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Children's Participation: The Theory and Practice of Involving Young Citizens in Community Development and Environmental Care

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Abstract

This books examines the demand for the genuine participation of children and young people in defining and acting upon environmental issues. The 'environment' is interpreted broadly to include, for example, the planning of housing areas and the management of playgrounds as well as the various fields of its conventional definition. Detailed case studies are provided from urban and rural, poor and middle class communities from both the North and South. The text is intended for use by teachers, group facilitators and community leaders and presents organizing principles, successful models, practical techniques and resources for involving young people in environmental projects. The value of the role of children in terms of both an involvement with management their environment and in terms of their commitment to the cause.

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... Since the publication of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), various models of youth participation have evolved over time and made important contributions in describing the various levels and types of participation using different conceptualisations and diagrams (see Cahill and Dadvand, 2018 for a full review). These include the ladder of participation (Hart, 1992(Hart, , 1997, wheel of participation (Treseder, 1997;Treseder and Crowley, 2001), pathways to participation (Shier, 2001), typology of youth participation and empowerment (Wong et al., 2010), pedagogical political participation model (Andersson, 2017) and the P7 model which puts forward the following seven interconnected domains: purpose, position, perspective, power, protection, place and process (Cahill and Dadvand, 2018). ...
... The original model put forward by Hart (1992Hart ( , 1997 sees youth participation on a continuum from adult-initiated with no youth input to youth-initiated with shared decision-making with adults. Hart et al. (1997) argue that the bottom rungs (i.e. 1. manipulation, 2. decoration, and 3. tokenisation) can be considered non-participation. ...
... The original model put forward by Hart (1992Hart ( , 1997 sees youth participation on a continuum from adult-initiated with no youth input to youth-initiated with shared decision-making with adults. Hart et al. (1997) argue that the bottom rungs (i.e. 1. manipulation, 2. decoration, and 3. tokenisation) can be considered non-participation. The greatest benefits are seen to come from a full participatory model at the highest rungs of the ladder (i.e. 4. assigned and informed, 5. consulted and informed, 6. adult-initiated, shared decisions with youth, 7. youth-initiated and directed, and 8. youth-initiated, shared decisions with adults). ...
Article
This article explores the participation of young people in contact with criminal justice systems in the development of drugs interventions. Interviews were undertaken with 160 young people (aged 15–25) and 66 practitioners involved in the design, delivery and commissioning of drug interventions. We analyse the key challenges in involving young people in the development of interventions including structural, organisational and individual factors. We argue that these barriers can be overcome by fostering flexible models of participation and identifying the most meaningful and appropriate approaches for involving young people at different stages and in different initiatives which consider socio-cultural contexts.
... Several different frameworks have been developed, to describe the level of engagement by the child in research and inform researchers' decision making. Examples of engagement frameworks include: Hart's Participation Ladder (Hart, 1997), a framework for understanding children's' roles in technology design (Druin, 2002), and Sheir's levels of participation (Shier, 2001). Hart's Participation Ladder is the most granular, providing clear descriptors of eight levels, from "manipulation" at level 1 to "child-initiated shared decisions with adults" at level 8. Druin's and Shier's frameworks had four and five levels respectively. ...
... Disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer and ineligible reports were once again removed from further consideration. Two reviewers then independently screened each retained study's participatory approach using Hart's Participation Ladder (Hart, 1997). Only studies involving participatory approaches that were adjudged level 4 or above on Hart's Participation Ladder were included in the systematic review, and again, any disagreements in the assessment of the initial two independent reviewers were resolved by a third reviewer. ...
... Two hundred and thirty-eight of those studies were excluded in part 1 of the full text review process. The remaining 34 studies were then assessed for their level of co-researcher participation against Hart's Participation Ladder (Hart, 1997), which resulted in a further eight studies being excluded. Thus, 26 studies were included in the review. ...
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In research, participatory approaches involve engaging in the research with people and empower co-researchers to have a voice. The aim of this review was to synthesize the methods and approaches used to enable children, adolescents, and families to be involved in a participatory approach in research conducted to inform development of health resources and interventions aimed at children and adolescents. Key databases were searched systematically using key word and subject heading searches and included studies were appraised for both methodological quality and sufficiency of reporting of their participatory approach. Findings were synthesized using a critical narrative approach. Among 26 eligible studies, commonly reported participatory approaches involved community-based participatory research, codesign, participatory design, coproduction, and user-centred design. A need was identified to involve co-researchers more in the later stages of participatory approaches. Most studies were of low to moderate methodological quality. A wide variety of methods and activities were used in the studies to enable children to participate in the research, but few studies provided sufficient evidence of their participatory approach. This review concludes that reporting of participatory approaches might benefit from the guidelines that acknowledge the dual nature of participatory approaches as both a research method and an approach that enables action and change.
... They have the right to enjoy the same human rights that adults doto be informed, to participate, and to make decisions regarding their environment (Alderson 2008(Alderson , 2010. Children's participation is a multidisciplinary field that grows, producing constantly theory and methodology for involving children with informed, empowering and creative ways in decision-making for their lives and environments (Cahill 2019;Ergler 2015;Holt, Evans, and Skelton 2017;Hart 1997). Children's self-determination is now scrutinized in the framework of early childhood education, approaching children's right to participate from a diverse, international, multidisciplinary perspective, revealing an emerging field of research, pedagogy and institutional changes (Farini and Scollan 2019). ...
... Children, even from the earliest age, can form and express views and participate to issues relating to their immediate family, school, local community and natural environment (Lansdown 2011). In line with Hultgren and Johansson (2019) and Hart (1997), the current research focuses on the young age of children in an attempt to support the claim that, despite their age, they are capable of participating as equal partners and problem-solvers by taking decisions on issues that concern them, such as the management of their immediate school environment. ...
... The researchers discussed their considerations regarding ethical issues in several stages of the research. They took decisions regarding directions that, while empowering young children's voices, would minimize enforcement of adults' ideas and opinions, away from manipulation and tokenism (Hart 1997). The children were involved in every possible stage of the research (including the selection of the environmental education program's theme, methods and activities) (Lundy, McEvoy, and Byrne 2011). ...
... The theoretical approach is based on the Roger Hart's (1997) Ladder of Children's Participation. We use Hart's model as an analytical tool to operationalize power relations and to identify the extent to which the children in the project were able to influence and participate in decision-making in PEH. ...
... The eight rungs are: manipulation, decoration, tokenism, assigned but informed, consulted and informed, adult-initiated and shared decisions with children, child-initiated and directed, and child-initiated and shared decisions with adults. Hart (1997) underlines that the first three rungs are unacceptable when it comes to the participation of children and points out the importance of avoiding working at these non-participation rungs. Rungs four to eight are described below: ...
... According to Hart (1997), an important principle regarding participation in decisions is to remember choice. It is not necessary that children always operate on the highest rungs of the participation ladder but that each child can choose to participate at the highest level of her/his ability. ...
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Swedish compulsory school education rests upon the foundation of democracy, and the Curriculum for the compulsory school, preschool class and school-age educare 2011 (Skolverket, 2018) stresses that children should have the opportunity to take initiatives. Research shows that children are not able to have any influence on activities in Physical Education and Health (PEH). Usually, they have to follow the teacher’s instructions and reproduce specific movement patterns. This article discusses a research project that challenged traditional ways of teaching PEH, in order to give 10-year-old children the opportunity to have an influence on PEH. The project involved 10 circus lessons in which the children were encouraged to explore movement and put their own ideas into practice. In terms of theory, the approach is based on Hart’s (1997) Ladder of Children’s Participation. Data were collected through participant observations, video observations, interviews, and a field diary. The results show that the children participated in varying degrees and experienced attempts to increase their influence in different ways: Some found it fun and free, while others found it difficult and boring. One important conclusion is that influence and participation need to be practised – both by children and by teachers. Circus activities, because of the playfulness and creativity involved, may be very suited to practising influence and participation..
... Sin embargo, la implementación de este derecho ha demostrado ser un enorme desaf ío (Bae, 2009;Cockburn, 2005). A pesar de la existencia de leyes, reglamentos y acuerdos que promueven la participación infantil, existe evidencia que la participación de NNA -en el mejor de los casos-es parcial y, a menudo, puede caracterizarse como simbólica (Collins, 2015;Hart, 1997;Thomas, 2007). Al respecto, estudios en Europa y Asia señalan que la participación de los NNA en las decisiones de gobernanza local y nacional suelen ser normativamente limitadas o fragmentadas (Fleming, 2013; Nir & Perry-Hazan, 2016) lo que implica que es un tipo de participación que otorga a los NNA el poder de tomar decisiones, pero restringe este poder dentro de límites establecidos. ...
... En los peldaños inferiores, la participación de los NNA puede reducirse a la manipulación o el simbolismo, es decir, que se utilicen de una forma u otra para los fines sociales o políticos de los adultos. En los escalones más altos, NNA pueden obtener niveles de participación cada vez más poderosos si se les informa, se les consulta, se toman la iniciativa y, sobre todo, se comparte la toma de decisiones real (Hart, 1997). Kohan (2004) expone al respecto que las modalidades de participación de la infancia están fuertemente ligadas a modelos eminentemente adultos. ...
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Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio se centró en indagar en las experiencias de participación de adolescentes que son miembros del Consejo Comunal de Infancia de la ciudad de Iquique. A partir de un diseño metodológico cualitativo se llevó a cabo un estudio de caso con tres adolescentes entre 16 y 18 años de edad. Se aplicaron entrevistas semi-estructuradas vía plataforma online para posteriormente realizar un análisis de contenido. Los resultados muestran que los adolescentes miembros del Consejo valoran los avances en materia de participación en el Consejo Comunal, especialmente dado que no se visualizan otros espacios que permitan desarrollar este derecho. Se reconoce asimismo que persiste una visión adulto-céntrica en los espacios territoriales en donde la participación suele permanecer en un plano simbólico.
... Few studies address the students' perception of benefits to communities such as the beauty of nature (naturalness) (Raith 2017;van Dijk-Wesselius et al. 2018) and enhancing environmental quality. Here, we draw on participatory frameworks introduced by Hart (1997) and others, and employed by many researchers and designers (Derr and Rigolon 2015;Kreutz, Derr, and Chawla 2018;Moore 2014) that assert that engaging children in decision-making will create places that are meaningful to children (Hart 1997). As pupils are the main stakeholders in schools, understanding students' perception of green schoolyards can help inform school administrators and landscape designers to ensure school deliver a wide range of benefit to children (van Dijk-Wesselius et al. 2018; Lindemann-Matthies and Köhler 2019). ...
... Few studies address the students' perception of benefits to communities such as the beauty of nature (naturalness) (Raith 2017;van Dijk-Wesselius et al. 2018) and enhancing environmental quality. Here, we draw on participatory frameworks introduced by Hart (1997) and others, and employed by many researchers and designers (Derr and Rigolon 2015;Kreutz, Derr, and Chawla 2018;Moore 2014) that assert that engaging children in decision-making will create places that are meaningful to children (Hart 1997). As pupils are the main stakeholders in schools, understanding students' perception of green schoolyards can help inform school administrators and landscape designers to ensure school deliver a wide range of benefit to children (van Dijk-Wesselius et al. 2018; Lindemann-Matthies and Köhler 2019). ...
Article
Although green schoolyards provide many benefits to children and communities, little research explores students’ perceptions of these benefits and how natural elements (e.g. gardens, trees) and associated use shape student experience. We examine the relationship between nature-based attributes, nature-based activities, and teacher-led activities with students’ perceptions of schoolyards’ benefits to self (e.g. feeling calm, good place to learn) and to community (e.g. contributions to cleaner water, increased biodiversity). We measured 199 3rd -6th grade students’ perceptions of schoolyards’ benefits from 9 schools in Raleigh, North Carolina. Overall, students viewed schoolyards positively, and recognized more benefits to self than community. We found that the relationship between the presence of nature-based attributes and students’ positive feelings was limited. Instead, we found that nature-based activities and teacher-led activities had a positive relationship with students’ positive feelings. Our findings suggest that school greening efforts need to be paired with policies and curricular practices to encourage interaction with natural elements to ensure benefits are fully realized by students.
... Participation did not appear to be a static or permanent operating culture, but rather as something dynamic and changing according to the situation. Instead of looking at participation as hierarchical models moving in relation to different levels [60,61], participation appeared as a multidimensional climbing wall, where the interrelationships of different dimensions of participation vary in different situations and in different children, see [37] (cycle 4). Research triangulation was conducted to ensure that analysis was based on a valid understanding and previous knowledge, as well as to test consistency of findings [56]. ...
... Participation did not appear to be a static or permanent operating culture, but rather as something dynamic and changing according to the situation. Instead of looking at participation as hierarchical models moving in relation to different levels [60,61], participation appeared as a multidimensional climbing wall, where the interrelationships of different dimensions of participation vary in different situations and in different children, see [37] (cycle 4). ...
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The aim of this research was to explore a socially sustainable culture of participation in which all members of the community can be heard, make initiatives, express their opinions, and alter their practices. We conducted the study by analysing three separate sets of empirical research data in which participation was investigated in an early childhood education and care (ECEC) context and in club activities for children aged 4–12 and the elderly. The data include children’s perspectives regarding participation, ECEC practitioners’ perspectives on a culture of participation, and children’s and ECEC practitioners’ shared project-based practices. The results show that children and ECEC practitioners were willing to commit to new practices and construct a collective ‘we-narrative’. A we-narrative created a foundation for the conceptual model of a socially sustainable culture of participation, including the prerequisites of participation in adult practices, the goal of participation in children’s and adults’ shared activities, and a tool for strengthening participation. According to the results, a socially sustainable culture of participation is holistic and dynamic, and children can have an effect on daily activities, including basic care situations, as well as part of the educational activities.
... Participants received 14 pages of reading material outlining 15 varied and cutting edge ideas on ways to approach VEP in the classroom. These readings included some older, but currently under utilized strategies from 1970s writers such as Frankel (1997) and a range of interesting new approaches such as: ethics-based moral reasoning (Kidder, 1996); public conversations ; student action research (Hart, 1997) and narrative analysis (Keown, 1998a). Participants were then invited to select one idea new to them from the readings, or from online dialogue, or from some other source, and outline how they would use it to develop student VEP thinking. ...
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Research over a long period has suggested that professional development and learning for teachers often produces disappointing results. Recent theory suggests that teacher professional learning presented within a situated learning and community of practice framework is likely to be more effective than the more traditional forms of in-service professional development and learning. Further, recent technological developments since the mid 1990s have created increasingly sophisticated means of bringing widely distributed learners together, within flexible timeframe, online (virtual) discussion communities. This study set out to develop a workable approach to teacher professional development and learning (IPDL), using situated learning and community of practice learning theory and the opportunities afforded by Web 2 virtual learning environments. The literatures of learning theory, teacher professional development and communities of practice were reviewed and best practice principles identified. These principles were then used to design a virtual community of practice (VCoP) approach to teacher professional development and learning. The approach was then implemented as the underpinning framework for three virtual professional development modules for secondary school Geography and Social Studies teachers. The study used a grounded theory and action learning action research methodology, which enabled the researcher and the research participants to evaluate and fine tune the approach throughout the study. A mixed method research design resulted in the collection of rich quantitative and qualitative data during each module. Naturalistic data were drawn from the online module record and from semi-structured focus group discussions. More structured and reflective data were collected through a final post-module evaluative questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using a range of techniques, including narrative analysis, structural analysis, semantic analysis, and domain analysis. The results of these analyses are presented from three contrasting perspectives: a structural analysis narrative of each module (Chapter 5), a content and personal case study narrative of selected participants (Chapter 6), and a qualitative and quantitative analysis of a final post module reflective survey (Chapter 7)
... Følgende spørsmål er vanlig ved igangsetting av planlegging: hvem eier problemene, hvem peker på dem og hvem har mulighet for å løse dem? Barn er i større grad enn det voksne tror, i stand til å peke på problemer det bør gjøres noe med (Hart 1997), men det betyr ikke nødvendigvis at voksne er villige til å se problemene, enn si gjøre noe med dem. 7 Seks departement og Kommunens Sentralforbund ga ut publikasjonen Barnerepresentantens faktaperm i 1998. ...
... V zahodnoevropskem prostoru se bolj kot o subjektnem položaju učenca piše o participaciji učencev (Baacke in Brücher, 1982;Fatke in Schneider, b. l.;Hart, 2002;Kurt Buchholz, 2011;Peschel, 2008;Portmann in Student, 2005), čemur se pridružujeta tudi avtorici članka. Participacija pomeni, da so učenci vključeni v oblikovanje šole kot celote, šolskega življenja in pouka (Kurt Buchholz, 2011). ...
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Spreminjanje položaja učenca v Sloveniji v 20. stoletju Izvirni znanstveni članek UDK 37.013(497.4)"19" POVZETEK Položaj učenca je ena od tem v pedagoški teoriji in praksi tako pri nas kot v svetu, ki ji je namenjena pomembna pozornost. Pogled na položaj učenca se je skozi različna obdobja v zgodovini spreminjal, običajno je odseval duh časa, v katerem je nastal. V prispevku na podlagi analize domače strokovne literature analiziramo spreminjanje položaja učenca v vzgojno-izobraževalnem procesu 20. stoletja. Na osnovi analize ugotavljamo, da se je pogled na položaj učenca na Sloven-skem prvič pomembno spremenil po prvi svetovni vojni, ko sta se začela pou-darjati aktivna vloga učenca pri pouku in možnost svobodnega odločanja. Druga svetovna vojna je prizadevanja za izboljšanje učenčevega položaja prekinila. Že kmalu po njej so pedagoški teoretiki in praktiki jasno opozarjali na pomen vloge učenca pri pouku. Priča smo številnim razpravam o pomenu spremembe položaja učenca iz objekta v subjekt vzgojno-izobraževalnega dela. Prelomen dogodek v razmišljanju o spremenjenem položaju učenca v vzgojno-izobraževalnem pro-cesu je predstavljal referat Ive Šegula na prvem pedagoškem kongresu. Zavzela se je za samodejavnost učencev pri pouku in njihov subjektni položaj. Zahteve za izboljšanje učenčevega položaja so se nadaljevale tudi po osamosvojitvi Republike Slovenije in so aktualne še danes. Žal pa ugotavljamo, da so učenci kljub nepre-stanim težnjam tako teoretikov kot praktikov pri pouku še vedno preveč poslušalci in premalo dejavni. Ključne besede: učenec, položaj učenca, učna aktivnost, vzgojno-izobraževalni proces
... The primary motivations for involving children and the wider school community in the process of creating school spaces differ according to the agenda of those who initiate the process. While child-initiated emancipatory processes might represent a participatory ideal (Hart, 1997;Chawla, 2001;Fielding, 2001), the impetus for a new or reconfigured environment, centred on children's learning, most often emerges from priorities set by adults. ...
Chapter
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This chapter assesses ways to identify and support children with learning disabilities. Learning disabilities affect many students and are seldom attributable to a single cause. They arise through complex interactions between biological and environmental factors within individual developmental trajectories. Early identification of children at risk for learning disabilities as well as adequate identification of children with learning disabilities are important for ensuring that children have access to the supports they need in order to reach their full potential. Here, we discuss identifying children’s learning needs and providing educational support. Although many school systems recognize the need to provide inclusive education to support all learners, more work is needed to raise awareness and enable adequate evidence-based early identification of children with learning disabilities and support their learning trajectories and instructional needs inside and outside of the classroom. It is also fundamental to acknowledge the importance of research on diverse populations that could inform identification and support in various countries and socio-cultural contexts.
... The concepts of awareness and consciousness are also of great importance for the implementation of these strategies and the determination of sustainable environmental solutions. It is essential to provide trainings that will enable individuals to adopt a peaceful approach towards the environment in the pre-school period when environmental awareness begins to settle (Hart, 2008). ...
... e primary motivations for involving children and the wider school community in the process of creating school spaces di er according to the agenda of those who initiate the process. While child-initiated emancipatory processes might represent a participatory ideal (Hart, 1997;Chawla, 2001;Fielding, 2001), the impetus for a new or recon gured environment, centred on children's learning, most often emerges from priorities set by adults. ...
Chapter
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The goal of this chapter is to assess research that can inform understandings of places and spaces of learning.The chapter assesses evidence across three types of learning spaces: built spaces, digital spaces, and natural spaces. It looks at the role of these different kinds of spaces for learning, attainment, interpersonal relationships, skills development, wellbeing and behaviours ‒ across four pillars of learning to know, to be, to do and to live together. The chapter also explores how learning spaces can be actively shaped, felt and understood through practices and policies that occur within and around them.
... Inicialmente, Hart (1992, p. 5) describió la participación como "el proceso de compartir decisiones que afectan la vida y la comunidad en la que se vive", considerándolo una forma activa de participación y la posibilidad de que esta tenga un efecto en la toma de decisiones. El autor destaca que el objetivo de la participación infantil no es que los niños siempre participen al máximo, sino que cada niño debería tener la oportunidad de elegir el nivel más completo de participación que coincida con sus capacidades, con el reconocimiento adicional de que las circunstancias ofrecerán diferentes oportunidades (Hart, 2002). Thomas (2000) describió que el derecho de participación otorga a los niños, niñas y adolescentes el derecho a ser escuchados, pero no necesariamente el derecho a la autonomía y a la toma de decisiones. ...
... Having access to cancer-related information could be seen as a basic condition for participation and a base for agency (James, 2011;Long et al., 2015;O'Shea et al., 2012). Still, participation is more than having information (Hart, 1997). As pointed out by others, it is important to acknowledge the different appraisals and implications of the illness among the family members, and a quest for family-centred care is often expressed (Van Schoors et al., 2019). ...
Article
In this study, we explore how siblings of children diagnosed with cancer describe the implications of cancer experience in interaction with other young people. Seven focus groups were performed with 30 siblings, 14–23 years at the time of study. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. We applied the theoretical framework of ecological system theory and sociological perspective of childhood. Two themes were identified: family relations and maintaining normality. Family relations covered experiences of loneliness, neglect and changed family relationships. Siblings described being faced with a moral dilemma, where, on the one hand, it was difficult to handle the clash of being aware of their parents’ struggle and the severity of the illness; and on the other hand, refraining from claiming attention and support, resulting in experiencing loneliness and unmet needs. Maintaining normality involved descriptions of a strive for ‘normality,’ where the brother’s/sister’s cancer didn’t dominate. The results show how a sister’s/brother’s cancer disrupts the family system and the relations between microsystems, including school and friends. Young siblings should be recognized as independent agents, who have rights to be listened to. The health care system should create possibilities for siblings to express their own needs and provide appropriate support.
... Se è questo il livello a cui si vuole puntare, bisogna essere consapevoli che per gestire i percorsi partecipativi servono professionisti (esperti di tecniche partecipative) in grado di concordare con amministratori e cittadini il futuro della città. La scala della partecipazione si può peraltro anche applicare alle fasce d'età più giovani: lo ha dimostrato Roger Hart ([1997] 2008), che al livello più alto della sua scala colloca le proposte nate da bambine e bambini, ma condivise con gli adulti. ...
Article
Social geography cannot be confined to a theoretical dimension, however necessary: it is expected to play an active role, to encourage encounters with social actors and stakeholders, to take on a dimension of public engagement. Even in Italy this dimension is increasingly important, as universities are placing a growing value on their so-called third mission. Social geography must then address the fundamental issue of participation and its techniques. In doing so, those who graduate in geography will also be able to claim an essential role in the management of decision-making processes and participatory planning. This paper explores some methods and approaches that younger geographers can use to build the ‘toolbox’ of their future profession, looking at a case study from the city of Palermo.
... Takeuchi (2012) proposed incorporating social participation learning into geography education from elementary school to high school and specifically proposed the concept of a geography curriculum. In response to the claim by environmental psychologist Hart (1997), Takeuchi insisted that geographical phenomena and social problems that occur in "different spatial scales" should be handled within the curriculum, according to child learners' developmental stage, in order to nurture children as main actors in community formation. He also pointed out that although elementary school social studies deal with social issues on various spatial scales based on local issues, they must be practiced in a restricted fashion due to the limitation of class hours. ...
Article
This paper is a systematic review of scholarly articles published in Japan from 1989 to 2019 that discuss instruction regarding the formation of spatial cognition in the context of elementary school social studies. This study aims to examine the trends, transitions, and challenges of this field of research and clarify the backgrounds of these studies. Based on the results of the review, four research themes were determined: “objectives, principles, and curriculum,” “lesson design,” “maps and globes,” and “learning assessment.” For the continued development of this field, we assert the need for further research into (1) the construction of a lesson model that encourages participation in community development and its actual practices based on children’s formation of their worldview; (2) collaboration between researchers and teachers to investigate actual situations and obstacles to teaching and propose strategies for teacher competence development based on evidence; and (3) assessment of the relationships between geography, geography education, and social studies, and consideration of curricula and learning instruction with respect to the formation of children’s spatial cognition, via collaboration among researchers involved in these fields.
... Wetland awareness was found to be higher in students who had gone to wetlands before. Parallel to this finding, different studies show that constant contact with a particular place improves children's environmental knowledge and anxiety in the best way [38][39][40]. ...
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Wetland losses and pollution in water resources, which are increasing on a global scale, affect biodiversity and sustainable ecosystem structure. The most important trigger of this extinction, which will cause wide-ranging ecological problems, is human activities, and necessary steps must be taken quickly to protect its viability. In the study, it was aimed to develop a measurement tool that measures the awareness level of children about wetlands in a valid and reliable way. In the descriptive study, data were obtained from three different groups. Participants consist of secondary school students between the ages of 9-15 studying in Turkey. Explanatory factor analysis was performed by applying the 26-item candidate scale questions to 245 secondary school students. Then, confirmatory factor analyzes were carried out with the data obtained from the participation of 201 students. SPSS 26.0 and AMOS statistical software were used in the analysis of the data. Evaluations of secondary school students' awareness of wetlands were examined on a group of 446 people. As a result of the validity analyzes made with the data obtained from the application, it was determined that the scale consisted of 14 items with two factors. This structure was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The reliability value of the entire scale was 0.891; 0.704 for the wetland awareness factor in terms of bird species diversity; The importance of wetlands and the awareness of the problems experienced factor ÖZET Küresel ölçekte giderek artan sulak alan kayıpları ve su kaynaklarındaki kirlilik, biyoçeşitliliği ve sürdürülebilir ekosistem yapısını etkilemektedir. Geniş çaplı ekolojik sorunlara neden olacak bu yok oluşun en önemli tetikleyicisi ise insan faaliyetleridir ve sürdürülebilirliğin korunması konusunda gerekli adımların hızla atılması gerekmektedir. Doğa koruma bilincinin oluşturulmasında bütüncül bir yaklaşım gerekmektedir ve atılacak öncelikli adımlardan biri toplumda farkındalık yaratmaktır. Farkındalık, bir canlının çevresinde gelişen olayları bilme, algılama ve duyumsama becerisi olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Yapılan çalışmada çocukların sulak alanlar ile ilgili farkındalık düzeylerini ölçen bir ölçek geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Betimsel olarak yapılandırılan araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak geliştirilen aday ölçek maddeleri araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanmış ve uzman görüşleri doğrultusunda oluşturulmuştur. Katılımcılar, Türkiyede öğrenim gören 9-15 yaş arasındaki ortaokul öğrencilerden oluşmaktadır. 26 maddelik aday ölçek soruları 245 ortaokul öğrencisine uygulanarak açıklayıcı faktör analizi yapılmıştır. Daha sonra 201 öğrencinin katılımından elde edilen verilerle doğrulayıcı faktör analizleri gerçekleştirilmiştir. Verilerin analizinde SPSS 26.0 ve AMOS istatistik yazılımı kullanılmıştır. Ortaokul öğrencilerinin sulak alanlara yönelik farkındalıklarının değerlendirmeleri ise 446 katılımcıdan elde edilen verilerle gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yapılan ilk uygulamadan elde edilen verilerle yapılan geçerlik analizleri sonucunda ölçeğin iki faktörlü 14 maddeden oluşan bir ölçek olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bu yapı doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ile doğrulanmıştır. Ölçeğin tamamının güvenirlik değeri 0,891; kuş tür çeşitliliği açısından sulak alan farkındalığı faktörü için 0,704; Sulak alanların önemi ve yaşanan sorunlar farkındalığı faktörü için 0,895 olduğu belirlenmiştir. Yapılan örnek uygulamada cinsiyet, yaş ve daha önce sulak alanlarla ilgili ders almaları ile sulak alan farkındalığı arasında anlamlı bir fark bulunmamıştır (p: >0,05). Daha önce yaşadığı bölgedeki bir sulak alana gidip gitmemeleri ile çocukların sulak alan farkındalıkları arasında ise anlamlı bir fark olduğu tespit edilmiştir (U=15052,5 ve p: <0,05). Daha önce sulak alanlara giden öğrencilerde sulak alan farkındalığının daha yüksek olduğu bulunmuştur. Ortaokul öğrencileri ile gerçekleştirililen bu araştırmada yer alan katılımcılar bağlamında bu sonuçlara göre geliştirilen ölçeğin çocukların sulak alan farkındalık düzeylerini geçerli ve güvenilir biçimde ölçtüğü sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
... Por tal motivo, la alfabetización ecológica ocupa un lugar destacado, como una estrategia cognitiva que articula el aprendizaje en el mundo real con la comprensión de la vida y "que supera nuestra separación de la naturaleza y restablece un sentido de identidad con ella" (Capra, 2002: 293). La EBL se integra a las vidas de las personas en sus lugares y responde también a la necesidad de generar conocimientos científicos del territorio, mediante proyectos de investigación sobre problemas identificados por los propios miembros de las comunidades, dentro de lo que se conoce como investigación-acción, una metodología muy productiva en este contexto (Hart, 1997). Y es aquí donde se vincula con las iniciativas de innovación social: la educación (que antes era un engranaje más del sistema dominante) se convierte en un proceso que amplía los conocimientos, habilidades y perspectivas de las comunidades para diseñar sus proyectos de vida. ...
... Έτσι, το τοπικό περιβάλλον αναδεικνύεται σε βασικό χώρο μάθησης και δράσης που μπορεί να λειτουργήσει ως αφορμή για προβληματισμό και οργάνωση της δράσης των μαθητών (Hart, 1997). Μια μορφή εκπαίδευσης βασισμένη στο χώρο (place-based education) προωθεί τη γνωριμία με το τοπικό περιβάλλον, την έρευνα και τη δραστηριοποίηση στο πεδίο, τη δράση σε ρεαλιστικές και πραγματικές συνθήκες, την επιτόπια παρατήρηση και την επίλυση προβλημάτων, επιλογές οι οποίες καλλιεργούν δεσμούς των παιδιών με το μέρος στο οποίο ζουν (Rauch 2002· Smith 2007. ...
... Por tal motivo, la alfabetización ecológica ocupa un lugar destacado, como una estrategia cognitiva que articula el aprendizaje en el mundo real con la comprensión de la vida y "que supera nuestra separación de la naturaleza y restablece un sentido de identidad con ella" (Capra, 2002: 293). La EBL se integra a las vidas de las personas en sus lugares y responde también a la necesidad de generar conocimientos científicos del territorio, mediante proyectos de investigación sobre problemas identificados por los propios miembros de las comunidades, dentro de lo que se conoce como investigación-acción, una metodología muy productiva en este contexto (Hart, 1997). Y es aquí donde se vincula con las iniciativas de innovación social: la educación (que antes era un engranaje más del sistema dominante) se convierte en un proceso que amplía los conocimientos, habilidades y perspectivas de las comunidades para diseñar sus proyectos de vida. ...
... Rights of the Child (UN, 1989), and consequently, should be a guideline for working in ECEC settings. Child participation levels are most often evaluated based on the Hart Participation Scale (Hart, 2013) or the Shier Participation Model (Shier, 2001). Starting from these two models, it is possible to conclude that children's participation is most often at an unsatisfactory level. ...
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This paper analyses changes in the upbringing and education of children in early years. It starts from changes in family functioning and the need to supplement family upbringing. In response to these changes, early childhood education settings appear not only to help working families, but also as institutions that can reduce initial educational disparities amongst the children and contribute to their long-term well-being. The text discusses the concepts of "best interest of the child" and "quality" from the perspective of educational policies and re-questioning actual participation of the child.
... Sandy beaches and dunes are considered excellent theatres for implementing education activities revolving around the sea and the coast for various reasons (Fanini et al. 2019). Apart from their evident accessibility compared with other marine ecosystems, sandy beaches and dunes possess the characteristics typical of unplanned landscapes favoured by children in educational processes (Hart 2013); they are dynamic and living spaces affording the observation of physical processes (sand movement, waves, tides) and ecological processes (e.g., animal activities) at play; they provide simultaneous images of changing ecosystems through dune successions and beach C o p y r i g h t T a y l o r & F r a n c i s L L C / F o r P e r s o n a l U s e O n l y zonation; and provide information on adjacent terrestrial and marine ecosystems, e.g., by analyzing beach-cast wrack (Schlacher et al. 2008). These characteristics make sandy beaches and dunes suitable places to apply scientific thinking and interdisciplinary learning (Cambers and Diamond 2010;Ferreira et al. 2012). ...
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Sandy beaches are iconic marine environments comprising most of the world’s open-ocean coasts, and providing important goods and services. Their position at the land-sea interface renders high socio-economic and ecological value, but also enhances their vulnerability to impacts, e.g., from inappropriate coastal development, high coastal population densities and poorly managed human use, on which climate-change impacts are superimposed. This calls for a revolution in the way one perceives, manages and conserves beaches so that one may maintain the many benefits they confer. A two-part action plan of formal and informal interventions are proposed. First, despite complexity in governance structures across the land-sea divide, formal conservation and management need to account for ecological processes and connectivity across the ecotone, and move away from piecemeal planning and decision-making. Second, the values people hold about beaches provide opportunities for building a stewardship mindset through education and citizen science for informal conservation action by individuals that complements formal interventions. Ultimately, safeguarding this invaluable ecosystem and maintaining its benefits through sustainable development requires integration of coastal land and sea as the planning domain; of economic, social and ecological dimensions; of governance structures, decisions and actions; and of science and society.
... Various negative phenomena that have a destructive effect on children's education need to be anticipated by building their character according to the principles of local wisdom (Hart, 2013). Said by Sugita et al (2021) to build the character of the next generation not only to provide them with professionalism and skills according to future challenges (era 4.0) but also to continue to rely on the cultural and religious values of the Indonesian people which affected them. ...
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This document represents some preliminary and unpublished content of the edited book titled A New Theory of Serendipity: Nature, Emergence and Mechanism, which will soon be published and distributed by De Gruyter Poland (Sciendo Imprint; part of Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin, Germany).A proper referencing should be like:Quan-Hoang Vuong. (2022). A New Theory of Serendipity: Nature, Emergence and Mechanism. Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.
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إذا كان توسيع فرص الاختيار والمشاركة يستهدف كل البشر في عمليات التنمية الإنسانية، فإن الأطفال هم الذين سوف يشكلون مجتمع المستقبل. ومن ثم فإن الاتجاه لهم بالعناية والرعاية العقلية والنفسية والاجتماعية هو أحد الأركان الأساسية لبناء التنمية الإنسانية. ولا يمكن خلق الفرص أمام الأجيال القادمة دون أن يكون لهذه الأجيال دور في صناعة حياتهم. ولعل هذا هو السبب في أن تتجه جهود المنظمات الدولية نحو التأكيد على حقوق الأطفال وحمايتهم،والنظر إلى حقوق الطفل باعتبارها حقوق غير قابلة للتجزئة أو الانتقاء،وهى حقوق كونية وعامة وموحدة ومترابطة. وقد توجت هذه الجهود بإصدار الاتفاقية الدولية لحقوق الطفل عام 1989. ولقد انعكست هذه الاهتمامات الجديدة في الوطن العربي منذ أن عُقد المؤتمر العربي الأول رفيع المستوى حول الطفولة، والذي عقدته جامعة الدول العربية في تونس عام 1992 ،حيث تم الاتفاق على أول خطة عربية. واستمرت من خلال جهود عربية وقطرية. ولقد انصبت جهود المجلس العربي للطفولة والتنمية منذ تأسيسه عام 1987 على العمل على حماية حقوق الطفل العربي، ورفع مستوى الوعي بهذه الحقوق. ولقد كانت مبادرة "منتدى المجتمع المدني العربي للطفولة"، والتي بدأت عام 2001، أحد هذه الجهود التي تؤكد على دور المجتمع المدني العربي كشريك أصيل في جهود التنمية للنهوض بأوضاع الطفولة. ولأن المنتدى يقوم في الأساس على فكرة تعميق مشاركة الأطفال في الوطن العربي في صناعة القرارات المتصلة بحياتهم، وعلى فكرة أن الحماية الأساسية لحقوق الطفل تأتى من خلال منحه مزيداً من المشاركة، فقد آثر أن يقدم في هذا المنتدى الرابع هذه الدراسة حول مشاركة الأطفال في الوطن العربي، والتي أنجزها فريق عمل من الباحثين العرب في ثمان دول عربية بهدف الإجابة عن الأسئلة الآتية: ما واقع الطفولة في وطننا العربي؟ و إلى مدى طورت البلدان العربية أطرًا تشريعية لحماية الأطفال؟ وهل هناك اتجاهات ايجابية نحو المشاركة(لدى الأطفال والآباء والأمهات)؟ وما أبعاد المشاركة، ومستوياتها ومجالاتها المختلفة؟ و إلى أي مدى تعمل مؤسسات التنشئة الأساسية (الأسرة والمدرسة) دورًا في حفز الأطفال على المشاركة؟ وهل هناك دور للمجتمع المدني ووسائل الإعلام في هذا الصدد؟ وما المعوقات التي يضعها السياق الثقافي والاجتماعي؛ وكيف يمكن التغلب عليها في المستقبل؟ وللإجابة على هذه الأسئلة اعتمدت الدراسة على بيانات متعددة المصادر وفرها فريق عمل تم تكوينه من كل الدول الثمانية التي غطتها الدراسة وهى: الأردن، تونس، السعودية، السودان،العراق، قطر، لبنان ،مصر. ومن خلال فريق عمل مركزي اضطلع بالتخطيط للدراسة وصياغة أدواتها وكتابة تقريرها النهائي. وقد اشتملت البيانات التي اعتمدت عليها الدراسة على بيانات حول الواقع الديموجرافى للأطفال في الوطن العربي، وبيانات حول الأوضاع القانونية والمؤسسية للطفولة، بالإضافة إلى بيانات ميدانية تم جمعها من خلال ثلاثة استبيانات، طبق الاستبيان الأول على عينة من الأطفال في المرحلة العمرية من 8 سنوات حتى 17 سنة، قوامها 2064 مفردة، وطبق الثاني على عينة من الآباء و الأمهات قوامها 1824 مفردة، وطبق الثالث على عدد من المؤسسات العاملة في مجال الطفولة(مدنية وحكومية) بواقع 10 مؤسسات من كل قطر عربي من الأقطار التي غطتها الدراسة. هذا بجانب الاعتماد على بيانات كيفية تم الحصول عليها من خلال جلسات مناقشات بؤرية مع الأطفال ومقابلات متعمقة مع العاملين فى المجتمع المدني و المؤسسات التربوية والاعلامية. وقد وفرت هذه البيانات قاعدة ثرية مكنت فريق البحث من إعداد تقرير نهائي في ضوء مفهوم المشاركة (إتاحة الفرصة للأطفال للتعبير عن آرائهم و ممارسة الأطفال تأثير على القضايا التي تمس حياتهم من خلال الإعلان عن آرائهم أو القيام بعمل بالاشتراك مع الكبار أو بمفردهم كأفراد أو جماعات)، ومحدداته الإجرائية على مستوى الفرد والأسرة والمدرسة والمجتمع المدنى والمجال الاتصالي العام؛ وفى ضوء مستويات المشاركة التي تتدرج من مجرد المعرفة إلى الممارسات الفعلية التي يتحمل فيها الأطفال مسئولية أداء أعمال بعينها.
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Despite commitments by the Tanzanian government to protect and promote human as well as establishing junior and youth councils; there is very low participation of children and youth in governance and accountability. This paper was set to explain why there is low participation of children and youth in decision-making in Tanzania. Using a human rights approach and qualitative analysis of secondary data from previous studies, this paper found out that the low participation of children and youth in decision making is a result of weak implementation of policies and laws coupled by inadequate support from the government. The paper, therefore, recommends for effective implementation of policies and laws by the government. This should be done through (a) fast-tracking establishment of National Youth Council and Junior Councils as stipulated in policies and law and (b) establishing regulatory frameworks to oversee the functioning of those councils.
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This research note advances preliminary results about an investigation in curse. This text wants to define and verify some variables to study the phenomenon of children’s participatory budgets in Spain since 2015 until 2021. These experiences have got the same problems to be defined. In this way, the definition is difficult because there are multiple environments and methodologies. The researchers have designed and distributed a survey, and they obtain 37 valid answers. Thereafter, this data was analyzed with MAXQDA 2020 software. The preliminary results indicate that there are interesting results in the following variables: 1) characteristics of the participants, 2) language used by informants, 3) development of the instruments used, 4) and purpose of experiences. Other findings about participatory budgets point out there are multiples actors who participate of these policies and most experiences have got a medium level of development.
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This paper reports on the 1st case study performed in the 1st cycle of a design research aiming at designing a learning environment based on philosophical theories of concept formation (i.e. categorization). Here, we will present the 1st version of our learning environment which supports primary school students in constructing the biological concepts of fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, mammal, and enhancing their categorization skills. Philosophers have provided theories that suggest different mechanisms of categorization. Family resemblance-inspired theories suggest that we classify, e.g., individual birds under the concept bird by intuitively relying on examples of birds and/or on lists of their shared features. Moreover, classical theory suggests that we classify, e.g., individual birds under the concept bird by articulating bird-definitions. Considering the above theories, we developed a three-part, collaborative learning environment within the theoretical framework of constructivism. Our learning environment consists of 7 teaching-learning activities that aim at helping students to actively engage with the vertebrate animals classification while using different types of reasoning. More specifically, students are expected to collaborate in small groups in order to classify vertebrate animals into their classes, by (a) observing different examples of each vertebrate class, (b) making lists of the features the members of each class share (‘shared features list’), (c) deducing some ‘key features’ of each class from the corresponding ‘shared features list’, and (d) using these ‘key features’ to articulate definition-like reasoning strands about vertebrates. The learning environment will be thoroughly discussed in the paper, along with some preliminary results of its implementation. Analyzing the pre/post responses of the 19 conveniently selected fifth-graders who took part in this case study, showed an improvement in their reasoning about the target biological concepts.
Article
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Background and objective: Nowadays, recycling has attracted interest as an effective method in waste management. Teaching recycling to students is of great importance due to the important role this group plays in the participation of parents. This research dealt the effects of recycling educator students on operation of parents in the separation of waste. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, a school as the experimental group and a school as the controls group were randomly selected. The parents of students selected, 100 Person (50 in the experimental group and 50 than the control group) participated in the study. After the needs assessment by researcher, a questionnaire was developed that included question on demographic, awareness , attitude, performance, and participation of the parents. One session of discussion with these parents was held to attract their cooperation with the students and also Educational program for students in the field of waste separation was performed. Then The effect of education on parents, one month and three months after intervention in both groups were assessed by questionnaire and data analyzed in spss16 with using descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The results showed that, after the educational intervention, Separation of recyclable waste from non-recyclable, with 58%, was the highest scores. Also, after the intervention in the experimental group mean on awareness, attitude , performance, and participation of the parent's changes were significant (P< 0.001). Conclusion: Findings of this research showed the positive effects of the students on their parents' participation in recycling at source. Paper Type: Research Article.
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This document represents some preliminary and unpublished content of a chapter in the edited book titled A New Theory of Serendipity: Nature, Emergence and Mechanism, which will soon be published and distributed by De Gruyter Poland (Sciendo Imprint; part of Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin, Germany).A proper referencing should be like:Quan-Hoang Vuong, Tam-Tri Le, Quy Khuc, Minh-Hoang Nguyen. (2022). A new theory of serendipity. In: QH Vuong. (Ed.) A New Theory of Serendipity: Nature, Emergence and Mechanism (pp. 91-108). Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.
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