growing locations, namely Bogor (6°36′36″ S, 106°46′47″ E), West Bandung (6°48′12″ S, 107°39′16″ E), Pasuruan (7°45′5″ S, 112°40′6″ E) and Tulungagung (8°6′27″ S, 112°0′35″ E). The highest essential oil yield was obtained from Bogor (1.5%), while the lowest one was from Tulungagung (0.78%). The yield was positively and significantly correlated with the rainfall, soil organic carbon, soil pH, and macronutrient levels, i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and magnesium. Citronellal, the major component in metabolites’ profile of kaffir lime leaves essential oils, was significantly affected by the growing location. The absolute content of citronellal was positively and significantly correlated with the actual soil pH and leaf Ca content; furthermore, it negatively correlated with the leaf content of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu. Pearson correlation analysis also showed (i) a negative significant correlation between the relative percentage of citronellol and annual rainfall intensity; (ii) a negative significant correlation between altitude and relative percentage of caryophyllene, and (iii) a positive significant correlation between the relative percentage of linalool and leaf K content.
... The major components present in LGEO are a-citral, b-citral, isoneral, a-myrcene, and linalool . Citral is the key constituent of LGEO and has been known for its anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, fungistatic antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiseptic properties (Lertsatitthanakorn et al., 2006;Bachiega and Sforcin, 2011). LGEO can be used as a substitute for antibiotics in the poultry industry, because of its antimicrobial ability (Tiwari et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The present study was designed to assess the impact of dietary supplementation of lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, carcass traits, liver and kidney function, immunity, antioxidant indices and caecal microbiota of growing quail. A total of 200 Japanese quails at one-week-old were haphazardly allotted to five groups of 40 chicks in five replicates (8 per replicate). The first group was the control group, while LGEO was added at levels of 150, 300, 450, and 600 mg/kg diet in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups, respectively. Dietary supplementation of LGEO (150, 300 and 450 mg/ kg diet) increased body weight at 3 and 5 weeks of age, and increased body weight gain during all periods compared with the control group (P < 0.05). All levels of LGEO improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the periods from 1 to 3 and 1 to 5 weeks of age. During 3 to 5 weeks, FCR was improved in quails fed LGEO (300 and 450 mg/kg diet) compared with the control and other treatments. Carcass traits, plasma globulin, alanine aminotransferase and urea values did not differ among the treatments (P > 0.05), but the activity of aspartate aminotransferase in the plasma was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in LGEO-treated groups. The total protein and albumin values were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in quails fed levels of LGEO (except 600 mg/kg diet) compared with the control. The inclusion of LGEO in quail diets improved (P < 0.05) plasma lipid profile. The dietary supplementation of LGEO increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) plasma immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG and IgA) levels, lysozyme values and activities of superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione and catalase compared with the control group. The caecal Coliform, E. coli and Salmonella were lowered (P < 0.0001) in the quails treated with all LGEO levels, but the total bacterial count and Lactobacillus count were increased with dietary supplementation of LGEO levels (300 and 450 mg/kg) compared with those in the control group. The activities of digestive enzymes were significantly higher in birds fed the diet supplemented with LGEO levels than those fed the control diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of LGEO can improve the performance, lipid profile, immunity and antioxidant indices and decline intestinal pathogens and thus boost the health status of growing quail.
... Several compounds that we have detected in Lavandula stoechas EOs obtained by HD and US-HD have already been treated as antioxidants in chemical screening tests. These include eugenol, thymol, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene [34], and terpinen-4-ol [35]. GC/MS analyzes show that the content of terpinen-4-ol is greater in the extracts obtained by US-HD compared to those obtained by HD. ...
Article
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The paper presents research results concerning the influence of ultrasonic pre-treatment (time intervals of 10, 20, 30, 45, and 60 min) on the process of extraction of essential oils from wild Algerian Lavandula stoechas . Tests were carried out in two populations. A sonication pre-treatment time of 10 min followed by 90 min of hydrodistillation (US-HD) gives a yield of 1.60 ± 0.1% of Kodiat essential oils (KEO). This pre-treatment time proved to be the best when compared with other pretreatment times. However, overall best yield (1.03 ± 0.07%) of El-Kahla essential oils (EEO) was obtained at 60 min of pre-treatment. These yields are higher compared with those (0.64 ± 0.02% and 0.50 ± 0.02%) obtained after 180 min of only hydrodistillation (HD) for the two samples of Lavandula stoechas, respectively. About 90.69% and 89.36% of total compounds were identified using chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC– MS) in KEO and EEO treated by ultrasound versus untreated samples (89.26% and 76%, respectively). A qualitative and quantitative difference in chemical composition between the essential oils of treated and untreated samples of the two harvesting sites was found. The percentage of most of the major compounds (fenchone, camphor, 1,8-cineole, bornylacetate, myrtenyl-acetate, and viridiflorol) and other compounds identified is higher in treated samples. GC/FID (flame ionization detector) analysis of KEO showed that the percentage of fenchone and camphor as major components is greater at 60 and 20 min of ultrasonic (US) pretreatment, respectively, compared with HD and the other US pre-treatment times. Results of the present study clearly indicated that sonication treatments are effective in enhancing the antioxidant activity of Lavandula stoechas extracts and could be further explored for commercial purposes to benefit consumers and the environment.
... Both CHAF and lupeol exhibited anti-inflammatory properties by suppressing the production of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, as well as the expression of proinflammatory genes NFKB1 and NOS2. Similar results were reported from other parts of this plant, including the essential oil that inhibited the activity of 5-lipoxygenase [22]. Coumarins [23] and furanocoumarins isolated from the peel inhibited NO production, iNOS and COX-2 gene expressions in RAW264.7 macrophages [15]. ...
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Citrus hystrix DC. (CH) is found in many countries in Southeast Asia. This plant has been reported for anti-microbial, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. However, the anti-inflammatory and anti-inflammasome properties of the leaves remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the effect of CH leaves on NLRP3 and NF-κB signaling pathways. CH leaves were sequentially extracted using hexane, ethyl acetate and 95% ethanol to give three crude extracts. An active compound, lupeol was fractionated from the ethanolic extract using chromatographic techniques, and its structure was identified and confirmed by spectroscopic methods. Anti-inflammatory activities were observed on both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated and NLRP3 adenosine triphosphate-induced macrophages. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) was analyzed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Real-time qRT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to measure inflammatory-associated gene expression. NF-κB protein expressions were investigated using the immunoblotting technique. The active fraction of ethanolic CH leaves and lupeol significantly reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppressed the expression of both inflammasome genes and NF-κB proteins. The ethanolic extract of CH leaves and lupeol showed potent anti-inflammatory activities by targeting NF-κB and NLRP3 signaling pathways.
... The essential oil (EO) of Z. cassumunar Roxb. could be used for acne control and the treatment of skin infections (Lertsatitthanakorn et al., 2006;Pithayanukul et al., 2007). Antioxidant activities of cassumunarins A, B, C, and curcumin isolated from Z. cassumunar had been confirmed (Masuda et al., 1995;Okazaki et al., 1997). ...
... It contains active ingredients: citronellol and geraniol which provides antiparasitic, anti-microbial activity (Mahalwal and Ali, 2003). It demonstrates different pharmacological activities and for curing the dental problems, fungal disease and bacterial infection (de Billerbeck et al., 2001;Lertsatitthanakorn et al., 2006;Trindade et al., 2015). ...
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At global level, infectious disease/disorders are one of the main causes of illness and death. Commercially, there are several drug and antibiotics are designed to fights against pathogens such as penicillin, ampicillin. Prolonged dosage or treatment affects the physiology composition of pathogens and becoming resistance against antibiotics. Therefore, there is a vital need to find an alternative way to deal with disease-causing microbes. Currently, therapeutic or drug compounds made from natural resources are rich of bioactive compounds that provide a better biological activity to kills the pathogenic cells and to cure the infection. In this review, we studied about the importance of traditionally used medicinal herbs or plants such as garlic, curcumin, their composition and bioactivity.
... Aromatherapy (the controlled application of essential oils) shows promise in this area. In vitro studies provide supportive evidence of the biological plausibility of aromatherapy/essential oils, including in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacteria including Propionibacterium acnes implicated in the pathogenesis of acne, [28][29][30] however, limited clinical evidence is available to espouse this research. 31,32 In fact, an extensive literature search of the subject area failed to locate any high-quality clinical studies investigating the effectiveness of essential oils for the treatment of acne vulgaris; other authors have also noted this. ...
... La voie cutanée est une autre moyen d'administration très utilisé avec les huiles essentielles, par massage à une concentration de 5-10% (elles ont des propriétés anti-inflammatoires contre les affections musculaires ou tendineuses), elles peuvent être également utilisées dans des bains (pré-diluées dans du gel de douche ou de l'alcool) L'industrie cosmétique développe de plus en plus des crèmes, avec dans ses composants, des petites quantités d'huiles essentielles pour favoriser la cicatrisation (huile essentielle de lavande) (Vakilian et al. 2011), ralentir le vieillissement de la peau (huile essentielle de Tagetes erecta) (Leelapornpisid et al. 2014) ou même traiter la couperose ou l'acné (huile essentielle de citron, de gingembre ou de basilic) (Lertsatitthanakorn et al. 2006). ...
Thesis
Les bactéries multirésistantes (BMR) représentent un véritable problème de santé publique. Les antibiotiques conventionnels commencent à devenir inefficaces et des bactéries qu’à une époque étaient contrôlées, commencent à devenir de plus en plus pathogènes. L’utilisation des actifs dérivant des plantes comme certains composants issus des huiles essentielles ont déjà démontré une action bactérienne contre plusieurs bactéries dites résistantes. Pour l’administration de ces actifs, à nature lipophile, nous les avons encapsulés à l’intérieur des nanocapsules au cœur lipidique (NCL) grâce à une modification de la méthode d’inversion de phase développé dans le laboratoire Inserm U1066 au début des années 2000. Le but de cette thèse est de trouver une association avec des antibiotiques qui puisse s’avérer synergique contre des BMR. Nous avons obtenu une synergie sur plusieurs souches bactériennes avec un mélange avec trois actifs différents : l’eugénol, le carvacrol et le cinnamaldéhyde et la doxycycline (antibiotique bactériostatique de la famille des tetracyclines). Cette synergie a été également testée in vivo sur un modèle pneumopatique de souris avec des résultats qui semblent en concordance avec les résultats in vitro. Nous nous sommes servis des méthodes physico-chimiques comme l’angle de contact ou la mobilité électrophorétique, dans le but d’étudier les interactions entre les NCL et les bactéries. Les résultats obtenus semblent indiquer que les NCL recouvrent la surface de la bactérie et libèrent leurs actifs, néanmoins nous n’écartons pas l’hypothèse qu’une certaine quantité des NCL puisse aussi pénétrer la bactérie.
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Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder caused by inflammation and/or blockage of the pilosebaceous follicle. This research is a literature review study that is descriptive in nature and seeks to compile information on the factors related to the etiopathogenesis of the clinical manifestations of acne vulgaris. A survey was conducted in the Web of Science database in the period from January to May 2019, using the keywords "acne vulgaris, etiopathogenesis and pathophysiology". The etiopathogenesis of acne vulgaris is multifactorial, but most studies list the following factors: like diet, daily habits, age, genetics, abnormalities in the production of sebum, follicular hyperkeratinization, increased colonization by Cutibacterium (formerly Probionibacterium) acnes, periglandular dermal inflammation, oxidative stress and immune reactions of the patient. Topical and/or systemic treatments for acne vulgaris, often includes retinoid-associated antibiotics. However, improper use of these can lead to bacterial resistance, in addition, it may trigger adverse effects at epidermis and dermis. The results obtained in this study are important in relation to the treatment of the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. It is believed that this information - when analyzed together - can help with a better definition of the therapeutic protocol.
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Background: Citronella Oil (CO) was used by the Indian army as mosquito repellant to repel mosquitoes at the beginning of the 20th century and later in 1948, it was registered in the USA for commercial purposes. Due to its ecofriendly nature, CO possesses immense potential as a mosquito repellent. Methods: Citronella oil is a valuable alternative to synthetic mosquito repellents commonly used nowadays. However, its volatile nature, poor stability in air and high temperature restrict its application. Its direct application on skin may lead to skin irritation. To surmount the above-mentioned issues, the present research aims to develop Microsponge (MS), a novel dosage form for enhancing the utility and safety of CO. Quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method was chosen for crafting MS using ethyl cellulose with various drug-polymer ratios and characterized. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation was also carried out to check the dermal safety of COMS. Results: The present results revealed that the size of all prepared formulation lies in the micro range (20 ± 3 to 41 ± 4 μm), with good payload (42.09± 3.24 to 67.08± 6.43%). The results of FE-SEM depicted that MS were spherical in shape with porous nature. Cytotoxicity results indicated that COMS were safe on skin cells, when compared to pure CO. The optimized MS were also assessed for larvicidal assay against larvae of Anopheles culicifacies. Conclusion: The CO micro-formulations were found to possess enhanced stability of this oil. Entrapment of CO in MS resulted in a better vehicle system in terms of safety, stability and handling benefits of this oil.
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Content of essential oils in flower and leaf of Citrus microcarpa was 1.1 and 0.8% (v/w), respectively. The flower oil was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons in which limonene (74.5%) was determined as a major component. The dominant constituents found in the calamondin leaf oil were sesquiterpene (82.0%) with elemol (37.5%) as a major component. The obtained thermal data showed that thermal stability of flower and leaf oils was up to 80 and 110 °C, respectively. A study of TG isothermal volatilization at 42.5 °C showed the mass loss of the essential oils as a function of exposition time. Antioxidant assays using both DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging methods exhibited antioxidant activity of flower and leaf essential oils was higher than that of vitamin C. The leaf essential oil exhibited inhibitory effects against six microbial strains while the flower oil inhibited only one fungus strain, A. niger.
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Chapter
Oleoresin is a mixture of volatile and nonvolatile components available in whole extract of natural herb or spice. It principally comprises essential oils and resin. Lemongrass oleoresins come from the Cymbopogon species, which grow in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Oleoresin of lemongrass is a dark green-colored viscous liquid having a characteristic lemon aroma and flavor and is mostly used as a flavoring ingredient. The lemon prefix in the lemongrass specifies the characteristic lemon-like odor, which is due to the availability of citral content (mixture of two isomeric aldehydes, geranial and neral). It has been utilized in synthesizing flavors, perfumes, cosmetics, detergents, and in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Different methods are used to extract the lemongrass essential oil, but steam distillation is the most suitable method as it doesn’t alter the quality of the obtained oil. The chemical composition of lemongrass oil varies depending on its extraction methods, genetic differences, harvest period, photoperiod, plant age, farming practices, and geographical origin. Lemongrass essential oil has shown several biological activities, including antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoan, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic, antiinflammatory, antimalarial, antinociceptive, antihepatotoxic activities, etc. Lemongrass oil is a potent food preservative because of its extraordinary antifungal and antibacterial activities.
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Citrus hystrix DC. peel essential oil (ChEO) has been reported to have many biological activities and is promoted for topical application. However, its effect on skin functioning has not yet been studied. This study aimed to evaluate its safety for normal skin cells as well as its potential activity against human melanoma. In addition, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activity was assessed, as well as inhibitory effects on important skin enzymes: tyrosinase and hyaluronidase. To better understand the complexity of the action of ChEO and the role of individual components, the study also included an evaluation of the activity of its main constituents: limonene, β-pinene, and terpinen-4-ol as well as two mixtures of these compounds, specially designed for this purpose: M1 in equal proportions (1:1:1) and M2 in proportions mimicking those found in the ChEO (2.6:1.7:1). The results showed that the essential oil of the C. hystrix peel, as well as its major components, was not cytotoxic to normal human skin cells representing various skin layers, namely keratinocytes (HaCaT), melanocytes (HEM), and fibroblasts (HDF), even after prolonged exposure of 72 h. The pro-inflammatory effect of ChEO, tested by caspase-1 activation in HaCaT cells, was less pronounced compared to limonene, β-pinene and terpinen-4-ol, and generally very low. On the other hand, its anti-inflammatory effect was noticeable and was half the potency of diclofenac sodium used as the reference drug. Although the anti-hyaluronidase activity of C. hystrix peel essential oil was lower compared to β-pinene and terpinen-4-ol, ChEO revealed fairly high anti-tyrosinase activity, with an enzyme inhibition level of over 80% at a concentration of 150–220 μg/ml. Studies on the potential anti-melanoma effect were performed using the LDH assay on three human cell lines of varying degrees of malignancy, namely WM793, A375, and HTB140. ChEO was more active than the tested single compounds or their mixtures. WM793 cells were found to be most susceptible, while HTB140 and A375 cells were slightly more resistant (IC50 59, 88 and 70 μg/ml, respectively). Our data indicate that ChEO is safe for the skin and has a perspective as an anti-melanoma agent.
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Eleven essential oils, namely, Cananga odorata(Annonaceae), Cupressus sempervirens (Cupressaceae), Curcuma longa(Zingiber- aceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae), Eucalyptus globulus(Myrtaceae), Pinus radiata (Pinaceae), Piper crassinervium(Piperaceae), Psidium guayava(Myrtaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis(Lamiaceae), Thymus x citriodorus (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale (Zingib- eraceae), were characterized by means of GC and GC–MS and evaluated for their food functional ingredient related properties. These properties were compared to those of Thymus vulgaris essential oil, used as a reference ingredient. Antioxidant and radi- cal-scavenging properties were tested by means of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, b-carotene bleaching test and lumi- nol-photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. In the DPPH assay, C. odorata, C. citratus, R. officinalisand C. longa showed major effectiveness, with a radical inhibition ranging from 59.6 ± 0.42–64.3 ± 0.45%. In the b-carotene bleaching test, C. odorata (75.5 ± 0.53%), R. officinalis (81.1 ± 0.57%) and C. longa (72.4 ± 0.51%) gave the best inhibition results. Similar results were obtained for the same essential oils in the PCL assay. Antimicrobial properties were obtained on five food-spoilage yeasts:Candida albicans ATCC 48274,Rhodotorula glutinis ATCC 16740,Schizosaccharomyces pomb e ATCC 60232, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 2365, Yarrowia lypoliticaATCC 16617 . C. citratus and T. x citriodorus were the most effective against the tested strains. Suggestions on relationships between chemical composition and biological activities are outlined.
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With increasing evidence that shows the involvement of active oxygen and nitrogen species in a variety of disorders, cancer, and aging, the role of antioxidant against oxidative stress has received renewed attention. In this review article, a rationale for design of lipophilic, radical-scavenging antioxidant is presented and the potency of a novel antioxidant, 2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2,2-dipentyl-4,6-di-tert-butylbenzofuran (BO-653), as an inhibitor of LDL oxidation was evaluated by considering various factors such as reactivity toward radicals, localization, and mobility in the lipoprotein, and fate of its radical. The anti-atherogenic activity of BO-653 was compared with those of α-tocopherol, probucol, and its metabolites. Furthermore, a novel function of phenolic antioxidants such as cell regulation and induction of phase II defense antioxidants are also discussed.
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Tea tree oil, or the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, is becoming increasingly popular as a naturally occurring antimicrobial agent. The antimicrobial activity of eight components of tea tree oil was evaluated using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Attempts were also made to overcome methodological problems encountered with testing compounds which have limited solubility in aqueous media. After assessing media with and without solubilizing agents, the disc diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of a range of micro-organisms to 1,8-cineole, 1-terpinen-4-ol, rho-cymene, linalool, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene, alpha-terpineol and terpinolene. While the disc diffusion method lacked reproducibility, it was considered useful as a procedure for screening for antimicrobial activity. Terpinen-4-ol was active against all the test organisms while rho-cymene demonstrated no antimicrobial activity. Linalool and alpha-terpineol were active against all organisms with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations of each component against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were determined using a broth microdilution method. Modifications to this method overcame solubility and turbidity problems associated with the oil components and allowed the antimicrobial activity of each of the components to be quantified reproducibly. There was reasonable agreement between minimum inhibitory concentrations and zones of inhibition. These results may have significant implications for the future development of tea tree oil as an antimicrobial agent.
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The aims of this study were to determine and compare the antioxidant effect of essential oils from Thymus vulgaris, Laurus nobilis, Foeniculum vulgare, Eucalyptus globulus, Tagetes minuta, Satureja parvifolia and Lippia polystachya in soybean oil. The concentrations of volatile oils in soybean oil were 0.1% and 0.02%. The antioxidant activity was measured by peroxide values. Thymus vulgaris and L. Nobilis essential oils exhibited a significant antioxidant activity, followed by F. Vulgare and globulus in a decreasing order. Tagetes minuta, S. Parvifolia and L. Polystachya had not effect, and their contribution to the stability of soybean oil was negligible.
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Triethanolamine is an ethanolamine used as counter-ion for fatty acid soaps. Interaction between triethanolamine and free fatty acids is suggested to be useful for cleansing sebaceous follicles in acne prevention. This study describes the preliminary assessment of alginic acid as a factor buffering triethanolamine interacting with stearic acid--a compound of artificial skin sebum. Penetration of triethanolamine into artificial sebum, induced by the above mentioned interaction, was measured using a specific optical method. The values of the penetration depth amounted to 0.07-5.74 mm. pH values were measured. The value of pH is reduced from 10.06 for pure 1.49% (w/w) aqueous triethanolamine solution to 6.61 with the increase of the alginic acid to triethanolamine ratio in the preparations. The data of this in vitro research will support further study on other anionic polymers as factors buffering ethanolamines penetrating artificial skin sebum.
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Being the most prevalent skin condition, acne vulgaris is both physically and emotionally distressing for sufferers and conventional treatment approaches offer limited success. By providing an overview of the causes and mechanisms of the disorder, this article seeks to highlight the potential for aromatherapy treatments and identifies areas for future research to support the role of natural products as alternative treatments.
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Aromatherapy utilises a number of essential oils in the treatment of certain inflammatory disorders. The mechanisms of inflammation involve complex cascades of events in which the metabolism of arachidonic acid, which begins by its oxidation by the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase, plays an important role. The prime objective of this study was to assess in vitro, the potential of essential oils, absolutes and natural or nature-identical chemicals to inhibit this enzyme. Thirty-two essential oils, 10 absolutes and 26 chemicals were screened. The results are reported and discussed.
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Two new phenylbutenoid dimers, (+/-)-trans-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4-[(E)-3,4-dimethoxystyryl]-cyclohexene and cis-1,2-bis[(E)-3,4-dimethoxystyryl]cyclobutane, have been isolated from the fresh rhizomes of Zingiber cassumunar along with the two known phenylbutenoid dimers. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The stereochemistry of these cyclohexene compounds was clarified on the basis of H-1 NMR data of their derivatives. The substituted positions for the 3,4-dimethoxystyryl groups of the cyclobutane compound were confirmed from a Cope rearrangement product in the pyrolysis of the cyclobutane, and the stereochemistry of the cyclobutane was confirmed by H-1 NMR evidence.
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Three new potent antioxidants have been isolated from the rhizomes of Zingiber cassumunar. Their structures have been established from spectral data. These compounds also showed inhibitory activity against inflammation induced by a tumor promoter, TPA.
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A hexane extract of the rhizome of Zingiber cassumunar was found to exhibit topical antiinflammatory activity, when tested in the model of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ear edema in rats (ID(50) = 854 μg/ear). Bioassay-guided fractionation (by MPLC on silica gel) of the hexane extract led to the isolation and identification of (E)-4-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-enyl acetate (1), cis-3-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-[(E)-3,‴,4‴- dimethoxystyryl]cyclohex-l-ene (2), cis-3-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-[(E)-2‴,4‴,5‴- trimethoxystyryl]cyclohex-1-ene (3), cis-3-(2',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)-4-[(E)-2‴,4‴,5‴- trimethoxystyryl]cyclohex-l-ene (4) and (E)-4-(3'-4'-dime-thoxyphenyl)but-3-en-l-ol (5). Compounds 1-5 exerted potent topical antiinflammatory activities with ID(50)-values of 62, 21, 20, 2 and 47μg/ear, respectively. The ID(50) of the reference drug diclofenac was determined to be 61 μg/ear.
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The essential oil of the rhizome of Zingiber cassumunar was found to exhibit a topical antiinflammatory effect, when tested using the model of carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats (ID(50) = 22 mg oil/paw). Individual assessment of topical antiinflammatory activity of the five major components of the oil demonstrated that (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)butadiene (DMPBD), terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene significantly inhibited edema formation, whereas sabinene and γ-terpinene were inactive up to 6 mg/paw. The most active compound, DMPBD, was found to be an antiinflammatory agent twice as potent as the reference drug diclofenac (ID(50) = 3 vs 6 mg/paw, respectively).
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The steam-distilled volatile oil obtained from partially dried grass (citronella grass) Cymbopogon nardus (Linn.) Rendle (Syn. Andropogon nardus Linn.), cultivated in the Nilgiri Hills at Ooty, India, was analysed by capillary GC and GC–MS. The partially dried grass contained 35 components, of which 29 constituents, comprising 92.7% of the oil, were completely identified. The oil contains 16 monoterpenes (79.8%), nine sesquiterpenes (11.5%) and four non-terpenic compounds (1.4%). The prominent monoterpenes were citronellal (29.7%), geraniol (24.2%), γ-terpineol (9.2%) and cis-sabinene hydrate (3.8%). The predominant sesquiterpenes were (E)-nerolidol (4.8%), β-caryophyllene (2.2%) and germacren-4-ol (1.5%). Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Four new iridoid glucosides 1–4, named blumeosides A–D, were isolated from the methanolic stem-bark extract of Fagraea blumei G. DON. (Loganiaceae). They were accompanied by the benzyl-alcohol derivative di-O-methylcrenatin (5) and the flavone C-glucoside swertisin (6). The structures of 1–4 were established by spectroscopic methods, including FAB-MS, and 1H- and 13C-NMR, and by alkaline hydrolysis. Blumeosides A (1) and C (3) are 10-O-(2,5-dihydroxytercphthalo) adoxosidic acid and 10-O-(2-hydroxyterephthalo)adoxosidic acid, respectively. In blumeosides B (4) and D (2), both carboxylic groups of the terephthalic-acid moiety are esterified by adoxosidic-acid units, Blumeosides A–D (1–4) inhibited bleaching of crocin induced by alkoxyl radicals. Blumeosides A (1) and D (2) also demonstrated scavenging properties towards the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hvdrazvl (CDPPH) radical in TLC autographic and spectrophotometric assays.
The free radical scavenging capacity of a wide range of plant oil extracts, principally those used in traditional European herbal medicine (with novel therapeutic potential for patients with degenerative disorders of the CNS), has been compared in vitro. The antioxidant capacity of individual plant extracts was determined via three complementary assay procedures, based on: (i) attenuation of the generation of ABTS+ radical (quantitated colorimetrically), by a metmyoglobin catalyst/hydrogen peroxide system; (ii) inhibition of iodophenol enhanced chemiluminescence by a horseradish peroxidase/perborate/luminol system; (iii) protection of a target enzyme (human brain alanyl aminopeptidase, activity quantitated via fluorimetric assay) against oxidative damage by OH or O−2 generated by Co60γ radiolysis. In assays (i) and (ii), only three plant extracts (cinnamon, pimento, bay) showed substantial antioxidant activity, although the two assays yielded quantitatively different values of antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalent values of 16–25 M (method ii) and 0.25–2.1 M (method (i)). None of the plant extracts investigated showed significant antioxidant protective activity against OH or O−2 species in assay (iii). The data obtained thus demonstrate that the apparent antioxidant capacity of putative free radical scavenging agents depends entirely on the assay method utilized and particular free radical species generated. We therefore suggest that antioxidant capacity determined by a single assay method (particularly via competitive assay with ABTS+) should be interpreted with some caution. This conclusion may be of particular potential importance in clinical chemistry, in view of the current interest in the assessment of the antioxidant status of tissues of patients with a variety of disorders.
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The analysis of the microbiological inhibitory data on substances that are mainly found in essential oils, reveals that only a small number of substances are able to inhibit bacteria, moulds, dermatophytes and yeasts in a concentration up to 250 ppm. The essential oil components are: cinnamic aldehyde, 2-heptenal, 2-octenal, 2-nonenal, 2-decenal, nonanal, decanal, citral, geraniol, chavicol, thymol, carvacrol, β- and γ-thujaplicin, nonanol and decanol. Structurally related substances include sesquiterpene dialdehydes, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, propyl and butyl ester as well as some phenols. Sesquiterpene alcohols and fatty acids do not show pronouced growth-inhibitory properties towards Gram-negative bacteria. Most of the monoterpenes, which are typical essential oil constituents, normally do not posses a wide spectrum of activity at low doses.
Article
Tea tree oil, or the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, is becoming increasingly popular as a naturally occurring antimicrobial agent. The antimicrobial activity of eight components of tea tree oil was evaluated using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Attempts were also made to overcome methodological problems encountered with testing compounds which have limited solubility in aqueous media. After assessing media with and without solubilizing agents, the disc diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of a range of micro-organisms to 1,8-cineole, 1-terpinen-4-ol, ρ-cymene, linalool, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, α-terpineol and terpinolene. While the disc diffusion method lacked reproducibility, it was considered useful as a procedure for screening for antimicrobial activity. Terpinen-4-ol was active against all the test organisms while ρ-cymene demonstrated no antimicrobial activity. Linalool and α-terpineol were active against all organisms with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations of each component against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were determined using a broth microdilution method. Modifications to this method overcame solubility and turbidity problems associated with the oil components and allowed the antimicrobial activity of each of the components to be quantified reproducibly. There was reasonable agreement between minimum inhibitory concentrations and zones of inhibition. These results may have significant implications for the future development of tea tree oil as an antimicrobial agent.
Article
Oxidation of lipids is one of the basic processes causing rancidity in food products. Since application of natural antioxidants may be one of the technically simplest ways of reducing fat oxidation, we studied the effect of heating on antioxidant effectiveness and the chemical composition of basil, cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, oregano and thyme essential oils. When maintained at room temperature, all the oils tested appeared endowed with good radical-scavenger properties in the DPPH assay (effectiveness order: clove ≫ cinnamon > nutmeg > basil ⩾ oregano ≫ thyme). When heated up to 180 °C, nutmeg oil (but not the other essential oils under study) showed a significantly higher free radical-scavenger activity and evident changes in its chemical composition. Furthermore, the ability of these essential oils to protect α-tocopherol, contained in virgin olive oil, against thermal oxidative degradation was investigated. All the essential oils tested appeared able to prevent α-tocopherol loss following oil heating at 180 °C for 10 min (efficiency order: clove > thyme ⩾ cinnamon > basil ≫ oregano > nutmeg). In conclusion, the essential oils under study exhibited good antioxidant properties and might be efficiently used to control lipid oxidation during food processing.
Article
The antioxidant properties of the essential oil from oregano in relation to its chemical composition were examined. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: the β-carotene bleaching (BCB) test, the 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay. It was found that the total essential oil, its fraction as well as its pure constituents have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively. Generally the antioxidant activity of the oregano essential oil is less effective than the ascorbic acid, but comparable with the α-tocopherol and the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The synergy among minor oxygen containing compounds was suggested as possible factor, which influenced the antioxidant power of the oregano essential oil. The antioxidant concentrations influenced its antioxidant power, too.
Article
About 100 pure components of essential oils have been tested for their antioxidant effectiveness. The main classes of compounds, namely monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, benzene derivatives, and non isoprenoid components comprising alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, which are the most common constituents of essential oils, have been analysed. Two model systems for the antioxidant efficacy have been used; the first exploiting the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) method using egg yolk as oxydable substrate, the second measuring the formation of hydroperoxydienes from linoleic acid in a micellar system, using in both cases 2,2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAP) as a radical initiator, and α-tocopherol as a reference compound. From a general point of view phenols were confirmed to possess the highest antioxidant activity. In particular some monoterpene hydrocarbons, namely, terpinolene, α- and γ-terpinene showed a significant protective action, whereas among the oxygenated components, beside the aforesaid phenols, allylic alcohols manifested an appreciable activity. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and non isoprenoid components subjected to this study showed a low, if any, antioxidant effect. The role of the different model systems and the relationship between structure and antioxidant effectiveness are discussed.
Article
PREFACE: No period in the history of organic chemistry has been as dynamic and productive of research accomplishment as the twelve years between the completion of the first and present editions of this textbook. New reagents, new reactions, and extraordinary syntheses have been manifold. New techniques and new instruments for analysis and determination of structures, improved methods for theoretical calculations, as well as new junctures with physical, inorganic, and biochemistry, have made organic chemistry an enormously vital discipline. But along with this "best of times," there is a "worst of times" coming from the recognition that many widely used organic compounds are more toxic than previously suspected. Some are carcinogenic; some may be destroying the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere, which protects all life from the sun's strong ultraviolet radiation; others are concentrated and persist in living tissue to as yet unknown effect. Nonetheless, our society has come to depend on synthetic organic chemicals, and we may ponder the fact that in just a few years the petroleum that makes so many useful organic compounds easily available will be in very short supply throughout the world. It has been a real challenge for us to try to cover the elements of modern organic chemistry with sufficient breadth to anticipate the interests and needs of the future chemists, biologists, physicians, medical scientists, and engineers, who constitute the majority of those who study the subject, and, at the same time, give a balanced view of both its current accomplishments and difficulties. Our attempt has resulted in a large book that may appear unwieldy. Between editions, we often received suggestions from professors to write a book "covering just the material I need in my course," but no two ever seemed to agree on what "the" material should be. Perhaps the discipline has now progressed in breadth and complexity that no simple short text can suffice, any more than the old-fashioned grocery store can compete with the supermarket to supply the diverse needs of a modern community. To a degree, our book has a parallel to a supermarket because not only do we cover many subjects, we cover the important ones in detail. There is no intention on our part to supply just the right amount of material for some particular course of study. Instead, we intend to provide a broad enough range of topics to accommodate almost any desired emphasis or approach to the subject. More on our objectives with regard to different possible approaches to the study of organic chemistry is given in the latter part of Section 1-5 (p. 24). This book makes a substantial break with tradition in the matter of organic nomenclature. It was difficult to decide to do this because changes in this area are very hard to achieve, perhaps for the reason that they threaten the viability of what already is published and, indeed, even our customary forms of verbal communication. One of the authors remembers vividly the protests of his thesis supervisor to the idea of acquiescing to the admonition of a manuscript reviewer who felt that "crotyl chloride" and "methylvinylcarbinyl chloride" represented just too much of a mixing of nomenclature systems for isomeric compounds. "But we've used those names in nineteen earlier papers!" Nonetheless, organic chemists and organic chemistry will surely be better off to name these same compounds systematically as 1-chloro-2-butene and 3-chloro-1-butene. Use of systematic nomenclature is a bit like energy conservation - we all recognize it is necessary, but we would just as soon the start be made after we are dead. The phenomenal growth of organic chemistry during the past decade and the switch by the indexes of Chemical Abstracts to use much more systematic nomenclature suggests that the right time is now. The approach we will take in this book to the nomenclature problem is described in more detail in Chapter 3 (pp. 49-5 1). As in the earlier edition, considerable attention is given to the application of the principles of thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, kinetics, and spectroscopy to understanding and correlating the myriad of seemingly unrelated facts of organic chemistry. Much of this material could be appropriately categorized as belonging to a "Department of Fuller Explanation," and rightly so because it represents a real attempt to achieve a genuine understanding of difficult points of fact and theory. Examples include rather detailed discussions of the properties of solvents, the differences between resonance and molecular-orbital treatments of valence, ionization strengths of acids, the origin of spin-spin splitting and kinetic effects in nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, reaction mechanisms, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, peptide-sequence determinations and peptide syntheses, enzyme action, and reactions of transition-metal compounds. It will not be possible to cover many of these topics in the usual one-year course, but many options are possible, as well as opportunities for individual studies. Many individuals contributed to the progress and content of this edition. Special thanks are due for the suggestions of the reviewers, in particular to Professor George E. Hall of Mount Holyoke College, who read and commented not only on the whole of the first draft but also a much-revised second draft. Helpful suggestions also were received from Professors Robert E. Ireland, Robert G. Bergman, W. A. Goddard III, and John H. Richards of the California Institute of Technology, Jerome Berson of Yale University, Ernst Berliner of Bryn Mawr College, Emil T. Kaiser of the University of Chicago, J. E. Guillet of the University of Toronto, and Dr. John Thirtle of Eastman Kodak. The students at both Caltech and the University of California at Irvine participated in class-testing the first draft and contributed significantly to the final draft. We owe them much for their patience and helpful suggestions. Over the years, many teachers and students have taken time to send us their comments regarding the first edition, and many of these suggestions have been very helpful in preparing the second edition. Also, we are indebted to our respective colleagues for providing the encouragement that makes an endeavor of this kind possible. The revised drafts were prepared in part while one of us was on leave at Stanford University and the other at the University of Hawaii. We are very appreciative of the substantial assistance and hospitality provided by these universities. The manuscript and its interminable revisions were typed with skill and patience by Ms. Rose Meldrum. Our thanks also go to Ms. Margaret Swingle. It was a pleasure to work with Mr. Georg Klatt who did the final artwork, and Ms. Mary Forkner who was the production supervisor. The index was prepared with a HP9830 calculator system, and it would never have been possible to alphabetize and edit the 7500 entries without the help of equipment loaned by Mr. Stanley Kurzet of Infotek Systems. Special thanks are due to Drs. James L. Hall and Jean D. Lassila (as well as Ms. Patricia Sullivan) for their seemingly tireless efforts and continual contributions through the various stages of editing and proofreading. Finally, the patience of our families during the several years that it has taken to write and produce this book is worthy of very particular mention and appreciation. As before, we will be pleased to receive corrections and suggestions from our readers for further improvement of later editions. John D. Roberts Marjorie C. Caserio May 15,1977
Article
The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Alpinia officinarum contain potent inhibitors against prostaglandin biosynthesizing enzyme (PG synthetase). Gingerols and diarylhepatanoids were identified as active compounds. Their possible mechanism of action which was deduced from the structures of active compounds indicated that the inhibitors would also be active against arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme of leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis. This was verified by testing their inhibitory effects on 5-lipoxygenase prepared from RBL-1 cells. A diarylheptanoid with catechol group was the most active compound against 5-lipoxygenase, while yakuchinone A was the most active against PG synthetase.
Article
The present study was carried out to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanol extract obtained from the rhizomes of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and its active principles. The methanol extract was partitioned between ether and water, and then the ether-soluble fraction was extracted with n-hexane. The n-hexane-soluble fraction was chromatographed and part of the fraction was rechromatographed by silica gel column. Three compounds were isolated from the n-hexane-soluble fraction and the chemical structures of these compounds were identified as (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-1-ene, (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)butadiene and zerumbone. The anti-inflammatory activity of these fractions was investigated on carrageenin-induced edema in rats, as well as on acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and writhing symptoms in mice. The methanol extract (p.o.) showed both anti-inflammatory activity and analgesic activity. These activities shifted successively to ether-soluble and n-hexane-soluble fractions and to (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-1-ene. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory action and analgesic action of Zingiber cassumunar is the result of the (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-1-ene that it contains.
Article
The data given in the literature published during 1976-1986 concerning antimicrobial activities of essential oils are treated from an experimental point of view and with regard to a possible practical application. Attention is paid to four factors which are important when testing essential oils: the assay technique; the growth medium; the micro-organism; the essential oil.
Article
A series of structurally related pungent natural products including capsaicin, gingerol, and gingerdione among others were evaluated and found to be potent inhibitors of 5-HETE biosynthesis in intact human leukocytes, with IC50 values of 100 and 15 microM for capsaicin and gingerdione, respectively. Several compounds within this series were also found to inhibit PGE2 formation, with the most potent being gingerdione (IC50 = 18 microM). These and other data indicate that members of the capsaicin/gingerol family of pungent compounds can act as dual inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism, which could account in part for the antiinflammatory and analgesic properties of compounds within this group.
Article
This study examined the effect of eugenol and ginger oil on severe chronic adjuvant arthritis in rats. Severe arthritis was induced in the right knee and right paw of male Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 0.05 ml of a fine suspension of dead Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in liquid paraffin (5 mg/ml). Eugenol (33 mg/kg) and ginger oil (33 mg/kg), given orally for 26 days, caused a significant suppression of both paw and joint swelling. These findings suggest that eugenol and ginger oil have potent antiinflammatory and/or antirheumatic properties.
Article
Ocimum sanctum fixed oil and linolenic acid found to possess significant antiinflammatory activity against PGE2, leukotriene and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. The other species of Ocimum, viz. O. basilicum and O. americanum also containing linolenic acid in varying proportions, also showed significant inhibition of edema against carrageenan, PGE2, leukotriene and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. The fixed oil of O. basiliaum containing maximum percentage of linolenic acid showed higher protection. The results suggests that linolenic acid percent in the fixed oils of different species of Ocimum has the capacity to block both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonate metabolism and could be responsible for the antiinflammatory activity.
Article
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a mainstay in the treatment of inflammatory disease and are among the most widely used drugs worldwide. They are anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic and are prescribed as first choice for the treatment of rheumatic disorders and, in general, inflammation. The main limitation in using NSAIDs consists in their side-effects, including gastrointestinal ulcerogenic activity and bronchospasm. The mechanism of action of these drugs is attributed to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), and, consequently, the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. It is hypothesized that the undesirable side-effects of NSAIDs are due to the inhibition of COX-1 (constitutive isoform), whereas the beneficial effects are related to the inhibition of COX-2 (inducible isoform). Arachidonic acid can also be converted to leukotrienes (LTs) by the action of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). LTC(4,) LTD(4,) and LTE(4) are potent bronchoconstrictors, whereas LTB(4) is chemotactic for leukocytes and plays an important role in the development of gastrointestinal ulcers by contributing to the inflammatory process. Thus, developing dual inhibitor compounds that will simultaneously inhibit COX and 5-LOX could enhance their individual anti-inflammatory effects and reduce the undesirable side-effects associated with NSAIDs, especially of the gastrointestinal tract. The most promising COX/5-LOX inhibitor is ML3000 ([2,2-dimethyl-6-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-5-yl]-acetic acid), now in Phase III clinical trials. This new approach will certainly help to unravel the mechanisms at the root of the undesirable effects of NSAIDs and to develop safer NSAIDs.
Article
Three methods widely employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity, namely 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and beta-carotene bleaching test (BCBT), have been compared with regard to their application in the screening of plant extracts. The strengths and limitations of each method have been illustrated by testing a number of extracts, of differing polarity, from plants of the genus Sideritis, and two known antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and rosmarinic acid). The sample polarity was important for the exhibited activity in the BCBT and HS-GC methods but not for the DPPH method. The complex composition of the extracts and partition phenomena affected their activity in each assay. The value of the BCBT method appears to be limited to less polar samples. Although slow, the HS-GC method is preferable for assessing the antioxidant inhibitory properties on the formation of unwanted secondary volatile products. Being rapid, simple and independent of sample polarity, the DPPH method is very convenient for the quick screening of many samples for radical scavenging activity.
Article
The effects of 12 essential oils, popularly used as antifungal treatments in aromatherapy, on growth of Candida albicans were investigated. Mycelial growth of C. albicans, which is known to give the fungus the capacity to invade mucosal tissues, was inhibited in the medium containing 100 micro g/ml of the oils: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) and cedarwood (Cedrus atlantica). Not only lemongrass oil but also citral, a major component of lemongrass oil (80%), in the range of 25 and 200 micro g/ml inhibited the mycelial growth but allowed yeast-form growth. More than 200 micro g/ml of citral clearly inhibited both mycelial and yeast-form growth of C. albicans. These results provide experimental evidence suggesting the potential value of lemongrass oil for the treatment of oral or vaginal candidiasis.