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Public Markets as Community Development Tools

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Abstract

Public markets were once essential parts of the cityscape and they are becoming so again. Markets serve several purposes, social, political, and economic, and so planners interested in multipurpose tools for development will be interested in public markets. Markets can help achieve a variety of goals including place-making, employment, and entrepreneurship. This article focuses on markets as tools of business incubation. Archival data and literature shows how important markets once were to cities. Ethnographically collected data from Chicago's Maxwell Street market illustrates the individual and structural factors that account for businesses created at the market. Rural and urban markets are emerging or being rehabilitated all over the country — this research helps planners understand the history of markets, their multi-disciplinary nature, and the circumstances of people creating businesses at markets.

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... This initiative resonates with the -relatively recentgrowing body of literature emphasising the importance of marketplaces for cities (e.g. Hiebert, Rath, and Vertovec 2015;Hou 2010;Morales 2009;Watson 2006Watson , 2009. They are recognised as much more than just commercial areas (Ünlü-Yücesoy 2013) and framed as important urban actants and part of urban regeneration strategies (Janssens and Sezer 2013a). ...
... Farmer and craft markets have sprung up alongside more traditional marketplaces in cities throughout the US and Europe (Janssens 2014;PPS 2003), often being "reinvented" to attract relatively wealthy customers interested in local, environmentally friendly, ethical and "authentic" shopping experiences (Gonzalez and Waley 2013). It is increasingly acknowledged that markets support business activities (PPS 2003) and public health due to the provision of affordable fresh and healthy food (Morales 2009;Polyák 2014): ...
... In this space, they can observe and be observed by others, modelling comity unwittingly" (Anderson 2011, 278, 279). Therefore, an important potentiality of marketplaces is their contribution to the experience of diversity and integration within localities and cities (Morales 2009;Janssens andSezer 2013a, 2013b;Lin Pang and Sterling 2013;Polyák 2014;Urbact Project 2015a). ...
... Farmer and craft markets have sprung up alongside more traditional marketplaces in cities throughout the US and Europe (Janssens 2014;PPS 2003), often being "reinvented" to attract relatively wealthy customers interested in local, environmentally friendly, ethical and "authentic" shopping experiences (Gonzalez and Waley 2013). It is increasingly acknowledged that markets support business activities (PPS 2003) and public health due to the provision of affordable fresh and healthy food (Morales 2009;Polyák 2014): ...
... In this space, they can observe and be observed by others, modelling comity unwittingly" (Anderson 2011, 278, 279). Therefore, an important potentiality of marketplaces is their contribution to the experience of diversity and integration within localities and cities (Morales 2009;Janssens andSezer 2013a, 2013b;Lin Pang and Sterling 2013;Polyák 2014;Urbact Project 2015a). ...
... As "cosmopolitan canopies" (Anderson 2011), marketplaces attract people from different social, economic and cultural backgrounds because everybody has equal rights and routines are known at the market (Reijndorp 2009). By bringing people together, marketplaces contribute to the experience of diversity and integration (Morales 2009;Janssens 2014;Polyák 2014; Urbact Project 2015a), even if encounters are "unfocused" (Goffman 1963) and limited to a smile or nod. ...
Article
Marketplaces are important commercial and gathering places in cities. After decades of decline and negligence, they are recently rediscovered as potential meeting grounds that bring different people together. Their integrative potential goes beyond the “ground level” of the market (with encounters between traders and visitors), also uniting different stakeholders (municipalities, traders, entrepreneurs, inhabitants, social institutions) joined around the market on an “organisational level”. Using The Hague Market in the Netherlands as case, and drawing on participant observation and semi-structured interviews, this paper investigates the integrative potential of the marketplace. It illustrates how the market indeed serves as an important meeting ground for external stakeholders, but does not (yet) unify the direct beneficiaries: the local government and market traders. Top-down government planning, previous conflicts, distrust, group loyalties, diverging business views and commercial competition are important factors hampering the integrative potential of The Hague Market.
... In addition to economic functions, traditional marketplaces were crucial localities for social, cultural, political, and religious activities [18]. In social terms, they represent spaces for mobility, solidarity, and social inclusion [4,10,22]. They contribute to many societal benefits including capital building, facilitation of social interaction, development of social capital, as well as a stronger sense of connection between consumers and the local community [24]. ...
... Unsurprisingly, vendors, being businesspeople, describe there, "needs for new contacts" (28% of responses) and "changing the experiences" (23% of responses) to show their interest in producing an attractive place that will generate more business. Our findings on the social organization of the marketplace also again align with current market literature that declare marketplaces as environments of social inclusion [4,10,22]. ...
... This could be achieved through links to technical advice for business development and financial training. A second recommendation is for local leaders to embrace the presence of a diverse vendor and customer base as an opportunity to support community development at the markets [10]. Cities could have a presence at the market via public outreach. ...
Article
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Local marketplaces and street vendors represent an important segment of trade in a community and one of the initiators of the rural and peri-urban development. Agricultural and other products available at marketplaces and street vendors very often originate from a wider urban surrounding or nearby villages, so both are also an important factor of the daily migrations, exchange of goods, services, and money on the relation suburb-downtown and village-town/city. This study aims to analyze the social segments of the organization and operation of marketplaces, to provide an insight into the contemporary market processes and decision-making, and also to illustrate the future tendencies of the market outcomes of this aspect of the business. Using qualitative data processing, the results of one of the first empirical research on this topic in Serbia and this part of Europe will be analyzed. The results will show the economic, social, and cultural impact that marketplaces have on people’s everyday life and the economy of Serbia, along with defining future development guidelines. Besides, the findings of this research may be used by local authorities, the economy, and communities for future strategic development planning of this market segment. The outcomes may have an impact on future research of other aspects of marketplaces depending on the difference of regions, on one side, and also alternative opportunities for local development in less-advantaged communities, on the other side. Moreover, this contributes to the identification of the differences in the marketplace business management and sheds light on future initiatives for the encouragement of this local/global process.
... The role that city planning plays in supporting, or not, LVM through planning policies is explored in this paper. While recent market studies emphasize the cultural and social value of flea markets and swap meets for immigrant communities [1][2][3][4][5], few explore this phenomenon through the lens of urban planning [6,7]. Morales explores how economic practices are embedded in the social organization of markets and proposes that planners develop an integrated planning approach for supporting markets [3,6]. ...
... While recent market studies emphasize the cultural and social value of flea markets and swap meets for immigrant communities [1][2][3][4][5], few explore this phenomenon through the lens of urban planning [6,7]. Morales explores how economic practices are embedded in the social organization of markets and proposes that planners develop an integrated planning approach for supporting markets [3,6]. Following Morales' work, three studies explored Latinos markets in California and Texas [4,8,9]. ...
... Despite this trend, some cities in the U.S. (such as Seattle, Philadelphia, Washington D.C., and Detroit) have maintained a strong market culture allowing their historic markets to remain established in the city center. These cities recognized that as a centrally located institution in a growing city, markets could offer affordable opportunities for small business entrepreneurs, while also serving as a "vital lifeline" to connect consumers to produce [3,6,17,24,25]. ...
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Flea markets and swap meets, classified here as Latino vendor markets (LVM), operate as social support systems for their communities. LVM are hubs of economic opportunity for business owners, yet they currently lack support from the field of urban planning. This paper explores four LVM case studies in California and Texas. A mixed-methods approach was used which included site observations, geospatial analysis and surveys with over 200 vendors, customers, and market managers to explore the urban linkages of LVM. Key findings include that LVM are at risk of potential redevelopment; they lack accessibility and perpetuate car dependence; yet there are opportunities to support LVM through planning tools such as improvement districts. They present lessons for exploring the links between the public and private sectors in reinforcing the social, economic and political benefit of marketplaces in the city.
... Without due empirical evidence based on a standardized evaluation of multiple subjects, case studies could not reach a consensus on what was required to make a traditional market competitive and economically sustainable [34]. In addition, the characteristics of traditional markets have not been investigated in detail (e.g., products sold, scale, physical conditions, and operative/service conditions) despite growing attention being paid to their socio-cultural importance and contribution to the local economy [2,25,35]. ...
... On the other hand, traditional retail markets not only create jobs for low-income classes, but also incubate new start-ups [2,23,35]. Consequently, the economic performance of a traditional market is linked closely to the local economy. Although a higher level of customer satisfaction is expected to yield a higher rate of customer returns in general, the level of satisfaction assessed from a visitor's shopping experience is not equivalent to the performance of the retailers or the local economy. ...
Article
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Traditional retail markets have long been the center for urban vitality, yet they have been under threat of advancing superstores run by corporate retailers. Studies have attempted to identify the competitiveness of the markets, but empirical evidence is not sufficient for presenting which factors contribute to the maintenance of a traditional market’s economic vitality. In South Korea, urban policies have been directed to revitalizing the markets, but their effectiveness has been questioned. This study aims to fill this void by examining traditional markets in Seoul with multiple regression on (1) the revenue and (2) the volume of customers and with negative binomial regression on (3) the popularity measured by the number of blog posts on the markets. Using a comprehensive set of variables, this paper finds that investments in physical infrastructure (p < 0.000) and organizational/operational capacities (p < 0.008 and p < 0.094) make a significant contribution to the economic vitality. Among product categories, the ratios of perishable food stores were found to be significant (p < 0.000) as well as those of food shops and vendors (p < 0.030). On the other hand, extending convenient facilities and anchor stores would reduce the revenue in the short term. In addition, traditional markets that are recognized as popular destinations may not necessarily be profitable. In this vein, attention should be paid to this mismatch when a strategy is deliberated to transform a market into a tourist attraction.
... Another approach to improving food access in low-income areas is the development of public markets, also known as wet markets in China and many other countries (Morales 2009). Although the meaning of "public market" has varied over time and from place to place, they are typically defined as markets with municipal ownership and operation (Kurland and Aleci 2015). ...
... Yet in recent years, the potential of public markets for improving urban food security has been rediscovered and recognized (Morales and Kettles 2010;Morales 2011). Within an increasing number of American cities, public markets have been reestablished after their disappearance in the midtwentieth century (Morales 2009). Public investment has been a key factor in supporting municipal public markets. ...
Article
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Chinese cities have been able to maintain much higher levels of household food security than many other cities in the Global South, according to recent surveys. Yet, little is known about the governance of the food provisioning system that underpins its urban food security. Based on a combination of household survey data, unstructured interviews and analyses of government documents, regulations and laws, we reveal that both Nanjing’s food provisioning system and its governance employ a public-private hybrid model. The hybridity is reflected in the mixed ownership structure of food wholesale and retail markets, the companies that manage them, and the involvement of both public and private capital in these markets. This hybridity prevents market failure in food system operation and thus is the underlying mechanism that ensures physical accessibility to and affordability of food in the city; it also balances food affordability and the profitability of food markets. This paper identifies various food security policies and regulations implemented by the Nanjing municipal government, such as the “vegetable basket” policy, the “crawling peg” policy in urban planning, the financial supports for upgrading wet market facilities and reducing rental fees, and the regulations on the retailing of fresh produce in supermarkets. These policies ensure that there is relatively equitable and easy access to healthy food for Nanjing residents and that the establishment of new wet markets keeps up with urban population growth. These food policies in Nanjing provide important lessons for other cities in the world to foster urban food security.
... Los tianguis callejeros forman parte del paisaje urbano como espacios destinados al consumo, en donde la gente se entretiene e intercambia ideas, además de bienes y servicios (Morales, 2009). Los hay en diferentes tamaños, características y con diferentes lógicas de organización, los que ofertan productos de consumo básico y artículos para el hogar, de arte, artesanías y antigüedades, los relacionados a celebraciones festivas y religiosas, así como los especializados en objetos de segunda mano incluidos aquellos donde se ofertan bienes robados. ...
... Su diversificación y proliferación se asocia a causas estructurales así como al ámbito microsocial. La escasa generación de empleo y los bajos salarios así como el rol que juegan las organizaciones de tianguistas en el sistema político (Duhau y Giglia, 2007), se entrelazan con el ámbito personal, aspiracional y de empoderamiento de los actores que participan de ellos (Hiebert, Rath y Vertovec, 2015;Morales 2009;Duhau y Giglia 2007). En este sentido los tianguis han sido parte constituyente del desarrollo urbano y económico de las ciudades, como espacios de abastecimiento y generadores de empleo. ...
Article
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Español / English Industrias creativas en la calle: ambulantaje, estetización y uso de redes sociales en bazares de diseño y food trucks en la Ciudad de México. Resumen Algunos segmentos de la economía de la calle se han incorpora-do al paradigma económico estético-creativo dominante en las economías urbanas contemporáneas. Para ilustrar esta afirma-ción, estudiamos dos actividades que han crecido recientemente en la Ciudad de México y que utilizan estrategias de ambulanta-je o itinerancia espacio-temporal ocupando la calle y el espacio público como escenario de sus actividades. Nos referimos a los Bazares de diseñadores y los Food Trucks en la Ciudad de Méxi-co. El análisis que ofrecemos en este artículo nos indica que la implementación de estrategias que conllevan la apropiación y el uso del espacio público ha sido una alternativa importante para algunos emprendedores que intentan entrar en los circuitos de producción y consumo de las industrias creativas. Los emprendi-mientos que se incorporan a la esfera de la economía de la calle en el sector de las industrias creativas se diferencian sustancial-mente del ambulantaje tradicional por el uso de las tecnologías de la información y el efecto estetizador que le imprimen a los productos que venden y a su imagen en general. Some segments of the street economy have been incorporated into the dominant aesthetic-creative economic paradigm in contemporary urban economies. To illustrate this statement, we studied two activities that have grown recently in Mexico City that use space-time nomadic strategies to occupy the street and the public space in general as a scene of their activities. We refer to the Designer Bazaars and Food Trucks in Mexico City. The analysis we offer in this article indicates that the implementation of strategies that involve the appropriation and use of public space has been an important alternative for some entrepreneurs trying to enter the production and consumption circuits of the creative industries. Enterprises entering the sphere of the street economy in the creative industries differ substantially from traditional street vendors by the use of information technologies and the aesthetic effect they give to the products they sell and their Image in general.
... There has been a boom of literature discussing the positive impact of street marketplaces on the city. Marketplaces are being studied as contributing to local economies and alleviating food access for low-income groups (Taylor et al., 2005), as aiding place-making and community development (Morales, 2009;Janssens & Sezer, 2013) and as engendering sociality and intercultural conviviality (Watson, 2009;Black, 2012). At the same time, policies of either restricting or restructuring marketplaces by urban authorities continue unabated (Öz & Eder, 2012;González & Waley, 2013;Guimarães, 2018). ...
Chapter
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This chapter draws attention to the trends of decline recently taking place at the traditional marketplaces of Eastern Europe. An ethnographically rich account relates patterns of socio-material and spatial re-ordering of people, practices and relationships at the open-air markets of Sofia (Bulgaria) to a neoliberal restructuring of the public marketplace institution. The chapter follows how a new policy of public tenders championed by the city administration instituted a regime of continuous commodification of the marketplace space. Several resulting “patterns of decline” are identified, such as the departure of the traditional small-scale food growers. Further, it is argued that to understand how patterns of decline set in at Eastern European marketplaces, one needs to consider how citizens are constrained to specific economic niches, social milieus and regions of space in the city. To this end, Venkov theorises processes of “socio-spatial sorting” and explores what concrete forms the sorting of people, places and practices could take in Sofia and its marketplaces.
... But beyond this already well researched function of marketplaces as spaces for social interaction, there has been less attention paid to marketplaces as alternative spaces to the increasingly corporatised relationships of production and consumption in cities. In particular, marketplaces can be spaces for solidarity and economic inclusion for the most vulnerable groups in society such as ethnic minorities, migrants and refugees, the elderly, single mothers, young people, and people with health problems (Morales, 2009;Project for Public Spaces, 2003;Watson and Studdert, 2006). Marketplaces can become a safe haven for marginalised groups of people. ...
Article
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This paper argues that retail spaces, such as marketplaces are increasingly becoming sites of urban contestation. The globalisation of retail, online shopping and the redevelopment of cities has pushed marketplaces to the margins but they still serve millions of people, particularly the urban poor. Concurrently, marketplaces are branded as authentic consumption experiences for tourists and residents. Building on these contradictions, I propose a novel framework with three analytical lenses to reposition marketplaces as marginal city spaces that serve as productive sites for studying urban transformation processes across the global north and south.
... To wit, many so-called diet-related health problems are discursively delimited to impoverished neighborhoods, especially neighborhoods of color (Shannon 2014), with an emphasis on the ways in which neighborhood environmental factors may contribute to negative social, economic, and health outcomes (Stokols 1995). These neighborhoods and communities become geographically bounded areas for intervention around focal points including food, housing, healthcare, or employment (Morales 2009). This single-issue model of intervention often uses market-oriented rather than community-based tools, disregarding cultural aspects of a neighborhood and the holistic or cross-sectional nature of community needs. ...
Article
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This paper presents a case study of Gardens and Green Spaces (GGS), a resident-driven, grant-funded project in Cleveland, Ohio working toward community change. Through both placemaking and entrepreneurial strategies, the main grant objectives are to effect change at the intersection of food (and agriculture), arts, and culture in Kinsman, a 96% Black Neighborhood on Cleveland’s east side. While community development (CD) projects are often designed by outside ‘experts’ who inform the scope and focus of grant-funded projects, this project is rooted in the hypothesis that a resident-driven approach to CD will lead to increased community buy-in and participation, resulting in more lasting and substantive community change. GGS works across sectors, integrating arts, culture, and food to promote placemaking and community-based entrepreneurial engagement as a path towards greater health, equity, and economic resilience. This paper argues that community-based and resident-driven development—although not without its own challenges—can result in more holistic community transformation across sectors, with the potential for greater resident participation, sustainability, and equity. The case study presented in this paper, including in-depth interviews and neighborhood surveys, is an examination of the pilot phase of GGS, and argues that both placemaking and entrepreneurialism represent a negotiation between market driven community development and a solely philanthropic model. It provides insight into more equitable and sustainable change that has the potential to shift the traditional paradigm of expert driven, or “outside-in” community development.
... Cities provide social demand, and location for urban markets, while urban markets create sustenance, profit, and culture to urban communities (Hiebert et al., 2015;PPS, 2003). Like this, urban markets are multifaceted places serving a variety of purposes; which are appropriate to their specific context and participants (Morales, 2009), and depend on the spatial, demographic, social, economic, and political structure of the city. ...
Chapter
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Street vending is a growing controversial phenomenon in urban environments. It is a survival strategy and an economic opportunity for countless numbers of marginalized vendors. However, the temporal presence of vendors is portrayed as the source of substantial urban issues, which detract from the quality of the urban public space and the public life of individuals. This chapter aims to propose a practical approach to understand the impact of vendors’ temporal presence on the quality of urban space and social life. By space syntax theory, this study utilizes pragmatic methods in the fields of social and human sciences; to analyze the socio-spatial and temporal attributes of the vending phenomenon in relation to urban users’ movement in a case study street market at Cairo. The findings introduce a syntactic methodology that highlights the profound relationship between users and informal urban markets to be applied in diverse contexts.
... esim . Bestor 2004;Black 2012;Shepherd 2007;Morales 2009). Itse olin jo ennen tutkimusta oman taustani vuoksi torilla "sisällä". ...
Article
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Artikkeli pohjautuu etnografiseen muistitietotutkimukseen Lappeenrannan kauppatorista, joka on toteutettu vuonna 2014. Tutkimuksen pääasiallisena aineistona ovat haastattelut entisten ja nykyisten torikauppiaiden kanssa, etnografiset kenttätyöt sekä kirjalliset aineistot. Artikkeli keskittyy torikaupan perinteeseen ja torikaupan kuvaamiseen. Tutkimuksen metodologisena taustana on etnografinen muistitietotutkimus. Toria tarkastellaan artikkelissa etnografiselta lähietäisyydeltä koettuna ja elettynä, paikkana, jota tuotetaan puhumalla ja muistelemalla. Tori on eräänlainen muistin paikka, jonka muisteluun kytkeytyy rikas suullinen perinne ja puhekulttuuri, jota ovat ylläpitäneet niin kauppiaat kuin kaupunkilaisetkin. Lappeenrannassa torikaupalla on pitkät perinteet keskiajalta lähtien. Nykyisen torin muistettu ja muisteltu kukoistus syntyi sotien jälkeen, kun kauppa Viipuriin loppui ja lähiseudun kauppiaiden torimatkat suuntautuivat entistä enemmän Lappeenrantaan. Lappeenrannan torilla on useita omia paikallisia erikoisuuksiaan, tunnetuimpina täytetyt lihapiirakat, vedyt ja atomit, sekä lähiseudun viljelijöiden tuotteet. Tori on säilyttänyt viljelijätorin ja tuottajatorin omaleimaisuutta ja perinteisen torikaupan traditiota. Tori syntyy kauppiastaan, kauppiaat ovat osa torin olemusta ja identiteettiä. Tori tarjoaa lähiruokaa ja laatua, tuttuutta ja paikallista erityisyyttä. Torikaupalle on luonteenomaista omanlaisensa supliikki ja elävä puhekulttuuri sekä tunnelma ja elämyksellisyys. Torikauppa perustuu pitkäaikaisille asiakassuhteille ja personoidulle kaupanteolle.
... Furthermore, we examined differences in responses from market leaders affiliated with different types of markets. The information we gleaned constitutes a contribution to the broader understanding of marketplaces (Morales, 2009(Morales, , 2011. Although we conducted our research in Wisconsin, our findings may apply elsewhere and serve as working hypotheses in other jurisdictions. ...
Article
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Extension professionals across disciplines are involved with farmers' markets, and reports have indicated an increase in the number of farmers' markets across the country. We explored perspectives of farmers' market leaders regarding topics and data of interest and capacity and willingness to collect data related to market promotion. The purpose of our work was to provide Extension educators with information that may guide programming around farmers' markets. We collected data through an online survey of Wisconsin farmers' market leaders in spring 2017. Market leaders were most interested in learning how to encourage word­-of-­mouth communication between customers and engage in other low­-cost strategies, such as having partners help promote a market.
... En urbanismo muchas decisiones de la ciudad se toman respaldadas tan sólo por cifras, datos cuantitativos, que hacen una simplificación de la realidad, no teniendo en cuenta todas las dimensiones de ésta. Poco a poco, algunos estudios urbanos e investigadores empiezan a incorporar los métodos y datos cualitativos, más frecuentes en disciplinas como la sociología o la antropología (Mehta, 2013;Zukin, 2010;Morales, 2009;Ewing y Handy, 2009;Ewing et al., 2006). La literatura reciente en teoría del diseño urbano destaca cualidades más sutiles y precisas que influyen en los patrones de movimiento y uso del espacio público. ...
Article
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El objetivo principal de este trabajo es traer la vitalidad urbana a una primera línea de debate en el diseño y planeamiento de la ciudad. Este interés radica en el vínculo que existe entre un entorno cotidiano vital y un bienestar social, por lo tanto siendo un fenómeno relevante para nuestra salud. Partiendo de estas consideraciones, este trabajo explica la importancia de la vitalidad, las causas que podrían hacerla desaparecer y los condicionantes o características básicas que la promueven y fomentan. También se discute cómo abordar el estudio de la vitalidad, desde la visión individual del arquitecto o diseñador hasta la visión colectiva que todos tenemos como miembros de un grupo, de una sociedad. Se ahonda así en la diferente visión que tienen distintos agentes de lo urbano a la hora de entender el concepto de vitalidad. Por ultimo, este trabajo señala un posible camino para estudiar el fenómeno de la vitalidad, combinando distintos puntos de mira y actores que intervienen en la ciudad, mediante un acercamiento transversal y multidisciplinar.
... In a similar vein, Kato and McKinney (2015) explore the particular obstacles to participation that communities traditionally excluded from AFNs face 2 ; they find that local food-access disparities should not be treated in isolation from the broader issues to which they are intimately connected. These examples are focussed on the context of AFNs in the United States (US), and are particularly interesting given the recent revival of interest in public markets (Morales, 2009;Morales, 2011). These are defined as "various forms of markets that do not enforce regulations about product origin" by Kurland and Aleci (2015), and thus they are different to Farmers' Markets in an important way, yet are still vulnerable to some of the same critiques which AFNs receive based on their underlying economic organisation. ...
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Traditional’ Markets are spaces within town centres in the UK where small traders conduct business, renting stalls from local authorities. Often enclosed within buildings, these sites have been noted to be important socially for certain vulnerable groups, given that they are technically public space and easily accessible. They also represent prominent sites of cheap fresh fruit and vegetable sales within town centres. Despite this, there is widespread concern about the neglect which some markets have suffered. These concerns have crystallized into a prominent discourse which considers markets to be at the forefront of a “gentrification frontier” (Gonzales and Waley, 2013; Dobson, 2015) yet this is predicated upon problematic conceptualisations of gentrification and general retail trends. This project aims to contribute towards a more detailed empirical understanding of how these markets function in terms of policy enacted by both traders and management, using Swansea Market in South Wales as a case study. As such this project aims to understand if and how ‘traditional’ markets change in response to contextual factors by collecting and analysing a range of qualitative data, including interviews, ethnographic observation and photographs. Internal competition between traders emerges as a theme which is central to the operation of the market in policy terms and much of the physical and social business of the market is occupied with regulating this issue. This theme also appears to be crucial to understanding how the market has changed and thus the current situation of markets.
... Additionally, advocates argue that local government should get into the UA business because of its ability to promote community development, increase civic engagement, and eradicate social ills A Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development ISSN: 2152-0801 online www.AgDevJournal.com such as land vacancy, trash, and drug activity (Henderson & Hartsfield, 2009;Morales, 2009). ...
Article
In recent years urban agriculture has gained the attention of policy-makers, social organizers, and academics alike. This new wave of work and attention focuses on projects that ameliorate issues ranging from food insecurity to urban blight, and environmental degradation to the subversion of industrial food production. These projects consist of a variation of community gardens, educational programs, demonstration farms, and entrepreneurial production farms (I will identify all of these under the umbrella of urban agriculture (UA)). However, by simply studying the social impact of UA, researchers fail to consider who the active agent is in social change; this results in little acknowledgement of a movement that is predominately white, hegemonic, and exclusive. As a movement, UA is largely championed by a middle-class white populace as part of the alternative food movement, rather than being understood as having historical roots in predominately black and/or Latino neighborhoods. As a result, urban agriculture generally creates white spaces in otherwise black or Latino places. In this paper I will argue for a new research direction that considers UA from a critical race theory framework and that will allow researchers to examine how urban agriculture might create white "spaces" and white "ethics" in predominately black and Latino neighborhoods. Understanding UA from a critical race theory framework will be useful in helping the UA movement talk about food sovereignty rather than food insecurity in urban communities.
... They are physically, mentally, and symbolically perceived as public spaces where city officials, vendors, shoppers, and occasional visitors develop their own understanding of the physical space and their particular spatial routines. These spaces foster social inclusion (Watson, 2009), mobility (Cresswell, 2014;Morales, 2009Morales, , 2011, and a cosmopolitan civic environment (Anderson, 2004;Pottie-Sherman, 2013). Social groups are active in shaping space. ...
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Space is often believed to lose its importance in the global era as individuals cease to interact face-to-face in favor of online communication. Studying the Carmel market located in city center Tel Aviv, Israel aims to show how space, in a global city, is constantly produced, reproduced, and transformed in reaction to the changes in the community that uses the space and remains an invaluable resource for its users. By specifying the vendors’ perspective on the changes the market undergoes, this article offers an often missing aspect of the study of space, gentrification, and human action. It argues that public spaces in gentrified areas provide the vendors with means to instill their actions, traditional values which often lose their primacy in a global era and gain social recognition. I spent two years of participant observation and detailed ethnographic interviews with vendors. These have led me to conclude that in addition to a steady income that access to space provides, the vendors claim access to space to enable them to sustain familial values and offer to members of the community the opportunity of face-to-face interaction. Also they interpret their interaction with the new clients as a means of compensating for lack of social upward mobility.
... Recent planning analyses of food systems, for the most part, take on issue-or sector-specific questions, typically using cross-sectional approaches even if they, by necessity, attend to relevant aspects of their urban context. For example, recent papers in this journal address issues associated with urban agriculture in three cities (Thibert 2012); the neighborhood food environment (Raja, Ma, and Yadav 2008;Raja et al. 2010;Short, Guthman, and Raskin 2007;Leete, Bania, and Sparks-Ibanga 2011); and open air markets (Morales 2009(Morales , 2010. They investigate food system issues implicitly or explicitly from the perspective of urban food security, nutrition and health, entrepreneurship and economic development, social equity, place improvement, and democratic governance and offer specific implications for theory and practice. ...
... More than points of a product exchange, these areas are becoming key nexuses for knowledge generation (McMillian 2002, Delgado 2004, Cetina 2006. For example, many fields in social sciences identify market studies as a goldmine of historical and cultural epistemology (Tangires 2008, Brown and Miller 2008, Morales 2009, Silalahi et al. 2015 while scientists ferret out various resources sold from local markets for food development, drug discovery, bioprospecting, among others (e.g., Albuquerque et al. 2007, Lee et al. 2008, Monteiro et al. 2010, Randriamiharisoa et al. 2015, Lima et al. 2016. Notwithstanding the long and intimate association of humans to seaweeds, the range of ethnophycological studies involving local markets in the Philippines remains limited. ...
Article
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Documenting local knowledge regarding the identity and use of wild resources in rural communities is a pressing concern because such knowledge is likely disappearing into oblivion. As easily perceived, the large crowds in public markets provide opportunities for the exchange of local resources. Tawi-Tawi is one of the rural areas in the Philippines for which a list of seaweed species sold in the local marketplace has not been reported to date. Here, a survey of Tawi-Tawi public markets resulted in a list of seven commercialized seaweed species – namely Caulerpa lentillifera, Caulerpa cf. macrodisca ecad corynephora, Caulerpa cf. racemosa, Eucheuma denticulatum, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Kappaphycus striatus, and Solieria robusta. The local name, description, and other key trade information for each seaweed ethnotaxon were provided. This study contributes to filling in data gaps in ethnophycological literature in the Philippines and its value placed on it by various stakeholders.
... 42 Policies aimed at increasing the supply of healthy food in neighborhoods are usually rooted in local economic development plans aimed at attracting area supermarkets, equipping local corner stores with produce, developing farmers' markets, and/or utilizing mobile fresh produce markets, among other strategies. [67][68][69][70][71][72] Supply-side approaches reorient the argument toward the environment within which families live, and they seek to change the food environment from obesogenicpromoting or -sustaining to health-promoting. 67,73 However, supply-side strategies are also fraught with issues. ...
Article
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This research sought to explore nutrition and related health issues of 151 households with children who participated in a survey addressing food access, food security, nutrition, health, food provisioning strategies, and barriers to optimal food consumption. This study explored the potential use of community food security strategies as a tool to address public health concerns through increasing fruit and vegetable intake by improving access to affordable healthy foods. Poor diet, stress, and food insecurity impacts adults and children in terms of cognitive development, mental health, and risk for costly chronic diseases. This research contextualized consumer responses within a contemporary policy and programmatic framework to explore the potential usefulness of federal, state, and local programs in the public and private sector.
... The study found that stakeholders included the community leaders identified in a fair process which conforms to [34] stakeholders play various roles and responsibilities in a project's delivery which is directly proportional to project outcome. Further, the study observed that it's vital to involve benefactors in the project management team and also needs assessment to be done based on community priorities which are in line with work by [35] who echoes that the voice of benefactors in the project committee is a supreme tool to successful planning and also observed by [36] that project beneficiary needs analysis is important in project beneficiary selection process. The finding also shows that traders accessed quality services at the market. ...
Article
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Green Technology Market projects have immensely developed in the 21st Century with global spotlight on design of green techniques for preservation of farm produce and Environmental conservation at the market. However, the pragmatic literature posits that they plan on huge budgets and yet mainstream of the projects have aborted in less than five years. Perhaps, the project drivers are not well expressed at the design phase obstructing their performance. In the light of this, study seeks to establish the influence of project design factors on the performance of Green Technology Market projects in Meru County, Kenya. Design factors under study are infrastructure, Stakeholders’ Involvement, Quality management practices and beneficiary Selection. The study was found on theory of Value-Belief-Norm and Environmentally Responsible Behavior. The sample size was 85 total populations of 204 sampled using stratified random sampling criteria. Questionnaires were administered to collect primary data. Descriptive statistics and multiple regressions were utilized. The multiple regressions established the influence amid variables. The results across the area of study on major gaps were analyzed. The data was tabulated for presentation. There was a spike in years of operation of Green Technology Market Projects for the last five years. Traders share facilities at the market. Traders accessed quality facilities at the market. Furthermore, to great extent traders comprised of project committee identified in fair process and had knowledge and skill on project design. Locals supplied labor needed in the project design where beneficiary’s selection was fair prioritizing the local traders and also tenders were awarded to locals. The study also found that traders accessed quality of services. The study initiate that a unit increase in project infrastructure would lead to 0.067 increase in the performance of Green Technology Market Projects in Meru County, Kenya; a unit change in beneficiary’s selection would lead to 0.050 increase in performance of the project; a unit change in the score of stakeholders’ involvement would lead to a 0.046 change in performance of the project and a unit change in the score of quality management practices would lead to a 0.040 change in performance of the project. The variables were significant since p-values were more than 0.05 and alternative hypothesis were accepted while the values for F-calculated were greater than F-critical (4.001). The study concluded that project infrastructure had the greatest influence, followed by stakeholders’ involvement, Quality Management Practices while Beneficiary’s selection had the least influence on the performance of Green Technology Market Projects in Meru County, Kenya. The study also recommends that market designs should embrace greener technologies such as harness of solar energy through roofing of markets with solar panel materials, proper waste disposal with biogas production technologies from green wastes, proper clean water supply, proper parking and green landscapes for aeration, adequate refrigeration facilities to preserve Agri-foods from yield loss hence enhancing food security for growing population and achieve poverty reduction as a key focus in the sustainable development goals and also achieve the Big Four Agenda of the Kenyan Government.
... Markets have often been the centres and originators of public space (Morales, 2009(Morales, , 2011. It is here that people of different races come together to interact and exchange thoughts, wares and profits. ...
Article
Purpose Traditionally, urban informality has been discussed in terms of housing and markets, usually along the periphery of urban areas where there is disinvestment and decline. This article looks at urban informality through the lens of informal fresh food retail throughout the city of Mumbai, India. In India, fresh produce has traditionally been sold in informal street markets comprising vendors that operate through carts and make-shift stalls set-up on the streets. This article aims to assess the conditions surrounding fresh produce retail that fuel its informality. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a mixed methods approach by spatially analyzing the location of informal fresh food vendors in ArcGIS, developing a qualitative analysis of the level of proliferation of this network through interviews conducted with vendors and conducting surveys of residents' access patterns and purchasing habits for fresh produce in the city. Findings Results from this study indicate that the role of density, transportation systems, domestic/household structure, cultural traditions and a bureaucratic system rife with its own challenges have resulted in a distinct infrastructure of food retail networks that has harvested forms of inequalities and injustices that inherently fuel this informal economy. Originality/value There is no published study to date that has been done to spatially assess the informal food network in any dense city in India, let alone Mumbai to date. Urban informality, by its nature, is hard to capture, and yet this study takes a holistic view of the food systems in Mumbai, by addressing the location, supply (through vendor interviews) and demand factors (through resident surveys).
... For more than hundred years, the public markets have been deemed significant by the scholars in promoting business formation, supplying convenient and cheaper goods and fresh products, enhancing civic life, and incorporating the new residents into society (Tangires, 2003). During the course of history, these urban markets have been the headquarters of economic life (Morales, 2009). Entering these urban markets was comparatively easier so they provided a means of generating wealth for the citizens who could not make business with more capital-intensive enterprises. ...
Article
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Despite the increasing number of shopping centers day by day, the urban markets, whose visitors and popularities continue to increase, are the facts of urban life that have been left behind in terms of making even ordinary analyses on their historical positions and socio- economic stances. Urban markets are intense areas of socialization apart from all their important features. In this context, the quality and quantity of times spent in these areas should be configured in the best possible manner. The main subject of this study is the evaluation of the urban markets (district bazaar/street market), which is a subject worth to be examined in historical, architectural, economic, environmental, scientific and socio- logical aspects, specifically in Bilecik (Turkey), with regard to urban planning and design criteria. In the study, it is aimed to examine the study areas comparatively in line with the surveys that contain general questions that will determine the planning and design prefer- ences applied to the users in two marketplaces in different parts of the city in Bilecik and the observation studies made in the market places. The gathered data were analyzed using normal statistical methods of the SPSS program. A set of urban market items were defined using the factor analysis in order for designating the main and underlying factors.
... Discussions of community development have alternatively focused on community-based and equitable approaches to planning on one hand (Brand 2015;Rosen, O'Neill, and Hutson 2018;Sarmiento and Duarte 2015;Zapata and Bates 2017), or real estate, economic development, and housing policy on the other (Anacker and Niedt 2019; Cabrera and Najarian 2013; Kane and Weber 2016;Morales 2009;Mueller et al. 2011). While not mutually exclusive, the two sides of community development's representation in planning reflects often divergent understandings and approaches to the field that typically emphasize either "community" or "development" in community development practice. ...
Article
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The challenges metropolitan regions, cities and towns, neighborhoods, and villages face require community development skills that address complex community problems, engage multiple publics, and pursue collective strategies. However, there is no consensus about how community development should be taught due to its various understandings, theories, and approaches. The article presents the results of a community development educator survey and illustrates a diversity of responses to educational delivery among forty-eight respondents representing twenty-seven community development programs in the United States. We compare the perspectives of respondents who teach in planning programs with other community development educators to discuss commonalities and differences.
... A century ago, public markets were recognized and established by governments to ameliorate shocks in urban systems from inadequate food access, unemployment, and immigration [1]. More recently, the many benefits of markets have been characterized, and research has described the utility of markets for community development [2,3]. Pre-COVID, marketplaces had been left to their own devices. ...
Article
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Marketplaces and vendors weave together social integration, ecological awareness and caring, and economic inclusivity [...]
... They are being rediscovered by relatively affluent customers who are interested in local, environmentally friendly, and organic goods [16]. Increasingly, marketplaces are considered to support economic activity and public health by providing affordable, fresh, and healthy food [26,30]. Marketplaces also play an important social role. ...
Article
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Traditional marketplace trade brings many socio-economic benefits: it affects the local labour market, entrepreneurship, and tourism. In many countries, activities are undertaken to support the operation of marketplaces. In recent years, new threats to the development of marketplaces have emerged, such as cheap discount shops, supermarkets, and online shops. The inhabitants of many cities still enjoy shopping at traditional marketplaces. The aim of the research is to assess the development of marketplace trade in large cities in Poland. Eurostat does not provide detailed data on marketplaces in Poland. We decided to fill this gap. Additionally, we assessed the attractiveness of large cities in Poland in terms of the development of marketplace trade in the years 2008–2019 by means of linear ordering of objects (Hellwig’s composite measure of development). In the years 1995–2019, the number of marketplaces in Poland remained at a constant level, but since 2003 their area has decreased. However, the total number of marketplaces has increased compared to 1995. In the whole research period, Kraków and Katowice were the most attractive cities with respect to the development of the marketplace trade, while Gdańsk and Sosnowiec were the least attractive. The high position of Kraków results from the nature of the city and its tourist attractions, while the low position of Sosnowiec is caused by the existence of a large bazaar in nearby city of Będzin.
... Throughout the ages, and until a century ago, public markets were recognized and established by governments to ameliorate shocks in urban systems from inadequate food access, unemployment, and immigration [1]. More recently, the many benefits of markets have been characterized, and research has described the utility of markets for community development [2,3]. Pre-COVID, marketplaces had been left to their own devices. ...
Article
Full-text available
Marketplaces are almost as old as humanity. They result from trade and trade is structured by political, religious, social, and economic needs. Overtime, marketplaces have woven together relational processes representing each of these, in order to host trade, social life, political life, and all manner of economic activities. So, markets are bundles of activities tightly related reciprocally with, and in the context of social institutions. Likewise, marketplaces manifest expectations for how society sees itself and for how societies govern themselves. It is this framing opportunity which I exploit here. In this article I pursue the reconstruction of wicked problems to show how marketplaces are wicked opportunities. Wicked opportunity thinking can be applied to many other aspects of our contemporary life.
... Así, los llamados mercadillos, mercados de pulgas (fleamarkets o marche aux puces), swap-meets, mercados sobre ruedas o tianguis, presentan cinco valores que los caracterizan: el tipo de compradores, vendedores, la mercancía, el espacio y, sobre todo, su periodicidad, es decir su recurrencia en el espacio (Morales, 2009;. ...
Thesis
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En esta investigación se busca aportar elementos para la comprensión del valor asignado al entorno urbano arquitectónico desde la experiencia del usuario, sobre todo para aquellos lugares que por sus condiciones físicas y sociales pueden ser estigmatizados. Este trabajo, tiene como caso de estudio al Mercado Alianza, ubicado en el poniente de la ciudad de Torreón en el estado de Coahuila, México; sitio que refleja y del cual emanan una serie de fenómenos sociales de mayor complejidad al cumplimiento de una necesidad básica de abasto. Se destaca la identidad del lugar como un factor relevante para la definición, el entendimiento y la producción del entorno cotidiano para las personas. El objetivo de este trabajo, se centró en identificar los elementos que componen el carácter identitario del Mercado Alianza en la ciudad de Torreón, Coahuila, a partir del estudio de las formas de adaptación y apropiación espacial que emplean usuarios y locatarios.
Chapter
Contrasting the neoliberal capitalist framework, that we are autonomous agents living strictly for self-sufficiency and self-gratification, achieved through private ownership, profit, and wealth, an alternative economic framework seeks ways of living differently with each other and the earth. Urban agriculture (UA) has been seen as one way of living differently with each other and the earth, and as an important solution to many problems facing urban communities. From addressing urban food insecurity (Metcalf and Widener 2011) and public health challenges (Brown and Jameton 2000), to greening a city (Kremer and DeLiberty 2011) or building social capital (Alaimo et al. 2008), UA is often championed by environmental and social organizers alike. However, what are the economic advantages of UA and how does a community experience any of the benefits? When talking about urban food markets, often spoken of are the existing urban farmers markets promoting agricultural products from the urban-rural fringe (Pothukuchi 2004; Morales 2008; Sharp et al. 2011), but little attention is given to the presence (or lack thereof) of urban-produced food at markets and the positive impact that might have on a community. Through the work of Urban Tree Connection (UTC), a community-based greening organization in West Philadelphia, the small neighborhood of Haddington is reshaping their space through community collaboration, community sovereignty, and fresh produce. Founded in 1989 and incorporated in 1997, UTC’s work in Haddington is about a community defining their space and their economy. Through a place-based approach, UTC helped Haddington residents reclaim blighted land through the creation of a scattered site food enterprise, numerous community gardens, church food programs, and regular participation in a variety of Philadelphia’s farmers markets. This chapter will outline the work of UTC in the theoretical context of civic agriculture and alternative economies, as well as community sovereignty, by highlighting the role of UA as a community empowerment tool owned and operated by residents in the neighborhood.
Article
Purpose Farmers markets act as a nexus between farmers, community members and social values, and can foster significant community and environmental benefits. However, some of these benefits, including agricultural sustainability, are rarely measured or publicized, restricting the full potential of markets and their associated actors to generate public benefits. This study aims to consider how markets, planners and policymakers might address this gap to promote a healthy environment and climate change mitigation. Design/methodology/approach In this article, the authors discuss their efforts to advance the above opportunity by developing, in collaboration with 20 farms across the USA, a citizen science data collection tool that measures and translates farm “ecosystem services” into accessible, public-facing formats to support informed farmer and consumer decision-making. Findings The authors present takeaways from exploratory interviews with three farmer-collaborators, which illustrate how tools like ours can help farmers in myriad ways: setting benchmarks to measure on-farm improvement over time, legitimizing their work through scientific grounding, communicating environmental impacts to public audiences, increasing sales to fund sustainability efforts, gaining competitive edge and others. Practical implications More broadly, the article exemplifies how marketplaces can strengthen symbiotic linkages between individuals, community allies and social goals through data measurement and communication, and reflects on how planners and policymakers might support these connections to advance public purposes. Originality/value This research responds uniquely to a critical need identified by practitioners and academics to expand understanding and awareness of the ecosystem services farms provide.
Article
Purpose Marketplaces have been central to civilization, as they foster trade and social life. Marketplaces are built environment (BE) interventions which, when looked at through a historical lens, reflect inequalities and subsequent deployment by people of color (POC). While the resurgence of farmers’ markets is a positive stride towards food justice over the past three decades, studies show that the disparities of class inequality and geographic constraints are key limitations to access for vulnerable populations. The fundamental question of this paper is, how can farmers’ markets use data to strategize and plan in ways that better serve their communities and give them more control? Design/methodology/approach This paper brings together applied methods in marketplace research and spatial analytical processes geographic information systems (GISs) to inform the research questions through an intersectional model of analysis. Data analysis merges local data collected from the market organization using the Farm 2 Facts toolkit and publicly available data to conduct geospatial analysis of the markets and their surrounding context. Two case studies are explored in Cotati, CA, and Brownsville, TX. Findings Despite the similarities and nuances of the two case studies, the data show that both markets serve a narrow pool of customers extended a couple of miles from the market. (1) The markets are not serving communities with the most need. (2) Farmers’ markets need to increase affiliation with POC. (3) Farmers’ market locations can impact control over one's environment. Originality/value The research builds of Nussbaum's capabilities model and explores three capabilities that are in line with what markets (1) bodily health, (2) affiliation and perhaps most significantly (3) control over one's own environment. Farmers’ market location can impact control over one's environment.
Cover Page
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This is the translated contents and a four-page summary in English of my PhD thesis. The thesis is also available in my profile, but it is in Bulgarian language.
Raw Data
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Това е откъс от дисертацията с минимум теория, за неспециализирано четене. Ударението е на етнографския материал и устната история за Женския пазар. Пълният текст също е на разположение в профила ми. This is a reduced version of the text for my PhD thesis, omitting most theory and emphasising the collected ethnographic and oral history material. (In Bulgarian.)
Article
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The pandemic has accelerated the search for innovative product/process/service solutions in city markets as well as the search for “open innovation challenges” more in line with current needs. The aim of the research is to understand the adaptation mechanisms of the local food system and, in particular, of the public space of the market system. The article analyses the change produced by the COVID-19 pandemic in the municipal markets of Sant Feliu de Guixols, Costa Brava, Spain. The data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to food sellers and contextually to a group of consumers. Factor analysis and the AGIL model were applied to the data collected and were confirmed with cluster analysis. The analysis highlights that the resilience of sellers is no longer sufficient and in many cases, they have equipped themselves with innovative solutions to meet the new customer demands arising from the pandemic (food delivery, e-commerce, take-away food, digital media, etc.). The document concludes with a discussion of food markets and innovations introduced in this period. Further studies can focus on the relationships between food practices and the transformation of urban spaces so that the food market can support new social practices that promote the food transition. The change would represent a switch which would provide traditionally less powerful actors, such as producers, the opportunity to reformulate the food supply chain in a way more linked to the territory. It would also create a resilient dimension for managing other possible food crises and present a challenge to achieving the ultimate goals of the businesses.
Conference Paper
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Even if healthy food is back on the agenda of a growing number of cities, for far too many people, and especially for those living in lowincome neighbourhoods, the access to healthy options is simply out of reach. These underserved urban spaces have recently received a great deal of attention, seen as the product of poor proximity, means of transportation and shopping options in low income neighbourhoods. Street vending, as an interim use, is a mean to promote a livelier and healthier city, a potential tool that may generate positive community changes, if the agenda used to promote it specifically address existing inequalities. This paper argues for the use of street food vending as an innovative tool to counteract food deserts and to activate the public space of previously dramatic urban areas. It focuses on specific northAmerica street food strategies: New York City, Philadelphia, Seattle and Toronto have devised similar street food strategies with the aim to increase access to healthy food for the most vulnerable people.
Article
This study considers the effects of location on farmers’ market success using the relocation of the farmers’ market in Flint, Michigan, as a case study. It examines whether relocating the market benefitted vendors; whether the direct economic impact (DEI) of the market increased post-relocation; whether spending patterns vary by day of the week and season; and whether different estimates of DEI are obtained when accounting for seasonal variations in spending rates. The results indicate that the relocation increased vendors’ profits and satisfaction, the DEI of the new market was much higher than the old, there are daily and seasonal differences in spending rates, and accounting for season resulted in an estimated DEI that was higher than would have been obtained otherwise. Overall, the study demonstrates that location matters – the market’s economic outcomes greatly improved by moving from an isolated location on the outskirts of downtown to the city’s core.
Conference Paper
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Building inclusive and healthy cities is perhaps the greatest challenge facing humanity today. There are no easy solutions, but a key part of the puzzle lies in some activities that take place in the public spaces. Street vending is an important segment of the food strategy with significant implications for food security for the marginalized people in urban areas. Across the world this topic is growing in popularity, coinciding with the interest in local food systems and mixed-use planning in urban neighborhoods. This paper argues for the use of street food vending, markets and food trucks, as a tool to counteract food deserts and to activate the public space of previously dramatic urban areas. It claims that through healthy food option in public space, it is possible to reinvigorate disinvested areas, improving health and urban outcomes in places that need them most. It starts by explaining the significant planning background and then it focuses on specific north-America street food strategies: New York City, Philadelphia, Seattle and Toronto do not have a previous vibrant street food culture, but this has been developed in order to regenerate and counteract specific urban issues. The final purpose of all these strategies is to achieve more resilient, livable, greener and healthier cities. The paper forms part of a wider research project on street food vending as a catalyst of deep urban revitalization processes and ultimately argues that in order to make cities and towns more livable, we must consider food and its wide benefits. A shared recognition of the role that markets and food trucks play in creating more livable, vibrant neighborhoods and healthy communities has sparked support for different projects and initiatives, enhancing more sustainable and livable cities.
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Food’s place on the urban, municipal agenda has become an increasing focus in the emergent fields of food policy and food planning, whose leaders argue that food needs to be more explicitly added to the urban agenda. Yet, public food markets are a food system activity that municipal governments have been long engaged in. Reports from leading health, planning, and food organizations assert that farmers markets—the dominant form of public retail food markets in the US today—should be explicitly included in zoning and other municipal codes to ensure that they can be created and sustained. Despite their popularity as a local sustainable food system and healthy food access strategy, it is unclear whether markets have been codified through municipalities’ planning and policy instruments, and research has largely not addressed this topic. This study aims to elicit whether markets have been codified into law, focusing on US municipal charters, codes and zoning ordinances, using Michigan, an upper Midwest state, as a case. After analyzing municipal documents to determine whether and where markets have been codified into law in ninety Michigan cities, this study concludes that markets are highly underrepresented in municipal policy, rarely defined in code, and mostly absent from zoning ordinances, even among those cities with currently operating markets. Market presence in code is, however, associated with the presence of historically operated markets. These findings raise questions about why markets are missing from codified food policy and what risks this poses to the future of markets. They also highlight the need to better document the market sector and underline the importance of including historic perspectives when examining the efficacy of current food policy efforts.
Book
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The efficient usage, investigation, and promotion of new methods, tools, and technologies within the field of architecture, particularly in urban planning and design, is becoming more critical as innovation holds the key to cities becoming smarter and ultimately more sustainable. In response to this need, strategies that can potentially yield more realistic results are continually being sought. The Handbook of Research on Digital Research Methods and Architectural Tools in Urban Planning and Design is a critical reference source that comprehensively covers the concepts and processes of more than 20 new methods in both planning and design in the field of architecture and aims to explain the ways for researchers to apply these methods in their works. Pairing innovative approaches alongside traditional research methods, the physical dimensions of traditional and new cities are addressed in addition to the non-physical aspects and applied models that are currently under development in new settlements such as sustainable cities, smart cities, creative cities, and intercultural cities. Featuring a wide range of topics such as built environment, urban morphology, and city information modeling, this book is essential for researchers, academicians, professionals, technology developers, architects, engineers, and policymakers.
Article
Problem, research strategy, and findings Markets have been central to civilization, fostering trade and social life. Although markets take a variety of forms and sizes, existing planning research does not engage with flea markets and swap meets. In this study we explore four Latino vendor markets (LVMs), classified as flea markets or swap meets, in two predominantly Latino states, California and Texas. We analyze Latino vendor markets through the lens of place attachment from three perspectives: basic economic activity, social and human interactions, and their physical setting. We draw our results from 198 surveys with vendors and customers, interviews with key informants, and detailed on-site observations. We find that LVMs are vibrant and lively places where attachment and feelings of belonging manifest; we identify them as one-stop shops and places of purposeful interactions. Our findings are limited by the scope of the geographic focus of the research. Takeaway for practice Forward thinking in planning pushes away from a legacy of exclusionary practices and into an inclusive approach. Our study gives planners a better understanding of how LVMs work and their capacity to create place attachment in the process of providing for basic needs. Planners should embrace the presence of a critical mass of people as an opportunity to support community development at the markets and reach out to and support hard-to-reach populations.
Article
In recent years, Beijing has implemented urban renewal policies aimed at forcing out rural migrants to restrict the city’s population. One such policy restricts their access to public schools. We use the demolition of the Beijing Sun Palace Farmers’ Market to examine the long-term impacts of these policies on the educational status of migrant children in Beijing. Based on a survey and in-depth interviews with migrant vendors, we find that government-initiated urban remodelling campaigns have an enduring impact on their social mobility and the educational opportunities of their children. Despite severe limitations to their mobility and economic opportunities, many migrant vendors were still determined to stay in Beijing. Subsequently, their worsened living status significantly affected their children’s prospects. Migrant children caught in this urban dynamic either struggle in substandard informal migrant schools in Beijing or are left behind in their hometowns, with little hope of a good education or improved social status.
Chapter
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The purpose of this chapter is to discuss critically, based on a review of recent literature on the topic, the challenges faced by urban tourism destinations with regards to eTourism and new technologies.
Article
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Purpose The starting premise of the case study is to describe the ongoing interventions and experiences within the observed public marketplaces' organization. The objective of the research is to examine specified aspects of social and economic perspectives and the role of marketplaces in changing the local surroundings and economy of the Serbian capital and its largest city – Belgrade. Design/methodology/approach Multiple methods of analysis, such as archival investigation, participants' observation and semi-structured interviews were conducted. To inspect the research questions, the case implemented qualitative research that sampled 21 employees in the examined public company which manages all the analyzed urban marketplaces. Findings This case study will describe the city-sponsored organization, the Public Utility Company (PUC), that sustains marketplaces and the implications of that city sponsorship. Additionally, the outcomes describe the social and economic impact of marketplaces in placemaking around the region. Practical implications The most imperative implications of the manuscript are twofold: (1) the research results have shown that the potential of the city marketplaces can be increased through the support of the PUC and the city government; (2) as one of the first empirical projects about the social organization of the marketplaces in this part of Europe, the findings provide an overview of the contemporary market processes, and market outcomes. This study can affect other future research to explore similar aspects of the markets' organization. Social implications This research can encourage comparable future examinations to explore other components of the market, varying in the regional diversities on one hand, and the manifold prospects for the community development with fewer benefits, on the other. Originality/value The study analyzes all the local markets in the selected urban area. This is the first empirical research on the social perspective and the role of marketplaces in the process of changing the modern society and economy in Belgrade. Moreover, it may contribute to future analysis in the field of social perspective and economic directions in future strategies of city planning.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine public market functions in three different continents (Europe, North America and Asia) and to identify a set of planning implications for their use in contexts of urban regeneration. Design/methodology/approach The paper presents a comparative analysis of four downtown market functions based on the LABiMAAM framework: [L]ocation; [A]ccessibility; [B]uilding; [i]nternal structure; [M]ain trading area; [A]menities and services; [A]nimation program; and [M]anagement structure. Findings The lessons learned suggest that centrally located public markets possess: social functions aimed at guaranteeing food security, urban development goals that prevent the leap-frog suburbanization of the territory, walkability goals that reduce automobile dependence and welfare goals that support disenfranchised, usually minority, populations. Research limitations/implications Positive and dire implications are identified. The former are structured in terms of these five categories, namely, social, financial, macro-spatial, environmental and public space; while the latter tend to result mostly from the abandonment of the public good orientation associated with having a public market function in a central location. Originality/value This study results from the realization of increasing developmental pressures and widespread tendencies to multiply specialized retail offers in both traditional, and especially, innovative commercial formats. The findings comprise the identification of public policies aimed at augmenting the relevance of commercial urbanism and urban regeneration strategies.
Article
Although sales at farmers markets have been on the rise for a few decades, a regular challenge faced by market managers is how to ensure that their vendors are best positioned to maximize what they can capture in market sales. Farmers markets have varying degrees of data collection and data analysis. This study aims to demonstrate the value of under­standing data, so that market managers can take informed, effective steps to increase sales for their vendors. This is accomplished using 13 years of weekly sales data from the Williamsburg Farmers Market (WFM). The dataset categorized sales by produce, specialty crops, animal products, value-added products, non-edible crafts, and plant sales. This allowed us to explore the relationship between vendor variety and sales. In this paper we ask: To what extent does vendor and product variety affect sales at farmers markets? We use dynamic panel econometric models, including a vendor variety index and other salient market factors, to explore how market characteristics may affect overall mar­ket sales. We find that greater vendor variety in terms of the products they offer increases sales both on the aggregate and across vendor types. Based on these findings we argue that one signifi­cant thing that market managers can do to boost sales for their vendors is to increase the variety of offerings through the recruitment of vendors who can bring differing product types to the market.
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Objective This study provides the first nationally representative portrait of unregistered (informal) Latino‐owned businesses (LOBs) in the United States. Methods We employ data from the 2018 Stanford Latino Entrepreneurship Initiative Survey of 4,024 U.S. LOBs. We estimate the determinants of unregistered LOBs through a set of independent variables derived from entrepreneur demographics/firm characteristics utilizing a binomial logistic regression to predict the odds of group membership between (un)registered LOBs. Results Approximately one‐third of LOBs across the United States operate as unregistered enterprises. We find that LOB firm registration is associated with higher levels of education of the entrepreneur and larger size of the LOB. We uncover further links between entrepreneur acculturation and gender, and firm product offering and clientele ethnicity, with firm registration. Conclusion For the first time, we are able to establish a quantitative baseline for informality and firm registration among LOBs using a nationally representative sample.
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This research is based on a case study of ethnic entrepreneurship in Little Village, a predominantly Mexican community in Chicago. The study focuses on Mexicans, who have been understudied in the field of ethnic entrepreneurship. Instead of focusing on individuals who operate storefront businesses, this paper addresses informal self-employment, a neglected issue in studies concerning immigrants' incorporation into the labor market of the host society. By broadening the scope of the study to include not only business owners, but a full range of self-employment activities among Little Village residents, such as street vending, house repairs, and baby-sitting, this study dispels myths about the low propensity for self-employment among Mexicans and reveals the complexity of self-employment as a form of economic activity. This consideration is particularly important for immigrant women, who often supplement family income through informal self-employment. The data also confirm that most self-employment remains marginal. Given the precarious situation of Mexican immigrants in the host labor market, many individuals become informally self-employed when they lose their jobs. Informal self-employment provides incomes for people whose social circumstances (undocumented status or low education) deny them access to paid jobs and supplements incomes of low-wage salaried workers (moonlighters).
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The literature on entrepreneurship is primarily elitist, placing a large emphasis on firm size and location, innovation, proprietorship, and capital start-up. Missing from this body of literature are the temporary, low-wage self-employed. Using day labourers as a case study, I challenge the narrow and conceptually problematic definitions of entrepreneurship while also countering popular perceptions of day labour. Drawing upon 481 randomly surveyed day labourers, ethnographic field notes and in-depth interviews, I empirically show that a significant segment of the day labour population comprises an entrepreneurial class. I argue that day labourers fit into the class of entrepreneurs known as survivalist entrepreneurs. Day labourers show characteristics of both value and disadvantaged survivalist entrepreneurs in their day-to-day search for employment. I conclude that a larger number of day labourers fall under the 'disadvantaged' rubric of survivalist entrepreneurs, with the remainder undertaking this form of employment for reasons of choice and other attributes congruent with their labour market and personal values related to autonomy and flexibility.
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Provide a general contemporary overview of street vending around the world, focusing on the major issues underlying its permanence as a phenomenon, and the ambivalent attitudes displayed towards it by governments and off-street business communities. Focuses on street vendors as an occupational group ad includes arguments for and against their existence, the impact of their geographical and economic location, and role of the government.
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Description Originally published in 1990, Urban Markets looks at how the informal sector of the economy should be encouraged to assist in the alleviation of problems of poverty and unemployment. Despite this rhetoric, few concrete, implementable ways have been developed. This book is concerned with one such potential strategy which the authors consider to be particularly effective: the creation of both built and open markets for very small retailers and wholesalers. Based on experience of observing such markets in several continents, the authors combine a discussion of the theoretical issues surrounding the creation of urban markets with practical hints of how to establish and run them.
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Vividly told and richly illustrated with more than 160 photographs, The Jews of Chicago is the fascinating story of the cultural, religious, fraternal, economic, and everyday life of Chicago's Jews. This edition of Irving Cutler's definitive historical volume also includes a new foreword written by the author. The first comprehensive history of Chicago's Jewish population in eighty years, The Jews of Chicago brings to life the people, events, neighborhoods, and institutions that helped shape today's Jewish community. Cutler intertwines neighborhood histories with representative biographical vignettes of some of Chicago's best known figures, such as Edna Ferber, Saul Bellow, Benny Goodman, Mel Torme, Studs Terkel, Paul Muni, Mandy Patinkin, Emil G. Hirsch, Julius Rosenwald, Dankmar Adler, Arthur Goldberg, Philip Klutznick, and many others. From their roots in the Old Country to their present-day communities, Cutler captures in extraordinary detail the remarkable saga of the Jews of Chicago.
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The ethnic identity and occupation of sellers in an urban farmers' market in St. Louis, Missouri, are correlated. German-Americans tend to be farmers while sellers of Italian ancestry are produce merchants. This difference is explained with reference to the economic history of the St. Louis metropolitan area.-from Authors
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The US street designers are part of a larger American Planning Association (APA) that is intended to recognize 10 streets and 10 neighborhoods that meet the criteria for great places in the country. Factors taken into account include maintenance, sustainability, safety, and connectivity. 125th Street is Harlerm's Main Street, included in the list is intended to be developed both as regional business district and as a cultural, arts, and entertainment district. Ocean Drive at the south end of Miami Beach offers a pace-a 10-block art deco blockbuster. Grand 19 is an avenue widely known for the 11 statues at intersections along its 40-ft-wide median, recognizing Confederate figures. Meandering Main Street in Northampton is a bustling commercial and civil center for the New England college town.
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The American Planning Association (APA) has recognized 10 great neighborhoods and 10 great streets in the US based on criteria that were used to evaluate a total of about 100 nominations put forward by planners and others. The neighborhoods that qualified are mainly socially, culturally and economically diverse. For instance, San Diego's Hillcrest neighborhood has attracted a number of gay and lesbian people and has been part of the neighborhood and now has a major influence in helping to reinvigorate urban neighborhoods throughout the county. Majority of the great neighborhoods are situated close to the city center, as well having at least one public spot where people can spend some time. One such neighborhood is the Park Slope Prospect Park, which provides a specific place for people of all ages to hang out. Shops and services are provided by the best neighborhoods and can be a place where national chains are not prominent.
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The American Planning Association has selected ten great streets in America, which were selected out of 100 nominations. The streets are nominated for their maintenance, sustainability and safety as well as their connectivity. The cities encourage social activities and take all types of users into account. The cities feature memorable features such as tall trees, pleasant houses, a row of small shops and a popular cafe. One of the cities that qualified include the 125th Street in New York, Martin Luther King Jr., Boulevard. The street has been elemental in helping develop the place's culture and arts as well as entertainment district. Another is the Ocean Drive at the south end of Miami Beach which has a 10-block art deco blockbuster. Along the line Monument Avenue in Richmond, Virginia are grand 19th and early 20th century homes and has been known for the 11 statues at intersections. Other great streets include St. Charles Avenue in New Orleans' Garden District, Main Street in Northampton, Massachusetts, the Canyon Road in Santa Fe, South Temple Street on downtown Salt Lake City, Delmar Boulevard Loop in St. Louis and University City and Savannah's Bull Street.
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The temporary, interim and intermittent uses are activities that share a common planning classification which are all part of a growing trend that responds to new planning needs. This temporary uses brings out many uses. It draws positive attention, it adds immediate neighborhood amenities, it incubates innovative business ideas and it buys time while planning and community input are on the process. In Germany, temporary uses have drawn the attention of international researchers and generally, it can attract tourists. With this, local governments have supported and streamlined such interim uses to include community gardens.
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Foreword by Robert E. Friedman Preface Background Introduction Self-Employment Theories Empirical Analyses of Self-Employment Immigrant and Ethnic Group Experience with Self-Employment Black Business Movements Program Descriptions Self-Employment Programs in the Third World and Europe Self-Employment Training Programs in the United States Targeted to Low-Income People Policy and Evaluation Policies to Encourage Self-Employment for Low-Income Persons: Modest Goals and Support Linkages Policies to Encourage Self-Employment for Low-Income Persons: Creating Supportive Institutions and a Research Agenda Job Creation Through Encouragement of Self-Employment Evaluation for Self-Employment Programs Bibliography Index
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This article presents results from a study of the informal economy carried out by interviewing a national probability sample of approximately 2100 families. Each family was asked about purchases it had made from vendors who were selling goods and services on the side. A number of questions were asked about each vendor to help verify that vendors were indeed functioning as informal suppliers. Although not all characteristics had to be present for any single supplier, informal suppliers were characterized as individuals who had casual record-keeping systems, lacked a fixed place of business, and relied upon word of mouth and other casual means of advertising. Typical of such vendors are automobile mechanics operating in a home garage, produce sellers operating from a roadside stand, and craftsmen who operate from a pickup truck or in a home workshop. It was found that about $42 billion in informal economic activity took place in 1981 and that four out of every five American families purchased something from an informal vendor. Home repairs, accounting for over $12 billion, constituted the largest form of informal economic activity. The second most important was food sales.
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Planning researchers tend to use single quantitative and/or qualitative research methods in their investigations. Unfortunately, single method research strategies run the risk of missing significant data sets that can cripple a planning investigation. We argue that combining methods into a mixed-method research design provides planning investigators a more comprehensive understanding than would be possible under a single method. The goal of the paper is to cultivate interest in combining quantitative and qualitative investigations into mixed-method planning research strategies and to highlight how and why investigators use mixed-method research strategies.
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EDQ introduces a new format to the Forum section in this issue. Periodically an article is submitted to us that raises important policy or methodological issues that have generated sharp responses from external reviewers. We believe that the debate that has taken place between the authors and reviewers is of such importance that we have then solicited people to comment on the article. Controversy on Maxwell Street raises the issue of the marriage of anthropologic and economic techniques in economic development analysis. We hope that you find this debate as stimulating as we did. Controversy on Maxwell Street began when Morales, Balkin, and Persky submitted their article, “The Value of Benefits of a Public Street Market: The Case of Maxwell Street.” We then requested that Rhoda H. Halperin and Wim Wiewel respond. Following their responses is a rejoinder by the authors. Chicago's Maxwell Street Market was among the oldest open-air public markets in the United States. The market was closed in August 1994 and a smaller alternative market was opened on Canal Street. This article estimates monetary losses resulting from the closure of the market. First, the authors briefly discuss the markets history, followed by a review of the literature on the informal economy. The problem of quantifying the value of street vending is addressed by combining ethnographic and economic analytical methods. Ethnography is introduced in the article's third section. The authors demonstrate the usefulness of merging ethnographic and economic analysis by estimating monetary losses to vendors and consumers as a result of changes in the market's governance and location.
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Focuses on street vending in Chicago, in the USA, taking a historical perspective. Shows how it was used to alleviate unemployment in the volatile progressive era but then became mired in complaints about corruption and vice. Uses a case study of an entrepreneurial Mexican family and highlights the wisdom of earlier days by showing how street vending offers a series of choices that are different from the choices made by larger forms only in that they are more accessible to the poor.
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In the face of increasing suburbanization during the past half century, most downtowns towns have experienced decline, particularly those of small metropolitan regions. A survey of planners (both practitioners and academics) and other urban professionals has sought to identify small metropolitan regions considered to have successful downtowns and the factors associated with this success. Only a small number of such North American metropolitan regions were perceived as possessing a very successful or successful downtown. Factors that characterize such success are described. We conclude that revitalization policies should concentrate on niche markets that show little interest in homogenized suburban activities. More specifically, planners should focus on the retention and enhancement of the distinct physical characteristics that clearly distinguish downtowns from suburban environments.
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The number of retail farmers' markets in the USA increased dramatically in the twentieth century, with a burst of growth experienced after the passage of Public Law 94–463 (PL 94–463), the Farmer-to-Consumer Direct Marketing Act of 1976. This article inventories the literature since the Second World War on retail farmers' markets and direct marketing in North America. The inventory includes some lesser known studies from 1970 to 1985. The reports are grouped into four categories by topical area: consumers and vendors, economic impact, social impact and farmers' markets as research sites. Overall, the literature on farmers' markets is found to be scant, leaving ample room for new and exciting explorations of this venerable institution.
Article
We conduct a comprehensive analysis of Mexican-American entrepreneurship. We find that low levels of education and wealth explain the entire gap between Mexican immigrants and non-Latino whites in business formation rates; together with language ability, these factors explain nearly the entire gap in business income. Legal status represents an additional barrier for Mexican immigrants, reducing business ownership rates by 0.7 percentage points. Human and financial capital deficiencies limit business ownership and business success among second and third-generation Mexican-Americans to a lesser extent. These findings have implications for the debates over the assimilation of Mexican-Americans in the United States.
Article
The offspring of self-employed fathers are more likely than others to become self-employed. Thus the historically low rates of self-employment among African-Americans and Latinos may contribute to their low contemporary rates. National data show that African-Americans and Latinos whose fathers were self-employed have lower rates of self-employment than other men whose fathers were not self-employed. Other aspects of family background explain only a small portion of the self-employment gap between African-Americans and native-born white ancestry groups. Male immigrants who have self-employed fathers overseas are no more likely to be self-employed than other immigrants are.
Article
Nearly a century after it was first published in 1925, Medieval Cities remains one of the most provocative works of medieval history ever written. Here, Henri Pirenne argues that it was not the invasion of the Germanic tribes that destroyed the civilization of antiquity, but rather the closing of Mediterranean trade by Arab conquest in the seventh century. The consequent interruption of long-distance commerce accelerated the decline of the ancient cities of Europe. Pirenne challenges conventional wisdom by attributing the origins of medieval cities to the revival of trade, tracing their growth from the tenth century to the twelfth. He also describes the important role the middle class played in the development of the modern economic system and modern culture. Featuring a new introduction by Michael McCormick, this Princeton Classics edition of Medieval Cities is essential reading for all students of medieval European history.
Article
Includes vita and abstract. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Northwestern University, 1993. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 242-263). Photocopy. s
Article
We focus on the intergenerational transmission of the propensity to be self-employed. Our emphasis is on the role of family background, and in particular, on what we call the intergenerational pick-up rate with respect to self-employment, the probability that a person with a self-employed parent will become self-employed him or herself. We use the General Social Survey, a data source with rich information on individuals' family histories, to investigate how family background affects self-employment probabilities and to document how racial and ethnic groups differ with respect to the intergenerational pick-up rate. We confirm earlier findings that father's self-employment status is an important determinant of offspring's self-employment outcomes. New results include: 1) The impact of paternal self-employment differs by race. 2) Even independent of father's occupation, family structure plays a role. 3) Blacks have lower self-employment rates than whites in part because they have different family structures; still, within each family type, blacks have lower self-employment rates. 4) Extrapolating current patterns into the future, there is no indication that black and white self-employment rates will converge any time soon. 5) The relatively high self-employment rates of immigrants carry into the next generation, but not beyond that. 6) Male immigrants who have self-employed fathers re no more likely to be self-employed than other immigrants.
A woman's place is on the Street: Purposes and problems of Mexican American women entre-preneurs. Wealth Creation and Business Formation Among Mexican-Americans: History, Circumstances and Prospects The value of benefits of a public street market: The case of Maxwell Street
  • Alfonso Morales
  • Forthcoming John S
  • Alfonso Butler
  • David Torres Morales
Morales, Alfonso. Forthcoming. A woman's place is on the Street: Purposes and problems of Mexican American women entre-preneurs. Wealth Creation and Business Formation Among Mexican-Americans: History, Circumstances and Prospects. ed. John S. Butler, Alfonso Morales and David Torres. West Lafayette, Purdue University Press. at Universitats-Landesbibliothek on March 26, 2014 jpe.sagepub.com Downloaded from Morales Morales, Alfonso, Steve Balkin, and Joe Persky. 1995. The value of benefits of a public street market: The case of Maxwell Street. Economic Development Quarterly 9 (4): 17.
City bountiful: A century of community gardening in America
  • Laura J Lawson
Lawson, Laura J. 2005. City bountiful: A century of community gardening in America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Making money at the market: The social and economic logic of informal markets. Unpublished dissertation. Northwestern University, Department of Sociology Income tax compliance and alternative views of ethics and human nature
  • Morales
  • Alfonso
Morales, Alfonso. 1993. Making money at the market: The social and economic logic of informal markets. Unpublished dissertation. Northwestern University, Department of Sociology, Evanston, IL. Morales, Alfonso. 1998. Income tax compliance and alternative views of ethics and human nature. Journal of Accounting, Ethics and Public Policy 1 (3): 21.
Chicago's Jewish street peddlers
  • Carolyn Eastwood
Eastwood, Carolyn. 1991. Chicago's Jewish street peddlers. Chicago: Chicago Jewish Historical Society.
How markets can turn a place around
  • Benjamin N Fried
Fried, Benjamin. n.d. How markets can turn a place around. Project for Public Spaces. http://www.pps.org/markets/ info/markets_articles/markets_placemaking.
Planning and zoning for day labor cen-ters. Zoning Practice
  • Eisenburger
  • Max
Eisenburger, Max. 2007. Planning and zoning for day labor cen-ters. Zoning Practice 9 (September):
Jewish Maxwell Street stories, voices of America
  • Shuli Eshel
  • Roger Schatz
Eshel, Shuli, and Roger Schatz. 2004. Jewish Maxwell Street stories, voices of America. Charleston, SC: Arcadia.
Legal responses to sidewalk vending: The case of Los Angeles, California. In Street entrepreneurs: People, place and politics in local and global perspective
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Kettles, Gregg W. 2007. Legal responses to sidewalk vending: The case of Los Angeles, California. In Street entrepreneurs: People, place and politics in local and global perspective, ed. John C. Cross and Alfonso Morales, 58-78. London: Routledge.
Trade and market in the early empires: Economies in history and theory Exploring the underground economy: Studies of illegal and unreported activity Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Project for Public Spaces. n.d. Public markets as a vehicle for social integration and upward mobility
  • Pirenne
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Pirenne, Henri. 1925. Medieval cities: Their origins and the revival of trade. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Polanyi, Karl, Conrad M. Arensberg, and Harry W. Pearson, eds. 1957. Trade and market in the early empires: Economies in history and theory. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. Pozo, Susan, ed. 1996. Exploring the underground economy: Studies of illegal and unreported activity. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Project for Public Spaces. n.d. Public markets as a vehicle for social integration and upward mobility. http://www.pps.org/ pdf/Ford_Report.pdf.
From peddlers to merchants
  • Joseph Levine
Levine, Joseph. 1979. From peddlers to merchants. Fort Wayne: Indiana Jewish Historical Society.
Hawkers and peddlers
  • Gotthard Deutsch
Deutsch, Gotthard. 1904. Hawkers and peddlers. In The Jewish encyclopedia. New York: Funk and Wagnalls.
Manhattan's 14th Street vendors' market: Informal street peddlers' relationship with New York City's formal economy
  • John Gaber
Gaber, John. 1994. Manhattan's 14th Street vendors' market: Informal street peddlers' relationship with New York City's formal economy. Urban Anthropology 23 (4): 373-404.
Public markets and civic culture in nineteenthcentury America
  • Helen Tangires
Tangires, Helen. 2003. Public markets and civic culture in nineteenthcentury America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Public markets New York: Norton. Urban Vitality Group Food cartology: Rethinking urban spaces as people places
  • Tangires
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Tangires, Helen. 2008. Public markets. New York: Norton. Urban Vitality Group. 2008. Food cartology: Rethinking urban spaces as people places. http://www.portlandonline.com/ shared/cfm/image.cfm?id=200738.
Farmers' produce markets in the United States, pt. 1, History and description
  • J L Wann
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Wann, J. L., E. W. Cake, W. H. Elliott, and R. F. Burdette. 1948. Farmers' produce markets in the United States, pt. 1, History and description. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Temps welcome. Planning
  • Jenifer Gerend
Gerend, Jenifer. 2007. Temps welcome. Planning, December, 24-27.