Article

A etiologia da cárie no estilo de pensamento da ciência odontológica

Ciência & Saúde Coletiva (Impact Factor: 0.4). 06/2008; 13(3). DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232008000300031

ABSTRACT

Este artigo trata da construção do estilo de pensamento odontológico baseado na etiologia da cárie. Tem como referencial a epistemologia de Ludwick Fleck (1896-1961),na qual o conhecimento é o resultado da atividade social e cada conhecedor pertence a um coletivo e um estilo de pensamento. O estudo das transformações na teoria foi desenvolvido através de livros clássicos e artigos coletados no Medline/Pubmed, com as palavras-chave: dental caries/etiology/theoretical, de 1980 a 2001, um universo de 161 artigos selecionados. Na construção histórica do conhecimento etiológico, apontou-se um macro-estilo de pensamento caracterizado como multicausal-biologicista. Foram identificadas cinco tendências à transformação do estilo: a biologicista, que segue o modelo proposto por Keyes; a clínico-epidemiológica, que incorpora algumas características da visão epidemiológica juntamente com a ciência clínica tradicional; a clínico-biologicista, localizada nas figuras de Thylstrup e Fejerskov, considera as evidências epidemiológicas, mas parte de uma visão clínica da boca em direção ao meio externo; a biopsicossocial, que acolhe num mesmo patamar os fatores biológicos, psicológicos e sociais; e a social, que propõe formas de abordagem da doença partindo-se do geral para o específico.

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