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A new, brightly colored species of Physalaemus (Anura : Leptodactylidae) from Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

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A new, brightly colored species of Physalaemus similar to P. deimaticus and P. rupestris is described from the Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, Municipality of Ouro Preto, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The new species is characterized by its small size (snout-vent length 23.2 mm in male, 26.2-26.6 mm in females) and by having the snout rounded in the dorsal view and protruding in profile; large inguinal glands, ovoid, light brown with a black ocellus outlined with white on their posterior half; fight grayish brown dorsum with elongate longitudinal dark grayish brown stripes and blotches; venter white with gray mottling; and bright red on groin and ventral surfaces of arms, hands, thighs, tibiae, and feet.
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Herpetologica, 59(4), 2003, 519–524
Ó2003 by The Herpetologists’ League, Inc.
A NEW, BRIGHTLY COLORED SPECIES OF
PHYSALAEMUS (ANURA: LEPTODACTYLIDAE)
FROM MINAS GERAIS, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL
ULISSES CARAMASCHI
1,4
,RENATO N. FEIO
2
,AND ARISTIDES S. GUIMARA
˜ES-NETO
3
1
Departamento de Vertebrados, Museu Nacional/UFRJ, Quinta da Boa Vista, 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
2
Departamento de Biologia Animal, Universidade Federal de Vic¸osa, 36571-000 Vic¸ osa, MG, Brasil
3
Instituto Estadual de Florestas, Caixa Postal 116, 35400-000 Ouro Preto, MG, Brasil
ABSTRACT: A new, brightly colored species of Physalaemus similar to P. deimaticus and P. rupestris is
described from the Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, Municipality of Ouro Preto, State of Minas Gerais,
southeastern Brazil. The new species is characterized by its small size (snout–vent length 23.2 mm in male,
26.2–26.6 mm in females) and by having the snout rounded in the dorsal view and protruding in profile; large
inguinal glands, ovoid, light brown with a black ocellus outlined with white on their posterior half; light grayish
brown dorsum with elongate longitudinal dark grayish brown stripes and blotches; venter white with gray
mottling; and bright red on groin and ventral surfaces of arms, hands, thighs, tibiae, and feet.
Key words: Amphibia; Anura; Leptodactylidae; Physalaemus erythros sp. nov.; Southeastern Brazil;
Taxonomy
THE FROG genus Physalaemus contains 41
recognized species that are distributed from
Mexico to southern South America (Frost,
2002). The genus has been arranged into four
species groups by Lynch (1970); however,
these groupings have been disputed and
treated as non-monophyletic (Cannatella and
Duellman, 1984; Heyer and Wolf, 1989).
Although Caramaschi et al. (1991) considered
these groups useful in discussing diversity
within the genus, the affinities of several
species with the currently recognized species
groups is unclear. For instance, P. deimaticus
Sazima and Caramaschi, 1988 and P. rupestris
Caramaschi, Carcerelli and Feio, 1991 appar-
ently do not belong to any of Lynch’s (1970)
species groups. Both species are similar in
morphology and habitat, as noted by Carama-
schi et al. (1991), but these authors were
unwilling to propose a new group for that
species without a more thorough study of the
genus, although they recognized that it might
constitute a distinct morphological and eco-
logical unity.
During a survey of anuran species of the
Parque Estadual do Itacolomi in the State of
Minas Gerais, Brazil, specimens of a brightly
colored species morphologically and ecologi-
cally similar to P. deimaticus and P. rupestris
were collected. Herein, we describe this new
species.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Specimens examined are deposited in
MNRJ (Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ,
Brazil), MZUFV (Museu de Zoologia Joa
˜o
Moojen de Oliveira, Universidade Federal
de Vic¸osa, MG, Brazil), and JJ (Jorge Jim
Collection, housed in the Departamento de
Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista,
Botucatu, SP, Brazil). Specimens examined
are listed in Appendix I.
Abbreviations used for measurements in
millimeters are SVL (snout–vent length), HL
(head length), HW (head width), IND (inter-
narial distance), END (eye–nostril distance),
ED (eye diameter), UEW (upper eyelid
width), IOD (interorbital distance), THL
(thigh length), TL (tibia length), and FL (foot
length). Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin
and preserved in 70% alcohol. Measurements
were made to the nearest 0.01 mm with digital
calipers under a Zeiss SV-4 stereomicroscope;
drawings of the holotype were made using
a drawing tube.
Physalaemus erythros sp. nov.
Holotype.—MNRJ 27986, adult male (Fig.
1) from Parque Estadual do Itacolomi (208259
S, 438299W, approximately 1600 m elevation),
Municipality of Ouro Preto, State of Minas
4
CORRESPONDENCE: e-mail, ulisses@acd.ufrj.br
519
Gerais, Brazil, 29 October 2001, collected by
A. S. Guimara
˜es-Neto and J. B. Isaac, Jr.
Paratypes.—Collected in the type locality:
MNRJ 27539, adult female, 22 October 2001,
by R. N. Feio and A. S. Guimara
˜es-Neto;
MNRJ 30608, adult female, 12–13 December
2002, by A. S. Guimara
˜es-Neto, C. A. G. Cruz,
R. N. Feio, L. B. Nascimento, and J. P.
Pombal, Jr.
Diagnosis.—A species ressembling P. de-
imaticus and P. rupestris was diagnosed by the
following characters: (1) relatively small size
(SVL 23.2 mm in male, 26.2–26.6 mm in
females); (2) snout rounded in dorsal view and
protruding in profile; (3) vomerine, premaxil-
lary, and maxillary teeth absent; (4) relative
lengths of fingers II ,IV ,I,III; (5) dorsal
skin slightly rugose, ventral skin smooth, and
proximal undersurfaces of thighs granular; (6)
parotoid glands absent; (7) inguinal glands
large, ovoid, light brown with a black, white
outlined ocellus on their posterior half; (8)
dorsum light grayish brown with elongate
longitudinal grayish dark brown stripes and
blotches; (9) venter white with gray mottling;
(10) ventral surfaces of arms, hands, thighs,
tibiae, feet, and inguinal region bright red.
Comparisons with other species.—Physalae-
mus deimaticus,P. erythros, and P. rupestris
are excluded from the P. biligonigerus species
group of Lynch (1970) by the smaller size
(combined SVL of the three species, 15.9–23.2
mm in males, 17.2–26.6 mm in females; of the
species in the P. biligonigerus group, 40–45
mm), relatively slender build (chubby in P.
biligonigerus group), tarsal tubercle absent
(present in P. biligonigerus group), inner
metatarsal tubercle ovoid and outer metatarsal
tubercle rounded (enlarged, compressed
metatarsal tubercles in P. biligonigerus group),
and absence of premaxillary and maxillary
teeth (present in P. biligonigerus group, except
P. nattereri). From the P. pustulosus group, by
the dorsal skin rugose (tuberculate in P.
pustulosus group), inguinal glands present
(absent in P. pustulosus group), absence of
parotoid and flank glands (present in P.
pustulosus group), and tarsal tubercle absent
(present in P. pustulosus group, except P.
freibergi and P. pustulatus). From the P.
signifer group, by the dorsal skin rugose
(smooth in P. signifer group), snout rounded
in dorsal view (acuminate in P. signifer group),
no black lateral, defined band from eye to
groin (present in P. signifer group), concealed
tympanum (evident in P. signifer group, except
P. maculiventris and P. olfersi), and inner
metatarsal tubercle present (absent in P.
signifer group). From the P. cuvieri group,
by the absence of tarsal tubercle (inner tarsal
FIG. 1.—Dorsal and ventral views of Physalaemus erythros sp. nov. (MNRJ 27986, holotype, SVL 23.2 mm).
520 HERPETOLOGICA [Vol. 59, No. 4
tubercle present in P. cuvieri group), presence
of large inguinal glands (lack or small inguinal
glands in P. cuvieri group), and absence of
premaxillary and maxillary teeth (present in
P. cuvieri group).
Physalaemus erythros is distinguished from
P. deimaticus and P. rupestris (see Caramaschi
et al., 1991; Nascimento et al., 2001; Sazima
and Caramaschi, 1988) by the greater size
(SVL 21.4 mm in male, 24.2–24.4 mm in
females of P. deimaticus; 15.9–18.3 mm in
males, 17.2–17.9 mm in females of P. rupest-
ris) and the shape of the snout, which is more
elongate, round in dorsal view and protruding
in profile (short, slightly acuminate in dorsal
view and truncate in profile in P. deimaticus,
see figures 2–3 in Sazima and Caramaschi,
1988; short, rounded in dorsal and lateral
views in P. rupestris, see figures 2A–B in
Caramaschi et al., 1991). The color pattern of
the inguinal glands is light brown with a black,
white outlined ocellus on the posterior half
(inguinal glands dark brown to black with a fine
light brown to white border in P. deimaticus
and P. rupestris). There is also a bright red
color on the ventral surfaces of the arms,
hands, thighs, tibiae, feet, and inguinal region
(hands, feet, and inguinal region pink to light
red in P. deimaticus; palms and soles reddish
with scattered black dots in P. rupestris).
Description of holotype.—General aspect
robust; head slightly longer than wide; head
width approximately one-third SVL; snout
rounded in dorsal view (Fig. 2A), protruding
in profile (Fig. 2B); nostrils slightly protuber-
ant, directed anterolaterally, nearer to tip of
snout than to eyes; internarial distance slightly
smaller than eye–nostril distance, equal to
upper eyelid width; canthus rostralis rounded,
slightly concave; loreal region concave; eye
lateral, slightly protuberant; eye diameter
larger than internarial and interorbital dis-
tances; tympanum concealed; supratympanic
fold indistinct; vocal sac poorly developed,
subgular; vocal slits present; choanae large,
rounded, widely separated; tongue narrow,
long, not notched posteriorly; vomerine, pre-
maxillary, and maxillary teeth absent; a single,
very small odontoid process protrudes dorsally
from the symphysis of the mentomeckelian
cartilage. Arms robust, forearms slightly hy-
pertrophied; fold and crest on forearm absent;
fingers long, slender, lacking webbing (Fig.
2C); lateral sides of fingers weakly fringed;
nuptial pad large, subdivided among prepoll-
ical region and dorsal surface of finger I;
subarticular tubercles single, round; inner
metacarpal tubercle absent; outer metacarpal
tubercle large, ovoid; supernumerary tuber-
cles present; tip of fingers slightly expanded;
relative lengths of fingers II ,IV ,I,III.
Legs robust; tibia length shorter than thigh
length; sum of tibia and thigh lengths less than
SVL; foot length longer than lengths of both
tibia and thigh; toes long, free, weakly fringed
(Fig. 2D); tarsal tubercle absent; inner meta-
tarsal tubercle large, ovoid, protruding; outer
metatarsal tubercle small, conical, protuber-
ant; subarticular tubercles single, round, pro-
truding; supernumerary tubercles absent; tip
of toes slightly expanded; relative lengths of
toes I ,II ,V,III ,IV; tarsal fold, crest,
and tubercles absent. Inguinal glands large,
ovoid, with an ocellus on posterior half. Dorsal
skin slightly rugose, ventral skin smooth;
proximal undersurfaces of thighs granular.
In life, ground color of dorsum grayish light
brown with irregular, longitudinal grayish dark
brown stripes; an irregular grayish dark brown
blotch on each upper eyelid; a dark brown,
white outlined, longitudinal and semidivided
mark from shoulder to region of urostyle;
dorsal surfaces of arms and limbs grayish light
brown with grayish dark brown transverse
stripes and bars. Loreal region gray dorsally
and grayish brown ventrally. A distinct lateral
black stripe from posterior corner of eye to
groin, dorsally outlined by a white line; small
white dots scattered within this lateral black
stripe. Inguinal glands light brown with a black,
white outlined ocellus on the posterior half.
Gular region gray, venter white with gray
mottling. Red blotch extending from lateral
regions of chest and proximal undersurfaces of
arms to elbow. Ventral surfaces of hands and
fingers red. Dorsal surfaces of hands and
fingers III and IV grayish red, fingers I and
II red. A large red blotch extending from
inguinal region to middle of ventral surface of
thighs and immediately below anal region.
Undersurfaces of tibiae and internal area of
feet to toes I, II, and III, red; toes IV and V
grayish red with subarticular tubercles red;
metatarsal tubercles red. Iris yellow with
intense black vermiculation. In preservative,
general color becomes gray with dark gray
December 2003] HERPETOLOGICA 521
marks on dorsum, grayish cream on arms and
limbs; red color fades to cream.
Measurements of holotype.—SVL 23.2; HL
7.8; HW 7.5; IND 1.8; END 1.9; ED 2.4;
UEW 1.8; IOD 2.2; THL 10.3; TL 10.0; FL
11.0.
Measurements of paratypes.—SVL 26.2–
26.6; HL 7.5–7.9; HW 8.1; IND 1.8–1.9;
END 1.9; ED 2.4–2.7; UEW 1.9–2.0; IOD
2.3–2.5; THL 10.7–11.2; TL 10.6–10.8; FL
12.2–12.8.
Variation.—Besides the measurements and
details of color pattern involving the shape of
the dorsal marks and minor differences in the
extension of red areas, there is little variation
among the type specimens. This small varia-
tion in color probably is not associated with
sexual dimorphism, as also referred to P.
rupestris by Nascimento et al. (2001). The
male holotype has slightly hypertrophied arms;
the first finger has a nuptial pad; the vocal sac
is poorly developed; and the venter has a finer
mottling. The female paratype MNRJ 27539
has a slim aspect and the venter is withered,
which suggests recent egg laying.
Etymology.—The specific name ‘‘erythros,’’
meaning ‘‘red,’’ is a Greek adjective used in
reference to the remarkably bright ventral
color pattern of the species.
REMARKS
The specimens were collected at the Serra
do Itacolomi, in the Espinhac¸o Mountain
Range, in an ephemeral pond at approximately
1600 m above sea level. This pond consists of
a rain-flooded depression of approximately
800 m
2
located in a rocky field called ‘‘campo
rupestre,’’ with bushes and small trees on
a sandy soil predominantly covered with
grasses. Some scattered massifs of quartzitic
rocks emerge in the field. The sparse bushes
and small trees emerging from the continuous
herbaceous layer are typical elements also
found in other regions of ‘‘campos rupestres,’’
such as Velloziaceae, Orchidaceae, Bromelia-
ceae, and Eryocaulaceae (mainly Paepalan-
thus), and isolated Melastomataceae.
The perimeter of the flooded area is densely
covered by Juncaceae (mainly Juncus cf.
microcephalus), Cyperaceae, and grasses, leav-
ing only a small central portion of standing
water, which is a typical ephemeral pond in an
open area. During the dry months (April–
September), the pond becomes totally dry, and
peats and lichens cover the exposed areas
between grasses. The regional climate is of
CwB type (Ko
¨ppen), that is, wet temperate
with dry winters and hot and rainy summers.
The annual rain mean is 1450–1900 mm
(Pedralli et al., 2001). The site, despite its
location in a conservation area, undergoes
anthropogenic pressures, including frequent
visitations by horses (feces were observed in
the pond where the frogs were collected). In
addition, the area was accidentally burned.
Specimens of P. erythros were occasionally
collected in October and December, in the
rainy season. The advertisement call and
tadpole of this species are unknown.
In a more extensive survey of anuran species
of the Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, con-
ducted between January 1998 and April 1999
in two areas covered by ciliary and seasonal
forests and ponds, Pedralli et al. (2001)
registered 24 species. These included bufonids
(Bufo crucifer), hylids (Hyla albopunctata,H.
arildae,H. cavicola,H. decipiens,H. elegans,
H. faber,H. martinsi,H. minuta,H. pardalis,
H. polytaenia,H. semilineata,Hyla sp. of the
circumdata group, Scinax eurydice,S. flavogut-
tatus,S. longilineus,S. luizotavioi, and S. rizi-
bilis), and leptodactylids (Eleutherodactylus
FIG. 2.—Physalaemus erythros sp. nov. (MNRJ 27986,
holotype). (A) Dorsal view of head; (B) lateral view of head;
(C) ventral view of hand; (D) ventral view of foot.
522 HERPETOLOGICA [Vol. 59, No. 4
izecksohni,Hylodes sp. of the lateristrigatus
group, Leptodactylus fuscus,L. labyrinthicus,
L. ocellatus, and Physalaemus cuvieri).
DISCUSSION
The peculiar areas of open vegetation
occurring above 1000 m high in montane
regions of southeastern Brazil, mainly associ-
ated with the Cerrados and Atlantic Rain
Forest Morphoclimatic Domains (Ab’Saber,
1977), are called ‘‘campos rupestres’’ (see
Rizzini, 1979 for definition). These isolated
highland areas commonly contain faunistic and
floristic endemics (see Heyer, 1999 for com-
ments), as exemplified by the three species of
Physalaemus, respectively associated with the
Serra do Cipo
´(P. deimaticus, see Sazima and
Caramaschi, 1988), to the Serra do Ibitipoca
(P. rupestris, see Caramaschi et al., 1991;
Nascimento et al., 2001), and to the Serra do
Itacolomi (P. erythros, present study). In
addition to sharing similar habitats, the three
species share morphological traits such as
relatively small size for the genus, poorly
developed vocal sacs, large inguinal glands,
and the presence of red or reddish areas on
fore and hindlimbs. Deimatic behavior, as
reported for P. deimaticus by Sazima and
Caramaschi (1988), was not observed for P.
rupestris (Nascimento et al., 2001) or for P.
erythros. The advertisement call and tadpole
are known only for P. rupestris (Nascimento
et al., 2001). It is possible that, as knowledge
of the morphological relationships of the spe-
cies of the genus Physalaemus grows, a dis-
tinct group will be recognized for these three
species.
RESUMO
Uma nova espe
´cie de Physalaemus de
colorido vistoso, relacionada a P. deimaticus e
P. rupestris,e
´descrita do Parque Estadual do
Itacolomi, Municı
´pio de Ouro Preto, Estado
de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. A nova
espe
´cie e
´caracterizada pelo tamanho pequeno
(comprimento rostro–anal 23,2 mm no macho,
26,2–26,6 mm nas fe
ˆmeas), focinho arredon-
dado em vista dorsal e saliente em perfil,
gla
ˆndulas ingu¨ inais grandes, ovo
´ides, marrom
claro e com um ocelo preto delineado por uma
linha branca na sua metade posterior, dorso
marrom claro acinzentado com linhas e
manchas longitudinais marrom escuro acin-
zentado, ventre branco com marmoreado
cinza e forte colorido vermelho nas superfı
´cies
ventrais dos brac¸os, ma
˜os, coxas, tı
´bias, pe
´se
regia
˜o ingu¨ inal.
Acknowledgments.—We thank C. A. G. Cruz, J. B.
Isaac, Jr., J. P. Pombal, Jr., and L. B. Nascimento for help
in the field work, H. C. Souza for botanical information on
the surveyed area, P. R. Nascimento for the line drawings,
and C. A. G. Cruz and J. P. Pombal, Jr. for critically
reviewing the manuscript. We acknowledge the Instituto
Estadual de Florestas de Minas Gerais for permission to
collect in the Parque Estadual do Itacolomi; U. Carama-
schi thanks the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento
Cientı
´fico e Tecnolo
´gico (CNPq) for the fellowship.
LITERATURE CITED
AB’SABER, A. N. 1977. Os domı
´nios morfoclima
´ticos na
Ame
´rica do Sul. Primeira aproximac¸a
˜o. Geomorfologia
52:1–21, 1 map.
CANNATELLA, D. C., AND W. E. DUELLMAN. 1984.
Leptodactylid frogs of the Physalaemus pustulosus
group. Copeia 1984:902–921.
CARAMASCHI, U., L. C. CARCERELLI,AND R. N. FEIO. 1991.
A new species of Physalaemus (Anura: Leptodactylidae)
from Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Herpetologica
47:148–151.
FROST, D. R. 2002. Amphibian Species of the World: An
Online Reference, Version 2.21. http://research.amnh.
org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html
HEYER, W. R. 1999. A new genus and species of frog from
Bahia, Brazil (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae) with
comments on the zoogeography of the Brazilian campos
rupestres. Proceedings of the Biological Society of
Washington 112:19–39.
HEYER, W. R., AND A. J. WOLF. 1989. Physalaemus
crombiei (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae), a new frog
species from Espı
´rito Santo, Brazil with comments on
the P. signifer group. Proceedings of the Biological
Society of Washington 102:500–506.
LYNCH, J. D. 1970. Systematic status of the American
leptodactylid frog genera Engystomops,Eupemphix,
and Physalaemus. Copeia 1970:488–496.
NASCIMENTO, L. B., R. R. CARVALHO,JR., H. WOGEL,D.S.
FERNANDES,AND R. N. FEIO. 2001. Reproduc¸a
˜oe
descric¸a
˜o do girino de Physalaemus rupestris Carama-
schi, Carcerelli & Feio, 1991 (Amphibia, Anura,
Leptodactylidae). Boletim do Museu Nacional, Nova
Se
´rie, Zoologia 450:1–10.
PEDRALLI, G., A. S. GUIMARA
˜ES-NETO,AND M. C. B.
TEIXEIRA. 2001. Diversidade de anfı
´bios na regia
˜ode
Ouro Preto. Cie
ˆncia Hoje 30:70–73.
RIZZINI, C. T. 1979. Tratado de Fitogeografia do Brasil.
Editora Hucitec and Editora da Universidade de Sa
˜o
Paulo, Brazil.
SAZIMA, I., AND U. CARAMASCHI. 1988 [1986]. Descric¸a
˜ode
Physalaemus deimaticus, sp. n., e observac¸~
ooes sobre o
comportamento deima
´tico em P. nattereri (Steindn.)—
Anura, Leptodactylidae. Revista de Biologia 13:
91–101.
Accepted: 4 June 2003
Associate Editor: Joseph Mendelson III
December 2003] HERPETOLOGICA 523
APPENDIX I
Specimens Examined
Physalaemus deimaticus.—BRAZIL: Minas Gerais:
Serra do Cipo
´, Jaboticatubas (JJ 6057, holotype; JJ 6058,
paratype).
Physalaemus erythros.—BRAZIL: Minas Gerais: Par-
que Estadual do Itacolomi, Ouro Preto (MNRJ 27539,
holotype; MNRJ 27986, 30608, paratypes).
Physalaemus rupestris.—BRAZIL: Minas Gerais: Par-
que Estadual do Ibitipoca, Lima Duarte (MNRJ 10551,
holotype; MNRJ 10552–53, paratypes; MNRJ 28812–24;
MZUFV 4083–84).
Herpetologica, 59(4), 2003, 524–531
Ó2003 by The Herpetologists’ League, Inc.
A NEW SPECIES OF ABRONIA (SQUAMATA: ANGUIDAE)
FROM THE SIERRA MADRE DEL SUR OF GUERRERO,
MEXICO, WITH COMMENTS ON ABRONIA DEPPII
OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA
2
,AND OSCAR SA
´NCHEZ-H.
1
Museo de Zoologı
´a, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Auto
´noma de Me
´xico,
A.Pz. 70-399, Me
´xico, D.F. 04510, Me
´xico
ABSTRACT: We describe a new species of lizard of the genus Abronia from the Sierra Madre del Sur of
Guerrero, Mexico. This species previously was confused with its presumed sister taxon Abronia deppii. The
discovery to the north of the Balsas Basin of additional specimens referrable to A. deppii and a morphological
comparison of these specimens to the populations of Abronia inhabiting the highlands of Guerrero to the south
of the Balsas Basin clearly indicate that distinct species are present on each side of the Balsas Depression.
Examination of the type material of A. deppii reveals that this name should be associated with the northern
populations, and the southern population, often allocated to A. deppii, is an undescribed species. This new
species is distinguished from A. deppii by having enlarged knob-like posterior head scales, no azygous scale
between interparietal and interoccipital, a greater number of scale whorls on unregenerated tail, a greater
number of infralabial scales, and dorsal and ventral coloration differences. We discuss the natural history of the
new Guerrero species.
Key words: Abronia deppii;Abronia martindelcampoi sp. nov.; Anguidae; Guerrero, Mexico; Lacertilia;
Taxonomy
THE ZOOLOGICAL literature on the lizard
previously known as Abronia deppii has in-
volved considerable confusion, apparently
because of inadequate descriptions and the
imprecise designation of the type locality.
Additionally, a perplexing problem has arisen
since the discovery of a disjunct population
that was referred to A. deppei by Sa
´nchez-H.
and Lo
´pez-F. (1980). These authors reported
Abronia from northwest of the Balsas Basin.
They compared external morphological data
for their only specimen (now catalogued in the
Museo de Zoologia, Facultad de Ciencias,
UNAM, as MZFC 764) with data for speci-
mens identified as A. deppii by Bocourt (1878)
and Bogert and Porter (1967) from the Sierra
Madre del Sur in the State of Guerrero.
Because of limited materials, no striking
differences in scalation were noted between
specimen MZFC 764 from the State of Mexico
and descriptions of material from Guerrero.
Although they did not examine the type and
paratype (Zoologisches Museum, Berlin; ZMB
1149, 1150, respectively), Sa
´nchez-H. and
Lo
´pez-F. (1980) proposed rejection of the
restriction of the type locality of A. deppii to
Omilteme, Guerrero, suggested by Smith and
Taylor (1950). Sa
´nchez-H. and Lo
´pez-F.
(1980) suggested a corrected restriction to
Temascaltepec-Real de Arriba, State of Mex-
1
PRESENT ADDRESS: Av. Ixtlahuaca 609, Col. Sa
´nchez,
Toluca 50040, Estado de Me
´xico, Me
´xico.
2
CORRESPONDENCE: e-mail, ofv@hp.fciencias.unam.mx
524 HERPETOLOGICA [Vol. 59, No. 4
ico, in the vicinity of Valle de Bravo. One of
the reasons for their proposal was the well
documented fact that the collector of the type
series of A. deppii, Ferdinand Deppe, never
visited Guerrero, but traveled extensively in
the State of Mexico (Sibley and Davis, 1946;
Stresseman, 1954; Taylor, 1969).
During the last few years, several persons at
various Mexican institutions have discovered
additional specimens of Abronia, both in the
mountains north of the Balsas Basin and in the
Sierra Madre del Sur of Guerrero (Castro-
Franco, 1987; Flores-Villela and Hernandez-
Garcia, 1989; Flores-Villela and Mun
˜oz Alonso,
1993). These specimens allow a more critical
assessment of variation within and among the
populations currently assigned to A. deppii.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study is based on 37 adult
specimens of Abronia, 9 and 28 individuals
from the northern and southern populations,
respectively (Appendix I); a few juveniles were
also examined and their identities verified, but
their morphological data are not included. We
also had available a set of photographs, both
black-and-white and color, of the type (ZMB
1149) and paratype (ZMB 1150) of A. deppii
(Wiegmann, 1828).
We analyzed external morphological char-
acters that traditionally have been used by
other workers (Bogert and Porter, 1967;
Campbell, 1982; Campbell and Frost, 1993;
Good and Schwenk, 1985). Body measure-
ments were taken with vernier calipers to the
nearest 0.1 mm.
Based on our analysis of morphological
characters and bolstered by the striking
pattern of allopatry found among most species
of the genus Abronia (e.g., Campbell and
Frost, 1993, documented only one known case
of sympatry), we regard northern and southern
samples as representing two distinct species.
These species differ from each other in details
of scalation, body proportions, and color
pattern. Flores-Villela (1993) indicated that
the Guerrero population was a distinct species
differing from A. deppii. The phylogenetic
analyses published by Campbell and Frost
(1993), Campbell et al. (1998), and Chippin-
dale et al. (1998) clearly suggest that the
populations to the north and south of the Rı
´o
Balsas Depression represent different species
and represent sister taxa. The type specimen
(ZMB 1149) and the paratype (ZMB 1150) of
A. deppii possess morphological characteristics
that unquestionably associate them with speci-
mens of the northern populations (see Camp-
bell and Frost, 1993), confirming that the
restriction of the type locality for this species
to Temascaltepec-Real de Arriba, State of
Mexico, by Sa
´nchez-H. and Lo
´pez-F. (1980)
is appropriate.
In order to more clearly diagnose the new
species from Guerrero, a redescription of A.
deppii follows.
Abronia deppii (Wiegmann, 1828)
Gerrhonotus deppii—Wiegmann, 1828
Gerrhonotus deppii—Wiegmann, 1834;
Gu¨ nther, 1902
Abronia deppii—Gray, 1838; Tihen, 1949;
Campbell and Frost, 1993
Gerrhonotus (Abronia)deppii—Bocourt,
1878
Type.—Zoologisches Museum, Berlin
(ZMB 1149). One paratype (ZMB 1150: see
Fig. 1).
Type locality.—Originally given as ‘‘Mex-
ico,’’ restricted to Temascaltepec-Real de
Arriba, State of Mexico by Sa
´nchez-H. and
Lo
´pez-F. (1980). Restricted in error to the
vicinity of Omilteme, Guerrero, by Smith and
Taylor (1950).
Diagnosis.—This species has (1) the supra-
auricular scales weakly developed knob-like,
having no indication of spines; (2) supranasals
not expanded and not in contact at dorsal
midline; (3) frontonasal usually in contact with
frontal; (4) posterior internasals almost twice
as long as anterior internasals (1.8); (5) no
canthals; (6) three anterior temporals in each
side; (7) parietal separated from supraoculars;
(8) single occipital; (9) posterior head scales
weakly developed knob-like; (10) anterior
supercilliary not contacting the cantholoreal;
(11) posterior suboccular separated from the
lower primary temporal by the penultimate
scale in the supralabial series; (12) preauricu-
lar scales slightly enlarged and in one row; (13)
two postmentals; (14) posterior infralabials
elongated; (15) preauricular scales slightly
enlarged; (16) six longitudinal nuchal scale
rows; (17) 24–28 tranversal dorsal scale rows;
(18) 10–12 longitudinal dorsal scale rows; (19)
December 2003] HERPETOLOGICA 525
12–14 longitudinal ventral scale rows; (20) six,
sometimes seven, dark dorsal bands.
Abronia deppii can be distinguished from
the Guerrero population by weakly developed
knob-like posterior head scales (Fig. 2); lower
anterior temporal in broad contact with
antepenultimate supralabial; azygous scale
between interparietal and occipital frequently
present (about 60% of cases); head width ,22
mm in adult males and ,18 in adult females;
ratio of head width to head length ,0.75 in
adult males; scale whorls on tail 68–80 (
xx 5
77); infralabial scales 7–8; preauricular scales
only slightly enlarged; longitudinal dorsal scale
rows 10–11; dorsum with well defined bold
black crossbands, confluent and more or less
symmetrical on vertebral region; dorsal head
coloration with pattern of black and white
irregular blotches; ventral color in adult males
tends to be reddish, occasionally bright red;
upper lips marked with black. Differs from
other species of the subgenus Abronia (sensu
Campbell and Frost, 1993) by having oblique
longitudinal rows of dorsal scales, where
fuscolabialis,taeniata, and graminea have
parallel longitudinal scale rows, where taeniata
and graminea do not; has one lower temporal
contacting postoccular series; and a single
occipital, where mixteca and oaxacae have
three occipitals and two primary temporals
contacting postocular series; has body colora-
tion that it is not uniformly green, where
graminea is; has six nuchals, where graminea
has four (only juveniles of graminea have
bands on the dorsum of the body).
Description.—A species of Abronia having
24–28 (
xx 526.2) transverse dorsal scale rows;
10–12 longitudinal dorsal scale rows (
xx 5
10.6); 34–37 (
xx 535) transverse ventral rows;
12–14 (
xx 513.3) longitudinal ventral scale
rows; 76–80 scale whorls on unregenerated
tails; usually minimum of six nuchal scales (one
of 12 specimens had 5); 6–8 (
xx 56.6) scales
between hind legs; 9–10 supralabials; anterior
temporals 3/3; posterior temporals 3/3; 5/5
FIG. 1.—Dorsal aspect of the head of type and paratype
of Abronia deppii. A: ZMB 1149; B: ZMB 1150.
Photograph by George R. Zug.
FIG. 2.—Dorsal aspect of the head A: of the holotype of
Abronia martindelcampoi, adult male, MZFC 2778; B: of
an adult male A. deppii, ENEPI 963. Notice the well
developed knob-like posterior head scales of A. martin-
delcampoi, as well as the presence of an azygous scale
between the interparietal and interoccipital in A. deppii
(present in 54% of the individuals examined, see text for
details). Head length is approximately the same for both
specimens.
526 HERPETOLOGICA [Vol. 59, No. 4
medial supraoculars; one temporal in contact
with postocular; usually one subocular (2 of 12
specimens had 2, see Good, 1988:20); two
postmentals; and a single occipital. Supra-
nasals not expanded; frontonasal and frontal
usually in contact; no contact of anterior
superciliary and cantholoreal (only 1 of 12
had contact); lateral neck scales enlarged;
osteoderms reduced or absent on dorsum of
adults.
Coloration.—Dorsal ground color whitish or
grayish in preservative (white in life); usually
with six or occasionally seven dark dorsal
bands confluent on mid-dorsum; adult males
with tendency toward especially dark dorsum.
Tail with 11–15 (
xx 512.6) dark bands; dorsum
of head with sharply defined irregular black
and white blotches. Ventral coloration whitish
with reddish hues on gular and pectoral
regions (in some adult males, venter intense
red-orange, as well as plantar and palmar
surfaces).
Measurements.—Maximum snout–ventlength
in adults 115 mm; maximum head length 31 mm;
head width 21.8 mm.
Distribution.—This species is known from
several localities in the mountain ranges north
of the Balsas Basin (Fig. 3), from the Sierra de
Chichinautzin, Morelos, to Temascaltepec-
Real de Arriba, Mexico, from approximately
1850–2600 m above sea level (see Appendix I
for specific localities).
The species of Abronia from the highlands
of Guerrero was originally allocated to A.
deppii (Bocourt, 1878). However, in view of
our current understanding of the type material
of A. deppii and the variation exhibited by this
species, we propose that the populations from
Guerrero be known as:
Abronia martindelcampoi sp. nov.
Abronia deppii—Smith and Taylor, 1950;
Tihen, 1954; Bogert and Porter, 1967 [also
spelled as deppei]; Good and Shwenk, 1985;
Good, 1988
Abronia deppi—Davis and Dixon, 1961
Holotype.—Adult male, Museo de Zoologia,
Facultad de Ciencias UNAM (MZFC 02778).
Collected in Mexico, Guerrero, Chilpancingo,
Omiltemi, Orilla Norte in oak forest at 2250 m
on 7 April 1985 by Antonio Mun
˜oz Alonso
(Field number AMA-033).
Paratypes.—Mexico, Guerrero, Chilpan-
cingo, Parque Ecolo
´gico Estatal Omiltemi:
MZFC 02774–77, 02779–82, 02875; Atoyac,
FIG. 3.—Distribution of Abronia deppii and A. martindelcampoi in South Central Mexico. Triangles represent known
localities for A. deppii and squares show known localities for A. martindelcampoi; dots refer to major cities. See Appendix
I for specific localities.
December 2003] HERPETOLOGICA 527
Carrizal de Bravos (MVZ 164922); Atoyac,
Carrizal de Bravos, 60 km by road (LACM
109262); Atoyac, Carrizal de Bravos, 1 km SW
(MVZ 110941, 164922, 134109); Vicinity of
Chilpancingo (AMNH 72543, MVZ 45005);
Omiltemi (BMNH 1913.7.19.98, 1913.7.19.99,
1913.7.19.100, 1913.7.19.101; MVZ 57173,
UTA-R 4451, 5645, 5646, 5653); Puerto del
Gallo (UTA-R 4151); 0.8–1.6 km NE Puerto
del Gallo (UTA-R 12136); San Miguel Totola-
pan, 1 km W of Toro Muerto (MZFC 765).
Diagnosis.—This species has (1) supra-
auricular scales protuberant and knoblike,
with no indication of spines; (2) supranasals
not expanded and not in contact at dorsal
midline; (3) frontonasal present and usually
not in contact with frontal; (4) posterior
internasals almost twice as long as anterior
internasals (1.6–2.0); (5) no canthals; (6) three
anterior temporals; (7) parietal not in contact
with median supraoculars; (8) a single occip-
ital; (9) posterior head scales strongly convex
and knoblike; (10) anterior supercilliary not in
contact with cantholoreal; (11) posterior sub-
occular in broad contact with lower primary
temporal; (12) preauricular scales notoriously
enlarged and in one row; (13) postmentals
usually two (only 1 out of 14 had one); (14)
posterior infralabials usually elongated; (15) six
longitudinal nuchal scales; (16) dorsal scales in
23–27 transverse rows; (17) dorsal scales in 10–
12 longitudinal scale rows; (18) ventral scales
in 12–14 longitudinal scale rows; and (19) 5–6
brown dorsal markings in adults (Fig. 4).
Abronia martindelcampoi differs from A.
deppii in having (1) well developed enlarged
knob-like posterior head scales (Fig. 2); (2)
lower anterior temporal fused with penulti-
mate supralabial; (3) no azygous scale between
interparietal and interoccipital; (4) preauricu-
lar scales notoriously enlarged; (5) head width
in adult males .22 mm and .18 mm in
females; (6) ratio of head width to head length
.0.75 in adult males; (7) number of scale
whorls on unregenerated tail 77–86 (
xx 580.7);
(8) number of infralabial scales 8–10 (only one
had seven); (9) number of longitudinal dorsal
scale rows 10–12; (10) dorsal ground color
grayish to pale olive green in life (grayish in
preservative) with dark brown markings which,
if confluent on the vertebral region, may be
asymmetrical; (11) dorsum of head pale brown
to olive green, usually unblotched, individual
scales with fine dark vermiculations, some
specimens with large dark area on top of head,
more, rarely a few, black individual scales
(including both upper anterior temporals);
(12) ventral region immaculate cream colored
FIG. 4.—Abronia martindelcampoi, paratype from 0.8–1.6 km NE Puerto del Gallo, Guerrero, Mexico; now cataloged
as UTA-R 12136. Photo by W. W. Lamar, courtesy of J. A. Campbell.
528 HERPETOLOGICA [Vol. 59, No. 4
in adults, rarely with faint suggestion of
yellowish orange (see below); and (13) upper
lips mostly unmarked. It differs from other
species of the subgenus Abronia (sensu Camp-
bell and Frost, 1993) in having oblique
longitudinal rows of dorsal scales, where
fuscolabialis,taeniata, and graminea have
parallel longitudinal scale rows and taeniata
and graminea do not; in most specimens, one
lower temporal contacts the postoccular series
and a single occipital, where mixteca and
oaxacae have three occipitals and two primary
temporals contacting postocular series; has
body coloration that is not uniformly green like
graminea; has six nuchals, where graminea has
four (only juveniles of graminea have bands on
the dorsum of the body).
Description of holotype.—Measurements
(all measurements in mm): Snout–vent length
115; head length (from tip of snout to
posteriormost edge of head) 31.5; head width
25.2; head depth 14.7; tail length 163.
The supra-auricular scales are knob-like and
without any indication of spines; small supra-
nasals and not in contact at dorsal midline;
romboid frontonasal, separated from frontal;
posterior internasals 1.6 times larger than
anterior internasals; cantholoreal evident from
above the head and large; anterior supercilliary
not in contact with cantholoreal; and a single
occipital. On each side of the head are 10
supralabials; three anterior temporals; three
posterior temporals; three scales between
occipital and first nuchal row; five median
supraoculars; one temporal contacting the
postocular; one subocular; parietal not in
contact with median supraoculars; preauricu-
lar scales in one row and notoriously enlarged;
two postmentals; and posterior infralabials
enlarged. The following combinations of scales
all fail to make contact with one another:
frontonasal-frontal, temporal-subocular, su-
perciliary-prefrontal, and superciliary-cantho-
loreal. The postparietals are not reduced; the
lateral neck scales are enlarged. The specimen
has 27 transverse dorsal scale rows; 12
longitudinal dorsal scale rows; 2 postmentals;
6 nuchal scales across neck; 34 transverse
ventral rows; 14 longitudinal ventral scale
rows; 80 scale whorls on unregenerated tail;
6 scales between hind limbs; 20 lamellae under
fourth toe. A weak lateral fold is present; the
lateral dorsal scales are arranged in oblique
rows, and no osteoderms are present beneath
the scales on the trunk.
Coloration.—Head olive green with each
dorsal scale having fine dark vermiculations,
with only a faint indication of dark blotches on
the first nuchal row; supralabial region slightly
paler than dorsum of the head; black markings
behind ear openings. Ground color of dorsum
pale olive green with some brownish areas,
with six narrow, dark crossbands, each about
one scale wide (Fig. 4). Dorsolateral scales
with white posterior edge; tail inconspicuously
marked (13 bands). The ventral region is
immaculate and cream colored (in preserva-
tive), and the gular region is pale.
Color variation.—In some specimens the
dorsal crossbands are interrupted middorsally
and are asymmetrical. The ground color may be
olivaceous to pale brown, and the tail blotches
may be relatively conspicuous (in preservative);
the dorsolateral scales may lack white posterior
edges, while in other specimens white-tipped
scales may cover the dorsum. The ventral
coloration in some specimens is pale orange,
but usually is not intense (the only specimen
that apparently had bright orange ventral
coloration was MVZ 45005). The color de-
scribed by Good (1988) in his account of A.
deppii is based on A. martindelcampoi.
Comparisons.—For comparisons with other
species of the genus, see table 1 in Good and
Schwenk (1985) under A. deppii.
Distribution.—This species is known only
from the Sierra Madre del Sur (Fig. 3),
Mexican State of Guerrero from 2100 to
2600 m above sea level (see Appendix I for
specific localities). There is one specimen
(BMNH 1913.7.19.102) from Amula, Guer-
rero, tentatively assigned to this taxon.
Etymology.—This species is named after the
late Rafael Martı
´n del Campo y Sa
´nchez in
recognition of his contributions to the de-
velopment of modern Mexican herpetology,
and particularly for his knowledge of gerrho-
notine lizards.
Miscellaneous natural history notes.—Dur-
ing field work at Omiltemi, Guerrero, we
collected an Ophryacus undulatus whose
stomach contained an A. martindelcampoi.
A courting pair of A. martindelcampoi was
collected in pine-oak forest on 4 August 1985.
A female collected May 1989 by Jack Sites at
Omiltemi gave birth to six young, and another
December 2003] HERPETOLOGICA 529
specimen (UTA-R 5653), collected August
1975 by J. A. Campbell, gave birth to two
young in December 1975. Davis and Dixon
(1961) reported that a female taken in June
contained enlarged ovarian follicles. The de-
fensive display consists of opening and ex-
panding the lower jaw and biting. Results of an
analysis of the gonads of the female suggest
that the species is a fall breeder.
In a recent visit to Omiltemi, the type
locality of A. martindelcampoi, we found that
there is no longer a protected state park;
instead, logging and other human activities
were taking place, even though the city of
Chilpancingo (capital of Guerrero) receives
high quality water from the mountains around
Omiltemi. This new situation may put pop-
ulations of A. martindelcampoi and the biota of
that portion of the Sierra Madre del Sur at risk.
RESUMEN
Se describe una especie nueva de lagartija
del ge
´nero Abronia proveniente de la Sierra
Madre del Sur, Guerrero, Me
´xico. Esta especie
fue confundida en el pasado con A. deppii.El
hallazgo de especı
´menes provenientes de la
parte norte de la cuenca del Balsas y su estudio
morfolo
´gico, indican que las poblaciones de
Abronia que habitan las tierras altas al sur de la
cuenca del Balsas deben ser reconocidas como
un taxo
´n diferente. A. martindelcampoi sp. nov.
se distingue de A. deppii por presentar las
escamas posteriores de la cabeza alargadas y
redondeadas a manera de perilla; por la
ausencia de una escama a
´ziga entre la inter-
parietal y la interoccipital; por presentar un
mayor nu
´mero de hileras de escamas en la cola,
no regenerada; mayor nu
´mero de escamas
infralabiales y por las diferencias en coloracio
´n
dorsal y ventral. Se agregan comentarios sobre
la historia natural de A. martindelcampoi.
Acknowledgments.—We wish to thank A. Nieto, J. W.
Sites, J. Johnson, D. A. Good, and D. Frost for help in
preparing this manuscript; J. A. Campbell for his review of
the manuscript; G. Zug for the photographic material of
the type and paratype of Abronia deppii from the Berlin
Museum and for arranging the loan of those specimens;
C. J. Cole (AMNH), D. B. Wake (UC-MVZ), J. Wright and
R. L. Bezy (LACM), E. Godinez (ENEPI), and R. Castro-
Franco (EBUM) for checking materials in their collec-
tions; and A. Mun
˜oz, E. Herna
´ndez, A. Herna
´ndez, and J.
Jua
´rez for assistance in the field. Part of the field work
in Guerrero was possible thanks to the economic support
of the Government of the State of Guerrero and the Facul-
tad de Ciencias, UNAM. Part of this project was financed
by a grant from DGAPA-UNAM project IN-201789 to
J. Llorente and O. Flores-Villela. This paper is based
in part upon work supported by the NSF under grant No.
DEB-0102383.
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Accepted: 14 March 2003
Associate Editor: Stephen Tilley
APPENDIX I
Specimens Examined
Abronia deppii.—MEXICO: MEXICO 1 km SSW from
Valle de Bravo, 2000 m (UTA-R 31634, formerly MZFC
764); Valle de Bravo (MZFC 4307); Avandaro, approxi-
mately 2050 m (MZFC 2015); Ixtapan de la Sal, Km 9 on
the road to Zacualpan-Mamatla, 1900 m (ENEPI 963); Km
9 on road from Zacualpan to Mamatla, 40 km from Ixtapan
de la Sal (MZFC 6294, formerly ENEPI 1001); GUER-
RERO: Ixcateopan de Cuahute
´moc, Km 28 on road Taxco-
Ixcateopan, 2100 m (MZFC 3992); Pedro Ascencio de
Alquiciras, Cruz Alta, 2560 m (MZFC 3991); Tetipac,
Arroyo las Damas, 1850 m (MZFC 3993); MORELOS:
Derrame del Chichinautzin, 2250 m (MZFC 2015);
Huitzilac, N of CEBETIS, 2600 m (EBUM 0425).
Photographic material.—MEXICO: no specific locality
(ZMB 1149, type); no specific locality (ZMB 1150,
paratype).
Abronia martindelcampoi.—MEXICO: GUERRERO:
Amula (BMNH 1913.7.19.102); Atoyac, Carrizal de
Bravos, 2407.9 m (UC-MVZ 164922); Carrizal de Bravos,
60.3 km SW by road (LACM 109262); Carrizal de Bravos,
0.96 km SW, 2200 m (UC-MVZ 134109); Chilpancingo
Omiltemi, 2250 m (MZFC 2781, 2784, 2875; ENEPI 964;
UC-MVZ 57173; UTA-R 4451, 5653); Omiltemi, 2436 m
pine-oak forest (UTA-R 5645–46); Omiltemi, 2 km SE,
2250 m (MZFC 2774, 2775, 2777); Omiltemi, N of town,
2250 m (MZFC 2776, 2778 holotype); Omiltemi, 500 m E
of town, 2250 m (MZFC 2779); Omiltemi, 2 km E,
Barranca de Potrerillos, 2200 m (MZFC 2780); Omiltemi
NW of town, 2250 m (MZFC 2782); Omiltemi SW side of
town, 2250 m (MZFC 2783); Omiltemi (BMNH
1913.7.19.98–101); San Miguel Totolapan, 1 km W of
Toro Muerto, 2600 m (MZFC 765); Filo de Caballo?, 2000
m (MZFC 766); Vicinity of Chilpancingo (AMNH 72543;
UC-MVZ 45005); Puerto del Gallo (UTA-R 4151); 0.8–1.6
km NE Puerto del Gallo, 2560–2804 m (UTA-R 12136).
Other materials examined.—Abronia martindelcampoi
MEXICO: GUERRERO: Atoyac, Carrizal de Bravos, 1 km
W by road (LACM 127415); Carrizal de Bravos, 0.96 km
SW, 2200 m (MVZ 110941); Chilpancingo, Omiltemi 2286
m elevation (MVZ 57163).
December 2003] HERPETOLOGICA 531
... De acordo com a IUCN, é considerada fora de perigo de extinção. SAZIMA & CARAMASCHI, 1986;SAZIMA & CARAMASCHI, 1998;CARAMASCHI et al., 2003;NASCIMENTO et al., 2005;OLIVEIRA et al., 2009;FROST, 2020;IUCN, 2020. It breeds from October to February, in puddles, streams, and temporary swamps. ...
... REFERENCES: SAZIMA & CARAMASCHI, 1986;SAZIMA & CARAMASCHI, 1998;CARAMASCHI et al., 2003;NASCIMENTO et al.;FROST, 2020;IUCN, 2020. Bokermann, 1967 Nome popular: Rã Espécie de pequeno porte, comprimento rostro-cloacal 23 mm em machos e 22 mm em fêmeas. ...
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O livro Anfíbios Anuros da Serra do Cipó traz o resultado de extensa pesquisa de campo onde foi possível registrar 58 espécies (18 a mais quando comparado com o estudo de 2004). Essa nova edição se justifica particularmente pelo grande aprofundamento do conhecimento acerca da anurofauna da Serra do Cipó nos últimos 15 anos. Espécie descrita recentemente (Physalaemus claptoni) constam no livro o que torna a obra atualizada.
... De acordo com a IUCN, é considerada fora de perigo de extinção. SAZIMA & CARAMASCHI, 1986;SAZIMA & CARAMASCHI, 1998;CARAMASCHI et al., 2003;NASCIMENTO et al., 2005;OLIVEIRA et al., 2009;FROST, 2020;IUCN, 2020. It breeds from October to February, in puddles, streams, and temporary swamps. ...
... REFERENCES: SAZIMA & CARAMASCHI, 1986;SAZIMA & CARAMASCHI, 1998;CARAMASCHI et al., 2003;NASCIMENTO et al.;FROST, 2020;IUCN, 2020. Bokermann, 1967 Nome popular: Rã Espécie de pequeno porte, comprimento rostro-cloacal 23 mm em machos e 22 mm em fêmeas. ...
... This species group includes species with geographical distributions related to the high elevations of southeastern Brazilian mountain chains, in the State of Minas Gerais: P. deimaticus Sazima, 1988 andP. erythros Caramaschi, Feio &, both of them restricted to the southern portion of the Espinhaço Range, and P. rupestris Caramaschi, Carcerelli & Feio, 1991, which occurs in the Mantiqueira range (Caramaschi et al. 1991;Caramaschi et al. 2003;Baêta & Silva 2009;Oliveira et al. 2009). To date, the Physalaemus deimaticus species group has been diagnosed by molecular evidence, but it still has no recognized morphological synapomorphy (Nascimento et al. 2005;Lourenço et al. 2015). ...
... Regarding morphological characters, Nascimento et al. (2005) stated that "vocal sac poorly developed" is present only among species of the P. deimaticus species group (also shared with P. bokermanni); however, we found that at least P. atlanticus, P. camacan, P. moreirae, and P. spiniger may have vocal sac equally poorly developed. Similarly, among species of the P. signifer Clade, reddish color on the ventral surfaces of hand and foot in live specimens have been reported as present only in species of the P. deimaticus species group (Sazima & Caramaschi 1986;Caramaschi et al. 1991;Caramaschi et al. 2003), however, it may also occur at least in P. signifer, P. crombiei and P. obtectus from the P. signifer Clade (FL and FSFL pers. obs.). ...
Article
We describe a new species of Physalaemus assigned to the Physalaemus signifer Clade, and it is morphologically similar to P. rupestris, from the highlands of the Serra do Cipó in the southern Espinhaço Range, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. The new species is diagnosed by using the following combination of character states: presence of an arrow-shaped blotch on the dorsum of body; presence of a median longitudinal light stripe over urostyle region; belly and ventral surface of thigh marbled with dark gray irregularly shaped blotches on a bluish background; absence of reddish coloration over axillary and inguinal regions in live individuals; bright orange dots scattered over head, upper lip, and dorsum of body in live individuals; ventral surface of hand and foot red in live individuals; small size (adult male SVL=16.2–18.2 mm); presence of brown, not divided, nuptial pad in males; END/ED in males ranging from 0.85–0.93; supernumerary tubercles on foot absent; tarsal fold absent; tarsal tubercle absent; texture of posterior region of belly and ventral surface of thigh smooth; advertisement call composed of two note types (note A + B); advertisement call duration of 0.80–1.28 s; note A with ascending amplitude until mid-note then descending towards the end of the note; note B with pulses arranged in 5–7 groups; and dominant frequency of note A from 1734.4–2765.6 Hz and of note B from 1507.3–2859.4 Hz. A phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial DNA sequences recovered the new species nested within the Physalaemus deimaticus species group. Additionally, we redescribe the call of Physalaemus rupestris and provide a review of the geographic distribution and conservation status of the species belonging to the P. deimaticus species group.
... In some species, there is amorphous secretion. In Physalaemus erythros Caramaschi, Feio & Guimarães, 2003, Ph. jordanensis and Physalaemus lateristriga (Steindachner, 1864), the secretory portions of type Ib serous glands are not contiguous with each other, but they are separated by connective tissue; also, their profiles are irregular (Fig. 3C). In a few species without macroglands, type Ib serous glands were observed in dorsal skin in addition to the lumbar skin [Engystomops coloradorum (Cannatella & Duellman, 1984), Engystomops pustulosus (Cope, 1864) and L. laticeps; Fig. 2G]. ...
Article
Anurans show a wide variety of anti-predator mechanisms, and the species of the Neotropical clade Leiuperinae display several of them. Most species of Edalorhina, Physalaemus and Pleurodema show eyespots, hidden bright colours, macroglands in a inguinal/lumbar position, defensive behaviours and/or chemical defence. We conducted a histological analysis of dorsal and lumbar skin and revised the colour patterns, defensive behaviours and glandular secretions to study the diversity and evolution of anti-predator mechanisms associated with macroglands. We describe 17 characters and optimize these in a phylogenetic hypothesis of Leiuperinae. In the most recent common ancestor of Edalorhina + Engystomops + Physalaemus + Pleurodema, a particular type of serous gland (the main component of macroglands) evolved in the lumbar skin, along with the absence of the Eberth–Katschenko layer. A defensive behaviour observed in leiuperines with macroglands includes four displays (‘crouching down’ behaviour, rear elevation, body inflation and eye protection), all present in the same ancestor. The two elements associated with aposematism (hidden bright colours and eyespots) evolved independently in several species. Our results provide phylogenetic evidence for the startle-first hypothesis, which suggests that behavioural displays arise as sudden movements in camouflaged individuals to avoid predatory attacks, before the origin of bright coloration.
... as mode 14 by Haddad & Prado (2005), and is already known for other species of the genus Physalaemus (e.g. P. caete Pombal & Madureira, 1997; P. erythros Caramaschi, Feio & Guimarães, 2003;P.crombiei Heyer & Wolf, 1989). ...
... A elevada riqueza e a ocorrência de espécies endêmicas demonstram a relevância do Quadrilátero para a conservação de anuros. Atualmente, podem ser reconhecidos como endêmicos do Quadrilátero Ferrífero os anuros Physalaemus erythros e Hylodes uai Nascimento, Pombal Jr. & Haddad, 2001, além de S. canga (Nascimento et al. 2001;Caramaschi et al. 2003 Leite et al. 2017). ...
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O anuro Scinax tripui permanecia pouco conhecido. A partir de amostragens em campo no Quadrilátero Ferrífero e análises de coleções científicas são apresentados um expressivo número de novos registros geográficos da espécie na Mata Atlântica do estado de Minas Gerais, observações de uso de habitat e variações morfológicas. Exemplares de S. tripui foram coletados em 40 localidades e em coleções foram levantadas mais 19 localidades. Observou-se que a espécie distribui-se pelas serras do Quadrilátero Ferrífero e porção norte da Serra da Mantiqueira, no centro-sudeste de Minas Gerais e sul do Espírito Santo, com ocorrência frequente nas matas do Quadrilátero. Constatou-se que S. tripui é restrito a córregos e riachos perenes em ambiente florestal, sendo associado a microhabitats mais íntegros, e exibe atividade reprodutiva ao longo do inverno e início da primavera (julho a setembro). A coloração em vida de S. tripui variou principalmente na região inguinal e partes anterior e posterior da coxa, que podem ser verde-claras, azul-claras, amarelo-claras ou brancas; e no padrão de coloração dorsal, que pode ser cinza, oliva, palha ou marrom-claro. Foram aferidas sete medidas morfométricas de adultos, sendo obtida expressiva variação do tamanho (comprimento rostro-cloacal). As variações de coloração, medidas e porte foram recorrentes ao longo do Quadrilátero Ferrífero, sendo constatado que S. tripui exibe expressiva variação intrapopulacional.
... A elevada riqueza e a ocorrência de espécies endêmicas demonstram a relevância do Quadrilátero para a conservação de anuros. Atualmente, podem ser reconhecidos como endêmicos do Quadrilátero Ferrífero os anuros Physalaemus erythros e Hylodes uai Nascimento, Pombal Jr. & Haddad, 2001, além de S. canga (Nascimento et al. 2001;Caramaschi et al. 2003 Leite et al. 2017). ...
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A perereca Sphaenorhynchus canga foi recentemente descrita, com distribuição geográfica restrita, na borda leste do Quadrilátero Ferrífero em Minas Gerais. A espécie foi originalmente registrada em cinco lagoas ou poças naturais em área de campo rupestre ferruginoso (canga), na região da Chapada de Canga e entorno. A partir de amostragens em campo e análise de coleção científica, são apresentados novos registros geográficos da espécie. Sphaenorhynchus canga foi registrado em sete novas localidades de corpos d’água lênticos, tanto naturais quanto antrópicos (pequenas represas), em áreas de campo rupestre ferruginoso e floresta estacional semidecidual antropizada. Como a descrição da espécie baseou-se apenas em machos, apresenta-se a morfometria das fêmeas analisadas, que se apresentaram maiores que machos. Seis localidades situam-se externamente aos limites da Chapada de Canga, mas S. canga continua sendo endêmico do Quadrilátero Ferrífero. São discutidos possíveis padrões de distribuição de S. canga e a influência da distribuição geográfica conhecida e da plasticidade ecológica sobre ameaças à espécie.
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