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Changes in phytate and minerals during germination and cooking of fenugreek seeds

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Abstract

The effects of germination, cooking and roasting on the phytic acid content, total phosphorus, water soluble inorganic phosphorus and mineral content of fenugreek seeds have been estimated. After 96 h germination, the dry weight of fenugreek seeds decreased while total ash content increased. Phytase and phosphatase activity of the ungerminated and germinated seeds have been assayed. It is observed that during germination the phytic acid values diminish and the water soluble inorganic phosphorus values increase. Phytase activity which is absent in the ungerminated seeds originates after germination and the phosphatase activity is increased in the germinated seeds. Heat treatment practised in cooking and roasting fenugreek seeds has less effect on phytate elimination than does germination. Changes in calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc are found to be dependent on the loss of dry weight which occurs during processing of fenugreek seeds.

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... Previous studies were conducted mainly to determine grain yields / hectare and to understand the influence of diverse factors, which lead to such low yields. The factors investigated are the dates of sowing, supplementary irrigation, pesticide utilization etc [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. The purpose of this investigation is therefore to gather basic data (using identical analytical methods) for use in further studies on factors influencing the quality of local leguminous crops. ...
... The PC in chickpea ranged between 12-28 % [6][7][8]. This quality and nutritive factor can depend on nitrogen fertilization and even on water availability during the period of culture [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. The PC obtained for the other samples of 2003 (the variety 81 s of lentils) were not as high as those obtained in 2001: this means that the water factor alone can not explain these biochemical changes. ...
Article
Crop samples corresponding to different varieties of three leguminous seeds (Cicer arietinum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Lens culinaris L.) have been analyzed to determine and compare their nutritional and qualitative properties. The hundred kernel weight (HKW) values were about 39.2, 39.5 and 29 g respectively for chickpea, beans and lentils. The major physical difference we observed is related to the external appearance of the seed coat. This coat is relatively smooth and uniform for the Flip 84-92c chickpea variety in contrast of the Flip 84-15c. In the case of lentils, the variety LB Met presents a dark red colour compared to the other variety examined. The bean varieties differ also in the colour, white for Tirga and stained brown for Pinto the variety of American origin. The varieties bringing high HKW were Flip 84-15c, Pinto and LB Met for the 2001 harvest. Water cooking tests allowed us to distinguish between the crop samples. Significant varietal differences were detected concerning the biochemical components only for some cases. The analyses showed almost similar proportions of proteins among the varieties as well as for chickpeas or beans (24.85%-30.67%). However, inter-species variations for this major component were visible. The starch contents (SC) of the two chickpea varieties were slightly increased compared to the two lentil varieties and much more when compared to the bean varieties. The cellulose contents (CEL) decreased from lentils to chickpeas. The lowest values of ash were measured in the chickpea samples (2.56%-3.35%) for which the times of cooking were higher. A highly negative correlation was detected between the times of water cooking and the cellulose levels (r 2 = -0.90). The highest averages of total lipids recorded were those of the chickpea crop samples (4.26%-6.49%). In contrast, the oleic/linoleic ratios calculated after gas chromatography separations were elevated in the case of lentils.
... The increase in protein content of fenugreek seeds during sprouting may be attributed to the enzymatic synthesis of protein which was recorded by El-Shimi et al., (1984) [26] and Mansour and Al-Adawy (1994) [27] while sprouting these seeds. As per Kumar et al. (1978) [28] , Reddy et al., (1978) [29] and El-Mahdy and El-Sebaiy (1994) [30] , the increase in iron content of sprouted (germinated) fenugreek could be due to the reduction in phytates, tannins and other anti nutritional factors that bind minerals. The decrease of fat in fenugreek and chickpea after sprouting (germination) might be ascribed to its consumption as an energy source in the process of germination. ...
... The Scientific World Journal calcium and iron, as compared to previous results obtained by Nergiz and Otles [28], for black cumin and fenugreek seeds (El-Mahdy, and El-Sebaiy [29]). However, Gokavi et al. [9] found that cress seeds contain 1193 mg/100 g potassium. ...
Article
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Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823 mg/100g), followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270 mg/100g), Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102 mg/100g) and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65 mg/100g). However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43%) and erucic acid (29.81%), respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices.
... Also, a drop in concentration of protein was observed with increase in germination time i.e., from 21.66 ± 0.6 to 11.13 ± 0.3% which might be the result of increased degree of protease activity during germination as described by Torres et al., 24 and Pal et al., 25 Soaking and germination of seeds is also responsible for the reduction in phytic acid content i.e., from 64.08 ± 1.04 to 35.10 ± 1.03mg/100g. The germination process originates the phytase activity which was negligible in the raw unprocessed seeds as suggested by El-Mahdy and El-Sebaiy 26 and reduction of phytic acid content in seeds after germination was followed by the increase in phosphatase activity. 27 Soaking and germination improved the overall acceptability of the sprouted seed flour up to a significant level. ...
Article
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Indian traditional dishes make use of Nigella sativa seeds because of its distinctive aroma and taste but its application is restricted due to its pungent flavour which can be overcome by various methods of processing such as roasting, soaking, germination etc. Soaking and germination have positive impact on the nutritional, sensorial and phytochemical attributes of Nigella sativa. The current study was carried out to standardize the optimum soaking and germination conditions with improved nutritional, sensorial and phytochemical attributes of seeds. Nigella sativa seeds were soaked for different time duration (0 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr and 18 hr) followed by germination for 0, 7, 9 and 11 days. The soaked and germinated samples were exposed to a temperature of 50°C for drying till the constant moisture was obtained and analysed for various physiochemical, nutritional and sensory attributes. All the attributes under study were significantly affected by soaking and germination as compared to the control. Comparatively, except the moisture content all the phytochemicals and nutritional attributes decreased significantly from the control sample. Based on the qualitative attributes, soaking done for 18 hours along with 9th day of germination was observed to be the best and can be considered as the optimum condition to maintain the phytochemical to the safe level as well as reducing the antinutritional factors which can further be used for value addition.
... Pressure cooking of fenugreek seeds caused a significant increase in moisture content (8.2%).The fat content and crude fibre content showed a significant decrease to 3.95%and 6.21%, respectively. The iron and calcium content decreased whereas the phosphorus content increased significantly, on pressure cooking of fenugreek seeds.Increase in P might be due todecrease in phytates, tannins and other anti-nutritional factors that bind the minerals (El-Mahdy and El-Sebaiy, 1982). Total phenolic content and tannin content were significantly higher than raw samples (Table 1). ...
Article
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Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is an old medicinal plant and has been commonly used as a traditional food and medicine. The seeds of fenugreek contain lysine and L-tryptophan rich proteins, mucilaginous fiber and other rare chemical constituents such as saponins, coumarine, sapogenins and trigonelline, which are thought to account for many of its presumed therapeutic effects, may inhibit cholesterol absorption and thought to help lower sugar levels. Fenugreek seeds have also been reported to exhibit pharmacological properties such as anti-tumor, anti-viral and antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of processing methods (roasted, soaked, germinated and pressure cooking) on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fenugreek seeds. The antimicrobial activity of fenugreek seeds was also analysed. Raw fenugreek seed flour contained higher amount of crude fiber (20.6%) followed by 15.8% in roasted seed flour, 10.2% in germinated and 6.21% in pressure cooked sample. Pressure cooking, germination and soaking enhanced the calcium and iron content of fenugreek seed flour. The protein content of raw fenugreek seed flour was 27.09% which was enhanced to 28.47% after germination. Germinated samples had highest DPPH % and FRAP content of 48.84% and 6.49mg ascorbic acid/g, respectively as compared to other treated samples. The aqueous extracts showed broadest antimicrobial activity by inhibiting most of the microbial strains involved. Among the microbial strains tested, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were the most susceptible strains whereas Salmonella enterica and Shigella flexeneri were the most resistant microbes.
... ISSN 2286 nutritional qualities. Several methods such as germination, soaking, cooking (El-Mahdy et al. 1982) have been investigated. However, such methods may cause losses in some nutrients. ...
Article
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To evaluate fenugreek seeds potential as nutritional and functional feed, chemical compositions, functional properties and in vitro nutritional values of raw, autoclaved (121°C, 15min) and pre-germinated (emergence of the radical in 95% of the seeds) fenugreek seeds were compared. On dry matter basis, raw seeds had: 5.4, 23.8, 40.4, 16.8, 66.9 and 26.4% fat, crude protein, NDF, ADF, total carbohydrates and non-fibrous carbohydrates, respectively. Autoclaving increased (P<0.05) fat (8.5%) and ADF (17.6%) and reduced (P<0.05) carbohydrates (64.3%) and non-fibrous carbohydrates (19.2%). Pre-germinated increased (P<0.05) fat (7.7%), crude protein (24.1%) and ADF (17.3%) and reduced (P<0.05) carbohydrates (64.2%). Raw seeds total phenols, tannins, flavonoids and phytic acid contents were 7.1, 3.5, 2.6 and 6.6 mg /g dry matter, respectively. Autoclaving reduced (P<0.05) only flavonoids level and pre-germinated reduced (P<0.05) phenols, tannins and flavonoids levels. Among the distinctive functional properties of raw seeds were their bulk density (0.69 g DM/ml), water absorption capacity (4.72 g/g DM), foaming capacity (21.37%), swelling coefficient (305%) and extractable color value (8.3 ASTA units). Autoclaving decreased (P<0.05) bulk density by 13% and extractable color by 29%. Pre-germination reduced (P<0.05) water absorption capacity by 17.8% and extractable color by 73.3 to 74.2% and increased (P<0.05) foaming capacity by 37.1%. Autoclaving reduced (P<0.05) protein dispersibility index from 34.78 to 10.25%, had no effect (P>0.05) on digestibility by pepsin (74.12-75.84%) and increased (P<0.05) digestibility by pepsin-trypsin from 82.31 to 85.91%, digestible energy by 6.2% and metabolizable energy by 4 to 4.7%. Pre-germination enhanced (P<0.05) protein dispersibility index to 45.39% and digestible energy by 3.8% and metabolizable energy by 4.3 to 6.7%. It was concluded that fenugreek seeds can serve as a valuable nutritional and functional food. Autoclaving and pre-germination improved such potential and need to be further evaluated and implemented in In Vivo studies.
... Sprouts had high levels of K, Zn and Fe but Mg and Ca in reduced levels compared to ungerminated fenugreek seed fractions. Earlier reports also cite the overall differences in mineral composition of seeds on germination (Ahmed Rafik & Laila, 1982;El-Shimi et al., 1984). ...
Article
Germinated fenugreek seeds were separated into endosperm, seed coat and sprouts with an overall yield of 78%. Germinated endosperm, sprouts and ungerminated endosperm contained 39.25%, 36.12% and 48.20% protein, respectively. Germinated seed coat had 55.80% insoluble and 86.96% total dietary fibre, whereas ungerminted seed coat had 31.90% and 77.10% respectively. Sprouts were rich in polyphenols (97.55 mg per 100 g). At 200 ppm concentration, the antioxidant activity of the extracts of seed coat, sprouts and endosperm from germinated fenugreek seeds was 79.87%, 49.05%, and 13.42% where as the seed coat and endosperm of ungerminated fenugreek exhibited 90.94% and 10.13% antioxidant activity respectively. The GC analysis of the ester derivatives of the fixed oils of above fractions showed discernable changes in fatty acid profile. Atomic absorption spectroscopy analysis of the above fractions showed overall differences in their mineral content particularly calcium, zinc, copper, iron, potassium, manganese and magnesium.
... acid content of the seeds is correlated to the amount of minerals because of the bonds that could be established with phosphoric anions (El Mahdy and El Sebaiy, 1982;Bernard and Carlier, 1992). ...
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Abstract: Crop samples corresponding to different varieties of three leguminous seeds (Cicer arietinum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Lens culinaris L.) were analysed to determine and compare nutritional and other (colour) properties. The hundred kernel weight (HKW) values were approximately 39.2, 39.5 and 29 g for chickpea, beans and lentils, respectively. The varieties that showed high HKW were Flip 84–15c, Pinto and LB Met for the 2001 harvest. Water cooking tests allowed us to distinguish between the crop samples. Significant varietal differences were detected in the biochemical components for some cases. The analyses showed almost similar proportions of proteins among the varieties as well as for chickpeas or beans (24.85–30.67%). However, inter-species variations for this major component were visible. The starch contents of the two chickpea varieties were slightly higher compared with the two lentil varieties, and much higher when compared to the bean varieties. The cellulose contents are lower when chickpeas are compared to lentils. The lowest values of ash were measured in the chickpea samples (2.56–3.35%), for which the times of cooking were longer. A highly negative correlation was detected between the times of water cooking and the cellulose levels (r2 ¼ �0.9). The highest averages of total lipids recorded were those of the chickpea crop samples (4.26–6.49%). In contrast, the oleic/linoleic ratios calculated after gas chromatography separations were high in the case of lentils. Published by Elsevier Inc. Key words: Chickpeas; Beans; Lentils; Ash; Proteins; Starch; Oil; Fatty acids; Weather
... Increase in Ca and P might be due to decrease in phytates, tannins and other anti-nutritional factors that bind the minerals as reported by El-Mahdy and El-Sebaiy (1982). Earlier reports also cite the overall differences in mineral composition of seeds on germination (Ahmad Rafik and Laila 1982). ...
Article
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Fenugreek (Pusa Early Bunching) seeds were processed by using different processing methods viz. soaking, germination and roasting. Raw and processed fenugreek seed flours were analyzed for nutritional composition, anti- nutritional, and antioxidant activity. Raw fenugreek seed flour contained higher amount of dietary fiber (45.4 %) followed by 41.7 % in soaked seed flour, 40.9 % in roasted fenugreek seed flour and 31.3 % in germinated fenugreek seed flour. Processing of fenugreek seeds improved in vitro starch digestibility and in vitro protein digestibility. Soaking, germination and roasting enhanced total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of fenugreek seed flour as compared to raw fenugreek seed flour. The phenolic content of soaked, germinated and roasted fenugreek seed flours was 54.4, 80.8 and 48.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample in contrast to raw fenugreek seed flour (45.4 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample). The antioxidant activity of the extracts of soaked, germinated and roasted fenugreek seed flours was 60.7 %, 73.9 % and 32.0 % whereas as the raw fenugreek seed flour exhibited 18.1 % antioxidant activity. Processing of fenugreek seeds also decreased phytic acid content significantly (P < 0.05) as compared to raw seeds.
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Les usages du fenugrec sont multiples, tant sur le plan culinaire qu'en medecine humaine et veterinaire. Cette legumineuse est classiquement consommee sous la forme de graines entieres ou broyees, crues, cuites, torrefiees ou germees, de tiges crues, de jeunes pousses et fournit egalement du fourrage en alimentation animale. La graine renferme un taux eleve de proteines riches en lysine et de lipides, constituant une source importante d'acides gras essentiels en n-6 et n-3. Les glucides, qui representent plus de 50 % de la matiere seche sont, quant a eux, depourvus d'interet nutritionnel. Les glucides de reserve, essentiellement des galactomannanes, sont doues de proprietes emulsifiantes. Sur le plan mineral, le fenugrec est repute pour sa richesse en fer. La graine consommee germee augmente le potentiel en vitamines A, B et C. Elle renferme egalement de la 4-hydroxyisoleucine, formee in situ par voie enzymatique qui stimule la secretion endocrine du pancreas chez l'animal et l'homme, entrainant une hyperinsulinemie. Les saponines de la graine de fenugrec presentent des proprietes physiologiques et fonctionnelles liees a leur caractere emulsifiant et hydrophobe, en particulier un effet hypocholesterolemiant. Comme pour d'autres legumineuses, la graine en dormance renferme des facteurs anti-nutritionnels, en particulier des inhibiteurs proteasiques et la trigonelline qui, au cours de la torrefaction du grain, est convertible en niacine. Au total, si la graine de fenugrec ne constitue pas une denree alimentaire de base, elle ne semble pas presenter de toxicite chez l'homme lorsqu'elle est employee comme aromate.
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In many countries, uses of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) are numerous, in culinary preparations as well as in human and veterinary medicine. This annual legume, traditionally cultivated in Europe, Africa and Asia, is a popular food, consumed in various ways. For example, ground seeds which are highly flavoured are used in spice mixtures, mainly in curries; young seedlings and other portions of fresh plant material are eaten as vegetables; powder or flour of the grain is utilized as a supplement in home-baked bread; raw seeds are used to brew a hot beverage, or are eaten boiled in water, roasted after germination for 2-3 days, etc. Moreover, both the fresh green shoots and the seeds of fenugreek are used in cattle feeding. Fenugreek seeds contain high levels of proteins rich in lysine, and lipids (> 5%) constituting an important source of polyunsaturated (linoleic and linolenic) fatty acids. Carbohydrates representing over 50% of the dry matter are almost devoid of nutritional interest. Storage carbohydrates in the dry seed, mainly galactomannans contained within the endosperm cell walls, exhibit interesting emulsifying properties. Concerning fenugreek as a food source of minerals and vitamins, the seeds contain high amounts of iron and germination of the fenugreek improves its vitamins A, B and C content. 4-hydroxyisoleucine, a peculiar free amino acid extracted from seeds potentiates an insulinotropic activity through a direct effect on pancreatic B cells in rats and humans. Consumption of the seed also results in a hypocholesterolemic effect due to the presence of steroidal saponins the aglycons sapogenins which can be used for the steroid synthesis. As for others leguminous plants, dormant seed has been reported to contain anti-nutritional factors, more particularly human and bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors and trigonelline, which is convertible into niacin during the roasting of grain. Finally, although fenugreek seed does not constitute a basic foodstuff, it is generally recognized as safe for human consumption as a spice or natural seasoning and as a plant extract.
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Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have high nutritional value but also contain potential antinutritional factors, such as phytate and polyphenols. Phytate can store up to 80% of the phosphorus in seeds. In the seed and during digestion it can complex minerals such as iron and zinc and make them unavailable for absorption. Also, it is not well digested by monogastrics. Polyphenols are known to reduce bioavailability of some nutrients. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of phytate and seed coat polyphenols on bioavailability of iron from field pea seeds. To increase the nutritional value of field pea seeds, two low-phytate lines (1-150-81 and 1-2347-144) containing higher inorganic phosphorus concentration (IN-P) and lower phytate-phosphorus concentration (PA-P) than the normal phytate varieties were developed from the cultivar CDC Bronco in previous research. Total iron concentration (FECON) did not differ significantly between normal and low phytate varieties. However, iron bioavailability (FEBIO) of the two low-phytate lines was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher than that of the three normal phytate varieties as assessed using a cell culture bioassay. Environment also had a significant effect on FEBIO. Peas with pigmented seed coats had seven times lower FEBIO than peas with nonpigmented seed coats. Removal of the seed coat increased FEBIO in peas with pigmented seed coat five to six times.
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An investigation has been made of the changes in the major phosphorus containing substances in Avena sativa during the first 8 days of dark germination. The endosperm, roots, and shoots were analyzed separately for acid soluble-P, phytic acid-P, inorganic-P, lipid-P, nucleic acid-P, and protein-P. Phytic acid-P comprised 53% of the total seed phosphate, while the sum of lipid-P, nucleic acid-P and protein-P comprised 27% of the seed phosphate. All these reserve phosphate materials were mobilized and transferred to the developing axis. The phosphate from phytic acid appeared almost entirely as inorganic-P in the roots and shoots. A close stoichiometry existed between the rate of loss of nucleic acid-P from the endosperm and its rate of appearance in the roots and shoots. Thus no net synthesis of nucleic acid occurred during the 8-day period examined. The rate of synthesis of lipid-P in the roots and shoots exceeded its rate of disappearance from the endosperm during the first 4 days of germination. Protein-P increased in the roots and shoots during germination, but at a rate less than its rate of disappearance from the endosperm. The results provide a relatively complete description of the over-all aspects of phosphorus metabolism associated with germination of oats.
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Fifty cultivated varieties and lines of mature dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were analyzed for phytic acid, total P, inorganic P, and other than phytate organic P. The respective concentrations on a dry weight basis were: 0.54-1.58, 0.259-0.556, 0.021-0.044, and 0.050-0.135%. A correla-tion coefficient of 0.9847 was found between total P content and phytic acid content. A protein-phytate complex was also isolated. The observation was made that 99.6% of the total phytic acid was in a water-soluble form.
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Phytin accounts for about 70% of the phosphorus in soybean meal. In extracting proteins from the meal, the phytin reacts with the proteins to form complex products of varying composition. In the water extract of the meal, which has pH of about 6.6, the reaction is limited but increases as the pH is lowered for precipitation of the protein. It has been demonstrated that phytin can be eliminated from water extract of soybean meal by a combination of dialysis and treatment with the anionic-exchange resin Dowex-1-X10. Electrophoretic studies have shown that one minor component of the acid-precipitated protein is a protein-phytin reaction product, and two other minor components are affected by the presence of phytin. Removing the phytin raises the isoelectric point of the acid-precipitated protein by 0.8 unit, and increases the pH range of complete dispersibility on the acid side of its isoelectric point.
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Germinated greengram, cowpea and chickpea were studied for chemical characteristics after cooking, by estimating the changes in phytins, Ca++, Mg++ and pectin contents. Cooking time was drastically reduced on germination in chickpea, while an inverse effect was observed in greengram and cowpea. The phytin content decreased on germination. No appreciable change in phytin P/Total P value was seen on cooking. Ca++ content was reduced on germination and cooking in the three legumes, while Mg++ content was relatively unaltered. A combined interaction of these chemical parameters, expressed as “PCMP number” was found to correlate with the cooking behavior of the legumes studied.
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Changes in the content of phytic acid and total acid-soluble phosphorus were measured in Pinto beans at several levels of seed maturity. Phytic acid content in bean seeds increased rapidly with advancing maturity, while total acid-soluble phosphorus decreased. Mature dry beans contained about 1% phytic acid which accounted for half the total acid-soluble seed phosphorus. the most immature beans studied contained about 0.13% phytic acid which represents only 4% of the total acid-soluble phosphorus in these ovules. Little phytic acid was found in pods at any level of maturity.
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• The effect of 7 test meals upon the absorption of either reduced Fe⁵⁵ or reduced Fe⁵⁹ fed to adolescent boys was measured. • The test meals consisted of (I, VI) milk, rolled oats, tomato juice, white bread and omelet; (II) milk; (III) milk and sodium phytate; (IV, VII) milk and rolled oats; and (V) water. Each meal contained approximately the same amount of iron. Meals I, VI and VII contained the same level of natural phytate in rolled oats; meal III contained the same quantity of phytate, as the sodium salt; meal IV contained approximately half as much rolled oats and phytate as meal VII; phytate was absent from meals II and V. • The following percentages of radioactive iron were absorbed from these meals: • 4.43, • 17.4, • 1.74, • 9.81, • 26.9, • 5.76 and • 8.84. • Milk reduced the absorption of iron by one-third. This was not due to the action of phytates, for the milk contained none. • Rolled oats and milk reduced the absorption of iron by two-thirds. Thus, rolled oats interfered no more than did milk. • There was no correlation between the phytate content of rolled oats and the reduction in iron absorption. • Sodium phytate reduced the absorption of iron by 15-fold, indicating that added soluble phytates can interfere with iron absorption. • The absorption of iron from the breakfast was one-fifth that from the water meal. Medicinal iron should be more effective if administered between meals. • Evidence is presented for the inverse correlation of iron absorption with the solids content of the test meals.
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