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Multiple inflammatory and antiviral activities in Adansonia digitata (Baobab) leaves, fruits and seeds

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Adansonia digitata (Baobab) is a traditional African medicinal plant with numerous applications, including treatment of symptoms of infectious diseases. Standardized commercial preparations of Adansonia digitata leaves, fruit-pulp and seeds were acquired and extracted with three different solvents, water, methanol and DMSO. The extracts were compared quantitatively for antiviral MIC(100) ( minimal inhibitory concentration) values against influenza virus, herpes simplex virus and respiratory syncytial virus and for their effects on cytokine secretion (IL-6 and IL-8) in human epithelial cell cultures. The leaf extracts had the most potent antiviral properties, especially the DMSO extracts and influenza virus was the most susceptible virus. Pulp and seed extracts were less active but significant. Cytotoxic activities were only evident at much higher concentrations of extract. Several of the extracts, especially leaf extracts, were also active as cytokine modulators, some being pro-inflammatory and others being anti-inflammatory. The results overall indicated the presence of multiple bioactive compounds in different parts of the plant and these activities could explain some of the medical benefits attributed to traditional leaf and pulp preparations, in the treatment of infectious diseases and inflammatory conditions.
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 3(8), pp. 576-582, August, 2009
Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/JMPR
ISSN 1996-0875© 2009 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Multiple inflammatory and antiviral activities in
Adansonia digitata (Baobab) leaves, fruits and seeds
Vimalanathan Selvarani and Hudson James B.*
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Accepted 24 July, 2009
Adansonia digitata (Baobab) is a traditional African medicinal plant with numerous applications,
including treatment of symptoms of infectious diseases. Standardized commercial preparations of
Adansonia digitata leaves, fruit-pulp and seeds were acquired and extracted with three different
solvents, water, methanol and DMSO. The extracts were compared quantitatively for antiviral MIC100
(minimal inhibitory concentration) values against influenza virus, herpes simplex virus and respiratory
syncytial virus and for their effects on cytokine secretion (IL-6 and IL-8) in human epithelial cell
cultures. The leaf extracts had the most potent antiviral properties, especially the DMSO extracts and
influenza virus was the most susceptible virus. Pulp and seed extracts were less active but significant.
Cytotoxic activities were only evident at much higher concentrations of extract. Several of the extracts,
especially leaf extracts, were also active as cytokine modulators, some being pro-inflammatory and
others being anti-inflammatory. The results overall indicated the presence of multiple bioactive
compounds in different parts of the plant and these activities could explain some of the medical
benefits attributed to traditional leaf and pulp preparations, in the treatment of infectious diseases and
inflammatory conditions.
Key words: Adansonia digitata, Baobab, antiviral, inflammatory, cytokines.
INTRODUCTION
The Baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L. Family
Bombacaceae) is indigenous in many African countries
(Wickens, 1982; Sidibe and Williams, 2002). Many parts
of the plant, especially leaves, fruit pulp, seeds and bark
fibers, have been used traditionally for medicinal and
nutritional purposes (Sidibe and Williams, 2002; Chadare
et al., 2009) and some commercial enterprises produce
standardized preparations derived from seeds, fruit pulp
and leaves. The medicinal applications include treat-
ments for intestinal and skin problems and various uses
as anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic agents.
Recent research in animals has confirmed the presence
of such activities in specific extracts (Ramadan et al.,
1994; Palombo, 2006; Ajose, 2007; Karumi et al., 2008).
In addition antibacterial, antiviral and anti-trypanosome
activities have been reported (Anani et al., 2000; Hudson
et al., 2000; Atawodi et al., 2003).
Inflammation is a common underlying cause of many
diseases, infectious and otherwise and can occur in many
*Corresponding author. E-mail: jbhudson@interchange.ubc.ca.
Tel.: 1-604-948-2131. Fax: 1-604-875-4351.
organs and tissues, although a controlled acute inflame-
matory reaction is a normal part of our innate immune
response to infection and injury. In order to address the
prospect of medicinal plant applications to the treatment
of inflammatory conditions, we have devised cell culture
systems in which specific viruses and bacteria can induce
substantial amounts of pro-inflammatory or anti-
inflammatory cytokines. Plant extracts can be evaluated
for inflammatory properties in such a system and direct
antiviral effects can also be tested against the same
viruses (Sharma et al., 2008, 2009).
In this study we evaluated the presence and relative
potencies of antiviral and inflammatory activities (cytokine
modulating activities) in standardized commercial prepa-
rations of leaves, fruits and seeds. Extracts were
prepared in methanol, DMSO and water.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Source materials
Three standardized preparations were obtained from Baobabtek
(Laval, Quebec). They were:
1. Dried fruit pulp (code #PBA).
2. Dried seed endocarp (code #PEA).
3. Micronized dried leaves (code #PFA).
Portions of each dried material were extracted in methanol, DMSO
and water, at starting concentrations of 100 mg/mL. The extractions
were performed by intermittent shaking and vortexing over a period
of 3 days, at 20°C, in the dark. All extracts were clarified by low
speed centrifugation and filter-sterilized through 0.2 micron filters.
Aliquots were taken for dry weight measurements and the final
extracts were stored in the dark at 4°C. These values were used in
calculating anti-viral MIC (minimal inhibitory concentrations), as
indicated below.
A standard reference Echinacea extract (Echinaforce, acquired
from A. Vogel-Bioforce, Switzerland) was used in the antiviral tests
(see below). The composition of this extract was reported
previously (Sharma et al., 2008, 2009).
Cells and viruses
All cell lines, Vero monkey kidney cells; MDCK canine kidney cells;
Hep-2 human epithelial cells; H-1 sub clone of HeLa cells; A549
human lung epithelial cells; BEAS-2B human bronchial cells; were
obtained from ATCC (American Type culture collection, Rockville,
MD). They were propagated in Dulbecco MEM (DMEM), without
antibiotic or antimycotic agents, in cell culture flasks, supplemented
with 5 - 10% fetal bovine serum, at 37°C in a 5% CO2 atmosphere,
with the exception of the H-1 cells, which were grown at 35oC
(Sharma et al., 2008).
The following viruses were used: influenza, strain H3N2, human
isolate (from BC Centre for Disease Control), propagated in MDCK
cells; HSV (herpes simplex virus type 1, BC-CDC), propagated in
Vero cells; rhinovirus type 1A (RV 1A, from ATCC), propagated in
H-1 cells; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, from BC-CDC) in Hep-2
cells. All the stock viruses were prepared as clarified cell-free
supernatants, with titers ranging from 106 to 108 pfu (plaque-forming
units) per mL.
Antiviral activity
The diluted extract (1:100), in 200 µL aliquots, was serially diluted
across replicate rows of a 96-well tray, in DMEM. Virus, 100 pfu in
100 µL, was added to each well and allowed to interact with the
extract for 60 min at a temperature of 22°
C. Following the
incubation period, the mixtures were transferred to another tray of
cells from which the medium had been aspirated. These trays were
incubated at 37°C until viral cpe (cytopathic effects) were complete
in control wells containing untreated virus (usually 2 days for
influenza, 4 - 5 days for the other viruses). Additional wells
contained cells not exposed to virus. The MIC100 was derived from
the maximum dilution at which cpe was completely inhibited by the
extract. In the alternative method (intracellular method), the cells
were incubated with the diluted extracts first for 60 min, before
adding virus.
In some experiments antiviral activity was measured in the
presence and absence of light, since we have shown previously
that many plant extracts contain photoactive compounds (Hudson
and Towers, 1999; Vimalanathan et al., 2005). In this case half the
trays were exposed to a combination of fluorescent and UVA lamps
during the virus-extract reactions and the other half were wrapped
in aluminum foil. A standardized antiviral extract of Echinacea
(Echinaforce®) was also tested in parallel as a reference in some
experiments (Sharma et al., 2008).
Vimalanathan and Hudson 577
Inflammatory cytokine culture system
Details of the test system were described previously (Sharma et al.,
2006, 2008). A549 and BEAS-2B cells were grown in DMEM, in 6-
well trays, to produce confluent monolayers. The medium was
replaced with serum free DMEM for the experiments. Rhinovirus
was added to the cells, for the anti-inflammatory tests, at 1.0
infectious virus per cell (1 pfu/cell), for 1 h at 35°C, followed by a
1:100 dilution of the test extract. Cell free culture supernatants were
harvested after 48 h and assayed for IL-6 and IL-8. Controls
included cells with no virus and cells (± virus) with equivalent
amounts of solvent only.
All cultures were in duplicates and each supernatant was
assayed in duplicates. All data presented are from individual
experiments, but all experiments were repeated at least once, with
consistent results.
Cytokine measurements
ELISA assays were carried out with commercial kits, according to
the instructions supplied by the companies (either R & D Systems
Inc. Minneapolis, MN, USA, for IL-8, or e-Bioscience, San Diego,
CA, USA, for IL-6).
Statistical analysis
Results were expressed as means ± SEM. For statistical analysis in
the anti-inflammatory activity, one-way analysis of variance
(ANOVA) was used followed by the Dunnet’s t-test. A p value less
than 0.01 (p < 0.01) was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS
A total of 9 extracts were obtained, representing three
different parts of the plant, seed, pulp and leaf, in three
different solvents, water, methanol and DMSO. These
were all tested in two inflammatory cell culture models
and in antiviral tests against several different human
pathogenic viruses. All extracts were tested under
comparable conditions, at similar concentrations (in dry
mass/vol, indicated in Materials and Methods).
Inflammatory activities
In the absence of RV stimulation the basal level of
cytokine secretion in epithelial cells is relatively low, in
which case extracts with pro-inflammatory activity would
enhance cytokine secretion, whereas in RV stimulated
cells anti-inflammatory activities are seen as inhibition in
cytokine secretion (Sharma et al., 2008).
Figure 1a and 1b show results for RV stimulated BEAS-
2B cells and A-549 cells respectively. The virus only
control, without extract, is shown on the far left. In both
cell lines most of the extracts showed little effect on
cytokine secretion and were therefore not anti-
inflammatory (results are shown only for IL-8; similar data
were obtained for IL-6). However the DMSO/pulp and
water/leaf extracts significantly decreased the IL-8
578 J. Med. Plant. Res.
Beas 2B Virus-stimulated
Virus
L-MeOH
S-MeOH
P-MeOH
L-DMSO
S-DMSO
P-DMSO
L-H2O
S-H2O
P-H2O
0
250
500
750
1000
**
**
Samples
IL-8 pg/ml
A549 Virus-stimulated
Virus
L-MeOH
S-MeOH
P-MeOH
L-DMSO
S-DMSO
P-DMSO
L-H2O
S-H2O
P-H2O
0
250
500
750
1000
**
**
Samples
IL-8 pg/ml
1a
1b
Figure 1. Anti-inflammatory activities in Adansonia extracts.
BEAS 2B epithelial cells (a) and A-549 lung epithelial cells (b) were stimulated by rhinovirus to secrete cytokine IL-8 (CXCL8).
The plant extracts, at 1:100 dilution, were added to the infected cells and incubated for 48 h, at which time cell free
supernatants were removed for assay of IL-8 and IL-6 (only IL-8 data are shown) by ELISA. Readings were converted to
pg/mL by comparison with a standard curve. P-DMSO and L-water extracts showed significant inhibition and were therefore
anti-inflammatory. Results were expressed as mean ± SEM. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.01 (**)
L = leaf. P = fruit pulp, S = seed.
Beas 2B Non-stimulated
Control
L-MeOH
S-MeOH
P-MeOH
L-DMSO
S-DMSO
P-DMSO
L-H2O
P-H2O
S-H2O
0
250
500
750
**
**
Samples
IL-8 pg/ml
A549 Non-stimulated
Control
L-MeOH
S-MeOH
P-MeOH
L-DMSO
S-DMSO
P-DMSO
L-H2O
S-H2O
P-H2O
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
** **
IL-8 pg/ml
2a
2b
Figure 2. Pro-inflammatory activities in Adansonia extracts.
Unstimulated BEAS 2B epithelial cells (a) and A-549 lung epithelial cells (b) were incubated with the plant extracts, at 1:100
dilution, for 48 h, at which time cell free supernatants were removed for assay of IL-8 and IL-6 (only IL-8 data are shown) by
ELISA. Control cultures represent unstimulated cells incubated with medium (or solvent) only. Readings were converted to
pg/mL by comparison with a standard curve. All three leaf extracts and the pulp water extract, were pro-inflammatory. Results
were expressed as mean ± SEM. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.01 (**).
L = leaf, P = fruit pulp, S = seed.
Vimalanathan and Hudson 579
Figure 3. Anti-Influenza virus MIC100 (µg/mL) for Adansonia extracts.
All extracts were evaluated for antiviral activity (cpe inhibition assay)
against Influenza virus. The end points were read in duplicate assays
from the two-fold dilution series (duplicates gave identical end points).
Data were converted to MIC100 based on extract concentrations and the
reciprocals were plotted. The higher the 1/MIC value the greater the
antiviral activity; leaf extracts, especially DMSO-leaf, showed greater
activity than the others (the open top end of the bar for DMSO leaf
extract indicates that its activity was >> 3).
secretion and were therefore anti-inflammatory. The leaf
extract was the more active based on concentration (70
µg/mL final concentration, compared with 247 µg/mL for
the pulp extract). As seen in Figure 1, the results were
the same in both cell lines.
Figure 2a and 2b show the corresponding results for
the unstimulated levels of IL-8 secretion (similar results
were obtained for IL-6). All three leaf extracts showed
substantial increases in IL-8 secretion, that is, they were
pro-inflammatory. The water/pulp extract was also
strongly pro-inflammatory, although its concentration was
several-fold greater than the leaf extracts. The other
extracts showed little effect.
Antiviral activities
Minimum inhibitory values (MIC100) were calculated for
each extract-virus combination. Influenza virus was parti-
cularly vulnerable to some of the extracts, as indicated in
Figure 3, in which antiviral activities are expressed as the
reciprocals of MIC100 in order to emphasize the differ-
rences between degrees of antiviral activity. Thus the
DMSO/leaf extract was very potent and the other leaf
extracts were also significantly anti-influenza virus, with
MIC100 values ranging from approximately 2 µg/mL to <
1.0 µg/mL. In addition some of the other extracts were
antiviral to some degree, but much less than the leaf
extracts (see also Table 1). These MIC values were
comparable to those of the reference Echinacea
preparation (Materials and Methods), a known potent
antiviral extract (Sharma et al., 2009).
Figure 4 shows results of similar tests against two other
membrane-containing viruses, HSV (herpes simplex
virus) and RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), in compa-
rison with influenza. Only the results for the leaf extracts
were shown since they were much more potent than all
the others. However none of the extracts showed activity
against rhinovirus (RV 1A), a non-membrane virus.
Similar antiviral tests were carried out in the absence of
light, to determine the possible presence of antiviral
photosensitizers in the extracts (Hudson and Towers,
1999; Vimalanathan et al., 2005). However the antiviral
MIC100 values were generally not much different, within a
factor of 4 between light and dark. These data are
summarized in Table 1.
MIC values were also obtained for the leaf and pulp
extracts in the alternative test protocol, in which extracts
were incubated first with the cells, followed by virus
infection, in parallel with the standard protocol in which
580 J. Med. Plant. Res.
Anti-viral activity
DMSO-leaf MeOH-leaf Water-leaf
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
FlU
HSV
RSV
Samples
Antiviral activity(1/MIC)
Figure 4. Relative antiviral activities of leaf extracts.
Reciprocal MIC100 values, obtained as described in Figure 3 legend, were plotted for the three leaf
extracts against HSV, RSV and influenza virus. Error bars are shown when the duplicates differed in
their end points. Influenza virus was the most susceptible and RSV the least.
Table 1. Antiviral MIC100.
Source Extract Influenza virus
MIC (µg/mL)
HSV
MIC (µg/mL)
RSV
MIC (µg/mL)
cytotoxicitya
(µg/mL)
Leaf DMSO 0.12 L & D 1.0 L
4.1 D
16.2 L
32.5 D 130
Methanol 0.72 L & D 2.9 L
11.7 D
23.4 L
46.8 D 187
Water 2.8 L
5.6 D
1.3 L
5.5 D
22.0 L
43.8 D 350
Pulp DMSO 9.9 L
77.2 D
38 L
77 D ND 617
Methanol 31.2 L & D 400 L & D ND > 800
Water 950 L & D 633 L & D ND ~ 1,900
Seed DMSO 4.6 L
36.2 D
72.5 L
> 290 D ND 290
Methanol 150 L & D > 300 L & D ND > 300
Water 220 L & D > 550 L & D ND 550
a = Minimum concentration (µg/mL) showing microscopically visible cytotoxic effects on the cells. ND =
Not detectable.
L = Antiviral activity in light; D = Antiviral activity in dark.
Vimalanathan and Hudson 581
Table 2. Comparison of virucidal (standard protocol) and intracellular antiviral
activity.
Sample Ratio: MIC virucidal/MIC intracellular
Leaf methanol > 640a
Leaf DMSO 1.0
Leaf water 1.0
Pulp methanol > 160a
Pulp DMSO 4
Pulp water 4
a For the methanol extracts no antiviral activity at all was detected in the intracellular
protocol.
The extracts were evaluated for anti-HSV activity, by cpe-end point inhibition, using the
standard protocol (pre-incubation of virus with extracts before adding to cells), and in
parallel the intracellular protocol (pre-incubation of extract with cells before adding virus).
MIC100 values were calculated and expressed as a ratio.
virus and extract were pre-incubated before adding to the
cells (as in all the results shown above). Ratios of these
MIC values (standard protocol/alternative protocol) are
shown in Table 2. Both the methanol extracts, leaf and
pulp, gave rise to high ratios, > 640 and > 160 respec-
tively, whereas the other four extracts gave ratios of 1 or
4, indicating that the latter antiviral activities were not
dependent on protocol.
Cytotoxicity
Many of the extracts were cytotoxic at high concentra-
tions, well above their antiviral MIC values, in at
least one of the test cell lines. These values are shown in
the right hand column of Table 1 and represent the most
extreme cases of toxicity observed.
DISCUSSION
It is evident from the results described that the pattern of
bioactivities are different for the three plant sources, leaf,
fruit-pulp and seed, with the latter containing less signifi-
cant antiviral or inflammatory properties (summarized in
Table 3).
Leaf extracts
These had the most potent antiviral activities, based on
MIC100 values, with influenza virus being more suscep-
tible than HSV and RSV and the DMSO extract showing
more activity than the methanol and water extracts. The
MIC values observed were similar to those shown by the
reference Echinacea extract, which we have previously
determined to be an excellent antiviral extract (Sharma et
al., 2009). The relative light/dark activities for the leaf
extracts were also similar, suggesting that these extracts
might contain the same or similar antiviral compound/s,
but in different concentrations. However, the observation
that the methanol extract was exclusively active in the
standard protocol only, that is, with pre-incubation of
extract with virus and was devoid of antiviral activity when
added to the cells first, in contrast to the water and
DMSO extracts (Table 2), indicates that in fact different
compounds are involved.
The cytotoxic concentrations were substantially higher
than the antiviral levels, but approximately proportional to
antiviral MIC’s. Consequently we believe that the
Adansonia leaves contain potentially useful and safe
antiviral activity, although for practical applications the
slightly less potent water extract would be preferable.
Further evidence for multiple bioactive components in
leaves came from the different effects on cytokine
secretion. Methanol and DMSO extracts showed pro-
inflammatory properties, as indicated by their stimulatory
effects on IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in BEAS-2B bronchial
epithelial cells and A549 lung epithelial cells, whereas the
water extract did not show this effect. In contrast the
latter was anti-inflammatory, as shown by its inhibition of
rhinovirus-stimulated cytokines in the same cells.
Leaf extracts, usually aqueous, have been used for a
variety of traditional medicinal purposes, including fever,
respiratory and intestinal symptoms and a variety of skin
afflictions, some of which probably involved infectious
diseases and/or inflammation (Wickens, 1982; Ajose et
al., 2007; Karumi et al., 2008) consequently the presence
of antiviral and anti-inflammatory components could
explain beneficial uses of water extracts.
Fruit pulp
These extracts were also antiviral in a similar manner to
the leaf extracts, although at much lower potencies. Thus
influenza virus was the most susceptible virus and the
DMSO extract the most potent of the three. The methanol
extract, like its leaf counterpart showed activity exclu-
sively in the standard (pre-incubation) protocol, whereas
the DMSO and water extracts showed activity in both
protocols, as was the case for the corresponding leaf
extracts. Cytotoxic concentrations were correspondingly
much lower than in the leaf extracts. These observations
taken together suggest that the antiviral components of
582 J. Med. Plant. Res.
Table 3. Summary of distribution of activities.
Fraction Inflammatory activity(pro/anti) Antiviral activity Flu (F), HSV(H), RSV(R)
Leaf DMSO Pro- F, H, R
Leaf water Anti- F, H, R
Leaf methanol Pro- F, H, R
Pulp DMSO Anti- F, H
Pulp water - +/-
Pulp methanol +/- pro- F, H
Seed DMSO - F,H
Seed water Pro- F
Seed methanol +/- pro- F
the fruit pulp could be similar to the leaf compounds, but
at lower concentrations.
The effects on cytokines were different from corres-
ponding leaf extracts however, the DMSO pulp extract
being anti-inflammatory, while the other two were rela-
tively inactive. Fruit pulp has been traditionally a popular
material for consumption in various ways, raw or boiled in
water, including an anti-diarrhea remedy and various
uses to stimulate or counteract immune responses
(Ramadan et al., 1994; Ajose et al., 2007). Some of these
applications could involve the antiviral and cytokine-
modulatory activities described here.
Seed extracts
These were, like the pulp extracts, relatively less
bioactive than the leaf extracts, the DMSO extract again
being the most active antiviral and influenza virus the
most susceptible virus. None of the three extracts
showed anti-inflammatory activity, although water and
methanol extracts were slightly pro-inflammatory. The
relative dearth of bioactivities in the seed extracts, in
comparison with leaf and fruit pulp extracts, could
account for their fewer medicinal applications.
Concluding remarks
Table 3 summarizes the various antiviral and cytokine
modulating properties of the different extracts. The
results overall indicate the presence of multiple bioactive
compounds in different parts of the plant and these
activities could explain some of the medical benefits attri-
buted to traditional leaf and pulp preparations, in
particular in their treatment of infectious diseases and
inflammatory conditions. However, it is also evident that
we cannot explain the combination of different properties
in terms of just one or two compounds, although the three
solvents used in the extractions tend to yield predomi-
nantly hydrophilic compounds. Chemical analyses have
reported the presence of various potentially bioactive
ingredients (Chadare et al., 2009), including triterpenoids,
flavonoids and phenolic compounds, but at present we
cannot ascribe any of the activities described in this study
to specific compounds.
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... Metscape2 [178], which is an add-on to the common Cytoscape software [179] that allows data on metabolites, genes, and pathways to be displayed in the scope of metabolic networks. In addition, platform-independent online resources such as Paintomics [180], ProMeTra [181] and MetaMapRR [182] are also accessible. ...
... Plants 2021, 10, 651 production of ROS and lipid peroxidation; and (e) upregulating enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, etc.) and non-enzymatic (glutathione, etc.) defense systems [199]. The different species of Bombacoideae such as A. digitata and C. pentandra could inhibit inhibition against proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 expression or by reducing iNOS and NF-kB expression [181,182], and the activity is attributed to the presence of different phytoconstituents, viz. quercitrin, cinchonains 1a and 1b, cis-clovamide, trans-clovamide, and glochidioboside [184]. ...
Book
Full-text available
Herbal and plant extracts show diverse activities and have been used for centuries as natural medicines for many health problems and diseases. Through the isolation and analysis of the compounds in the extracts, it is possible to understand why the extracts exhibit those activities, as well as the chemical metabolism of compounds that occur in plants and herbs. Recently, there have been increasing attempts to develop herbal and plant extracts into functional foods and drugs, but the legal requirements are becoming stricter. We need sophisticatedly defined extracts through the isolation and analysis of compounds comprising them in order to meet the legal requirements and to pursue quality control strategies in the production of functional foods and drugs. This Special Issue Book compiled the 15 recent research and review articles that highlight the isolation, profiling, and analysis of compounds in herbal and plant extracts, as well as quality control and standardized processing strategies for extracts with characteristic compounds.
... Strong antiviral (enveloped, linear, single-stranded (−) RNA) polar extract: Methanol extract of leaves inhibited the replication of the Influenza virus and the replication of the Respiratory syncytial virus (Selvarani & Hudson, 2009). ...
... Strong antiviral (enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA) polar extract: Methanol extract of leaves inhibited the replication of the Herpes simplex virus the MIC value of 11.7 µg/mL (Selvarani & Hudson James, 2009). Ethanol extract of fruit at the concentration of 125 µg/mL inhibited the replication of the Herpes simplex virus type-1 (clinical strain) by 56% (Silva et al., 1997). ...
... Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant and extremely important in human nutrition. Vitamin C has been shown to be related to lower the blood pressure, enhanced immunity against many tropical diseases, lower incidence of cataract development and lower incidence of coronary disease (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30). The high Vitamin C and antioxidant content of the baobab fruit pulp may have a role to play in the extension of shelf-life for foods and beverages, as well as cosmetics (1-49, 74, 77). ...
... In addition to this, the fruit pulp of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) has a similar antiinflammatory properties to phenylbutazone used as a standard in rats. This activity may be attributed to the presence of sterols, saponins and triterpenes in the aqueous extract of baobab fruit pulp (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28). Baobab fruit pulp and seeds were also widely used for antipyretic properties. ...
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This review paper highlights the medicinal properties particularly the immunogenic potentiality of iconic baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) (Kalphavraksha or Wish) tree species belongs to Malvaceae family. During the recent outbreak of second wave of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) mutants, Delta variant (B. 1. 617.2) strain and Delta Plus (AY.1) in India has created a major health issue resulted in more hospitalizations and death. Another problem is fully vaccinated people with "breakthrough" infections is rare but reported. This has created a situation and therefore, promoted herbal medicine, fruit pulp of baobab as an immunity booster for controlling the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The baobab (Kalphavraksha or Wish tree) fruit pulp is very rich in vitamin C (280-350 mg/g of the fruit), zinc, and the source of protein and used as a herbal medicine long time ago by local traditional healers in India, Africa, Madagascar and other Asian countries. In addition to this, the baobab fruit pulp is acidic in nature and also known for protease inhibitors which limits the consumption of fruits. Plant protease inhibitors are directly involved in blocking the viral replication and inhibited the viral synthesis. Therefore, two dose vaccination with additional dietary and medicinal therapy will help to prevent the human body against invading viral antigen and improved the overall health condition of the Covid-19 patients. In India, the oral consumption of baobab (Kalphavraksha or Wish tree) fruit pulp with milk as an immunity booster has improved the Covid-19 patients health condition. However, there are no clinical evidences to support the scientific validation. Therefore, clinical experimental studies should be conducted particularly for the scientific validation of immunogenic potentiality of baobab fruit pulp. This will help in developing a novel drug for controlling the coronavirus infections in future pandemic.
... In this study 316 publications were retrieved of which 36 (Ferrea et al., 1993;Beuscher et al., 1994;Vlietinck et al., 1995;Nakano et al., 1997;Kitamura et al., 1998;Hussein et al., 1999;Kudi and Myint, 1999;Sindambiwe et al., 1999;Anani et al., 2000;Yoosook et al., 2000;Cos et al., 2002b;Chiang et al., 2003;Wang et al., 2004;Bessong et al., 2005;Gebre-Mariam et al., 2006;Tolo et al., 2006;Kambizi et al., 2007;Maregesi et al., 2008;Duraipandiyan and Ignacimuthu, 2009;Gyuris et al., 2009;Ojo et al., 2009;Selvarani, 2009;Sunday et al., 2010;Astani et al., 2011;Nwodo et al., 2011;Sultana, 2011;Ndhlala et al., 2013;Ogbole et al., 2013;Kwena, 2014;David et al., 2017;Clain et al., 2018;Mehrbod et al., 2018;Nasr-Eldin et al., 2018;Ogbole et al., 2018;Cambaza, 2020;Gyebi et al., 2021) were included in the qualitative synthesis, Figure 1. ...
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Background: Viruses cause various human diseases, some of which become pandemic outbreaks. This study synthesized evidence on antiviral medicinal plants in Africa which could potentially be further studied for viral infections including Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment. Methods: PUBMED, CINAHIL, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Google databases were searched through keywords; antiviral, plant, herb, and Africa were combined using “AND” and “OR”. In-vitro studies, in-vivo studies, or clinical trials on botanical medicine used for the treatment of viruses in Africa were included. Results: Thirty-six studieswere included in the evidence synthesis. Three hundred and twentyeight plants were screened for antiviral activities of which 127 showed noteworthy activities against 25 viral species. These, were Poliovirus (42 plants), HSV (34 plants), Coxsackievirus (16 plants), Rhinovirus (14plants), Influenza (12 plants), Astrovirus (11 plants), SARS-CoV-2 (10 plants), HIV (10 plants), Echovirus (8 plants), Parvovirus (6 plants), Semiliki forest virus (5 plants), Measles virus (5 plants), Hepatitis virus (3 plants), Canine distemper virus (3 plants), Zika virus (2 plants), Vesicular stomatitis virus T2 (2 plants). Feline herpesvirus (FHV-1), Enterovirus, Dengue virus, Ebola virus, Chikungunya virus, Yellow fever virus, Respiratory syncytial virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Human cytomegalovirus each showed sensitivities to one plant. Conclusion: The current study provided a list of African medicinal plants which demonstrated antiviral activities and could potentially be candidates for COVID-19 treatment. However, all studies were preliminary and in vitro screening. Further in vivo studies are required for plant-based management of viral diseases.
... Pulp and seed extracts were less active but significant. Leaf extracts, were also active as cytokine modulators, some being pro-inflammatory and others being anti-inflammatory25 .Hepatoprotective activityAbeer Hanafyr et. al investigated the hepatoprotective effect of Adansonia digitata extract in Wistar rats at dose 200mg/kg was given orally once daily for one week. ...
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Baobab" a well-known plant botanically known as Adansonia digitata L. belongs to the family Bombacaceae. It is an incredible deciduous tree known for its therapeutic and ethnomedicinal values. It is native to Africa, also found in India in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Bombay, Gujarat, and Madras. The plant is well documented in Ayurvedic Nighantus for its medicinal purpose. The fruit pulp, seeds, leaves, flowers, and bark of the plant are edible and used traditionally as foodstuff and also to treat various ailments such as in digestive disorders, diarrhea, fever, and malaria, etc. Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of flavonoids, phytosterols, triterpenoids, polyphenols, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. It has a numerous number of biological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory, etc. This review summarizes the Botanical aspects, Ayurvedic aspects Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and Biological properties of the plant safeguarding it for human health.
... Adansonia digitata (Baobab) is a commonly used traditional plant for its medicinal and nutritional value in Africa. Various fractions from the fruit, seed and leaves baobab (aqueous, methanol, DMSO) has activity against herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus [40] . ...
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Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel life-threatening infectious respiratory disease and a pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that belongs to the coronavirus family. COVID 19 was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization on 30 January 2020. The virus first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. An impaired immune response is one of the factors that play a role in its pathogenesis and results in poor outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Currently, there is no effective antiviral medication to prevent or treat COVID-19. There have been many studies on potential conventional medicines used as antivirals. However, the outcomes of these studies showed that the drug candidates were not significantly effective against the disease. Natural products from medicinal plants with known safety profiles are a promising source for the discovery of potential treatment. Currently, people believe that taking herbal immune boosters and related products can prevent and even successfully treat COVID-19. Such tropical plants with antiviral properties and immunomodulatory activities can be great sources of treatment for COVID-19 as well as being utilized as complementary to allopathic treatment to improve recovery and the quality of life of patients. This review discusses some medicinal plants, including Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Adansonia digitata, Azadirachta indica, Momordica charantia, Psidium guajava and Moringa oleifera which are considered for the treatment of COVID-19, coupled with the need for research institutions
... English: Monkey bread-tree, Baobab Sinhala: Aliya gaha Leaves, Fruit and seeds A. digitata leaf extracts have been used for a variety of traditional medicinal purposes, including fever, respiratory and intestinal symptoms. Leaf extract had the most potent antiviral properties, against influenza virus in human epithelial cell cultures (Selvarani, 2009). ...
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The search for novel and effective drugs is an important challenge, as a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by a zoonotic coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is affecting the entire world population. As of 18th April 2021 there were over 140 million confirmed cases and more than 3 million deaths due to COVID-19. Natural herbal drugs are a rich resource for novel antiviral drug development. Many studies and traditional medical practices have shown their effectiveness against various human pathogens like the influenza virus, hepatitis C virus, coronavirus and the human immunodeficiency virus. Although modern synthetic drugs based on Western medicine are used in developed countries, traditional plant-based drugs are an integral part of medical treatment, including Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, the administration of crude herbal drug formulations dates back more than 3000 years. Numerous studies have shown that natural herbal drugs possess a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-neoplastic. Accordingly, these herbs have been used for centuries in Sri Lankan traditional medicine to treat various disorders. Despite the potency, none of these herbal medicines has yet been approved as a therapeutic antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2 due to a lack of data from clinical trials. This review summarizes the current knowledge and future perspectives of the antiviral effects of potent Sri Lankan herbal drugs as potential sources of effective anti-coronavirus therapies.
... Cytokines may exhibit physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic functions (Tedgui and Mallat, 2006). Aqueous leaf extracts of Adansonia digitata induce a significant decrease of IL-6 and IL-8 in vitro (Selvarani and Hudson, 2009). The methanol leaf extract of X. caffra inhibits mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, iNOS, and TNF-α) using RT-qPCR in vitro. ...
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Inflammation is a serious global concern due to its debilitating symptoms, resulting in considerable suffering and lost productivity. Chronic and auto-immune inflammatory diseases are of particular concern. Several pharmaceutical therapies are already available. However, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's) is accompanied by harmful and toxic side effects. Hence, the search for safer alternative therapeutics with limited side effects is imperative. The use of medicinal plants is common practice amongst the southern African population and may provide targets for drug development. Aim of the study This study aims to review and document the medicinal uses and pharmacological properties of southern African medicinal plants used for inflammation and pain-related ailments. Material and methods An extensive literature review was undertaken to identify southern African plants used traditionally to treat inflammation. A variety of ethnobotanical books and grey literature, as well as ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Scopus search engines were used as sources of information. Results This review identified 555 medicinal plants from 118 families which were traditionally used in southern Africa to treat inflammation and pain. Fabaceae was the most prominent family with 63 species, followed by Asteraceae (54 species) and Apocynaceae (33 species). The top category of ailments indicated include non-specific inflammation with 150 species, followed by inflammatory pain (148 species), headache (114 species) and toothache (114 species). Conclusion Despite a large number of southern African medicinal plants used to treat inflammation and pain, relatively few have been screened for their anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, biologically active plant extracts have been tested against relatively few inflammatory markers and considerable further work is required.
... The DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) of fruit pulp extract and aqueous leaf extract showed significant inhibition against cytokine interleukin 8 (IL-8). (Vimalanathan, S and Hudson, J.B. 2009) 12 . The capacity of baobab extracts to reduce the mobility of Trypanosoma brucei, which causes sleeping sickness, was evaluated using four different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, water, and methanol) obtained from the leaves and the bark. ...
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ABSTRACT Baobab (Adansonia digitata) is a multi-purpose tree with tender root, tubers, twigs, fruit, seeds, leaves and flowers which are edible. Owing to the nutritional and medicinal benefits of baobab tree parts, it has been used for various purposes for the past two centuries in Africa, and some parts of Asia. This has in recent times led to some statutory bodies approving its use in certain food products. Adansonia digitata has popular ethnomedicinal application in the treatment of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Medicinal plants have been found to contain phytoconstituents of relevance in phytomedicine. Plants have provided active ingredients of medicines for years and are still sources of lead compounds in the development of new therapeutics A. digitata (baobab tree in both English and French), are used in the treatment of malaria, fever, among other ailment. The mechanism of anti plasmodial action of this extract has not been elucidated, however, anti plasmodial effects of natural plant products have been attributed to some of their active phytochemical components. A. digitata, having reported to be a rich source of antioxidant phytochemiclas different mechanism might be involved. KEYWORDS Phytochemicals, Baobab, (Adansonia digitata L.), Ethnomedicinal, Pharmacology and
... Activity of the aqueous bark extract against sickle cell disease has also been established (22). Polysaccharides extracted from the fruit of A. digitata have as well been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antioxidant activities (23,24). In addition, the fruit fiber has been shown to have analgesic activity (15). ...
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Adansonia digitata L. is a tree indigenous to Ghana and West Africa. It is traditionally used for medicinal, religious and nutritional purposes. Different parts of the plant are used traditionally for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia, malaria, asthma and diarrhoea among others. It is therefore necessary to provide standard parameters for identification and for the purpose of quality control. This study thus sought to investigate the pharmacognostic characteristics and elemental properties of the leaves and stem bark of A. digitata grown and used in Ghana. The macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, phytochemical, physicochemical, fluorescence and elemental properties of the leaf and stem bark were determined using standard protocols. The results of the study showed that the leaves of A. digitata were palmate compound and alternately arranged with stipules at each node. The outer bark was observed to be grey in color while the inner bark was pink to brown and laticiferous. Anomocytic stomata and stellate trichomes were also observed microscopically on the leaf surface. The powdered stem bark contained brachysclereids and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals. Saponins, tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids were detected in both leaf and stem bark. They additionally exhibited different fluorescence characters in various solvents. The plant contained major and minor nutritional elements in varying quantities. The results of this study can serve as reliable parameters for accurate identification and authentication of A. digitata L. hence ensuring quality.
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Stems, leaves, and flowers of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (Heliantheae: Asteraceae) were fractionated by various solvents and the fractions evaluated for antiviral activity in relation to chemical composition and distribution within the plant. All of the aqueous fractions contained potent activity against herpes simplex virus and influenza virus. However, although some of this activity could be attributed to polysaccharide and cichoric acid components, their individual contributions could not account for the total antiviral activity; other potent antivirals must be present. In addition, the ethanol- and ethyl acetate-soluble fractions from leaves and stem contained an uncharacterized but potent antiviral photosensitizer, which was absent from the flower extract. None of the fractions, however, contained anti-rhinovirus activity. Thus, part of the alleged benefits of Echinacea purpurea extracts can be attributed to the presence of anti-influenza and anti-HSV compounds, and some of these activities are likely to be present in various commercial tinctures, teas, capsules, and tablets.
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Methanol extracts were prepared from 19 medicinal plants of Togo and, by means of standard laboratory tests, were analysed for antiviral and antibiotic activities. Ten of the 19 showed significant antiviral activity and all but two displayed antibiotic activity. Extracts of three species, Adansonia digitata (the most potent), Conyza aegyptiaca and Palisota hirsuta , were active against all three test viruses (herpes simplex, Sindbis and poliovirus). The other seven, however, were more selective, showing activity against only one or two viruses. The antibiotic profiles varied considerably. The observation that each extract showed a distinctive permutation of target organisms suggests that different bioactive phytochemicals are present in each species. Only two of the extracts were devoid of bioactivity.
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Methanol extracts from twenty three plants harvested from the Savannah vegetation belt of Nigeria were analyzed in vitro for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma congolense at concentrations of 4 mg/ml, 0.4 mg/ml and 0.04 mg/ml. Extracts of Khaya senegalensis , Piliostigma reticulatum , Securidaca longepedunculata and Terminalia avicennoides were strongly trypanocidal to both organisms while extracts of Anchomanes difformis , Cassytha spp, Lannea kerstingii , Parkia clappertioniana , Striga spp, Adansonia digitata and Prosopis africana were trypanocidal to either T. brucei brucei or T. congolense. These findings provide evidence of the effects of some plants in the traditional management of trypanosomiasis.
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The aqueous extract of A. digitata fruit pulp showed a LD50 in mice by i.p. route of 8000 mg/kg and induced a marked and long lasting anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects at 400 and 800 mg/kg per os in rats. The extract showed also a marked analgesic activity in mice at 2 h after administration. Phytochemical screening of the fruit pulp of the plant indicated the presence of sterols and/or triterpenes, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates and glycosides.
Article
Stems, leaves, and flowers of Echinacea purpurea. (L.) Moench (Heliantheae: Asteraceae) were fractionated by various solvents and the fractions evaluated for antiviral activity in relation to chemical composition and distribution within the plant. All of the aqueous fractions contained potent activity against herpes simplex virus and influenza virus. However, although some of this activity could be attributed to polysaccharide and cichoric acid components, their individual contributions could not account for the total antiviral activity; other potent antivirals must be present. In addition, the ethanol- and ethyl acetate–soluble fractions from leaves and stem contained an uncharacterized but potent antiviral photosensitizer, which was absent from the flower extract. None of the fractions, however, contained anti-rhinovirus activity. Thus, part of the alleged benefits of Echinacea purpurea. extracts can be attributed to the presence of anti-influenza and anti-HSV compounds, and some of these activities are likely to be present in various commercial tinctures, teas, capsules, and tablets.
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Further studies were done on the antiviral activities of 10 species of Togolese medicinal plants, previously shown to possess activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV). The dominant activity in all cases was virucidal (direct inactivation of virus particles), although Adansonia digitata extracts also appeared to have intracellular antiviral activities as well, which could indicate the presence of multiple antiviral compounds, or a single compound with multiple actions. In the seven most active extracts, the anti-HSV activity was considerably enhanced by light, especially UVA (long wavelength UV), although they all showed "dark" antiviral activity as well. Thus, all the extracts contained antiviral photosensitizers. In all tests, the root-bark and leaf extracts of A. digitata were the most potent.
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Aqueous extract of Adansonia digitata inhibit ethanol-induced gastric ulceration in rats. Oral pretreatment with Adansania digitata (150-600 mg kg<sup>-</sup><sup>1</sup>) caused significant dose-dependent increase both in preventive ratio and percentage ulcer reduction. This effect might in part be due to its astringent, flavanoids and anti-oxidant properties earlier reported.
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This is an attempt to pull together what is known about that extraordinary tree, the African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.-Bombacaceae). There are many surprising gaps in our knowledge, which are most likely to be reduced by closer collaboration between fieldworker, laboratory and herbarium botanist.