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Sibling Relations and Their Impact on Children's Development

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... Tal fato leva, consequentemente, a uma "parentificação" da relação, o que a torna mais verticalizada. Isso pode causar isolamento no irmão com desenvolvimento típico, pois ele não se identificará nem com o irmão nem com os pais (CEZAR; SMEHA, 2016;HOWE;RECCHIA, 2006;STACH, 2007;SOLOMON, 2013). ...
... Tal fato leva, consequentemente, a uma "parentificação" da relação, o que a torna mais verticalizada. Isso pode causar isolamento no irmão com desenvolvimento típico, pois ele não se identificará nem com o irmão nem com os pais (CEZAR; SMEHA, 2016;HOWE;RECCHIA, 2006;STACH, 2007;SOLOMON, 2013). ...
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Objetivou-se compreender como episódios da vida de irmãos de pessoas com deficiência podem influenciar na relação fraterna e na repercussão dessa convivência no comportamento atual dos irmãos. O irmão da pessoa com deficiência pode vivenciar ciúmes, tristeza, isolamento e também maturidade, amadurecimento e altruísmo. A resposta à ocorrência da deficiência na família dependerá do temperamento de cada um, da idade, da proximidade entre os irmãos e das suas experiências de vida. O estudo foi qualitativo do tipo narrativa de vida. Participaram oito irmãos de pessoas com deficiência, com idade entre 19 e 29 anos. Utilizou-se um questionário sociodemográfico sobre o informante, irmão com deficiência e pais, seguido de uma entrevista narrativa. Resultados indicaram que a convivência com o irmão com deficiência traz para seu irmão maior amadurecimento, autonomia e fraternidade. Ressalta-se que a relação fraterna, quando da presença de uma pessoa com deficiência, gera amadurecimento decorrente de situações enfrentadas pelos irmãos e pela família.
... Siblings are an essential part of family systems [85], they usually have long-lasting relationships with each other and spend abundant time together [86][87][88]. Therefore, siblings may learn to understand each other's thoughts, emotions and intentions from early on, facilitating the development of social, emotional and cognitive skills [89][90][91]. Moreover, siblings may serve an important promotive or protective function during child development, reducing the occurrence of child behavior problems and/or mitigating the negative consequences of stressful events [13][14][15][16]. ...
... Moreover, siblings can have a different role depending on their age and gender. While older siblings are usually more prone to engage in caregiving and helping roles (and their protective/promotive function may thus be especially relevant), younger siblings are usually more likely to elicit help and care (see [91]). Furthermore, some studies have shown that older sisters are more likely to engage in caretaking and helping behavior toward siblings, as compared to older brothers [93,94]. ...
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Background In the first years of their lives, children develop the cognitive, social and emotional skills that will provide the foundations for their lifelong health and achievements. To increase their life prospects and reduce the long-term effects of early aversive conditions, it is therefore crucial to understand the risk factors that negatively affect child development and the factors that are instead beneficial. In this study, we tested (i) the effects of different social and environmental stressors on maternal stress levels, (ii) the dynamic relationship between maternal stress and child behavior problems during development, and (iii) the potential promotive (i.e. main) or protective (i.e. buffering) effect of siblings on child behavior problems during development. Methods We used longitudinal data from 373 mother–child pairs (188 daughters, 185 sons) from pregnancy until 10 years of age. We assessed maternal stress and child behavior problems (internalizing and externalizing) with validated questionnaires, and then used linear mixed models, generalized linear mixed models and longitudinal cross-lagged models to analyze the data. Results Our results showed that higher maternal stress levels were predicted by socio-environmental stressors (i.e. the lack of sufficient social areas in the neighborhood). Moreover, prenatal maternal stress reliably predicted the occurrence of behavior problems during childhood. Finally, the presence of older siblings had a promotive function, by reducing the likelihood that children developed externalizing problems. Conclusions Overall, our results confirm the negative effects that maternal stress during pregnancy may have on the offspring, and suggest an important main effect of older siblings in promoting a positive child development.
... levels of apathy in sibling conflicts may be learned and applied to parent-child interactions and peer communications. Some previous studies have demonstrated that sibling conflict was a significant predictor of anti-social behavior (Criss and Shaw, 2005), emotional dysfunction (Dirks et al., 2015), and later violent tendencies and poor adjustment (Howe and Recchia, 2006). Therefore, based on numerous research findings, the social learning theory is appropriate for the discussion of sibling conflict, and the adverse effects and relieving strategies of sibling conflicts should also be concerned. ...
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Previous studies have shown that sibling conflicts are detrimental to physical and psychological development, as well as long-term human development. Although many studies have discovered relations between parenting style and sibling conflicts, these findings were contentious and did not provide a universal solution. Therefore, the meta-analysis was used as the method to determine the nature and magnitude of the relationships. There were a total of 14,356 participants in the 16 included studies, from which 55 effect sizes were extracted. According to the overall meta-analysis results, authoritative parenting ( r = –0.201) did have the potential to reduce sibling conflicts. Neglectful ( r = 0.389), inconsistent ( r = 0.364), indulgent ( r = 0.293), and authoritarian ( r = 0.235) parenting styles were related to sibling conflicts in a positive way. Moreover, the study investigated the effectiveness of several moderator variables, such as children’s gender, age, region, outcome measure, and publication year. The research indicates that authoritative parenting is a protective factor of sibling conflicts. Moderator analyses found that gender, age, region, outcome measure, and publication year played moderating roles in the relationships. Finally, research limitations in the current study and expectations for future research, as well as theoretical contributions and implications for parenting practice, were presented. Systematic review registration [ https://inplasy.com/inplasy-2022-8-0020/ ], identifier [INPLASY202280020].
... In the third stage, eligible families were randomly selected from registries provided by local guides in these villages (16). In the last stage, the eldest child was recruited in each family (17). Children were included if they were residents of rural areas in Alexandria, aged between 6-18 years, free of mental or physical diseases and the parent/ caregiver was available and consented to participate. ...
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Background: Scarce research assessed the link between Adverse childhood experiences and oral health status of Egyptian children whose level of oral diseases and Adverse childhood experiences may be different from western countries and who have high level of caries. This study aims to investigate the association between ACE and the oral health status of children living in rural areas in Alexandria, Egypt. Methods: A cross-sectional household survey was carried in North Western Delta, including 300 children 6-18 years old. Children were examined for dental caries and gingival condition then questioned about their oral hygiene habits and sugar consumption. Mothers/caregivers answered the adverse childhood experiences questionnaire. Three linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between dependent variables (primary caries experience, permanent caries experience, gingival score) and exposure (ACE) after adjusting for potential confounders. Furthermore, another 3 models were used to evaluate oral health behaviors (sugar consumption, plaque consumption, dental visits) effect on dependent variables. Results: Most children were females (57.2%), mean age was 9.81, SD= 3.06. 68.6% children had caries experience in their primary teeth (mean ± SD dft= 3.03± 3.14) and 27.9% had caries experience in their permanent teeth (mean ± SD DMFT= 0.60 ± 1.16) with mean ± SD gingival index score 1.14± 0.37. The mean ± SD ACE score was 4.15 ± 1.91. When comparing adjusted R2 of ACE models and oral health behaviors models; dft model of both had an identical value of 0.44. However, adjusted R2 of ACE models (DMFT =0.20, and gingival score =0.03) were different than those in oral health behaviors models (DMFT =0.22, gingival score =0.45). Conclusions: ACEs explained the same amount of variation in primary caries experience as sugar consumption, plaque accumulation and dental visits. Yet, it doesn’t have the same effect on permanent caries experience or the gingival condition. Therefore, ACEs might have the same effect on primary dental caries as oral health behaviors. Further research is needed to evaluate if a dose-response relationship is present between ACEs, oral health and oral health behaviors as suggested by previous research.
... Given the relatively short birth intervals and relatively long dependency periods of human offspring, there is an increased need to understand the impact that siblings may have on each other's learning and development [1,2]. Studies have often replaced measures of birth spacing (sibship density) with the number of siblings (hereafter sibship size) [3] or birth order, due to either data availability or birth spacing being inappropriately measured [3,4]. ...
Article
Background: This study investigated whether the timing of birth of the younger siblings was associated with the risk of the older siblings' developmental vulnerability in early childhood. Methods: Linkage of population-level birth registration, hospital, and perinatal datasets to Australian Early Development Census (AEDC) records (2009-2015), enabled follow-up of a cohort of 32,324 Western Australia born singletons. Children with scores <10th percentile on an individual AEDC domain (Physical Health and Wellbeing; Social Competence; Emotional Maturity; Language and Cognitive Skills (school-based); and Communication Skills and General Knowledge) were classified as developmentally vulnerable. Modified Poisson Regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) for associations between post-birth interpregnancy intervals (IPIs) and developmental vulnerability. Results: Relative to post-birth IPIs of 18-23 months, post-birth IPIs of <6 and 6-11 months were associated with an increased risk of children being classified as DV1 (aRR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.11-1.31) and DV2 (aRR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.15-1.49); and DV1 (aRR 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.17) and DV2 (aRR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.09-1.34), respectively. Post-birth IPIs of <6 months were associated with an increased risk on four of the five AEDC domains. Post-birth IPIs of 48-60 months were associated with an increased risk of developmental vulnerability; however, the risk was statistically significant for DV1, DV2 and the domains of Emotional Maturity and Language and Cognitive Skills (school-based). Conclusions: Developmental vulnerability was associated with having a closely spaced younger sibling (<12 months post-birth IPIs). Optimising birth spacing should be further investigated as a potential means for improving child development outcomes.
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The main objective of this paper was to define the differences in the effects of traditional strength bodyweight training matched load weight training with kettlebells. Forty young karate athletes aged 10 to 14 were divided in two experimental groups: standard experimental group 1 (EKS 1) – strength training with bodyweight (n=20), and experimental group 2 (EKS 2) (n=20)– strength kettlebell training. All respondents were subjected to anthropometric measurement and twelve motoric tests (coordination, three repetitive strength, and segmental movement speed tests, three each), to determine the difference of effects on motor abilities. Both groups had frequency of two training sessions a week during six weeks period. Groups were matched by training load parameters, with the weight added training being the only difference in EKS 2. The results measurement showed that the EKS 1 significantly progressed in four motoric tests: (1 test trivial effect, 2 tests small effect, 1 test moderateeffect). EKS 2 achieved significantlyhigher effects, with statistically significant progress in applied motoric tests (1 trivial effect, 7 tests small effects, and 4 tests moderate effects). The results of this research show progress inmotor abilities for both strength training groups, with more significant changes observed in the group with additional weight load, confirming the justifiability of the application of kettlebell as additional load in young karate athletes. Keywords: weight training, bodyweight training, kettlebell
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Purpose: This article examines the role sibling position (birth order) plays in the development of social skills. Given that the family is the first social system a child gets exposed to, it is assumed that the child's birth position and the relationships that exist among family members plays a substantial role in their development of social skills. The paper focuses on three birth positions: first borns, last borns and only child. The study thus aims to examine whether the a fore mentioned birth positions influences a child's tendency to communicate and relate with others. Does one's birth position influence his or her tendency to communicate and relate with others? Methodology: It is a conceptual paper that employs a meta-analytic approach to review, synthesize and draw conclusions from existing literature on sibling position specifically the first born, last born and only child and the effect such positions have on the development of social skills. Findings: It was realized that first borns perceive themselves as being treated differently from later children, are accustomed to being the centre of attention and tend to be high achievers. Last borns are perceived to be creative, outgoing, extraverted, disobedient and tend to resist the authority of the bigger siblings. They exhibit interpersonal skills but have an abnormally strong feeling of inferiority as result of being over pampered by their seniors. Only children are not independent and have difficulty in delaying gratification. They demand much love from their partners with unwillingness to reciprocate. They are also most often self-centred, maladjusted, unlikable, anxious and dependent on others. The degree to which people tend to relate and communicate with others is influenced to some extent by their birth order. Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy: It is thus vital to minimize certain cultural attitudes exhibited by parents, siblings and other family members in the course of socialization at home that can deter the development of social skills in children. This is supported by Bandura's (1978) Theory of Observational Learning, as children learn or model behaviours from especially elderly siblings and other caregivers; Bowlby's (1969/1982) attachment theory which maintains that patterns of relating are built upon the early interactions between the primary caregiver and the child.
Article
Purpose: This article examines the role sibling position (birth order) plays in the development of social skills. Given that the family is the first social system a child gets exposed to, it is assumed that the child’s birth position and the relationships that exist among family members plays a substantial role in their development of social skills. The paper focuses on three birth positions: first borns, last borns and only child. The study thus aims to examine whether the a fore mentioned birth positions influences a child’s tendency to communicate and relate with others. Does one’s birth position influence his or her tendency to communicate and relate with others? Methodology: It is a conceptual paper that employs a meta-analytic approach to review, synthesize and draw conclusions from existing literature on sibling position specifically the first born, last born and only child and the effect such positions have on the development of social skills. Findings: It was realized that first borns perceive themselves as being treated differently from later children, are accustomed to being the centre of attention and tend to be high achievers. Last borns are perceived to be creative, outgoing, extraverted, disobedient and tend to resist the authority of the bigger siblings. They exhibit interpersonal skills but have an abnormally strong feeling of inferiority as result of being over pampered by their seniors. Only children are not independent and have difficulty in delaying gratification. They demand much love from their partners with unwillingness to reciprocate. They are also most often self-centred, maladjusted, unlikable, anxious and dependent on others. The degree to which people tend to relate and communicate with others is influenced to some extent by their birth order. Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and policy: It is thus vital to minimize certain cultural attitudes exhibited by parents, siblings and other family members in the course of socialization at home that can deter the development of social skills in children. This is supported by Bandura’s (1978) Theory of Observational Learning, as children learn or model behaviours from especially elderly siblings and other caregivers; Bowlby's (1969/1982) attachment theory which maintains that patterns of relating are built upon the early interactions between the primary caregiver and the child.
Chapter
Early forms of cooperation and conflict feature regularly in young children's interactions with other people. However, these two types of social interaction are only rarely studied together in the same sample. In this chapter we review studies of cooperation and conflict in children under 3 years of age, with a particular focus on peer interaction. Only a few studies examined cooperation and conflict in parallel. To illustrate how conflict and cooperation can be studied simultaneously, we present findings from a longitudinal study of social development, in which previously unacquainted toddlers were observed during laboratory birthday parties. These analyses revealed that the two types of interaction are positively associated and provide opportunities for young children to refine their social skills.
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the main focus of developmental psychopathology research has been on identifying factors that increase children's risk of psychological difficulties / in more recent years attention has also been given to factors that might ameliorate or lessen the impact of negative experiences on children / there are two important questions to consider in relation to sibling relationships in stressful circumstances / the first relates to whether there is any difference in the frequency of positive relationships between children in stressful family circumstances and those in non-stressful family circumstances / the second issue relates to the potential benefit of sibling relationships for children under stress aim in this chapter is to present data pertaining to whether children are protected by close sibling relationships, to distinguish between factors that are protective and those that increase children's risk, and to compare the frequency of negative and positive sibling relationships in disharmonious and harmonious homes [the samples for the study] were 83 families in which the marriage had been rated as disharmonious . . . and 83 families in which the marriage had been rated as harmonious / children were between 9 and 12 years old / parents were interviewed in their homes simultaneously but separately using a semi-structured interview / children were interviewed approximately 1 week later (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Carpendale & Lewis (C&L) stress the importance of social interaction for social understanding, but focus on the adult-child relationship. in the present commentary, we discuss the development of social understanding within early peer relationships. We argue that peer interaction stretches the limits of early social understandmg, thereby providing both unique challenges and unique opportunities for constructing an understanding of others' minds.
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This study examines how nondistressed families manage spontaneous verbal conflicts that occur during family dinners in the home. The focus is on who starts the conflicts, how long they are continued, and how they are brought to a close. The involvement of basic family roles (i.e., mother, father, son, daughter) in conflict management is described. Overall, conflict initiation was evenly distributed across family roles. The extension of conflict was constrained by a constant probability of a next conflict move occurring. Most of the conflicts ended with no resolution. Mothers were most active in closing off conflicts.
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