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The Global Development Cycle, MDGs and the Future of Poverty Reduction

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... While at the same time critics have labelled this as donor and IFIs led process (Bissio, 2003; Fischer, 2010) and as Major Distracting Gimmick (Antrobus, 2005;). However, it is broadly accepted that they have provided the basis for a new international development consensus during the last decade (Gore, 2008; Roberts, 2005, 1996) which included the target of halving poverty by 2015 28 . In 2000, that target was included in the Millennium Declaration but with an important amendment: it explicitly defined poverty as living on less than a dollar per day. ...
... It needs to be recognised that development aid -and development cooperation more broadly is a relationship whose effectiveness depends on the practices of all parties. But, pathways after 2015 should more seriously address the terms of development partnership, seeking to make them more balanced and equal (Gore, 2008). My proposition also contrasts with the idea that to 'harmonise' international aid a universal definition of poverty is needed. ...
... a greater need to think about meaningful changes in global economic structure. This is beyond the remit of this book, but here I would like to briefly touch up this issue focusing on improved partnership among the Northern and Southern countries, and a more equitable global trade 45 -both these aspects were also highlighted in Goal -8 of the MDGs. Gore (2008), and Vandemoortele (2011a) contend that more efforts need to be made in advancing the global partnership agenda as mentioned in Goal 8 of the MDGs. ...
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The volumes of debate on poverty suggest that there is no unanimously agreed definition of poverty that can be applied for everyone. Poverty is a political and highly contested concept because what commentators mean by poverty depends on what they intend to do about it. Given this context, Palash Kamruzzaman explores two key aspects of global poverty reduction. First, he asks, is it really possible to understand poverty for all poor countries through a ubiquitous definition? Why has a US dollar based definition of poverty been promoted by the international aid architecture for all poor countries? Second, the author assesses to what extent such an understanding of poverty contributed to poverty reduction in poor developing countries. This is of particular significance in the final year of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), especially to find out more effective ways forward for poverty reduction after 2015. Taking specific country-contexts into account, Kamruzzaman argues that national poverty lines should be the benchmark for future anti-poverty policies. See this on Google Books: https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=MM9mCgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&ots=fRZRNv_kzf&sig=oja-5FiC-gq711DlpbAYJYNT7sY#v=onepage&q&f=false
... [7][8][9][10][11] The second involves broader analysis of the MDGs as instruments of development, largely by international development specialists. 3,12,13 We believe that an understanding of the MDGs and future improvements in goal setting benefi ts from consideration of all goals together, because they are so interconnected and because their individual implementation has identifi ed many common issues. The purpose of this report is to identify challenges that have emerged in delivery of the MDGs that are common to diff erent goals and to suggest how future goal setting can be improved to avoid these diffi culties. ...
... In addition to their integration of diff erent development challenges and approaches, the MDGs also provided a novel, target-oriented framework for the international development community. Gore 13 suggests that in tempering earlier neo-liberal approaches to development with human development objectives, the MDGs represent a switch from a "procedural conception of international society" to a "purposive conception". The former involves "an association of States joined together through their common respect for a set of rules, norms and standard practices which govern the relationships between them" whereas the latter involves "an association of States joined together in a cooperative venture to promote common ends". ...
... The former involves "an association of States joined together through their common respect for a set of rules, norms and standard practices which govern the relationships between them" whereas the latter involves "an association of States joined together in a cooperative venture to promote common ends". 13 With this target focus came an important shift from maximalist views of development (in which development involves poorer countries achieving aspirations of equality with richer countries) to minimalist standards (of proportions of people crossing poverty thresholds or accessing particular services or avoiding mortality or morbidity); and from societal and national change to changes for individuals within nation states. The emphasis on specifi c and minimalist targets, and the way in which it narrowed the development agenda and placed particular responsibilities on developing country governments, has generated many of the challenges facing implementation of the MDGs. ...
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Bringing together analysis across different sectors, we review the implementation and achievements of the MDGs to date to identify cross cutting strengths and weaknesses as a basis for considering how they might be developed or replaced after 2015. Working from this and a definition of development as a dynamic process involving sustainable and equitable access to improved wellbeing, five interwoven guiding principles are proposed for a post 2015 development project: holism, equity, sustainability, ownership, and global obligation. These principles and their possible implications in application are expanded and explored. The paper concludes with an illustrative discussion of how these principles might be applied in the health sector.
... Drawing on these sources and others (e.g. Gore 2009, Manning 2010, a subjective summary assessment of MDG impact can be drawn up as shown in Figure 3. ...
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The post-2015 agenda will be the single most important force shaping the future of international development. This paper analyses the content of that agenda. It provides both a cross-sectional view and a dynamic analysis of trends. This shows not only the likely post-2015 priorities but also trajectory: an insight into those issues and ideas which are falling down, continuing on, and rising up the international development agenda. The aim of the paper is to give researchers, strategists, policy-makers, advisors and others an overview of shape and direction at the core of international development. This will help them to plan and prioritise more effectively.
... There are two major differences between the contemporary picture of development and the way it was envisaged in the 1960s and 1970s (Gore, 2009). The first is a shift from development as a process concerned primarily with the structure and dynamics of national economies to one focused on individuals. ...
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Purpose – This paper aims to examine how the conceptualization of development has evolved and how, given emerging global economic trends, this might affect the development industry in Africa. It explores the interplay of ideas and practice, identifies key global drivers and considers their significance for Africa over the next generation. Design/methodology/approach – Adopting a historical approach, the paper chronicles the changes in the epistemological foundations of development thinking over 60 years of development theory and practice. It also explores how concurrent changes in the international context for development have influenced both the thinking on and management of development. The paper undertakes a scenario analysis in search of an African development narrative that is more appropriate to the challenge of African prosperity over the next 20-30 years. Findings – It is shown that the contemporary view of development represents an epistemological shift from a perspective defined by the actual experiences of successful developers, to one defined through the prism of some assumed universal norms. Focusing on a particular scenario of Africa as the “land of the future”, the paper suggests that Africa should reject its portrayal as “victim” in the international community, replace the poverty ideology with one of prosperity, and reject the condescension implicit in regarding Africa as a “special case” that requires continuing intervention. It stresses that the Africa of the future must be globally competitive. Practical implications – To address the challenge of African prosperity over the next 20-30 years, an African development narrative generated endogenously and sustained by the energy of the continent's people, is required. Such a narrative requires that African leaders take full responsibility for Africa's destiny and actively develop a uniquely African story and embrace the African development project. Originality/value – The study provides a historically based alternative perspective to the MDGs as a framework for considering the future of Africa over the next several decades.
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ÖZET Bu çalışmanın amacı, 2000 yılında Birleşmiş Milletler (BM) tarafından düzenlenen ve 147 devlet ve hükümet başkanlarının da dahil olduğu, 189 ulusun temsilcilerinin katıldığı Binyıl Zirvesi sonucunda kabul edilen Binyıl Kalkınma Hedefleri (BKH'ler)'nin insan hakları ve demokrasi ile olan bağını ortaya koymaktır. Zirve sonunda ülkeler BKH'ler olarak belirlenen sekiz hedefe 2015 yılına kadar ulaşma kararı almışlardır. Çalışmada, kalkınmanın insan hakları ve demokrasi ile olan ilişkisi ortaya konulmakta ve BKH'ler bu ilişki üzerinden değerlendirilmektedir. BKH'lerdeki kalkınma yaklaşımı, insan hakları ve demokrasi bağlamında bütüncül bir yaklaşımla ele alınmadığından dolayı eleştirilmektedir. ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to determine that, relevance to human rights and democracy of Millennium Development Goals adopted as a result of the the Millennium Summit attended by the United Nations (UN) in 2000, and held by representatives of 189 nations including 147 the heads of state and government. Countries as a result of the Summit decided to reach the eight goals set as the MDGs by 2015. In the study, those are made that, reveals the relationship between development, human rights and democracy and the MDGs are assessed on this relation. The development approach in the MDGs is criticized because it is not handled with a holistic approach in the context of human rights and democracy.
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The paper briefly examines the literature that criticises the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) from a Latin American perspective. It presents some key stylised facts of development from the contemporary history of the region. It focuses on three structural features of Latin American development, namely, inequality, conflict and low State capacity. Finally, it discusses the relevance and adequacy of some MDGs and targets based on the theoretical criticisms and empirical evidence examined earlier. It concludes by offering suggestions for the post-2015 global development agenda. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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As we approach 2015 the question of what, if anything, should replace the MDGs becomes increasingly important. This paper presents findings from studies on the implementation of the poverty, education and gender MDGs in Kenya and South Africa. These show how top-down processes associated with meeting the MDG targets led by government or large NGOs are disassociated from bottom-up engagements with gender, education and poverty by households or communities. A missing middle linked with professional action by teachers or civil servants and enhanced information flow means that groups from the top and the bottom talk past each other. We therefore argue that these experiences with implementing the MDGs, coupled with a variety of global changes since 2000s, mean that a major concern in developing a set of post 2015 goals is the need to address the disarticulation between ‘top down’ and ‘bottom up’ approaches in international development. We link this challenge with five principles put forward for post 2015 goals and indicators: holism, equity, sustainability, ownership and global obligation. The application of this approach to work on goals and targets is illustrated in relation to nutrition/food security and secondary education.
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The main conclusions from the plenary sessions of the Policy Forum can be summarised as follows: 1) Focus must still remain on achieving the MDGs; 2) Developing country ownership of the new framework is essential and the approach must therefore be Southern-led; 3) The obligations of the developed countries towards the achievement of the MDGs need clarification; 4) International income and wealth redistribution should be a 'right' ('automatic' rather than discretionary) including international redistributive taxes; 5) International inequality and its reduction should be given more emphasis; 6) Ethical and moral perspectives need emphasising within a global social justice, rather than a purely indicator-driven, approach; 7) 'Fragile' states and global uncertainty need special treatment; 8) The 'quality' of MDG achievements, rather than 'quantities', needs emphasising; 9) The science and technology capacity of developing countries is critically important; 10) Processes which deliver the quantitative indicators (MDGs) require more emphasis - such as Global Governance. 11) Serious research is needed to ensure the debate is well informed. The objective of this report is to provide a record of the presentations by invited speakers at the Policy Forum, of the questions and comments by distinguished participants from the floor, and of responses by the main speakers. The summary is based on detailed notes from the Plenary Sessions, supplemented by audio recordings, PowerPoint presentations and background papers.1
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In the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), realising MDG Goal 8 should focus on making the new partnership framework based on making the PRSPs work better. Many of the LDCs are stuck in an international poverty trap, and the new framework, as it is currently being implemented, will not be sufficient to enable them to escape. Key priorities now are: creating pragmatic devel-opmental States, not welfare States; genuine national ownership and policy autonomy; more – and more effective – aid and debt relief; a new form of international commodity policy; and removing the glass ceiling that blocks the development of the more advanced developing countries. The Importance of Goal 8 " ..in addition to our separate responsibilities to our individual societies, we have a collective responsibility to uphold principles of human dignity, equality and equity at the global level…" So states the Millennium Declaration on its first page. The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are essentially a way of measuring and mon-itoring progress towards this commitment. The first seven focus on outcomes, identifying standards of well-being to be achieved within the next 15 years and con-cern both the nature of the lives individuals lead and the environment in which they live. The last – Goal 8 – focuses on relationships, identifying various aspects of the global partnership for development that should be forged to support the realisation of these standards. The introduction of the MDGs presages some major shifts in international develop-ment practice. Firstly, they are based on a purposive conception of international society: as an association of States joined in a cooperative venture to promote some common ends. This idea differs fundamentally from that of States joined in associa-tion through their common respect for a set of rules that governs relationships among them. In the latter concept, the rules – which set certain restrictions on how States may pursue their own diverse purposes --are intrinsically important, regard-less of outcomes.
One facet of City over the years has been a rather dark foreboding that the trajectory of urbanisation around the world is accumulating problems that refuse to be solved and that in the foreseeable future we will see some kind of apocalyptic collapse. In New Orleans we saw one version of this, in other cities there may be others yet to reveal themselves. This paper is one of a trilogy that focus on the 'sustainable development' of cities and that, by the end, spells out a rather specific scenario of collapse as a consequence of energy starvation that we will, in all likelihood, be seeing unfold over the coming decades. Here we take a distanced view of the whole 'sustainable development' and 'sustainable cities' discourse, concluding that it has become diffused and lost in a welter of fragmented analyses, hopes and small projects that, prima facie, is failing to address deteriorating environmental conditions. The point, however, is that the real source of unsustainability of our civilisation lies in its extreme and increasing reliance on fossil fuels which, in the coming decades will be declining in availability. This paper makes a preliminary assessment of the relationship between 'development' and its demand for energy, noting the consistent avoidance of any meaningful assessment of this or what should be done in an effective way to avoid an emerging crisis. This will surely reveal itself with the progressive difficulty, and thence impossibility, of satisfying our energy demands in a situation where the widely held belief in the imminent rapid growth of alternative sources of energy proves to be without foundation. The next paper in the trilogy looks at the reasons why our society is so blind to the tragedy ahead and the third sketches the probable trajectory of the collapse of our civilisation and the consequence of this for the future of cities both in the north and the south.
Cities after oil (2): Background to the collapse of „modern‟ civilization
  • A Atkinson
Atkinson A. 2007b. Cities after oil (2): Background to the collapse of „modern‟ civilization. City 11 (3): 293-312