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Use and non-use of public libraries in the information age: A logistic regression analysis of household characteristics and library services variables

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Abstract

For public libraries to achieve effective strategic planning, they must know who uses the public library and who does not use it. This study examines the characteristics of users and non-users of the public libraries using socio-demographic data from the Current Population Survey, a nationally representative survey of over 50,000 households conducted during October 13–19, 2002, and library services data from the Public Libraries Survey 2002. The study finds 34 variables to be significant. These variables including factors that have not often been studied, such as distance from the library, age/school attendance status, use of other types of library, and public library expenditure per state capita. It is also worth noting that disadvantaged groups, including ethnic minorities, recent immigrants, and people with disabilities, were less likely to use public libraries. This was true even after other factors such as education and income were held constant. The study provides a national-level assessment of the under-served populations. It also offers triangulation to other existing research, particularly qualitative information behavior studies of specific groups.

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... Using national level data, investigators have uncovered several relationships related to adult use of libraries. For example, patron income level, ethnicity, and age all translate into differences in public library use (Sin and Kim 2008), as do differences in the number of children living in a household (Hemmeter, 2006). Not surprisingly, the distance that a person lives from the library also influences levels of use (Sin and Kim, 2008). ...
... For example, patron income level, ethnicity, and age all translate into differences in public library use (Sin and Kim 2008), as do differences in the number of children living in a household (Hemmeter, 2006). Not surprisingly, the distance that a person lives from the library also influences levels of use (Sin and Kim, 2008). In turn, these differences impact the amount of time adults spend reading, and the amount of time they spend reading to their children (Bhatt, 2010). ...
... In turn, these differences impact the amount of time adults spend reading, and the amount of time they spend reading to their children (Bhatt, 2010). Contrary to conventional wisdom, individuals who use other types of libraries are more likely to use public libraries (Sin and Kim, 2008). ...
Article
Children’s librarians have long recognized the value of libraries for the development of children and adolescents and have championed for appropriate funding to support programs and services targeted to children, adolescents, and families. Using data from the Institute of Museum and Library Services National Public Library Survey, this study examined the relationships between the expenditures and resources of public libraries and children’s and young adults’ use. Three groups of variables were chosen from the dataset to represent expenditures, resources, and children’s and young adults’ library use respectively. Correlation analysis results reveal that most of the expenditures and resources variables were significantly correlated with children’s and young adults’ library use in libraries of all sizes. Further, analyses of material circulation and program attendance rates reveal that children’s materials account for more than one-third of total library material circulations and 70% of public library program participants attend programs designed for children. The findings of this study provide empirical evidence to support the investment in library resources and services for children and young adults and are discussed in light of expansion of library services and programming focused on informal learning.
... Parents of Black and Hispanic children are the most likely to look for more diverse reading materials (Scholastic, 2020). Sin and Kim (2008) found that ethnicity was statistically significant for library usage, with households whose head was of an ethnic minority being less likely to be library users compared to Non-Hispanic White households. A U.S. Pew Research Center on Hispanic Trends report (2105) found lower rates of library use by Hispanics (72%) than for white (83%) and black (80%) populations. ...
... However, how household income contributes to access to public library materials is in question. Sin and Kim (2008) found that middle income households were more likely to use the library than very low or very high-income households, yet Gilpin and Bekkerman (2020) found that households in the lowest socioeconomic quartile are the largest consumers of public library materials. Zickuhr et al. (2013) also found that parents in families with income of less than $50,000 are more likely to value libraries for their children. ...
... Neuman and Celano (2001) point to larger economic systems of power, authority and cultural capital in low-and middle-income community environments which indirectly affect children, translating into differences in the availability of print and variations in patterns of early literacy development. Sin and Kim (2008) found a significant association between distance from a public library and library usage, with a strong association for those living less than one mile away. Thus, community type and geographic location may also contribute to access to reading materials. ...
Article
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This survey of parents of children ages 2–18 (n = 240) investigated children’s frequency of access to public library materials prior to (T1), during (T2), and predicted after (T3) the COVID-19 pandemic. Frequency of access to public library materials was compared by demographic and other factors. Repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant difference T1-T2 and T2-T3. Significant interactions were found for school environment and frequency of access over time, with online and hybrid students showing a significant decrease in access from T1 to T2 and an expected significant increase from T2 to T3. Results suggest that children’s reading behaviors were impacted, thus academic performance may have been impeded.
... Foremost, librarians are committed meeting the needs of their users through access, advocacy, and education, and that is why public librarians are so desperately needed in this space. Sayogo, Wang, and Yuli (2016) assert that the values of public libraries can help address these barriers to open access. Public libraries are well positioned to engage in open access and education because they have an established record of bridging the digital divide, already play a significant role in e-government participation within their communities, and are proven trusted information intermediaries. ...
... Both responses, desiring help to find data and learning how to use data, lend further support to Sayogo, Wang, and Yuli (2016) research, that based on trust in the values inherent in public libraries, library users will utilize open government data if the library is involved in its provision. The enduring values of life-long learning and equitable access to information and as well as the sustained respect for those values should be promoted alongside any open government data education initiatives in public libraries. ...
Article
Public library users’ expectations of library resources and services related to open data as well as their own estimation of their data literacy skills are examined. Library users were surveyed from nine different Indiana public library communities. Findings suggest that public libraries are viewed as resources for finding data and educational programming for data skills, particularly as it relates to the community context. Additionally, study participants assessed their data skills to be average or slightly above, indicating a foundational knowledge from which to design library resources and sources to meet a community’s data needs. Keywords: open government data, public libraries, data literacy skills, communities, information behaviors
... In the US the use of public libraries also depends on being in school age, with education playing a more relevant role than income. However, disadvantaged populations, including ethnic minorities, recent immigrants and people with disabilities were less likely to be users in all the cases (Sin;Kim, 2008). Beyond these three representative surveys, librarians reported different socio-demographic profiles of non-users in Rome, with a lack of younger teens and pensioners, and Manchester, where older teens and young adults are the most missed groups (Sbaffi;Rowley, 2015). ...
... Motivations for non-use relate to lack of time (Schleihagen;Ehmig, 2012;Evjen;Auduson, 2009), the perception that the service is not needed (Consonni, 2010;Schleihagen;Ehmig, 2012), and the pervasive presence of Internet as a faster source for getting resources (Consonni, 2010;Schleihagen;Ehmig, 2012;Sin;Kim, 2008). In addition, the lack of knowledge about the library services increase non-use (Toner, 2008). ...
Article
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The user experience framework (UX) serves to analyze the characteristics, preferences and perceptions of non-users of the public library to inform the (re)design of services. Empirical data come from a representative survey of the Catalan population aged 15 and over. In general terms, libraries and librarians benefit from a positive image, although one third of non-users would have no motivation for visiting a public library (again). Most are ex-users (81%) who had visited a public library but not in the last year. Individuals seem to stop using the public library when they end their educational period, with disengagement affecting more men than women. Never-users (19%) stand out among older individuals and lower educational levels. Results support the idea that different strategies must target ex-users and non-users to attract them (back) to the library as both their profiles and opinions on the public library are different.
... Public library collections and services are also associated with library visitation. Sin and Kim (2008) analyzed data from the Public Library Service (PLS) and attributed public libraries with higher collections, more Internet terminals, and more branch libraries to having higher library visitation. This study further indicated that programs and collections related to children have significant impacts on library visits. ...
... Internet access in public libraries would contribute to offering other services including licensed databases, homework resources, virtual reference services, ebooks, and audio content (Bertot et al., 2008). In contrary to some previous studies, such as Sin and Kim (2008), we found that NLIB only predicts 3.14 % of VISITS. It may be argued that alongside the number of public library services (e.g. ...
Preprint
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Current study investigates what variables, including expenditures, services, and collections, can predict the total annual pub-lic library visits (VISITS) in the United States. The data source was the 2015 Public Library Service data and reports, and a multiple regression model was used to analyze the data in the R programming language. Results indicated that the best variables for predicating VISITS were a library’s total operating expenditures, usage of public Internet-enabled computers per year, audio-physical units, total children programs, and video-physical units. The best subset model for predicting VISITS included the total number of public libraries, total operating expenditures, print materials, audio-physical units, total children programs, total young programs, and the usage of public Internet-enabled computers per year.
... The finding reveals that males use libraries more than their female counterpart. Sin and Kim (2008) examine the demographic variables of entrepreneurs in the USA. They analyzed various variables such as marital status, race, and religion. ...
... Wilson (2013) indicates that education level, income, age and gender influence entrepreneurs toward the use of public libraries. Sin and Kim (2008) research on relationship between different demographic variables and the use of public libraries. However, the result revealed that relationship between the social demographic variable and public library usage vary. ...
... Public library collections and services are also associated with library visitation. Sin and Kim (2008) analyzed data from the Public Library Service (PLS) and attributed public libraries with higher collections, more Internet terminals, and more branch libraries to having higher library visitation. This study further indicated that programs and collections related to children have significant impacts on library visits. ...
... Internet access in public libraries would contribute to offering other services including licensed databases, homework resources, virtual reference services, ebooks, and audio content (Bertot et al., 2008). In contrary to some previous studies, such as Sin and Kim (2008), we found that NLIB only predicts 3.14 % of VISITS. It may be argued that alongside the number of public library services (e.g. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Current study investigates what variables, including expenditures, services, and collections, can predict the total annual public library visits (VISITS) in the United States. The data source was the 2015 Public Library Service data and reports, and a multiple regression model was used to analyze the data in the R programming language. Results indicated that the best variables for predicating VISITS were a library's total operating expenditures, usage of public Internet-enabled computers per year, audio-physical units, total children programs, and video-physical units. The best subset model for predicting VISITS included the total number of public libraries, total operating expenditures, print materials, audio-physical units, total children programs, total young programs, and the usage of public Internet-enabled computers per year. INTRODUCTION Public libraries aim to fulfill users' information needs by providing a variety of facilities, resources, and services (Clubb, 2009). Public librarians have always taken efforts to increase reader visits, however, they have also gone through various challenges when enhancing people's motivation for visiting libraries in this digital era. For example, many public libraries have inadequate funding to cope with the drastic changes that technology brings (Clubb, 2009). With limited budget and labor power, it is urgent for public libraries to figure out the most influential factors on library visits and to determine the strategies for attracting users to libraries. The purpose of current study is to examine the key factors that could effectively predict public library visits. The findings begin to establish an empirical model on predicting factors that would influence public library visits in the U.S. and will have implications on policy planning and funding distribution of those public libraries. The main research questions in the study are: 1) Which variables are most important in predicting the total annual public library visits in the U.S.? 2) What is the best subset model for predicting the total annual public library visits in the U.S.?
... Public library collections and services are also associated with library visitation. Sin and Kim (2008) analyzed data from the Public Library Service (PLS) and attributed public libraries with higher collections, more Internet terminals, and more branch libraries to having higher library visitation. This study further indicated that programs and collections related to children have significant impacts on library visits. ...
... In contrary to some previous studies, such as Sin and Kim (2008), we found that NLIB only predicts 3.14 % of VISITS. It may be argued that alongside the number of public library services (e.g. ...
Article
Current study investigates what variables, including expenditures, services, and collections, can predict the total annual public library visits (VISITS) in the United States. The data source was the 2015 Public Library Service data and reports, and a multiple regression model was used to analyze the data in the R programming language. Results indicated that the best variables for predicating VISITS were a library's total operating expenditures, usage of public Internet‐enabled computers per year, audio‐physical units, total children programs, and video‐physical units. The best subset model for predicting VISITS included the total number of public libraries, total operating ex‐penditures, print materials, audio‐physical units, total children programs, total young programs, and the usage of public Internet‐enabled computers per year.
... From their beginnings in the mid-19th century, American public libraries have been much more than storehouses of reading material. Public libraries reflect and reproduce societal inequalities (Sin and Kim 2008;Wiegand 2015). At the same time, they have the potential to serve as sites of resistance to capitalism-induced alienation, and some argue for their role in supporting democracy, tolerance, and right to the city (Buschman 2003;Iveson and Fincher 2011). ...
... Research on the circulation of library materials and neighborhood characteristics indicates that higher socioeconomic status, higher proportions of white and Asian residents, and neighborhood social capital are associated with higher circulation figures in New York City (Gong et al. 2008;Japzon and Gong 2005). On the individual level, there appears to be an overall positive correlation between library use and levels of education and income (Horrigan 2016;Sin and Kim 2008). ...
Article
With reduced hours, decaying infrastructure, and precariously positioned staff, local public libraries provide much needed services in cities devastated by inequality and slashed safety nets. In this article, I draw on ethnographic research of a small public library in a diverse, mostly working class neighborhood in Queens, New York. I show that in addition to providing an alternative to the capitalist market by distributing resources according to people's needs, the library serves as a moral underground space, where middle‐class people bend rules to help struggling city residents. Although the library occasionally replicates hegemonic ideologies about immigrant assimilation, it provides a striking example of cross‐class and interclass solidarities and resistance to the neoliberal social order. I conclude by discussing the potential of public libraries as everyday spaces of subversion and emancipation, as well as research sites for urban scholars.
... Non-user research is a well-established practice in libraries to develop the strategies for attracting new library users and identify possible barriers that prevent citizens from library use. In such studies the profile of nonusers, previous experience of library use and patterns of information seeking and use (Sridhar, 2002;Sin & Kim, 2008) are considered crucial to understand the factors of library non-use. Part of data of the survey of non-users of the Lithuanian Library for the Blind which is presented in the paper is focused on these aspects of non-use. ...
... Among respondents persons with low level of education (secondary and less) were pre-dominant. Similarly, Kim and Sin (2008) considered the level of education an important factor of library use/non-use. However, the sample of respondents in this study was too small to make a sound argument about it. ...
Conference Paper
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With an increasing number of the visually impaired elderly population libraries need to adjust their services to this audience which is often under the risk of becoming library non-users. The aim of this paper is to determine the profile and reasons for non-use of library services by the visually impaired elderly basing on the case study of the Lithuanian Library for the Blind (LLB). Findings of the structured interview survey have shown that most non-users don‘t use libraries due to low motivation, health and mobility issues. They have few purposes for information use, get it incidentally, and apply the simplest and easy-to-reach assistive technology. The findings can be used in libraries to develop targeted services for this population.
... Literature consulted on the effectiveness of library services has revealed that, in general, some public libraries were underutilized in the United States at the time of the study (Sin & Kyung-Sun, 2008). Writing on this, Sin and Kyung-Sun (2008) said "While the public library aims to facilitate information access to all, only a portion of the public uses its collections, computer facilities, reference services, or library programs" (p. ...
... Literature consulted on the effectiveness of library services has revealed that, in general, some public libraries were underutilized in the United States at the time of the study (Sin & Kyung-Sun, 2008). Writing on this, Sin and Kyung-Sun (2008) said "While the public library aims to facilitate information access to all, only a portion of the public uses its collections, computer facilities, reference services, or library programs" (p. 207). ...
Article
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Objective – A study on the impact of Public Access Venue (PAV) Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) was conducted in Botswana libraries with Internet connections. The main objective was to determine the impact of ICTs in public libraries. Methods –Using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework as a theoretical lens, the study used semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions to investigate the impact of PAV ICTs in 4 study sites, resulting in data from a total of 39 interviews and 4 focus groups. Results – The results of the study show that PAV ICTs had a positive impact on users in the areas of education and economic benefits. Within educational and economic impacts, social benefits were also found, pertaining to the use of social media and the Internet for formal and informal communication. The study also revealed a slight difference between school going users and non-school going elderly users where the use and acquisition of computer skills was concerned. Elderly non-school going users tended to rely on venue staff for skills more than the younger school going users. Conclusion – The study recommends that PAV facilities should be improved in terms of skills offered and resources availed so as to appeal to both the younger school going generation and the older non-school going users. It is also recommended that education on ICT be improved to help curb rising unemployment in Botswana; such skills would enhance the income generation skills of the unemployed users as well as school leavers.
... In recent decades, several studies have examined the demographics of library patrons and which associated factors help to predict library use and non-use. Ethnicity, age, and educational attainment, for instance, all appear to have a modest effect on the extent to which individuals utilize their public library (Sin, 2012;Sin & Kim, 2008). These findings are compelling for library administrators, who may use them to inform outreach and services, as well as to argue for increased spending allocations. ...
... Over time, these descriptive studies of library patrons have become an increasingly perfected art. Researchers like Sin (2012) and Sin and Kim (2008 have recently used advanced statistical techniques like logistical regression to analyze the relationships between a variety of demographic variables and library use and nonuse. ...
Article
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This article is published open access. View at the doi above! Objective - This study examines whether a correlation exists between state-wide voting in federal elections and state average per capita visits to public libraries in the U.S. In so doing, it provides insight into the extent to which library patronage is affiliated with political leaning. Methods - An analysis of data from the 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016 Public Libraries Survey and election results from the 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016 Presidential and House of Representatives elections (by state) is performed with the assistance of Tableau, a data visualization program. Scatter plots provide a visual representation of the data, while correlation coefficients indicate the strength of relationship between voting and library visits per capita. Results - The findings reveal no significant relationship between public library use and the vote share of a political party in elections among a state's population. Conclusions - The political leaning of a state appears to have no correlation with the frequency of library usage among that state’s population.
... It should be mentioned that the results of the competing risk regression model and classical logistic regression model report sub-distribution hazard ratios (SHR) and odds ratios (OR), respectively. Unlike the generally used estimated coefficient, the SHR and OR are used to examine how changes in each independent variable affect the direction and magnitude of changes in the dependent variable while other factors remain constant (Sin and Kim, 2008). A deputy mayor was more likely to get promotion or encounter falling if the independent variable had an SHR or OR higher than 1. ...
Article
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There is no systematic empirical study to address the unfair political treatment of Chinese officials with grassroots beginnings. This research addresses this gap by conducting theoretical and empirical studies. Drawing on a new biographical database of Chinese deputy mayors of municipal cities, this paper conducts competing risk regression and classical logistic regression modeling to examine the role of career starting level in deputy mayors’ political careers. The empirical analysis provides solid results and demonstrates that the higher the career starting level, the greater the probability of getting promoted and the lower the risk of political downfall, which indicated that deputy mayors who started their careers in grassroots-level governments were associated with the lowest probabilities of promotion and highest risks of falling. The unfair political treatment is the tragedy of grassroots cadres and does not match the importance of grassroots work, which leads to great discontent and may threaten the sustainability of Communist Party rule in the future.
... Implicitly, these factors are present, or combined, with certain disabilities (such as cognitive, emotional, behavioural and learning disabilities), or special circumstances (stay in hospitals or prisons). In their analysis of the factors affecting the use and non-use of public libraries in the U.S., Sin and Kim (2008) found many influential factors among which they also mention disabilities. The disabled are less likely to use the library. ...
Article
The paper presents the first national survey of public library services to three user groups in the context of children and young adults: hospital patients, prisoners, and persons with developmental disorders. The study was two-part: first the data on potential users and their characteristics was gathered. This was used to prepare the main survey of the existing public library services in Slovenia, undertaken in 2012 and 2013. The results show that of the three user groups in question, two (hospital patients and prisoners) are more localised, being the focus of individual public libraries working in the area where hospitals or prisons are located, while persons with developmental disorders are spread throughout the country and as such relevant to a larger number of libraries. The first two groups also have more potential for development, because Slovenian public libraries offer much richer services for users with developmental disorders. Nevertheless, positive trends were observed in most areas.
... From the above discussion, it can be concluded that a research gap can be assessed from an angle of a dearth of studies conducted on public libraries as well as on health-care libraries. This may be the reason behind the deteriorating status of public libraries especially in maintaining the service quality (Baada et al., 2019;Rafi et al., 2020;Sin and Kim, 2008;Singh, 2012). Library services. ...
Article
‘Service Quality’ and its influence in Library and Information Science discipline are spectacular when studied intensively. In this study, researchers adopted the Realist and Meta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards review method and introduced a novel Initialization, Conceptualization, Actualisation) (ICA) framework for meta-narrative studies. This method would act as a boon particularly to the existing methods of conducting meta-narrative studies in social sciences in general and library sciences in particular. A total of 49 research articles were selected from Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) databases, covering a span of 5 years, that is, 2015–2019, published in the domain of library service quality. An extensive in-depth analysis of selected publications was carried out under seven categories (i.e. library, library services, quality, ServQUAL, LibQUAL+, user satisfaction and users’ expectations), which were generated using the VOS-Viewer software and ‘Review Tags’ (manually generated using OneNote). The seven categories further identify a total of 27 sub-categories. The quantitative findings revealed that all the 49 reviewed publications were published in 27 journals. All the journals have been indexed in the Scopus database, whereas 15 journals containing the remaining 22 publications are indexed in both WoS and Scopus databases. This study unfolds a transverse trend in library service quality. It would be beneficial for the library managers to sustain libraries’ service quality and set a benchmark in the said field.
... We hear nothing, either, about architecture, arrangement, and design, though, as Van Slyck has argued, "A [library] building's plan determines which interactions ... are possible and which are impossible," and the qualities of its interior spaces as well as its furnishings encourage "users to play certain sanctioned roles, while making others seem unthinkable" (2007, p. 221). Surely these factors are, as many have indeed suggested (Breeding, 2011;Cox, Swinbourne, Pip, & Laing, 2000;Johnson, 2010;Klopfer & Nagata, 2011;Ljødal, 2005;May & Black, 2010;Preer, 2001;Servet, 2010;Sin & Kim, 2008;Vårheim, Steinmo, & Ide, 2008;Wahnich, 2011), far from irrelevant to research regarding libraries' use as meeting places? Was it as libraries that the respondents found these libraries to be suitable/attractive/meaningful as meeting places? ...
Article
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Objective – The investigators hoped to gain an understanding of the extent to which local public libraries are used by their visitors as meeting places, and in what ways. Furthermore, they sought to determine whether certain demographic variables correlate with variations in these ways of using the library. Finally, they were looking for evidence of a relationship between the degree of the subjects’ general community involvement on the one hand, and their participation in various types of meetings in the library on the other. Design – Questionnaire-based telephone survey. Setting – Oslo, Norway. Subjects – 750 adult residents (eighteen years or older) from 3 of Oslo’s 15 boroughs. Methods – The researchers selected these boroughs (not identified in this article and referred to, unusually, as “townships”) because they judged them to represent three demographically varying types of urban community. In March of 2006, a professional survey organization drew numbers at random from a database of telephone numbers in each borough, continuing until it had reached the desired number of 250 actual survey respondents, including cell phone users, for each borough. It weighted the sample according to gender and age, and administered the telephone interviews on the basis of a questionnaire which the researchers had designed to yield quantitative data for ten independent, and seven dependent, variables. Interviewers asked the respondents to answer questions on the basis of their entire recollected personal history of public library use, rather than during a specific defined period. Six of the independent variables were demographic: borough of residence, occupational category, age category, educational level, cultural/linguistic background (dichotomous: either non-Norwegian or Norwegian), and household income category. The other four were: level of participation in local activities, degree of involvement in community improvement activities, degree to which a subject trusted various community institutions, and frequency of local library use. “Meeting intensity,” or the number of different meeting types for which a given subject could remember ever having used the library, was one dependent variable. The others were participation/non-participation in each of the six defined meeting types. The researchers employed hierarchical multiple regression analyses for determining degrees of correlation. Main Results – “Meeting intensity” correlated significantly and positively not only with frequency of library use in general, but also with the number of local activities participated in and level of involvement in community improvement activities, as well as with non-Norwegian cultural/linguistic background. It correlated significantly and negatively with household income. The investigators report no significant relationship of meeting intensity with occupational or age category, or with level of education. Participation in certain of the defined meeting types did correlate significantly with certain independent variables. Respondents tend to turn to the local public library more for “public sphere” meetings as they grow older. Participation in this kind of meeting is likewise more common among those with a higher level of community involvement and engagement, but also among the lower-income respondents. High-intensive “joint activities” meetings with friends, acquaintances, colleagues or classmates are especially popular among adults in the lower age categories, as well as among respondents with a lower level of education and with a lower household income. “Virtual” meetings (via library Internet use), also defined as a high-intensive meeting type, are especially popular with the occupational categories “job seeker” and “homemaker,” as well as with the younger respondents and with those who have a lower household income. Use of the local public library for both the “virtual” and the “joint-activities” types of meetings is also considerably more common among those with a non-Norwegian cultural/linguistic background. Frequency of library use in general was not related to participation in either of these two types of meetings at the library, but it was related to library use for the more low-intensive meeting types (chance meetings and encounters, library as rendezvous point for joint activities elsewhere), as well as to what the investigators term using the library as a “metameeting place,” i.e., a place for finding “information about other arenas and activities” in the local community. Conclusion – The local public library seems to serve, for many of its patrons, an important function as venue for meetings of various kinds. In general, using it for meeting purposes appears to be something that appeals more to younger than to older adults, more to those in the lower than to those in the higher income categories, and more to those with an immigrant than to those with an indigenous background. The perhaps even less expected finding that use of the library for a relatively intensive, instrumental kind of meeting activity correlates significantly with a lower level of education would particularly suggest a need for further research. Noteworthy, as well, is the apparent fact that those who make use of the local public library as a venue for relatively intensive meeting activity, whether physical or virtual, tend to come to the library expressly for that purpose, and visit the library less often for other reasons than do other library users. The urban districts in which respondents resided were in fact not internally homogeneous enough, nor socio-economically distinct enough from one another, to yield correlations of practical evidentiary value. It was the researchers’ working assumption that their three independent variables of community engagement – i.e., level of participation in local activities, degree of involvement in community improvement activities, and degree to which one trusts community institutions – can be taken together to represent the amount of a respondent’s “social capital.” They detected, in general, a positive correlation between the extent of such “social capital” and the use of the library as a meeting place. Neither the strength nor the direction of this relationship was clear, however, from the results of this study: both will have to be explored through further research. “Does the library contribute to generating social capital,” they ask, “or is the use of the library as a meeting place a result of pre-existing social capital?” (p. 25) They were hoping at least to discover whether the library, specifically in its role as a low-intensive and “public sphere” meeting place, contributes to the generation of “bridging” social capital between citizens of differing cultural backgrounds, with differing values, viewpoints, and interests. Though their findings did not justify this conclusion, and Skøtt’s (2005) study even contradicts it, the researchers nevertheless express their confidence that, while not a genuine “third place” in the sense intended by Oldenburg (1999), “the library as a meeting place plays a substantial role in equalizing the possibilities of being an active citizen across social and economic differences” (p. 25). But however that may be, they are in any case convinced that their questionnaire and categorization scheme for meeting types have now shown their value, and that the grouping of types into “low-intensive” versus “high-intensive” appears to be fruitful. They do concede that their approach still requires more thorough and detailed examination, and that their survey instrument must be further refined and developed.
... Toch geldt ook hier dat het vooral de jongere senioren zijn die dergelijke bezoeken plegen (Edelmann, 2006 Glorieux, 2015). Ook internationaal onderzoek toont aan dat ouderen minder vaak bibliotheekgebruikers zijn (Hawkins et al, 2001;Sin & Kim, 2008;Vakkari, Serola, 2012). Verder vond onderzoek naar bibliotheekbezoek dat ouderen veel fictie uitlenen en vooral voor recreationele doeleinden naar de bibliotheek gaan. ...
... En el ámbito internacional también es prolija la investigación en torno a la relación entre factores y características propias de las bibliotecas del tipo gastos, colección, habitantes por punto de servicio, etc., con el uso de las mismas entendido desde los préstamos y las visitas (Creaser y Sumsion, 1995;Kishida, 1998;Smith, 1999;Sumsion y otros, 2002; Sei-Ching y Kyung-Sun, 2008;Huysmans y Hillebrink, 2008;Kim y Yu, 2011; Lara y otros, 2015; Whitacre y Rhinesmith, 2015). Al respecto, se constata un creciente interés por las nuevas tec- nologías en el análisis de la relación entre el uso de Internet y el uso de las bibliotecas públicas (Jorgensen y otros, 2001;D'Elia y otros, 2002;Uddin y otros, 2006;Vakkari, 2012). ...
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El objetivo de este artículo es la modelización del uso de las bibliotecas públicas comparando los casos de España y Finlandia. Se analiza la relación a nivel de municipios entre una serie de factores tomados como características propias de las bibliotecas (presupuesto, personal, colección, etc.) y el uso de las mismas (préstamos y visitas). En un análisis por regiones, se consideran también variables del contexto socioeconómico (renta, educación, desempleo). El método para la obtención de los modelos es el análisis de regresión lineal múltiple con la técnica paso a paso. En España, los modelos a nivel de municipios explicaron el 16,8% de los préstamos y el 17,7% de las visitas, mientras que en Finlandia explicaron el 23% y el 18% respectivamente. Por tanto, para ambos países más del 75% de la variación de los préstamos y las visitas depende de otros factores no contemplados en los modelos. A nivel de regiones, ninguna de las variables del entorno socioeconómico consideradas como añadidas respecto al análisis por municipios resultó significativa. La limitación principal del estudio es la falta de datos a nivel de municipios para las variables del entorno socioeconómico consideradas en el análisis por regiones. En cuanto al valor y su originalidad, este estudio puede ser considerado como uno de los primeros sobre modelización del uso de las bibliotecas públicas españolas y también como uno de los primeros en poner en relación los resultados con otro país, en este caso Finlandia.
... There is often a positive relationship between education and public library use. The relationship pattern between income and library use is generally positive but likely curvilinear (Sin & Kim, 2008). Meta-reviews found that race/ ethnicity was not a notable factor in older studies (Zweizig & Dervin, 1977). ...
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Public libraries are under constant pressure to demonstrate their worth. Outcome measures can present the benefits public libraries bring to individuals in terms that are relevant to them. Beyond service-specific outcome assessments, however, few nationwide studies have examined the benefits of public libraries as a whole. Following the Finnish national survey conducted by Vakkari and Serola (2012), this study surveyed more than 1000 U.S. respondents on 22 areas of benefits. The benefits were reduced by factor analysis to three dimensions. ANOVAs were used to test demographic differences in these benefit dimensions. The findings show that most respondents viewed the impact of public libraries on their lives positively. The most frequently perceived benefit was in the reading and self-education dimension. Significant gender and education attainment differences were found for this dimension, with women and more educated respondents giving more positive responses. In contrast, age and race/ethnicity differences were significant in the work and formal education dimension and in the everyday activities and interests dimension. In both dimensions, younger respondents and ethnic minorities reported more positive responses. For the everyday activities dimension, higher-income respondents reported more frequent benefits. Overall, the public library was perceived by different demographic groups as contributing to different dimensions of their lives. There are still areas for further improvement, such as reaching lower-income individuals and seniors in the everyday activities dimension. Continual efforts are needed to measure and communicate the value of public libraries, so that funders and the public will support public libraries with the resources needed to provide quality services to all.
... Libraries are very useful and beneficial to the society, particularly the neighbourhood [2]. Also, many needs of the public, such as information, education, and recreation, are serviced by libraries [3,4]. ...
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Many public facilities in the United Kingdom are being closed without consideration to their users, leading to social exclusion. Hence, this study investigated the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in identifying public facilities which can be closed while saving cost and minimizing distance, using the libraries in Leicestershire as case study. Data for the study were obtained from secondary sources through the internet. This study used the location-allocation tool model, within the geographical information environment, to identify a set of libraries that should be closed in Leicestershire to save 20% cost and optimised for the needs of unemployed people, children of school age and pensioners (people over 65 years). Based on these considerations, the study identified the following ten libraries for closure: Barwell, Blaby, Cosby, Desford, Enderby, Groby, Hathern, Kirby Muxloe, Mounstsorrel and Sapcote. If this is adopted, it therefore means that the distance that users will need to travel from their homes to libraries in the new order would have been minimised and access not denied. This study has therefore demonstrated the use of GIS in decision making. This method is an innovation in the use of the model and should be used to evaluate library accessibility and identify those that could be closed without much negative impacts at the national level and for other facilities elsewhere.
... Z pewnością rozszerzenie analiz o wyniki z innych części Polski wniosłoby więcej do naszego rozumienia czynników mających znaczenie dla korzystania z bibliotek i odczuwania z tego korzyści w poszczególnych kohortach i w różnych środo-wiskach. Ponadto interesującym podejściem badawczym byłoby włączenie do badania także osób niekorzystających z bibliotek, gdyż dotychczasowe analizy zdają się sugerować, że istnieją różnice pomiędzy użytkownikami i nieużyt-kownikami bibliotek, jeżeli chodzi na przykład o korzystanie z mediów (Bhatt, 2010) oraz w kontekście szeregu czynników społeczno-ekonomicznych (Sin i Kim, 2008). Optymalnym rozwiązaniem byłoby, jak się wydaje, zrealizowanie ogólnopolskiego sondażu na próbie reprezentatywnej. ...
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There are substantive regional variations in public library accessibility in the United States, which is a concern considering the civic and educational roles that libraries play in communities. Average population-weighted distances and the total population living within one mile segments of the nearest public library were calculated at a regional level for metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas, and at a state level. The findings demonstrate significant regional variations in accessibility that have been persistent over time and cannot be explained by simple population distribution measures alone. Distances to the nearest public library are higher in the South compared to other regions, with statistically significant clusters of states with lower accessibility than average. The national average population-weighted distance to the nearest public library is 2.1 miles. While this supports the use of a two-mile buffer employed in many LIS studies to measure library service areas, the degree of variation that exists between regions and states suggests that local measures should be applied to local areas.
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Wer sind die Nutzer von Bibliotheken? Und wer nutzt welche Bibliothekstypen in welchem Umfang? Nicht nur in Deutschland, auch in Großbritannien heben Bibliotheken mit Stolz hervor, dass sie die am stärksten genutzten wissenschaftlichen und kulturellen Einrichtungen sind und die Öffentlichen Bibliotheken ebenso viele Besucher pro Jahr verzeichnen wie alle Fußballstadien zusammen (HBZ 2010, 2). In Großbritannien wird konstatiert, dass mehr Personen Öffentliche Bibliotheken nutzen als Zuschauer bei »Premier League«-Fußballspielen anwesend sind (CILIP 2011). Diese Aussagen vermitteln zunächst den Eindruck, als wären Bibliotheken in großen Teilen der Bevölkerung sehr präsent, doch eine genauere Beschäftigung mit den Zahlen liefert — zumindest für Deutschland — ein anderes Bild.
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Purpose: This paper builds upon existing research into library usage by exploring whether demographic characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity and country of origin have an effect upon undergraduate library usage at the University of Huddersfield. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses demographic and library usage data for a graduating year of full-time undergraduate students at the University of Huddersfield, and uses statistical tests to explore the significance of the relationship between demographics and usage. Findings: The study finds that there is a statistically significant relationship between demographic characteristics and library usage on some, though not all, dimensions. But in many cases the effect size is small. Research limitations/implications: The study uses data from a single UK university, and the findings may not therefore be generalizable. Furthermore, the study is able to identify statistical relationships but is not able to fully explain why they exist. Practical implications: The findings suggest that library services may need to be shaped differently for different demographic groups of students. Working with students in their own institution, librarians may be able to discover more about why these differences exist. Originality/value: This paper shows a relationship between usage and demographic characteristics among undergraduate students, allowing librarians to consider how better to shape their services to meet student needs.
Article
Public libraries are established to be used by communities. Surprisingly, many people in communities where there are public libraries do not make use of them. This descriptive study investigated the information needs and information-seeking behaviour of such nonlibrary users, so that the libraries could redesign their services to attract them. Also examined are the barriers encountered by nonlibrary users in getting information, their reasons for not using the library, and their perceptions on current outreach efforts by libraries in the communities. The target population for this study was the community of non-library users in Botswana. The snowball sampling method was used to select 302 respondents from 34 research sites in the country. The findings indicated that respondents knew about the existence of the library through friends, Kgotla meetings, and advertisements in local media, and they were also willing to participate in the activities of the library. However, lack of time, distance to the library and inadequate relevance of the library resources and services to the activities the respondents were engaged in seemed to be the main barriers to library use. In terms of information required, it was difficult for the respondents to express their information needs; nevertheless, the study was able to establish that the respondents often needed information on current affairs, education, business and agriculture, and they used radio, newspapers, friends, work supervisors and personal experience to meet their needs.
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This paper investigates the factors that influence the value for the users of the Portuguese electronic scientific information consortium b-on (Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online). We used the contingent valuation method based on a willingness to pay scenario to estimate the value that each user is willing to pay. Data were collected through an e-survey sent to all Portuguese academic users. The main aims of this study are: (1) to investigate whether the willingness to pay is influenced by a set of factors (the frequency of use, whether the user previously knew b-on or not, the type of the user, the scientific area of the user, and the institution of the user); and (2) to estimate the demand function of b-on services as function of the price and the previously mentioned factors. In order to achieve these objectives we use several regression analysis techniques - OLS, Tobit model, linear probability model (LPM), Logit and Probit models. The results show that the factors studied are all important explanatory variables of the willingness to pay for b-on and important determinants of demand for b-on services. Moreover, the demand for b-on services is quite sensitive to the 'price'.
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This paper draws attention to the public policy opportunities created by the spatial characteristics of urban historic districts. Using the Kentucky cities of Louisville and Covington as case studies, the research uses geographic information systems (GIS) to demonstrate that Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) units developed in historic districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places are closer to libraries, transit stops, parks, and schools than are LIHTC units developed in ‘non-historic’ areas of these cities. The findings are particularly relevant for policy-makers adopting a neighborhood-oriented approach to improving the quality of affordable housing, and for those seeking strategies for bringing new life to declining urban areas.
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This paper presents the findings of a study conducted with library managers from two major metropolitan areas, Greater Manchester in England and Rome in Italy. The study aims to compare practices, activities and policies adopted in the two cities to attract non-users, with particular attention to the approach that librarians take to resolving the non-user issue. This research also revealed differences in the way public libraries are used in the two areas. In Manchester, libraries are predominantly task orientated, offering access points for community services, whereas in Rome the focus is more on entertainment, leisure, and social events. The non-user profiles differ between cities, with non-users being mostly older teenagers and young adults in Manchester and mostly younger teenagers and pensioners in Rome. Reading groups, a key service for encouraging reading and familiarising with library facilities, are well established in England, with 90% of the libraries in Manchester accommodating one or more groups, compared to only 50% of the libraries in Rome offering usually a single group. In addition, Manchester libraries often have a range of specialised reading groups to suit a large variety of reading tastes. Libraries in both cities are aware of the need for proactive marketing and management of their web presence but should look at other countries’ strategies to expand their range of activities and programmes to attract more public.
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Having reflected on the theoretical tradition of previous information inequality research that treats society's information rich/poor as identical with its socioeconomic rich/poor, this study examines the informational structure of contemporary Chinese urban society through a cluster analysis of a sample of 3,361 urban residents measured by a holistic informational measurement developed around the concept of “an individual's information world.” It finds that, first, 4 groups, instead of a binary “haves versus have-nots,” best characterize Chinese urban society informationally; second, the distribution of people among these groups conforms to normal distribution, in striking contrast with the pyramid-shaped socioeconomic structure of Chinese society; third, although the demographic characteristics of these groups suggest a significant correlation between people's informational and socioeconomic statuses, the 2 are far from identical; fourth, although the 4 groups differ in all aspects investigated, they differ most notably in information assets and the range and type of materials they choose as their regular information resources; fifth, although the 4 groups vary significantly, each differs from the others in its own way. This study concludes that society's informational and socioeconomic structures are 2 related but distinctive structures, and that the informational structure is characterized by highly complicated textures of inequality.
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Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is a common problem not only in chemical process plants but also in utility and power plants. According to empirical study, CUI is mainly driven by the operating temperature where CUI is more susceptible when the equipment or piping system is operating between −12 and 121 °C. Other factors such as insulation type and equipment or pipe location are also seen to be the contributing factors to CUI. However, to date, it is not clear which factors are more important in contributing to CUI occurrence. This paper presents a methodology for predicting the likelihood of CUI occurrence for insulated piping system using a logistic regression model. Logistic regression, a special case of linear regression, requires binary data and assumes a Bernoulli distribution. Using historical data, the variables of operating time in year, pipe operating temperature, type of insulation and pipe size are modelled as factors contributing to CUI. The outcome of this model does not produce the probability of failure to be used in quantitative risk-based inspection (RBI) analysis. However, the result rather uses the historical inspection data to provide the decision makers with a means of evaluating which pipe to be inspected for future planning of scheduled inspection, based on the likelihood of CUI occurrence.
Article
Purpose – Following the assumption that studies of information inequality need to be based on precise discrimination between society’s information rich and poor and against the context that a mechanism for such discrimination is still lacking, the purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility of establishing a holistic informational measurement. Design/methodology/approach – It does so by developing a measurement based on the conceptualization of the individual as an information agent and his/her information world as his/her characterization. The development procedure consists of four steps: operationalization of the theoretical constructs and the initial drafting of the questionnaire instrument; revisions of the questionnaire based on pilot tests with small groups of people; weighing of the questionnaire items for the purpose of calculating index-type variable scores; formal test of validity and reliability. Findings – The resulting measurement consists of eight variables corresponding to eight theoretical constructs of an individual’s information world, each being measured by a group of questionnaire-based items which, in turn, generate an index-type score as the variable’s value. Validity and reliability tests show that the measurement is, on the whole, able to distinguish the information poor from the information rich and to measure individuals consistently. Originality/value – The study demonstrates that it is possible to distinguish the information rich and poor by informational measurement in the same way as to distinguish economic groups by income, ethnic groups by race and intelligence groups by IQ; and that such a measurement has arguably multifaceted value for information inequality research.
Article
Libraries in the USA and globally are undergoing quiet revolution. Libraries are moving away from a philosophy that is collection-centered to one focused on service. Technology is key to that change. The Patron Driven Library explores the way technology has moved the focus from library collections to services, placing the reader at the center of library activities. The book reveals the way library users are changing, and how social networking, web delivery of information, and the uncertain landscape of e-print has energized librarians to adopt technology to meet a different model of the library while preserving core values. Following an introduction, the first part begins with the historical milieu, and moves on to current challenges for financing and acquiring materials, and an exploration of why the millennial generation is transformational. The second part examines how changes in library practice can create a culture for imagining library services in an age of information overflow. The final chapter asks: Whither the library? Provides a synthesis of current research on the impact of technology on behaviour, and connecting it with library services. Offers examples and practical advice for incorporating technology to meet user expectations and assess services. Suggests management techniques to overcome barriers to change and technology innovation.
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This study assessed user experiences of a public library in Namibia and non-user attitudes to it. A convenience sample of 586 was employed. Participants in the study were 207 (35.3%) registered library members and 379 (64.7%) non-users. Needs assessment questionnaires, suggestion box forms, interviews and observations were the tools used for the collection of data. The results indicated that the public library is well known to the local community and is mostly accessed by learners from local schools, teachers, and distance-learners from various tertiary educational institutions. Users from different occupations also accessed the library. The library was used for study purposes, research, access to computers and reprographic services. The results also revealed that, although services, resources and usage were found to be satisfactory, some users were not satisfied with the services because of inadequate space, irrelevant resources, attitudes of staff members, untidiness, location, poor internet connectivity, poor ventilation, and noise. The findings of this study can inform policymakers on how information access and services need to be improved.
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چکیده هدف: پژوهش حاضر به‎­منظور بررسی موانع و مشکلات پیش روی کاربران در مراجعه و استفاده از منابع کتابخانه‌های عمومی در سال 93-1392 انجام گرفته است. روش: پژوهش حاضر به روش پیمایشی انجام شده است. جامعۀ آماری، کلیۀ کاربران کتابخانه‌های عمومی شهرستان همدان (بالغ بر 23153 نفر) بود و نمونه­گیری به روش ­تصادفی ساده انجام شد. حجم نمونه آماری 380 نفر با استفاده از جدول کرجسی و مورگان تعیین شد. ابزار تحقیق پرسشنامۀ محقق­ساخته‎ای بود که پایایی آن بر اساس ضریب آلفای کرونباخ معادل 86/0 محاسبه شد و روایی آن توسط متخصصان تأیید شد. یافته­‌ها:­ نتایج حاکی از آن است که بین متغیرهای مستقل «شرایط اقتصادی خوب مردم»، «تأثیر نهادهای تربیتی»، «تأثیر خانواده»، «آگاهی کتابداران»، «موقعیت مناسب کتابخانه­ها» و «جنسیت کاربران» با متغیر وابستۀ «میزان مراجعه کاربران به کتابخانه‌های عمومی» رابطۀ معنا‌داری وجود دارد و این مؤلفه‌ها به‎عنوان عوامل پیش­برنده، برای مراجعه هرچه بیشتر کاربران به کتابخانه‌های عمومی محسوب می‌شوند. از طرفی، بین متغیرهای مستقل «دوری و نزدیکی کاربران به کتابخانه‌های عمومی»، «سطح خدمات ارائه‌شده توسط کتابخانه‌های عمومی»، و «سن و تحصیلات آن­ها» با «میزان مراجعه کاربران به کتابخانه‌های عمومی»، رابطۀ معناداری یافت نشد. اصالت/ارزش: ارزش پژوهش حاضر در نشان‎دادن رابطۀ وضع اقتصادی مردم، نهادهای تربیتی، خانواده، دانش کتابداران، و موقعیت مکانی مناسب کتابخانه‎ها در افزایش مراجعه به آنهاست. بنابراین، لازم است کتابخانه‎های عمومی بیش از پیش به عواملی که تحت کنترل خویش دارد، از جمله جهت‎گیری به سمت نیازهای تربیتی خانواده‎ها و دانش کتابداران، توجه نشان دهد.
Article
Purpose This study aims to build an integrative framework for explaining society's information access disparity, which takes both structure and agency as well as their interactions into consideration. Design/methodology/approach It adopts a qualitative survey design. It collects data on the development of 65 individuals' information access through interviews, and analyzes the data following grounded theory principles. Findings A theoretical framework is established based on seven constructs and their relationships, all emerging from the empirical data. It rediscovers practice as the primary structural force shaping individuals' information access, hence society's information access disparity; it shows, meanwhile, that the effect of practice is mediated and/or interrupted by four agentic factors: affective responses to a practice, strategic move between practices, experiential returns of information, and quadrant state of mind. Research limitations/implications It urges LIS researchers to go beyond the embedded information activities to examine both the embedded and embedding, beyond actions to examine both actions and experiences. Practical implications It calls for information professionals to take a critical stance toward the practices they serve and partake in their reforms from an LIS perspective. Originality/value The framework provides an integrative and novel explanation for information access disparity; it adds a number of LIS-relevant concepts to the general practice theories, highlighting the significance of embedded information activities in any practice and their reverberations; it also appears able to connect a range of human-related LIS theories and pinpoint their gaps.
Article
Comparing the results of two large-scale user surveys conducted in Flanders in 2004 and 2018 shows that the Flemish public library sector has successfully adapted to challenging circumstances, such as increasing budgetary stringency and the pervasive digitalization of society. However, it is also clear that attendance numbers have decreased in Flemish public libraries in the last two decades, especially among visitors with lower education levels, which is cause for concern. In this article, the authors present an overview of exploratory analyses that try to ascertain how many of the public libraries that took part in their study were considered to be significantly more (or less) ‘inviting’ by specific subgroups (age, gender, education level, etc.) of the visiting public. Moreover, regression analyses are presented, showing which library characteristics have a positive effect on the attendance of two under-represented groups among Flemish library users: men and the lower educated.
Presentation
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Prezentacja z konferencji "Badania w sektorze kultury" (20.11.2020) Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Instytutu Kultury, Instytut Badań Organizacji Kultury
Chapter
The author, as part of a Master Thesis study, analyzes the impact public library services and programs have in the lives of local Mexican mothers with children attending school in the United States and provides suggestions on ways to improve outreach of services and support. Results related to library use, parental involvement, service and programs, challenges including funding, Spanish-speaking staff, pre-conceived ideas, and awareness issues, as well as the largest issue of outreach are all discussed. In addition, outreach solutions are offered and the overall benefits of the study are assessed.
Article
This study applied a two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) model with variable return to scale (VRS) to assess the impact of intermediate outputs on the technical efficiency of nonprofit public libraries (NPLs) in the United States (US) with respect to attaining service and program outcomes. The findings revealed that 46% of the NPLs were technically efficiency with respect to attaining the intermediate outputs at stage one. At stage two, 7% of the libraries were efficient with respect to attaining their service and program outcomes. The findings also revealed that the libraries which were efficient at stage one had an average reciprocal inefficiency score of 0.396 at stage two. By contrast, libraries which are inefficient at stage one had higher efficiency scores at stage two. The DEA analysis also produced estimates in regard to the optimal level of performance the NPLs should attain for each intermediate output to increase the level of technical efficiency at stage two.
Article
When schools are on break, some households may be constrained to provide educational resources to their children. Public libraries could be low-cost providers of materials and services that foster educational investment. This research extends existing literature by combining household-level data (public library checkout counts, residential property tax assessment values, student enrollment rosters, and distance to public library measures) to conduct a panel analysis of public library use across the public school calendar. The empirical analyses find that public- school breaks generally impact library use for households with children in public school, but not for households without children in public school or for the lowest socioeconomic status households with children in public school. Distance to library is found to be negatively correlated with public library use for all households, but differentially and dependent on households' socioeconomic status and structure. Lastly, community events and weather are identified to impact use.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to summarize a library use study of the central and community branches of a Canadian public library. An exit survey documented the in-branch activities of users as a part of a library strategic planning process. Survey results were used in combination with branch statistics, postal code circulation statistics, neighbourhood demographics and other data sources to document the in-library use of the two facilities. Design/methodology/approach Questionnaires were administered to library users 15 years of age or older at the exits of the central and community branches. The survey collected data on their activities and services used during their current visit. Additional sources such as branch-level statistics, furniture tally sheets, photographs, Canada Census data and circulation analysis by patron postal code and lending branch were used during the analysis stage. Findings Both branches are heavily used but in different ways. Branch circulation and gate count per square foot of floor space were high relative to other Canadian libraries. Patron visits to the community branch were short in duration, in line with previous public library studies. User visit duration and in-library activities within the main branch somewhat resembled those of the central branch of a larger library system but likely for different reasons. Research limitations/implications The study was exploratory. Data were collected during two coinciding days of library operation, a Thursday and a Saturday, and may not be representative of the underlying population. The study was limited in scope as it was a community service project for undergraduate university students. Practical implications Branch library use surveys, in combination with library statistics and demographics, can provide useful insights concerning in-library patron behaviour when the use of ethnographic techniques is not feasible. Originality/value The study explored differences and similarities in user behaviour in two types of library facilities, a central and a community branch. Few published studies make such a direct comparison. The study explored the perceived benefits received by patrons from public library use and incorporated branch statistics, circulation analysis and Census data.
Conference Paper
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Purpose: This paper aims to describe how traditional ‘brick-and-mortal’ bookstores transform their supply chains to retain their competitive position into a fluid and ever changing market dynamic which is currently characterised by the globalisation of book publishing and the explosion in the use of IT technologies. It describes a number of advances in the field, including the integration of e-commerce services, self-publishing and the introduction of alternative book collection and return options, and researches the potential logistics impacts of such practices. It describes a number of best practice examples and provides a guide for bookselling businesses looking to reshape their supply chain in order to reduce the demand for human resources, time and space consumption and increase competitiveness and financial security while minimising their transport and environmental footprint. Research Approach: Following a review of existing business models, technologies and challenges, this paper shows how businesses currently reshape their logistics network structures to integrate e-commerce services and develop cost-efficient channels with suppliers and customers. It provides thorough insights into various logistics issues and challenges encountered by booksellers and highlights the need to implement structural changes to maintain operational excellence. Waterstones is used as a case study example, describing its recent transition from a many-to-many distribution model towards a nation-wide centralised logistics network (Bookhub). Analysis is made on the basis of a ‘before-after’ comparison of the mileage and GHG impacts using data gathered from Southampton’s outlet during a series of surveys made in 2008 (before transition), 2011 (during transition-trial period) and 2017 (after transition to Bookhub). Findings and Originality: The study identified that the prolonged economic crisis and the fierce competition in the book marketplace press both the smaller independent businesses and the larger booksellers to reshape their supply chains in order to stay afloat. It was found that often many trading partners in the book supply chain play multiple roles to reduce logistics costs and operational complexities with many smaller businesses also engaging in more than one line of business to reach new groups of customers, secure further income streams and alleviate some of the economic pressure, and many larger businesses outsourcing their logistics activities to 3PL providers, adopting virtual warehousing and moving towards the centralisation and integration of logistics activities for online and entity sales and returns. The examination of Waterstones case study showed that such changes may lead to significant transport and environmental savings. Research Impact: It was identified from the literature that there have been relatively few theoretical and practical studies available that investigate the rapid logistics changes taking place in the book supply chain. This study researches existing business models, shows how current technological advances, market dynamics and economic conditions challenge traditional book supply chains. Through a review of best practice examples and paradigms it provides a guide on how smaller and larger businesses can reshape their logistics structures to fend off economic decline while reducing their transport and environmental footprint. Practical impact: Structural changes in existing logistics networks can boost supply chain performance, facilitate book trade, ensure financial security and minimise the total transport and environmental footprint of bookselling businesses. The centralisation and outsourcing of distribution and collection activities to 3PL providers can shorten traditional multi-tiered book supply chains and reduce operational complexities, while the adoption of print-on-demand practices and the digital book revolution may eliminate returns and waste and reduce the carbon footprint and the costs associated with the physical distribution and collection of books.
Article
Libraries, through their catalogues and borrowing records are well-placed to use data analytics to enhance their collection management (and of course do this already, for example by directing orders to genres/areas that are heavily borrowed). In this article, we explore some of the insights for the management of multilingual collections offered by a novel research method that fuses analysis of a large data set of borrowing records with data from interviews with library staff. Such a method, we argue, helps to untangle the Gordian knot around why materials in some languages are widely popular while materials for other equally widely-spoken languages sit unused on the shelves. It also draws our attention to the ways in which different demographics of speakers are engaging with library materials across the various languages, and gives a suite of tools local libraries might use to better assess the likely demand for materials in languages other than English.
Thesis
Structurée autour de trois chapitres, cette thèse contribue à enrichir la perception et la compréhension des modes de consommation et des modes d'accès au livre a l'ère numérique. Nous abordons trois principales questions que sont les effets de longue traîne dans la demande de livres, la substituabilité e entre les modes d'accès au livre et l'articulation des prix des livres papier et numériques. Notre démarche est de considérer la multiplicité du marché e du livre, en tenant compte de sa sphère marchande et non marchande, et de la dualité de format du livre, papier et numérique. Nous avons dans un premier chapitre analysé la distribution des emprunts en bibliothèques publiques et étudié de la sorte des modes de consommation différents du star système. Pour expliquer cette diversité consommée en bibliothèques, le deuxième chapitre questionne l'articulation des modes d'accès au livre. Nos résultats montrent une complémentarité des pratiques d'emprunt et d'achat de livres et une indépendance des pratiques de téléchargement de livres numériques. La question du prix des livres numériques pouvant en partie expliquer cette indépendance, le troisième chapitre analyse la tarification des livres numériques. Nous avons montré qu'elle se structure principalement en miroir des prix des livres papier. Notre analyse se fonde sur trois bases de données originales, a savoir : les emprunts de fiction en bibliothèques parisiennes réalisés entre janvier et avril 2012 ; une large enquête réalisée auprès des usagers des bibliothèques parisiennes en 2014 ; et une étude des prix des meilleures ventes de 2011 de livres numériques en France et aux Etats-Unis. A partir de ces données empiriques, ce travail de recherche montre des modes de consommation et une offre du marché du livre papier et numérique qui s'articulent davantage qu'ils ne s'opposent.
Article
Purpose Based on the assumption that information access disparity is a highly complex phenomenon demanding integrative explications that heed both structure and agency, the purpose of this paper is to outline the theoretical background against which endeavours to develop such explanations can be planned. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on a close reading of: existing explanations of information access disparity; research of other library and information science (LIS) issues that have demonstrated conscious attempts to bridge structure and agency; and cross-disciplinary integrative theories that have served as foundations for LIS research. Explanatory power of the first and applicability of the latter two are critically assessed; lessons for future research are drawn. Findings The examination shows that efforts to develop integrative theories for information access disparity are emerging but remain indistinct; integrative frameworks for other LIS phenomena exist but are developed primarily by adopting concepts from cross-disciplinary theories and are, therefore, both enabled and constrained by them. It also shows that cross-disciplinary integrative theories contribute to LIS by exporting the general integrative theorising approach and a range of specific concepts but, owing to their limitations in dealing with information-specific issues, their adequacy for explaining information access disparity cannot be assumed. Originality/value The study demonstrates that a promising way forward for developing integrative theories of information access disparity is to follow the general integrative approach, but to ground related concepts and propositions in empirical data alone, i.e., to begin the journey of integrative theorising theory-free.
Article
This study examined the free book giving program of Dolly Parton's Imagination Library and its influence upon storybook reading and early literacy within one county-wide setting in the United States. Family literacy and early literacy experiences are known to be critical to young children's literacy development. The study found that childre who received the Imagination Library books were statistically different from those children who did not participate in the free book giving program. This study has implications for the early literacy outcomes for young children and their families, as well as other communities who utilize Dolly Parton's Imagination Library.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to measure how effective television programs are in persuading teenagers to use public libraries. Design/methodology/approach This study is a descriptive survey. The statistical population includes all members of public libraries in the City of Isfahan aged between 12 and 16 years (N = 920). Using Cochran’s formula, the sample size was determined to be 270 individuals. The data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire survey instrument whose validity was confirmed by Library and Information Science experts. Furthermore, the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed via “Cronbach’s alpha” in the pilot test with 0.73. Having a return rate of 85.93 per cent, the authors were able to analyze 232 sets of responses. Findings Based on the authors’ findings, television programs are only able to satisfy the first stage of the model (i.e. Attention). So, its role in encouraging teenagers to use public libraries is not significant. Among the items of the model, “Desirability and interest in the program” and “Persuading teenagers to use public libraries” were found to be the most and least effective items, respectively, with average responses of 8.42 and 5.13. Moreover, television shows categorized as kids/teenagers were most likely to attract the target audience to libraries. Originality/value There is no any similar study in this scope, especially in the Middle East, where watching the television remains a mainstream activity for teenagers. It is for the first time that AIDA model is used for measuring the effectiveness of television programs in persuading teenagers to use public libraries in Iran.
Article
Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to assess the technical efficiency of special district libraries in the United States with respect to three cost-related outputs: operating cost per hour, program costs per visit, and program costs per attendance. A set of discretionary and non-discretionary inputs were used to obtain the technical efficiency scores of 999 special district libraries. The DEA input-oriented analysis shows that 30% of the libraries were technically efficient with respect to the use of the inputs to achieve their level of operating costs in 2015. The DEA analysis also shows that inefficient libraries need to make proportional reductions in the level of discretionary inputs to become technically efficient.
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In Korea, public libraries lack the adequate services for the visually disabled, and therefore the visually disabled rarely use public libraries. This study aims to secure the information accessibility and usage rights for the visually disabled, and to suggest solutions in order to vitalize their use of public libraries. For this aim, the researcher investigated the reasons why the visually disabled did not use public libraries, extracted the correlations between their awareness of public library services and their actual use, and then tried to propose how to secure their right to use libraries and access to information and knowledge and improve their use of public libraries.
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Students living in inner city and rural areas of the United States exhibit lower educational achievement and a higher likelihood of dropping out of high school than do their suburban counterparts. Educational research and policy has tended to neglect these inequalities or, at best, focus on one type but not the other. In this article, we integrate literatures on spatial stratification and educational outcomes, and offer a framework in which resources influential for achievement/attainment are viewed as embedded within, and varying across, inner city, rural and suburban places. We draw from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey and the Common Core of Data, and employ hierarchical linear and hierarchical logistic modeling techniques to test our arguments. Results reveal inner city and rural disadvantages in both family and school resources. These resource inequalities translate into important educational investments at both family and school levels, and help explain deficits in attainment and standardized achievement. We conclude by discussing the implications of our approach and findings for analyses of educational stratification specifically and spatial patterning of inequality more generally.
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This paper presents an outline of models of information seeking and other aspects of information behaviour, showing the relationship between communication and information behaviour in general with information seeking and information searching in information retrieval systems. It is suggested that these models address issues at various levels of information behaviour and that they can be related by envisaging a 'nesting' of models. It is also suggested that, within both information seeking research and information searching research, alternative models address similar issues in related ways and that the models are complementary rather than conflicting. Finally, an alternative, problem-solving model is presented, which, it is suggested, provides a basis for relating the models in appropriate research strategies.
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This article presents preliminary findings from a research grant on the everyday life information-seeking (ELIS) behaviors of urban young adults. Twenty-seven teens aged 14 through 17 participated in the study. Qualitative data were gathered using written activity logs and semi-structured group interviews. A typology of urban teens' preferred ELIS sources, media types, and query topics is presented. The typology shows friends and family as preferred ELIS sources, cell phones as the preferred method of mediated communication, and schoolwork, time-related queries, and social life as the most common and most significant areas of ELIS. The results indicate a heavy preference for people as information sources and that urban teens hold generally unfavorable views of libraries and librarians. The conclusion lists questions that information practitioners should consider when designing programs and services for urban teens and calls for researchers to consider this often-ignored segment of the population as potential study participants.
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In a field study, decision makers were found to choose information sources based on accessibility rather than quality. Some variation in source use was associated with individual characteristics such as motivation and tenure. Implications of the results are discussed for studies of communication and decision making.
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This article presents findings from an empirical study of community information exchange and computer access and use among low-income, predominantly African-American residents in one locale. Data were collected through household interviews, focus groups, and surveys. Results indicate that, while computer use is minimal, many low-income community members are poised to participate in the local development of networked information services. The article emphasizes appropriate roles for public libraries in community-wide efforts to bridge the digital divide that cuts computer use along socioeconomic lines.
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A telephone survey of library users and nonusers was conducted in one county of a Southwestern state. Prediction of li- brary use versus nonuse and three aspects of library use (frequency, diversity, and duration) were each based upon different groups of variables. Five types of library use were defined. Present patterns of library use and emerging library-related opportunities suggest that a more accurate description of public librarians could be opportunity providers rather than information providers.
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Use of public library resources is conceptually and historically linked to mass education and literacy. On the individual level, the impact of educational achievement along with other social and demographic factors on the rate of library use is the subject of study. A multiple regression and path analysis of survey data on a large sample of Illinois adults reveals three principal clusters of factors as important predictors of the rate of library use. Edu cation, both in number of years and plans for further education is the most powerful predictor, followed by family life cycle factors and urban residence. Commonly found factors of age, sex, and race had no independent effect on how often people used library resources.
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This report of a survey (conducted in Fresno, California, in 1965) deals with channels chosen by adults for information about current events, their occupations, family activities, etc. The sixteen in formation channels belong to three broad classes: formal adult education, mass media, and other people. Multiple regression analyses show social and psychological predictors of channel pref erence. Percentages of use or participation are also presented within subgroups of respondents contrasted on strong predictors. It is found that each channel-especially the high-cost, high-yield channels like books and adult education-has a clearly profiled audience. Knowledge of these audience profiles will be useful to administrators of education and communication programs.
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Explores the range of successful, cooperative relationships between public libraries and school library media centers and delineates factors that need to be considered in building such relationships. Discussion includes: rationale for cooperative relationships; historical perspective; 1990s perspective; roles and goals of each library; cooperative efforts and relationships; joint school-public library facilities; suggestions for successful cooperation; and recommendations for the future. (Contains 159 references.) (AEF)
Article
Provides statistics based on the 1996 National Households Education Survey (NHES) of 55,000 families, measuring library use by presence of children, race, and ethnicity. Provides tables reporting use of public libraries by presence of children, by any household member, and by any household member in the last month. (PEN)
Article
This study investigates whether there are differences in the print environments and experiences offered to children in 20 first-grade classrooms chosen from very low- and very high-socioeconomic status (SES) districts. Each classroom was visited for 4 full days over the course of a school year. On each visit, information was recorded about the classroom library, classroom environmental print, and any activity during the school day that involved print in any way. Data indicate that there are substantial differences between the low- and high-SES classrooms in all major areas examined, including the amount, type, and uses of print. Literacy can be added to the list of domains for which meaningful differences in instruction have been observed in schools serving different socioeconomic groups. Literacy is another domain through which schools may contribute to lower levels of achievement among low-SES children and may begin to do so quite early in the schooling process.
Article
This report includes national and state summary data on public libraries in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, with an introduction, selected findings, and tables. The report is based on data from the Public Libraries Survey for fiscal year 2005, and includes information on service measures such as number of users of electronic resources, number of Internet terminals used by the general public, reference transactions, interlibrary loans, circulation, library visits, children's program attendance, and circulation of children's materials. It also includes information about size of collection, staffing, operating revenue and expenditures, type of legal basis, and number and type of public library service outlets. This report is based on the final data file. Selected findings include: (1) Library visits to public libraries totaled 1.4 billion, or 4.7 library visits per capita; (2) Total nationwide circulation of public library materials was 2.1 billion, or 7.2 materials circulated per capita; (3) Nationwide, circulation of children's materials was 716.4 million, or 35 percent of total circulation, and attendance at children's program as 54.6 million; and (4) Average number of Internet terminals available for public use per stationary outlet was 11.2. The following are appended: (1) Technical Notes; and (2) Survey Questionnaire. (Contains 5 footnotes and 13 tables.) [For "Public Libraries in the United States: Fiscal Year 2004. E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-349," see ED492940.]
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Reviews studies of historical and current trends in the library location theory; the relationship between distance and library users and variables, including available transportation, use motivation, and community awareness; and public facility location models such as central place theory and elastic demand. Extensive references, four figures, and eight tables are provided. (RBF)
Article
This study investigated the information environment, including the information seeking and information needs, of low-income largely African American households at the Parks at Wynnewood in Dallas, Texas. These households were surveyed regarding their household situation and their need for community and information services. Residents' information-seeking behavior focused on their family and neighbors, with a lower use of external channels, except for health and employment information issues. A model of the residents' information environment is presented.
Article
The practice of aggregating public library use data to a system-wide level (central library and branches) can mask the library needs of more specific groups of users. This article introduces a study that addressed this need, by identifying libraries serving majority White/low income and majority–minority markets, and surveying those populations to identify types and levels of use. The study is critical for current library research and practices for these reasons: (1) the increasing diversity in race/ethnicity and languages spoken in U.S. communities; (2) low circulation rates exacerbated by increased Internet use; (3) mere existence of a library is critical to optimize use by populations without the library and reading experience; and (4) the recent release of the U.S. Public Library Geographic Database (http://www.geolib.org/PLGDB.cfm) with neighborhood level census and library use data for all U.S. library jurisdictions. The methodologies developed offer potential for the collection of critical data for the public librarian of today.
Article
The potential impact of the Internet on the public's demand for the services and resources of public libraries is an issue of critical importance. The research reported in this article provides baseline data concerning the evolving relationship between the public's use of the library and its use of the Internet. The authors developed a consumer model of the American adult market for information services and resources, segmented by use (or nonuse) of the public library and by access (or lack of access) to, and use (or nonuse) of, the Internet. A national Random Digit Dialing telephone survey collected data to estimate the size of each of six market segments, and to describe their usage choices between the public library and the Internet. The analyses presented in this article provide estimates of the size and demographics of each of the market segments; describe why people are currently using the public library and the Internet; identify the decision criteria people use in their choices of which provider to use; identify areas in which libraries and the Internet appear to be competing and areas in which they appear to be complementary; and identify reasons why people choose not to use the public library and/or the Internet. The data suggest that some differentiation between the library and the Internet is taking place, which may very well have an impact on consumer choices between the two. Longitudinal research is necessary to fully reveal trends in these usage choices, which have implications for all types of libraries in planning and policy development.
Article
This article describes the information use environment (IUE) of African-American gatekeepers in Harambee, an inner-city neighborhood in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In-depth one-on-one interviews were held with a purposive sample of 20 gatekeepers identified through community-based organizations between April and May 1997. Findings indicated that the gatekeepers were slightly better educated and earned more than the average Harambee resident. The most prevalent information needs experience related to race relations, crime and family, and their sources of unmet needs were lack of awareness of or access to existing information or resources. Interpersonal sources were preferred over all other sources because of concerns about trustworthiness and credibility of information. The implications of these findings for professional information services are discussed.
Article
Thesis (Ph.D.) --Syracuse University. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (p. 354-365).
Article
Poor children confront widespread environmental inequities. Compared with their economically advantaged counterparts, they are exposed to more family turmoil, violence, separation from their families, instability, and chaotic households. Poor children experience less social support, and their parents are less responsive and more authoritarian. Low-income children are read to relatively infrequently, watch more TV, and have less access to books and computers. Low-income parents are less involved in their children's school activities. The air and water poor children consume are more polluted. Their homes are more crowded, noisier, and of lower quality. Low-income neighborhoods are more dangerous, offer poorer municipal services, and suffer greater physical deterioration. Predominantly low-income schools and day care are inferior. The accumulation of multiple environmental risks rather than singular risk exposure may be an especially pathogenic aspect of childhood poverty.
Information needs and uses For the rich it's richer: Print experiences and environments offered to children in very low-and very high-socioeconomic status first-grade classrooms Middle class attitudes and public library use
  • B Dervin
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Dervin, B., & Nilan, M. (1986). Information needs and uses. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 21, 3−33. Duke, N. K. (2000). For the rich it's richer: Print experiences and environments offered to children in very low-and very high-socioeconomic status first-grade classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 37, 441−478. Evans, C. (1970). Middle class attitudes and public library use. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
Public libraries in the United States: Fiscal year 2002 Public libraries in the United States: Fiscal year 2004 Use of public library services by households in the United States: 1996 Community analysis methods and evaluative options: The CAMEO handbook Analyzing census microdata
  • A Chute
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Chute, A., Kroe, E., O'Shea, P., Craig, T., Freeman, M., Hardesty, L., et al. (2004). Public libraries in the United States: Fiscal year 2002. Retrieved January 3, 2007, from National Center for Education Statistics Web site: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/ 2005356.pdf Chute, A., Kroe, E., O'Shea, P., Craig, T., Freeman, M., Hardesty, L., et al. (2006). Public libraries in the United States: Fiscal year 2004. Retrieved January 3, 2007, from National Center for Education Statistics Web site: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/ 2006349.pdf Collins, M. A., & Chandler, K. (1997). Use of public library services by households in the United States: 1996. Retrieved January 3, 2007, from National Center for Education Statistics Web site: http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=97446 Cooper, S. M., Bolt, N., Lance, K. C., & Webster, L. (1993). Community analysis methods and evaluative options: The CAMEO handbook. Retrieved January 3, 2007, from http:// skyways.lib.ks.us/pathway/cameo/ Dale, A., Fieldhouse, E., & Holdsworth, C. (2000). Analyzing census microdata. London: Arnold.
Childhood socialization: Its effect on adult library use and adult reading
  • R R Powell
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Powell, R. R., Taylor, M. T., & McMillen, D. L. (1984). Childhood socialization: Its effect on adult library use and adult reading. Library Quarterly, 54, 245−264.
Growing wealth, inequality, and housing in the United States Predicting amount of library use: An empirical study of the role of the public library in the life of the adult public
  • X D Zhu
Zhu, X. D. (2007). Growing wealth, inequality, and housing in the United States. Retrieved September 15, 2007, from the Joint Center for Housing Studies, Harvard University Web site: http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/publications/markets/w07-1.pdf Zweizig, D. (1973). Predicting amount of library use: An empirical study of the role of the public library in the life of the adult public. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University.
Library use and personality: The relationship between locus of control and frequency of use
  • Powell
Powell, R. R. (1984). Library use and personality: The relationship between locus of control and frequency of use. Library & Information Science Research, 6, 179−190.
Social and psychological predictors of adult information seeking and media use Education and the inequalities of place Who is using the public library
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Rees, M. B., & Paisley, W. J. (1968). Social and psychological predictors of adult information seeking and media use. Adult Education Journal, 19, 11−29. Roscigno, V. J., Tomaskovic-Devey, D., & Crowley, M. (2006). Education and the inequalities of place. Social Forces, 84, 2121−2145. Scheppke, J. (1994). Who is using the public library? Library Journal, 119(17), 34−37.
Using the public library in the computer age: Present patterns, future possibilities
  • A F Westin
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Westin, A. F., & Finger, A. L. (1991). Using the public library in the computer age: Present patterns, future possibilities. Chicago: American Library Association.
The state of working America 2004 information format trends: Content, not containers Variations in decision makers use of information-sources—The impact of quality and accessibility of information The effect of distance on public library use: A literature survey
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Mishel, L., Bernstein, J., & Allegretto, S. (2006). The state of working America 2006/2007. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press. Online Computer Library Center. (2004). 2004 information format trends: Content, not containers. Retrieved September 15, 2007, from OCLC Web site: http://www.oclc. org/reports/2004format.htm O'Reilly, C. A. (1982). Variations in decision makers use of information-sources—The impact of quality and accessibility of information. Academy of Management Journal, 25, 756−771. Palmer, E. S. (1981). The effect of distance on public library use: A literature survey. Library Research, 3, 315−354.
Funding issues in U.S. public libraries, fiscal years
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Davis, D. M. (2006). Funding issues in U.S. public libraries, fiscal years 2003-2006.Retrieved January 11, 2007, from http://www.ala.org/ala/ors/reports/FundingIssuesinUSPLs.pdf
Patterns of adult library use: A regression and path analysis Public library users, nonusers, and type of library use SPSS for intermediate statistics: use and interpretation
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Kronus, C. I. (1973). Patterns of adult library use: A regression and path analysis. Adult Education, 23, 115−131. Lange, J. M. (1988). Public library users, nonusers, and type of library use. Public Library Quarterly, 8(1/2), 49−67. Leech, N. L., Barrett, K. C., & Morgan, G. A. (2005). SPSS for intermediate statistics: use and interpretation (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Why adults use the public library: a research perspective
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Marchant, M. P. (1994). Why adults use the public library: a research perspective. Englewood: Libraries Unlimited.
The development and testing of a conceptual model of public library use behavior Procedure for developing a typology of adult users of the public library The roles of the public library in society: The results of a national survey, final report
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Toward a just and productive society: An analysis of the recommendations of the White House Conference on Library and Information Services
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McCook, K. d. l. P., & Geist, P. (1994). Toward a just and productive society: An analysis of the recommendations of the White House Conference on Library and Information Services. Washington, D.C.: National Commission on Library and Information Science.