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Social sensitivity correlations with the effectiveness of team process performance: an empirical study


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Teamwork is essential in industry and a university is an excellent place to assess which skills are important and for students to practice those skills. A positive teamwork experience can also improve student learning outcomes. Prior research has established that teams with high levels of social sensitivity tend to perform well when completing a variety of specific, short-team, collaborative tasks. Social sensitivity is the personal ability to perceive and understand the feelings and viewpoints of others, and it is reliably measurable. Our hypothesis is that, social sensitivity can be a key component in positively mediating teamwork task activities and member satisfaction. Our goal is to bring attention to the fact that social sensitivity is an asset to teamwork. We report the results from an empirical study that investigates whether social sensitivity is correlated with the effectiveness of processes involved in teamwork and team member satisfaction in an educational setting. The results support our hypothesis that the social sensitivity is highly correlated with team effectiveness. It suggests, therefore, that educators in computer-related disciplines, as well as computer professionals in the workforce, should take the concept of social sensitivity seriously as an aid or obstacle to team performance and the teamwork experience.
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Social Sensitivity Correlations with the Effectiveness
of Team Process Performance: An Empirical Study
Lisa Bender, Gursimran Walia,
Krishna Kambhampaty, Kendall E. Nygard
North Dakota State University
Computer Science Dept. 2740
Fargo, ND 58108
+1 701-231-8562
{lisa.l.bender, gursimran.walia,
k.kambhampaty, kendall.nygard} @
Travis E. Nygard
Ripon College
300 Steward Street
Ripon, WI 54971
+1 920-748-8783
Teamwork is essential in industry and a university is an excellent
place to assess which skills are important and for students to
practice those skills. A positive teamwork experience can also
improve student learning outcomes. Prior research has established
that teams with high levels of social sensitivity tend to perform
well when completing a variety of specific, short-team,
collaborative tasks. Social sensitivity is the personal ability to
perceive and understand the feelings and viewpoints of others, and
it is reliably measurable. Our hypothesis is that, social sensitivity
can be a key component in positively mediating teamwork task
activities and member satisfaction. Our goal is to bring attention
to the fact that social sensitivity is an asset to teamwork. We
report the results from an empirical study that investigates
whether social sensitivity is correlated with the effectiveness of
processes involved in teamwork and team member satisfaction in
an educational setting. The results support our hypothesis that the
social sensitivity is highly correlated with team effectiveness. It
suggests, therefore, that educators in computer-related disciplines,
as well as computer professionals in the workforce, should take
the concept of social sensitivity seriously as an aid or obstacle to
team performance and the teamwork experience.
Categories and Subject Descriptors
K.3.2 [Computer and Information Science Education]:
Computer Science Education.
General Terms
Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Performance
Computer Science, Collaboration, Social Sensitivity, Teams,
Empirical Study
Teamwork is increasingly important in today’s world. Although,
individual work is also highly valued, software development
projects are increasingly complex and tend to involve many
sophisticated tasks and require the collective work of individuals
to accomplish. Thus it is important to prepare students as future
practitioners and provide them with positive teamwork
experiences. Complex projects require people to interact with
each other, as well as with computing technologies. Project
development processes are often difficult due not only to the
complexity of the technologies, but also to the complexity of
social interactions between the project team members. Previous
research asserts that the ability to use soft skills to navigate
interpersonal relationships and negotiate social interactions is
critical to team success [1, 2]. With current academic standards
and curricula, many students graduate with the technical, hard
skills that they need, but they often lack necessary soft skills that
are critical to team success [3]. Soft skills are not only important
to teamwork in industry, but also in a classroom environment.
Research results show that interpersonal and small-group skills
are essential to positive cooperative learning and improved
learning outcomes [4, 5]. Begel and Simon studied recent college
graduates who were hired by Microsoft and found that while the
new hires generally did well, there were numerous problems with
communicating and collaborating with others [6]. Rademacher
studied students at a large university and found that a lack of soft
skills often prevented students from getting hired or caused
problems once they began working in industry [7].
One factor that can greatly influence collaborative team
performance is team composition. Much research has been done
on team composition, but no single attribute stands out as key to
superior performance [22-26]. Intriguing questions were raised by
a recent study, that established that group intelligence depends
less on how smart individual group members are and more on
team dynamics, including how well team members communicate
and collaborate [8]. These researchers found that social
sensitivity, which is the personal ability to perceive the mind and
mood of others, made the largest contribution to a group’s overall
intelligence and was a primary predictor of team effectiveness in
accomplishing short-term tasks.
Motivated by these findings, a major goal of this research is to
investigate if the connection between social sensitivity and team
performance extends to students in computing fields who carry
out longer-term tasks within major projects in addition to the
short-term tasks. Another goal of this research is to determine if
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social sensitivity impacts team process activities (i.e.
brainstorming, dependability, etc.) involved in team projects. We
wanted to see if SS had an effect on any of these process activities
to better understand how SS affected team performance. One last
goal is to investigate whether social sensitivity impacts the
satisfaction of the team members. By looking at these three
measures, we hope to gain a more complete picture of the impact
of social sensitivity on the overall effectiveness of a team.
To accomplish these goals, we conducted an empirical study that
investigated the effect of social sensitivity on the performance of
project teams consisting of computer science and management
information system students who worked on semester-long
projects. These student projects were completed in multiple
stages, each building upon previous work. The results indicate
that social sensitivity of subjects is positively correlated with their
performance on the group projects. This suggests that social
sensitivity is a key factor in the success of complex projects, such
as those carried out by software development teams. Our results
also show that social sensitivity is positively correlated with many
of the process activities performed in team work and with team
member satisfaction.
Teamwork is essential throughout organizations in all areas of
society, including industry and education. Increasingly, the
complexity of today’s problems cannot be solved by an individual
and require the resources of a team. Wuchty et al. has report that
over the last 50 years, more than 99 percent of the work in
scientific subfields, from biochemistry to computer science, have
experienced increased levels of teamwork and that the best
research now emerges from groups [10].
The prominence of team collaboration has created the need to
study what makes teams effective. In academia, the more effective
a team is, the greater chance there is for learning and success.
The educational benefits of teamwork are well documented in the
educational literature [11]. Working in teams leads to an
improvement of learning outcomes [5] and is positively associated
with students’ self-assessed quality of learning [12]. Collaborative
learning, which involves teamwork, directly engages the learner
with the subject matter. This allows for better absorption of the
material [13], increases socialization and exposure to different
student ideas which can improve student retention [14], and can
lead to an intense level of information processing that encourages
cognitive growth [13]. Contrary to the many benefits of positive
teamwork, student learning is hindered from participating on
dysfunctional teams and they often develop negative opinions of
the value of teamwork [15].
Researchers find that measures of team effectiveness are
concerned with two aspects: task performance effectiveness and
measures of team member affectiveness (e.g. satisfaction,
participation, and willingness to continue to work together) [16,
17]. A major team-related factor that can affect project
performance and the effectiveness of a team is the interaction of
individual personalities. Other factors affecting the project
performance include team communication, information sharing,
cooperation, and coordination [18, 19]. One of the main factors
contributing to poor performance is project team composition [2].
This suggests that careful consideration in the formation of teams
is important.
Teamwork is different from project management in that it focuses
on team formation as well as team member attitudes and
behaviors; not just on the successful accomplishment of the
project [20]. There are many factors to consider when forming
teams, and their impact on team composition has been widely
studied. Educators use many criteria to form teams such as
gender, race, prior class or work experience, personality, problem
solving style, and/or grade point average and have developed
multiple guidelines for assigning people to teams [21]. Within the
field of Software Engineering, some of the factors include the
effects of personality composition [22, 23], team member abilities
[24], team roles [25], diversity [26], shared mental models [2],
and team member satisfaction [2]. Chan et al. [1] suggests that
soft skills are the primary factor that should be considered for
achieving good project performance. They argue that higher levels
of soft skills within the team facilitate the application
development skills and domain knowledge skills necessary to
achieve good project performance. In the spirit of this study, our
work has produced new knowledge by considering a soft skill that
Chan et al did not interrogate (social sensitivity) and investigating
how it affects the team performance.
Social Sensitivity (SS) is the ability to correctly understand the
feelings and viewpoints of people [27]. Salovey and Mayer [28]
view social sensitivity as an element of emotional intelligence and
identify some of the characteristics of socially intelligent people
which include the ability to admit mistakes, to accept others for
who they are, to enhance other’s moods, to be social problem
solvers, to be flexible thinkers, and to have an interest in the world
at large. They also recognize that the appraisal and expression of
emotion often takes place on a nonverbal level. The ability to
perceive nonverbal expression ensures smoother interpersonal
cooperation. By perceiving, empathizing, and then responding
appropriately, people experience greater satisfaction, more
positive emotions, and lower stress. Such positive emotions aid in
creative thinking and enable flexibility in arriving at alternatives
to problems. Sternberg et al., identified additional behaviors
reflecting SS: thinks before speaking and doing; displays
curiosity; does not make snap judgments; makes fair judgments;
assesses well the relevance of information to the problem at hand;
and is frank and honest with self and others [29]. Kosmitzki et al.,
noted important characteristics include being good at dealing with
people; has extensive knowledge of rules and norms in human
relations; is good at taking the perspective of other people; adapts
well in social situations; is warm and caring; and is open to new
experiences, ideas, and values [30]. These characteristics suggest
that high levels of SS could be a benefit for teams.
Every person has a certain level of SS, but there is evidence that
people who choose technical careers have less of it on average
than the general population [31]. More specifically, Baron-Cohen
et al. [31] provide evidence that engineers, mathematicians,
physicists, and computer scientists are typically less socially
sensitive than their peers in the humanities, arts, and social
sciences. This suggests that people in these technical disciplines
have more difficulty decoding what others are thinking and
feeling. Although this research did not address teams specifically,
it suggests to us that teams of technical people may be challenged
in the area of social sensitivity. Computer professionals and
engineers are stereotypically viewed as introverted independent
specialists who find it exceptionally difficult to work in teams.
The observation made by Baron-Cohen et al. [31] may explain
why computer professionals and engineers find team skills
difficult. This finding especially aroused our interest in studying
SS and its effects on team performance.
A major inspiration for our study comes from the work of
Woolley et al. [8] whose study established a correlation between
SS and effective teamwork. They describe a collective
intelligence that predicts group performance and is grounded in
how well groups interact and work together. In other words, team
performance was not driven by the intelligence of the individuals
on the team, but rather by collaborative groups who conversed
easily and contributed equally. In particular, groups whose
members had higher levels of SS were more collectively
intelligent. They found that neither the average intelligence of the
group members nor the intelligence of the smartest member
played much of a role in the team performance. Woolley stated
that the groups where the conversation was more evenly
distributed were more collectively intelligent and had better
performance on the tasks. The tasks (e.g. brainstorming, puzzle
solving, negotiating, decision making, and typing) in their study
were short-term contrived tasks requiring hours, rather than
months, to complete. Thus, those team members had little
opportunity to develop longer-term working patterns and
problems. Our study extends this research by interrogating the
effects of SS on teams that worked together for longer durations—
the better part of an academic semester—and produced a complex
series of deliverables during that time. In many ways our study
closely approximates a real working environment.
In order to proceed with our study, we needed an accurate test to
determine an individual’s level of social sensitivity. There are
several methods for testing social sensitivity. The one we chose to
use is referred to as the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test which
was created and validated by Baron-Cohen et al. [31]. This test
gauges the accuracy of individuals in judging someone’s
emotional state by looking at their eyes. An individual is
presented with a series of 36 photographs of the eye-area of
actors. For each photograph, the individuals are asked to choose
which of four adjectives best-describes how the person in the
photograph is feeling. This test was originally developed to
measure an ‘advanced theory of mind’ in adults, which is the
ability to identify mental states in oneself or another person and it
has been found to have test-retest reliability [32]. Alternative
techniques for measuring social sensitivity, such as the George
Washington Social Intelligence Test [54] and the Vineland Social
Maturity Scale [33] were rejected due to reported inaccuracies or
the inclusion of factors irrelevant to our research [33].
As mentioned in Section 1, the researchers of this study also
investigated if SS impacts specific team process activities, and if
so, which activities are impacted more than the others. There are
many team process performance activities to consider and their
impact on team effectiveness has been widely studied [34]. The
activities we believe were most pertinent to our project goals
consisted of brainstorming, dependability, focusing on tasks,
sharing responsibility, performance, research and information
sharing, questioning, discussing, listening, and teamwork, and are
briefly described as follows.
a) Brainstorming [35] is a technique used by groups or
individuals to help identify opportunities and challenges,
solve problems, and generate ideas.
b) Being Dependable is defined as being trustworthy [36]. A
dependable person shows reliability, responsibility, and
believability [37].
c) Focusing on Tasks refers to how well a team member stays
focused on the task at hand and gets work done. It refers to a
team member who is self-directed and does not need other
team members to remind in order to get things done.
d) Sharing Responsibility refers to how good a team member is
at doing their fair share of the work. All team members must
work together to maximize team performance and a team
member’s productivity can be negatively affected if they are
over-burdened with tasks.
e) Performance quality refers to the accuracy or precision of
output [38]. Low quality performance by one individual can
have serious consequences on the team’s product (e.g.
causing the need for extensive rework) and team
effectiveness (e.g. team member frustration).
f) Research and Information Sharing refers to how well a
team member gathers research, shares useful ideas and
defends or rethinks ideas.
g) Communication [39] is essential to effective teamwork and
involves Questioning, Discussing, and Listening.
Questioning is important to clarify meanings and to
understand the rest of the team members. Discussing ideas is
important to the interchange of information. Team members
also need to listen to each other in order to hear and consider
their team members ideas and develop mutual knowledge.
h) Teamwork is composed of communication, collaboration,
cooperation, and compromise. Good teamwork requires that
team members cooperate with each other, consider others
feelings and needs, and offer to help each other out.
Collaboration refers to working together and sharing
responsibility. Compromise is important so that team
members avoid unnecessary arguing over details that may
cause the team to lose focus on the main objectives.
These activities are common team processes used to achieve
project objectives. In addition to analyzing overall team
performance and satisfaction, we also analyzed the level of impact
SS has on these team processes in order to better understand the
impact that social sensitivity has on team performance.
This study was designed to analyze the relationship between the
SS of student teams and the quality of work in computer science
team projects. We investigate whether the student teams with
higher average SS were positively correlated with their actual
performance on the project as measured by grades. This study also
analyzed the relationship between SS of individual students and
some of the common process activities in teamwork as measured
by averaged scores given to an individual by their teammates.
A randomized experimental design was used in the study in which
participants were tested to determine their SS scores and were
then randomly assigned to teams of three participants each. Each
team worked to complete a major semester-long project on an
ethical issue related to current computer technology in society.
The project consisted of four deliverables: three written
deliverables and one team presentation. Grades were collected for
each deliverable. The team members completed self and peer
evaluations after each of the written deliverables and completed a
post-survey at the end of the project. The details of the study are
provided in the following subsections.
3.1 Study Goals and Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated:
Hypothesis 1: Student teams with higher average social sensitivity
scores perform significantly better on the project.
Hypothesis 2: Students with higher social sensitivity scores are
perceived, by their peers, to perform better on each team process
activity (e.g., brainstorming, dependability, etc.).
Hypothesis 3: Student teams with higher social sensitivity scores
have significantly higher levels of team member satisfaction.
3.2 Independent and Dependent Variables
The experiment manipulated the following independent variable:
a) Social Sensitivity Score: Each student participant completed
the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test [31] in order to
determine their individual social sensitivity score.
The following dependent variables were measured:
a) Team Performance: This measure includes the total points
earned by each team—the sum of scores on four project
deliverables submitted throughout the semester.
b) Teamwork Activities: These activities include:
Brainstorming, Dependability, Discussing, Focusing on
Tasks, Listening, Performance, Questioning, Research and
Information Sharing, Sharing Responsibility, and Teamwork.
The measures include the average of the peer evaluation
scores that an individual received from their team members
for each of the ten activities..
c) Team member satisfaction: This measure includes each
individual’s level of satisfaction with their team on the
project at the end of project.
3.3 Participating Subjects
Out of the 98 graduate and undergraduate computer science and
management of information systems students enrolled in the
Social Implications of Computing course, 76 students chose to
participate in the study. The goals of this course are to raise
awareness of real world ethical issues involving computing and to
help the students understand different methods used to
understand, analyze and respond to many of the ethical dilemmas
involving computer technologies. The participating subjects (17
out of 18 females and 59 out of 80 males) worked together in
teams on a project involving a multi-vocal response to an ethical
issue related to the world of computer science and technology.
3.4 Artifacts
The major course project consisted of four deliverables: a project
proposal, an interim report, a final report, and a final project
presentation based on computer-related ethical topics. Each team
chose a different ethical issue (such as privacy related to
biometrics or social networking) and met throughout the semester
on their selected topic in order to produce these deliverables. The
main idea was to have each member of the group focus on the
viewpoints of one of the issue’s stakeholders and then, as a group,
discuss the views that these diverse stakeholders may have on the
ethical question. The team was also tasked with tracing the
consequences of alternative actions to their logical conclusions
and then evaluating the impact these actions would have on the
stakeholders. This was done to help the team members gain an
understanding of perspectives other than their own and to produce
artifacts that contained ideas that would not have been articulated
by working independently.
3.5 Experimental Procedure
The study steps are described as follows:
a) Step 1 – Test Subjects for Social Sensitivity: At the
beginning of the semester, the “Reading the Mind in the
Eyes” test [31] was administered to measure each subject’s
SS. To ensure that the subjects had a clear understanding of
the adjectives used in the test, a glossary was provided that
contained a definition and sample sentence for each of the
emotional state choices. The glossary basis was provided by
the work of Baron-Cohen et al. [31]. The students were
encouraged to read through the glossary prior to the test and
to refer to it as needed during the test. The survey was
administered online, the responses were analyzed for
completeness and individual SS scores were assigned.
b) Step 2 – Forming Student Teams: Thirty-four teams were
formed by randomly assigning three students to each team.
At the end of the semester 32 teams still had three students
each and one team had two students, due to one student
dropping the course.
c) Step 3 – Actualizing Team Projects: The students worked in
teams on specific semester-long projects where each team
produced a project proposal (PP), an interim report (IR), a
final report (FR), and a final presentation (FP). Most groups
chose a topic from a list of ideas provided by the instructor,
although students could pursue any topic that was approved
by the instructor. After the project was approved, the teams
performed the necessary research to write a project proposal.
The proposal required them to articulate ethical questions
that they planned to investigate, justify the questions’
importance, identify major stakeholders and ethical values,
specify their research methods, and plan the project. Half
way through the semester, each team submitted an interim
progress report that described the project goal, objectives,
and scope, research methods, evidence to support ethical
viewpoints, and potential stakeholder actions. Near the
semester’s end, each team gave an oral presentation on their
project and submitted a final written report which
strengthened viewpoints from the interim report, applied
ethical tests to the potential stakeholder actions, and
evaluated the feasibility of these actions.
d) Step 4 – Evaluating Team Projects: Each deliverable was
scored using detailed rubrics to structure the grading. All
grading was done by the same researcher (who was not the
instructor) and all team members received the same score for
each assignment. The team performance (i.e., the total team
score) was measured by summing each team’s score from all
four deliverables.
e) Step 5 – Peer-Self Evaluations: After each of the written
deliverables, the student participants completed an evaluation
for themselves and for each of their team members. These
evaluations were performed by each student outside of the
classroom. This allowed for more privacy, decreasing the
chances that fellow students would see how others filled out
the evaluation and allowing the students to be more honest in
the assessment of their teammates. It also allowed the
students more time to fill out the evaluation and be more
thoughtful and complete in their assessments. Each
participant rated the quality of each team member’s
participation (including self participation) on 10 candidate
activities of an effective team as described in Section 2.
Participants rated each of the 10 activities on a 5-point Likert
scale (4 –Excellent, 3 – Good, 2 – Average, 1 – Poor, and 0 –
Fail) and provided comments to justify the ratings.
f) Step 6 – Post-Study Survey: At the end of the semester, a 19
question survey was administered to the students to collect
data regarding the self-perceived effectiveness of each team
including their level of satisfaction, whether members felt
valued, whether effective feedback occurred among team
members among other questions.
3.6 Data Collection and Evaluation Criterion
Because this study investigates the impact of SS on team
performance, only teams that had at least two team members
consenting to participate in the study were included in our
analysis; and only the consenting team member’s SS scores, team
performance scores, and peer evaluations were collected. After
this elimination process, 28 out of 34 teams remained in the study.
Individual student SS test scores for each of the 76 participating
subjects are shown in Figure 1. Most subjects scored in the range
of 19 to 25, with the SS scores ranging from a minimum of 9 to a
maximum of 32 out of a maximum score of 36 correct.
Although both self and peer evaluations were collected for each
consenting participant, only the peer evaluations were used so that
we could understand how a team member is perceived by their
peers. Our reason for only using peer evaluations is that
individuals are less accurate at judging themselves as opposed to
judging their peers [40]. Because evaluations were collected after
each written deliverable (PP, IR, FR), each participant had three
ratings for each teamwork activity from each team. Using the peer
assessment data (not self-assessment data), average scores (on a
scale of 0 to 4) received by each participant for each of the ten
activities (e.g. brainstorming, dependability, etc.) were calculated.
We then analyzed the correlation between the individual SS
scores and the scores the individual received on each activity.
Figure 1. Individual Social Sensitivity Scores
This section provides analysis of the quantitative data that
includes student’s SS scores, their team’s project performance,
and their individual peer-rating on each of the ten team activities.
This section is organized around the three hypotheses presented in
Section 3.1. An alpha value of 0.05 was used for all statistical
analysis and r2 value of 0.30 was used for correlations. The
preliminary results on hypothesis 1 have been reported earlier [9].
This paper details the results for the entire three hypotheses and
combines the results across all hypotheses to draw conclusions.
4.1 Analysis of the Effect of Social Sensitivity
(SS) on Team’s Project Performance
This section analyzes the connection between the student’s SS and
their performance on the team project. Individual SS scores were
combined into one average team SS score. The performance of
each team (i.e., total team score), was calculated by totaling the
scores of the four deliverables. This analysis was performed for
each of the 28 teams.
To test hypothesis 1, we ran a linear regression test to see whether
the average SS scores of a team were positively correlated to the
team’s performance. The results show that the team SS score had
a significant positive correlation with the total team score (p
=0.001; Pearson’s R = 0.383; r2 = 0.16). We also analyzed the
relationship between individual SS scores (shown in Figure 1) and
team performance and found a significant positive correlation (p
=0.009; Pearson’s R = 0.297; r2 = 0.09). Furthermore, we
analyzed whether the team SS scores were correlated with the
team performance on each of the four deliverables. The results
showed that the team SS scores had a strong and significant
positive correlation with their performance on the project proposal
(p=0.004), interim report (p=0.003), and final report (p=0.05).
The result, however, did not show a significant correlation
between teams’ average SS and performance on the final
presentation (p=0.382). Therefore, based on these results, we
show that teams with higher average SS performed significantly
better on their project.
4.2 Analysis of the Effect of Social Sensitivity
(SS) on Performance Activities
Results of the significant correlation between SS and team
performance encouraged us to look deeper into possible
connections between SS and the activities that are often
performed by teams. This section analyzes the connection
between the student’s SS score and their performance on each of
the ten team performance activities.
In order to identify the aspects of the team process that were
positively affected by SS, we analyzed the teammate’s
perceptions of their other team members. As stated previously,
after each written deliverable, the participants evaluated the
individual performance of each team member on 10 common
process activities that could have affected team work. The peer
ratings were averaged across all deliverables for each category
(shown in Figure 2). This procedure was performed for each of
the 76 individuals participating in the study.
Figure 2. Aggregation of Category Rank Data
To test hypothesis 2, we ran bivariate correlation analysis tests to
see whether the individual SS scores were positively correlated
with each of the averaged rankings of the individual performance
of each activity.
Overall, the results show a significant positive correlation with
eight of the ten performance activities. The correlations between
individual SS and each of the other team performance activities
are shown in Figure 3 and our major observations are summarized
as follows:
a) Of all ten process activities, performance had the most
significant correlation indicating that people with higher
individual SS were perceived as producing high quality
b) The other individual process activities that showed a
significant positive correlation with SS included
brainstorming, dependability, discussing, focusing on
tasks, sharing responsibility, and teamwork. These
results are reflected on in Section 6.
c) The results did not show a significant correlation
between individual SS and either questioning (p =0.390;
Pearson’s R = 0.588; r2 = 0.35) or listening (p=0.346) (p
=0.346; Pearson’s R = 0.674; r2 = 0.45). This means that
team members were perceived as being equally good or
bad at questioning and listening, regardless of an
individual’s level of SS.
Figure 3. Correlation between Individual Social Sensitivity
and Team Performance Activities
4.3 Effect of SS on Team Member Satisfaction
and Viability
Although task performance effectiveness is obviously important
to overall team effectiveness, researchers also recognize the
importance of team member satisfaction to team effectiveness.
We wanted to determine what type of correlation, if any, there
was between a team’s average SS and team member satisfaction
with their other team members.
The students were asked to rank how satisfied they were with
their team members (Step 6) on a 5-point Likert scale. To test
hypothesis 3, we ran a linear regression test to see whether the
average SS scores of a team were positively correlated to the how
satisfied team members were with the other members of the team.
The results showed that the team SS scores had a strong and
significant positive correlation with the satisfaction with
individual team members within the teams (p =0.028; Pearson’s R
= 0.679; r2 = 0.46). In other words, the higher the level of the
average team SS, the more team members were satisfied with
their other team members. There was not a significant correlation
between individual SS and team member satisfaction. This
implies that having a higher SS score does not mean that you are
more satisfied with your team members; however, the fact that
teams with higher average SS are more satisfied means that these
teams are more likely to participate and continue to work together
in the future.
Although the results of this study are encouraging, there are
certain threats to its validity. One threat is language proficiency.
Approximately fifty percent of the students in the course are
international students. Even though each of these students had
passed an English proficiency exam, some may have struggled
with the language. To improve construct validity in the “Reading
the Mind in the Eyes” test, a glossary was provided that contained
a definition and sample sentence for each of the word selection
choices used in the test. Students were encouraged to read through
the glossary before they took the test and refer to it as necessary
during the test. However, because the students were not
supervised while taking the test, we do not know how extensively
the glossary was used. Feedback from students suggests that some
groups struggled with language barriers during the semester as
well, which could be a confounding factor and hinder success.
Another threat relates to the peer evaluations and perceived
pressure for conformity. Although the peer evaluations were
performed outside of the classroom to reduce the pressure the
students may feel by possibly having their evaluations viewed by
other students, some students could have still felt the need to give
favorable ratings to their team members, whether these ratings
were warranted or not.
Our fundamental finding is that SS is a good predictor of team
performance in carrying out major student team projects with
complex tasks and multiple deliverables over long periods of time.
This extends previous research that showed that SS had high
impact on teams accomplishing well defined, short-term,
relatively simple tasks. Task complexity is an important factor in
team performance because the difficulty of tasks can impact the
success of the team [42]. Complex tasks within large projects
have many opportunities for errors and they can be hard to
identify. Stressful environments can easily be created by these
types of projects and can hinder team performance (e.g. impair
decision making, decrease speed and accuracy of task
performance) by adversely affecting team coordination and ability
to engage in team activities. These difficulties can ultimately
discourage a team. The effects of project duration on team
performance comes into play as team members become more
intertwined and interdependent, the impact of one member’s lapse
can disrupt the entire team’s performance.
Another interesting finding in our study is that the study supports
Baron-Cohen’s assertion that engineers, mathematicians,
physicists, and computer scientists are, generally, less socially
sensitive. All participants in our survey are majoring in scientific
or technical disciplines and their mean SS score of 22.59 was
lower than the original general population sample mean SS score
of 26.2 of Baron-Cohen et al [31]. This suggests that these
students find it more difficult to perceive and understand the
feelings and viewpoints of others. An awareness of this can help
educators better recognize possible reasons behind team
difficulties and help students focus on techniques for managing
that social deficit.
Not only do our findings speak to the importance of SS on the
effectiveness of team performance, we also found that SS is
generally a good predictor of the effectiveness of team process
performance activities (e.g. brainstorming, dependability,
focusing on tasks, sharing responsibility, performance, research
and information sharing, questioning, discussing, listening, and
Social sensitivity was positively correlated with the brainstorming
activity. As described above, it is well established [26] that a
socially sensitive person’s tendency to be a flexible thinker and
their general ability to perceive, empathize, and appropriately
respond to team members may aid in brainstorming. We speculate
that by creating a positive climate in which team members
experience greater satisfaction, more positive emotions, and lower
stress most likely aid in creative thinking and enable flexibility in
arriving at alternatives to problems.
Socially sensitive individuals were also seen as more dependable.
If a team member is not dependable, they place a burden on the
other team members to make up for the missing production of the
undependable team member which can adversely affect the team’s
effectiveness and team member satisfaction [41, 42]. We also
speculate that a socially sensitive individuals ability to admit
mistakes, accept others for who they are, to think before speaking,
to make measured and fair judgments, to be frank and honest with
others, being warm, caring and good at dealing with others [26,
65. 66] aid in being considered trustworthy and dependable.
Peers also viewed socially sensitive individuals as very self-
directed and responsible in sharing the work load. Avery et al.
[43] state that taking responsibility for one’s own work on a team
is one of the most important factors in ensuring a productive team
Socially sensitive individuals were also seen as producing high
quality work, were very good at sharing ideas and information as
well as discussing issues and interacting respectfully with others,
and excelled at consistently collaborating, cooperating and
compromising as necessary to meet goals. This could be because
socially sensitive people can recognize and take actions that
demonstrate consideration for the feelings and needs of others.
This sensitivity promotes cooperation. Cooperation can enhance
communication and information sharing. Also, this ability to
recognize emotions and use this as feedback may also allow them
to recognize problems before they evolve into larger problems and
also use this emotional information to improve team processes.
Researchers have found that high performing teams are interactive
groups that share information to build high levels of trust and
responsibility. This is important to overall knowledge integration
and team satisfaction [44]. Social sensitivity can play a positive
role in increasing information sharing and building trust within
Not only did we find that SS is a good predictor of the
effectiveness of team performance (task) effectiveness (one of the
two elements of overall team effectiveness), but we also found
that SS is a good predictor of team member satisfaction (part of
the other element of overall team effectiveness. These findings
provide compelling insights into the significance that SS plays in
overall team effectiveness and thus shows that SS is an asset for a
Our results establish that both task performance effectiveness and
affective measures of a team are positively correlated with the SS
of members. This is valuable knowledge for managers and
educators. Although we recognize that teams need members with
the correct skill set and knowledge, by using SS as an additional
input, more effective teams can be composed.
Using quantitative data related to work in teams, our work
demonstrates correlations between SS and performance on team
processes. These correlations tempt us to assert that high SS
causes high performance. We expect that our future work with
qualitative analysis will support this connection. We know that
some groups faced interpersonal challenges and we plan to
investigate whether such challenges were better-overcome in
teams with socially-sensitive individuals.
Assuming that SS is a contributing factor rather than simply
correlated with team success, then this type of research raises
many exciting questions of interest to people across academia.
How much SS is needed for success? Can just one socially
sensitive team member make a difference? Can SS be learned?
Authors such as Anthony Mersino have published techniques for
improving emotional intelligence [45]. If these techniques can be
effectively applied to improve SS, then team performance can also
be improved. In any case, it is our hope that a greater
understanding of SS will result in better learning experiences in
the college classroom and better productivity of software
engineering teams.
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... . Social sensitivity is the individual skill to perceive and understand the feeling of others [20]. Teams with high level of social sensitivity tend to perform well in team work task activities [20]. ...
... . Social sensitivity is the individual skill to perceive and understand the feeling of others [20]. Teams with high level of social sensitivity tend to perform well in team work task activities [20]. The interpersonal skill factors also include the ability to share and resolve any evolving issues with team members, that promote honesty, trustworthiness, support, respect, and commitment to the team and the team members [5] [12]. ...
... The interpersonal skills mentioned above are found to be consistent with previous studies [11] [12] [20]. Hence, the above skills are found relevant in teamwork success. ...
Full-text available
The goal of this paper is to deliberate issues pertaining to teamwork effectiveness among students in a university environment. Final year project is an important assessment to measure students’ teamwork skills in the university. Three main factors have been identified that contribute to teamwork effectiveness. The factors are namely interpersonal skills, interdependence and commitment to success. Interpersonal factors include social sensitivity and emotional engagement attributes. In this perspective, measures such as teamwork support, care, trust, honesty and respect towards team members are important key criteria. On the other hand, interdependence among others includes traits such as promoting each other to achieve common goals, bringing the best of each other and helping each other completing the task. Commitment to team success involves high obligation, high motivation, strong common goals and strong shared values and beliefs. In this paper, construct items for each factor are developed based on previous studies. The findings show that these factors are relevant toward the success of the student’s final year project. Lacking these skills may result in poor performance among team members and may lead to unfavorable outcome.
... Research suggests that diversity and inclusive practices within teams enhances the effectiveness of individual team members, and thus increases the output of the whole team. 6,30 These practices are not intended to reduce the availability of opportunities for majority group members. Rather, they are intended to improve the state of Medical Physics for all stakeholders. ...
... Those with high social sensitivity are more willing to collaborate and resolve conflict as well as respect conversational turn-taking which improves productivity when collective intelligence is required. 30 On average, women exhibit higher social sensitivity and perceptiveness than men, 44 and a higher proportion of women resulted in greater emotional intelligence of the team. 6 Joshi 45 showed that women are more inclined to evaluate team members based on expertise and education, and therefore may be more adept at recognizing an individual's potential for meaningful contribution to the group. ...
... Furthermore, teams with a higher proportion of women demonstrate stronger relationships and increased communication between members 31 suggesting that the experience and knowledge of all team members can be better engaged when a critical Medical Physics, 47 (12), December 2020 number of women are involved. 30 Thus, gender diversity, by the very fact that it inherently increases the number of women involved, enhances the aforementioned elements of communication, collaboration, conflict resolution, and engagement of all team members 6,30,31 to the benefit of other underrepresented groups. Increasing the proportion of women across all levels of a team, forms a climate that encourages meaningful participation of all team members, irrespective of individual group membership. ...
Full-text available
The labor force of Medical Physics is one of the most gender diverse in the field of Physics, as it has attained the proportional achievement of ~30% women worldwide (Tsapaki et al. Phys Medica. 2018;55:33-39). While great strides have been made toward a gender diverse workforce, women still comprise an underrepresented group. Many strategies have been suggested to increase the participation of underrepresented persons by addressing unconscious biases, increasing opportunities, dedicated hiring policies, and providing support networks in science and medicine (Barabino et al. Sci Eng Ethics. 2019; Coe et al. Lancet. 2019), yet the personnel landscape remains largely uniform. Herein, the conditions, strategies, and approaches that facilitated gender diversity in Medical Physics are considered as a means to further the inclusion of other underrepresented groups through exemplars of mentorship, addressing unconscious biases and the implementation of inclusive practices. Furthermore, the potential for gender diversity to act as a catalyst to create an environment that is more accepting of diversity and supports and encourages inclusive practices for the participation and inclusion of other underrepresented groups in Medical Physics is discussed.
... The recent growth of teamwork in education and industry is due to the growing need for large, complex projects that require the skill set of many people to accomplish [1]. The success of a team's ability to function effectively relies on certain soft skills, such as collaboration and effective communication. ...
... Just as with F2F teams, teammates of virtual teams need to be aware of their interpersonal interactions with group members. SS is the ability to accurately understand the emotions of other people and react accordingly; it is reliably measurable and key to mediating teamwork satisfaction [1]. SS impacts a person's comprehension of others emotions by looking at their eyes. ...
... Because virtual team members have limited, if any, physical interaction, online interactions are harder to gauge for those with lower levels of SS [8]. Since SS is comprehendible by recognition of facial emotion on a nonverbal level [1], in an online environment, understanding emotions through only text could prove difficult. Teammates should be cognizant of their words when communicating in a virtual setting due to the large margin for misinterpretation and uncertainty by chatting via text. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Working effectively as part of a team is an incredibly important skill to learn. Most jobs require interacting and working with others and the outcome of a team project relies on the processes of the group members. Naturally, a positive team experience yields better results than a negative experience. The biggest indicators of a positive team experience are communication and collaboration, which are both soft skills associated with the social sensitivity of the group members. Previous research has found that social sensitivity influences the amount of communication and the ultimate performance of traditional face-to-face teams. However, virtual teamwork is becoming more common. Does social sensitivity have a similar influence in virtual teams? Virtual teams have different interactions than face-to-face teams because they use communication technologies, which can hinder certain human cognitive processes. Our current research focuses on the influence of social sensitivity on the amount of communication and the performance of students who work as a virtual team using text-based communication in Discord. We find that teams with higher average levels of social sensitivity communicate more and perform better, even if they work in a virtual environment using only text messaging.
... Another social characteristic is the preference for group work, which was suggested to impact individuals' behaviors (Bell et al., 2018;Stark et al., 2007) and group performance (Jung & Sosik, 1999;Tasa et al., 2011). Social sensitivity is also an influential characteristic that might be correlated with team effectiveness and performance (Bender et al., 2012;Woolley et al., 2010). ...
... For example, people with different attitudes and beliefs might find it challenging to practice reflection together. Dewey (1933) suggested curiosity, desire for growth, whole-heartedness, directness, open-mindedness, Example of attribute Demographic characteristic Gender (Bear & Woolley, 2011;Bradley et al., 2020;Díaz-García et al., 2013;Joshi & Roh, 2009;Kochan et al., 2003;Woolley et al., 2010) Ethnic (Cox et al., 1991;McLeod et al., 1996;Watson et al., 2002;Zheng & Wei, 2018) Social characteristic Personality traits (Barrick et al., 1998;Barry & Stewart, 1997;Halfhill et al., 2005;Juhász, 2010;LePine, 2003;Mohammed & Angell, 2003;Neuman et al., 1999;Tasa et al., 2011) Preference for group work (Bell et al., 2018;Jung & Sosik, 1999;Stark et al., 2007) Social sensitivity (Bender et al., 2012;Woolley et al., 2010) Reflective thinking capacity Curiosity, desire for growth, whole-heartedness, directness, open-mindedness, and responsibility (Dewey, 1933) Self-awareness, description, critical analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (Atkins & Murphy, 1993) Task-related characteristic Knowledge (Eshuis et al., 2019) Experience (Foong et al., 2018b;Gutzan & Tuckermann, 2019;Yoon & Kim, 2010) and responsibility as the six attitudes needed for individuals' readiness to engage in reflection. Group composition regarding each of these attitudes may impact the group dynamics and results of group reflection. ...
Reflection has been emphasized as crucial for learning and development. Yet, the social dimension of reflection is under-researched. Thus, this article proposes a conceptual framework to shed light on the social aspect of reflection and promote consistent and coherent research on group reflection. The authors first revisited reflection to recognize and justify the importance of group reflection as an explicit form of reflective practice in social contexts. Next, we conducted a 10-year (2010-2020) systematic review to examine the recent research on group reflection and identify gaps for future investigation. Based on the review findings, group composition and guidance on the practice were identified as two critical features in examining how individuals reflect at the interpersonal level to construct shared understanding within the group. Considering individuals' attributes as the source for various group compositions, we propose a three-dimensional framework to direct research on group reflection, including dimensions of (a) personal attributes, (b) group diversity, and (c) guidance on group reflection. This conceptual framework includes key attributes of group composition and four categories of guidance that may influence group reflection. Furthermore, we illustrate the application of the conceptual framework in three main research areas with specific examples of research questions. Last, we discuss the implications for future research beyond the conceptual framework.
... These skills show a positive impact on students' educational development, as well as their learning ability, speed, and effectiveness. Besides critical thinking processes, collaboration can improve student learning activities (Bender et al., 2012;Rahdiyanta et al., 2017). ...
... Generally, social sensitivity is capital in working together and is important in determining the effectiveness of group learning, which encompasses listening, mutual responsibility, and sharing of information and experiences (Bender et al., 2012). A Vol. 13 No. 1 (2022) socially sensitive individual can develop the ability to correctly understand the feelings and perspectives of others or have a sense of empathy (Department of Educational Sciences, Division of Guidance and Psychological Counseling, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Hasan Ali Yucel Faculty of Education, Istanbul, Turkey, et al., 2021). ...
Full-text available
The social awareness of students is seemingly diminishing, as indicated by the lack of care and respect for others, alongside individualism and tendencies to act emotionally and swear. These attitudes have engendered insensitive, intolerant, and uncaring behaviors amongst students. Therefore, social sensitivity is a critical attitude that should be instilled in schools. This is because education facilitates the academic, psychological, and social growth of children and ensures they become smarter, wiser, and more humane. Using a collaborative learning approach in the Islamic Religious Education discipline, the research aimed to build students' social sensitivity by activating learning activities that motivate mutual help, respect, honesty, and collaboration. The participants in this Classroom Action Research (CAR) were 24 students from class X MIA2 Senior High School State 2 Bima City. The data collection was conducted via the test approach, comprising a pre-test and post-test, and complemented by observations, interviews, and documentation. Quantitative and quantitative techniques were used to analyze the results of the primary and secondary data sources, respectively. Subsequently, the research findings indicated that the students' social sensitivity increased by 20.84% from cycle I (70.83%) to cycle II (91.67%). In the pre-test, 8 students (33.33%) showed complete learning, increasing to 13 students (54.17%) in the first cycle (I) and 21 students (87.5%) in the second cycle (II). These findings can help Islamic Religious Education teachers understand the importance of new context-based learning methodologies and models. Allowing students to explore and discuss ideas in groups can also stimulate a love of learning and increase their social awareness. As a result, classroom experience and the importance of content in everyday life can serve as the basis for students' understanding and can be directly applied in their social life.
... As more classrooms and workplaces acknowledge the benefits of better learning outcomes through group and team-work, and as enterprises continue to pursue human-AI (artificial intelligence) teaming, efforts to understand factors affecting these collaborations have also gained momentum. Research shows that increased ability to understand another's feelings or perceptions aids in the ability to manage social situations that are critical to successful teamwork [8,9]. In human-AI interactions the machine's ability to attribute mental states to others greatly enhances the quality of the interaction [10]. ...
Full-text available
The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) has received attention due to its correlation with collective intelligence. If the RMET is a marker of collective intelligence, training to improve RMET could result in better teamwork, whether for human-human or human-AI (artificial intelligence) in composition. While training on related skills has proven effective in the literature, RMET training has not been studied. This research evaluates the development of RMET training, testing the impact of two training conditions (Naturalistic Training and Repeated RMET Practice) compared to a control. There were no significant differences in RMET scores due to training, but speed of response was positively correlated to RMET score for high-scoring participants. Both management professionals and AI creators looking to cultivate team skill through the application of the RMET may need to reconsider their tool selection.
... Regression tests are used to determine the effect of two or more variables (predictors) on dependent variables. For example, in computing education, regression has been used to predict the satisfaction of students with their teams, based on the average 'social sensitivity' score of the team members [4]. ...
Conference Paper
The goal of most computing education research is to effect positive change in how computing is taught and learned. Statistical techniques are one important way of supporting the evidence of these results. In this paper, we report on an analysis of ICER papers that use inferential statistics. We examine how statistics are reported in general, present the most commonly used techniques, and provide an overview of the techniques the community has used over its first 14 years of papers, grouped according to the purpose of the technique. We also present a detailed analysis of three of the most commonly used techniques (t-test, chi-squared test, and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon), identify common flaws in reporting, and give examples of papers where statistics are reported well. These results provide a picture of how the ICER community uses statistics to help substantiate the results of its research, and are shared here to help the community reflect on how it uses statistics and how it can improve that use.
Developments in media and communication technologies welcomed a new era, defined as post-truth, implying a general distancing from truth, where fake or speculative messages can be instantly shared by a vast audience. In this era, we need leaders with strong emotional and social skills to create a positive and ethical impact in society. In this study, due to the requirements of the Post-Truth Era which necessitates a new approach to leadership development, an arts-based learning intervention entitled Arts-Based Creative Leadership Communication Program is designed for leaders with three main objectives to increase, firstly, their creative communication skills; secondly, healing effect of arts for their resilience; and, thirdly, their social sensitivity through arts. After the design and implementation of this program, its targeted effects on the participants were analyzed. Results indicated that all of the expected outcomes were achieved successfully. The highest development was seen in the healing effect, while change in social sensitivity appeared as the lowest. Emotional skills as non-verbal communication element was developed more than social skills. Meanwhile, the emergence of the pandemic with its digital transformation process increased the effects of the program. To sum up, the program was found successful for the leaders in the Post-Truth Era.
The current study attempted to replicate results by Cuddy, Wilmuth, Yap, and Carney (2015) who showed that adopting high-power poses prior to a demanding job interview improved dominant behavior and overall hireability judgments. We extended this approach by adding social sensitivity as a second important dimension of social competences. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) Power posing increases behavioral dominance indicators (2) Power posing strengthens behavioral indicators of social sensitivity. We also attempted to replicate results by Cuddy and colleagues who demonstrated that the effects of the power-posing manipulation on hireability judgments were mediated by behavioral dominance indicators. Additionally, we hypothesized that hireability judgments are independently predicted by indicators of dominance and social sensitivity. Results failed to replicate the findings by Cuddy and colleagues (2015). Power posing had no significant main effects on behavioral indicators of dominance and social sensitivity. As expected, hireability judgments were independently predicted by dominance and social sensitivity.
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Although many recent studies demonstrate that cooperative learning provides a variety of educational advantages over more traditional instructional models, little is known about the interactional dynamics among students in engineering workgroups. We explored these dynamics and their implications for engineering education by analyzing work sessions of student groups in a sophomore-level chemical engineering course at North Carolina State University. Using conversation analysis as a methodology for understanding how students taught and learned from one another, we found that group members engaged in two types of teaching-learning interactions. In the first type, transfer-of-knowledge (TK) sequences, students took on distinct teacher and pupil roles, and in the second, collaborative sequences (CS), they worked on problems with no clear role differentiation. Student management of both types of sequences was affected by gender factors and interpersonal communication. Our findings suggest that facilitating effective interactional dynamics can enhance cooperative learning in groups.
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In a longitudinal study at North Carolina State University, a cohort of students took five chemical engineering courses taught by the same instructor in five consecutive semesters. The course instruction made extensive use of active and cooperative learning and a variety of other techniques designed to address a broad spectrum of learning styles. Previous reports on the study summarized the instructional methods used in the experimental course sequence, described the performance of the cohort in the introductory chemical engineering course, and examined performance and attitude differences between students from rural and urban backgrounds and between male and female students.1-4 This paper compares outcomes for the experimental cohort with outcomes for students in a traditionally-taught comparison group. The experimental group outperformed the comparison group on a number of measures, including retention and graduation in chemical engineering, and many more of the graduates in this group chose to pursue advanced study in the field. Since the experimental instructional model did not require small classes (the smallest of the experimental classes had 90 students) or specially equipped classrooms, it should be adaptable to any engineering curriculum at any institution.
Teamwork is very important in information systems development. Therefore, most courses in systems analysis and design and many programming courses require students to work on group projects. However, a project group is not the same thing as a team. Furthermore, for a group to become a team, there are several important characteristics that must be developed. These characteristics do not always develop automatically. This chapter discusses the requirements for effectively forming, building, managing, and evaluating teams in information systems courses. Students should be taught these concepts in addition to the regular course content. This chapter also addresses two special issues that deal with team development and team management: managing cultural diversity and managing “virtual” teams, where the team members are geographically separated.
The main goal of this study is to examine emotional intelligence competencies and Project Outcomes in business companies. In addition, we examine this in a cross-national context that adds external validity to the findings. The research method involved the web questionnaire survey with collected data from 363 respondents coming from Lithuania, Poland and the United States. Across the pooled sample, Functional Success was highly correlated to Emotional Intelligence components of Self Awareness, Emotional Resilience, Intuitiveness, Motivation and Contentiousness but not related to Influence, or Interpersonal Sensitivity. However, these tended to be differential across countries. Several major implications are evident from these results. First, successful managerial styles are differential across countries. Thus a successful manager in one area may be less successful elsewhere. Second, within each country/culture there are characteristics that can be identified that typically led to a more successful project outcome We find that there are rather unique components that lead to success in different paths. Interestingly, motivation of the manager led to very limited success - and then only at a basic functional level (eg., the project was done on time and at budget).
In this article, we summarize and review the research on teams and groups in organization settings published from January 1990 to April 1996. The article focuses on studies in which the dependent variables are concerned with various dimensions of effectiveness. A heuristic framework illustrating recent trends in the literature depicts team effectiveness as a function of task, group, and organization design factors, environmental factors, internal processes, external processes, and group psychosocial traits. The review discusses four types of teams: work, parallel, project, and management. We review research findings for each type of team organized by the categories in our heuristic framework. The article concludes by comparing the variables studied for the different types of teams, highlighting the progress that has been made, suggesting what still needs to be done, summarizing key leamings from the last six years, and suggesting areas for further research.
This article presents a framework for emotional intelligence, a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in oneself and in others, the effective regulation of emotion in self and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve in one's life. We start by reviewing the debate about the adaptive versus maladaptive qualities of emotion. We then explore the literature on intelligence, and especially social intelligence, to examine the place of emotion in traditional intelligence conceptions. A framework for integrating the research on emotion-related skills is then described. Next, we review the components of emotional intelligence. To conclude the review, the role of emotional intelligence in mental health is discussed and avenues for further investigation are suggested.
In this article, we summarize and review the research on teams and groups in organization settings published from January 1990 to April 1996. The article focuses on studies in which the dependent variables are concerned with various dimensions of effectiveness. A heuristic framework illustrating recent trends in the literature depicts team effectiveness as a function of task, group, and organization design factors, environmental factors, internal processes, external processes, and group psychosocial traits. The review discusses four types of teams: work, parallel, project, and management. We review research findings for each type of team organized by the categories in our heuristic framework. The article concludes by comparing the variables studied for the different types of teams, highlighting the progress that has been made, suggesting what still needs to be done, summarizing key learnings from the last six years, and suggesting areas for further research.