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A new deep-water cardinalfish (Neamia: Apogonidae) from Kiritimati Atoll, Kiribati

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Abstract

A single specimen of Neamia xenica, new species, was collected at 93 m utilizing mixed-gas rebreathers. This cardinalfish has pored lateral-line scales (extending from the posttemporal to caudal fin) at a smaller length than in Neamia articycla, a quasi-ovoid cluster of melanophores on the opercle without associated narrow dark marks (a round or oval dark opercular spot with pale outer region outlined with narrow dark marks in N. articycla and N. notula, respectively), and 14 pectoral fin-rays (14 fin rays in N. articycla and N. notula and 17–21 fin rays in N. octospina). Dorsal and anal insertion patterns of supraneurals, pterygiophores, and vertebral spines are reported for all species of Neamia. Species of Apogonichthys with 14 pectoral-fin rays may be confused with species of Neamia but do not have an opercular spot and have five free hypurals.
PROCEEDINGS
OF
THE
BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OF
WASHINGTON
123(2):153-158. 2010.
A new deep-water cardinalfish (Neamia: Apogonidae) from
Kiritimati Atoll, Kiribati
Thomas
H.
Fraser
Mote
Marine
Laboratory,
1600
Ken
Thompson
Parkway,
Sarasota,
Florida
34236-1096,
U.S.A.,
e-mail:
cardinalfish@comcast.net
Abstract.-A
single specimen
of
Neamia
xenica,
new
species,
was
collected
at
93 m utilizing mixed-gas
rebreathers.
This
cardinalfish
has
pored
lateral-line scales
(extending
from
the
posttemporal
to
caudal
fin)
at
a
smaller
length
than
in
Neamia
articycla,
a
quasi-ovoid
cluster
of
melanophores
on
the
opercle
without
associated
narrow
dark
marks
(a
round
or
oval
dark
opercular
spot
with
pale
outer
region
outlined
with
narrow
dark
marks
in
N articycla
and
N notula, respectively),
and
14
pectoral
fin-rays (14 fin rays
in
N articycla
and
N notula
and
17-21 fin rays
in
N octospina).
Dorsal
and
anal
insertion
patterns
of
supraneurals,
pterygiophores,
and
vertebral
spines
are
reported
for
all species
of
Neamia.
Species
of
Apogonichthys
with
14
pectoral-fin
rays
may
be
confused
with
species
of
Neamia
but
do
not
have
an
opercular
spot
and
have
five free
hypurals.
A single specimen
of
a
new
species was
discovered
at
the
Bishop
Museum,
Hon-
olulu,
provisionally
identified
as
Foa
Jordan
&
Evermann
in
Jordan
& Seale,
1905.
The
new
species represents
the
fourth
species
in
Neamia
Smith
&
Rad-
cliffe
in
Radcliffe, 1912.
Neamia
notula
was
described
by
Fraser
& Allen (2001)
along
with
a review
of
the
distribution
and
variation
of
N octospina
Smith
&
Radcliffe
in
Radcliffe, 1912.
Fraser
&
Allen (2001)
included
a
table
contrasting
important
characters
of
three
similar
genera: Apogonichthys Bleeker, 1854,
Foa,
and
Fowleria
Jordan
&
Evermann,
1903.
Fraser
& Allen (2006)
described
a
third
species,
Neamia
articycla,
often
confused
with
species
of
Fowleria
from
the
West
Pacific region. Previously de-
scribed
Neamia
were
from
depths
less
than
40
m,
compared
with
a
depth
of
93 m
for
the
new
species.
lt
is unlikely
that
additional
specimens will
be
found
in
the
near
future,
hence
this description.
Materials
and
Methods
Methods
for
meristic
data
and
measure-
ments
are
given
in
Fraser
(2005).
In
the
dorsal-spine
formula,
a value
appearing
in
parentheses
(e.g., 1) indicates
the
spine is
hidden
below
the
skin. Meristic
data
and
proportions
as
%
of
standard
length
(SL)
are
given
for
the
holotype.
The
descriptive
formulae
of
Springer
& Smith-Vaniz
(2008) were followed
for
axial skeleton,
supraneurals
and
pterygiophore
insertions
(Table
1
).
The
last
pterygiophore
in
both
dorsal
and
anal
fins is
curved
backwards
in
all species,
not
o bviously between
neural
or
haemal
spines.
These
last
pterygio-
phores
were
counted
as
if
they
were
in
an
open
space
between spines following the
last
developed
pterygiophore.
No
attempt
was
made
to
describe
the
frequency
of
insertion
variation
within
any
species.
Acronyms
used
to
designate institutions
and
collections cited follow Leviton
et
al.
(1985)
and
Fricke
& Eschmeyer (2009).
154
PROCEEDINGS
OF
THE
BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OF
WASHINGTON
Gill-raker
variation
in
counts
are
bro-
ken
down
into
rudiments
and
rakers
by
arch
element
(e.g.,
2-3
rudiments
plus
1-2
rakers
for
upper
arch
as
2-3+1-2
follow-
ing
7-8
rakers
plus
3-4
rudiments
for
lower
arch
as
7-8+3-4).
Evidence
for
the
last
pored
lateral-line scale is
an
elevated
tube
(even
if
short)
followed
by
a
pit
or
groove
as
a
cavity
in
the
next
lateral-line
scale.
Digital
photographs
and
radio-
graphs
were
processed
through
Photo-
shop
CS4
ver.
11
software.
Systematics
Neamia
Smith
&
Radcliffe
in
Radcliffe, 1912
Type
species.-Neamia
octospina
Smith
&
Radcliffe
in
Radcliffe, 1912.
Diagnosis.-An
apogonine
with
three
hypurals,
1 +2 fused, 3+4 fused, 5 free,
hypurals
3+4 fused
to
urostylar
centrum;
one
pair
of
reduced
uroneurals
or
long
slender
pair
of
uroneurals
with
proximal
expansion;
three
epurals,
anterior
(larg-
est)
with
proximal
expansion;
three
thin
supraneurals,
second
supraneural
slightly
curved
with
proximal
tip
close
to
second
neural
spine;
two
supernumerary
dorsal-
fin spines;
no
procumbent
spurs
on
supraneurals
or
anterior
pterygiophores;
smooth
preopercle
edges
and
ridge,
smooth
posttemporal;
no
basisphenoid;
a
reduced,
tiny
supramaxilla;
no
palatine
teeth; eyes
without
scleral ossicles; scales
on
cheek
and
opercle cycloid;
adults
with
22-23
pored
lateral-line scales
extending
from
posttemporal
to
base
of
caudal
fin,
all
ctenoid
with
simple
pores
(small
individuals
with
some
posterior
incom-
plete
pores
as
a
groove
or
pit
in
each
lateral
line scale
);
rounded
caudal
fin;
IX
dorsal
spines,
eighth
spine visible
or
an
ossified
nubbin
hidden
by
skin,
dorsal
fin deeply
notched
and
considered
separate,
the
ninth
spine
at
beginning
of
second
dorsal
fin;
dorsal-fin
rays
9;
anal-fin
rays
8;
inter-
haemal
gap
1-3+2-4;
pectoral
rays
13-21;
pale
stomach,
intestine
and
peritoneum.
Neamia
xenica,
new
species
Fig.
1,
Table
1
Material
examined.-Neamia
xenica
Holotype
BPBM
40237, 21.5
mm
SL
26.1
TL,
Kiribati,
Kiritimati
Atoll
E
of
northern
tip,
off
water
tower,
below
crest
of
deep
drop-off
in
rubble
and
sand,
93
m.,
21
Jul
2005,
R.
L Pyle, J.
L.
Earle,
and
B.
D.
Greene,
x-ray,
digital
color
photograph.
Comparative
material.-Neamia
articy-
cla
Holotype
AMS
1.25121-005, 35.5,
Australia,
Queensland,
Great
Barrier
Reef,
31
Jan
1982,
radiograph.
Paratypes
USNM
209929, 5,
23-28,
Indonesia,
Saparua,
18
Jan
1973,
radiograph.
Nea-
mia
notula
Holotype
USNM
347045,
34.0,
Mauritius,
25
Apr
1995,
radiograph.
Neamia
octospina
Holotype
USNM
70251, 27.9, Philippines,
Palawan
1., 1
Apr
1909,
radiograph.
Apogon
ahimsa
santoensis
Holotype
AMS
1.6543, 31.3,
Vanuatu,
Espiritu
Santo,
radiograph.
Apogon
asaedae
Syntypes
CAS
5507-
5508 4, 14.7-15.6,
Samoa,
Tutuila,
Pago
Pago,
14
Apr
1933,
radiograph.
Apogon
amblyuropterus
Holotype
RMNH
5612,
30.9,
Ceram,
Wahai.
Apogonichthys ocel-
latus
Syntype
RMNH
10022
1,
30.7,
Sulu
Archipelago,
Pulu
Sanguisiapo,
Siboga
Sta. 93, 24--25
Jun
1899.
Syntypes
ZMA
101.255, 2, 32.4--35.2,
N.
Celebes,
Kwan-
dang-Bucht,
Siboga
Sta. 115.
Syntype
ZMA
101.259,
1,
38.
Syntype
ZMA
101.273,
1,
25. Apogonichthys
perdix
Holotype
RMNH
5616,
1,
37.4
Indone-
sia,
Flores
1.,
Larantuka.
Apogonichthys
waikiki
Holotype
USNM
50639, 27.9.
Hawaii,
Oahu,
Honolulu,
22
Aug
1901,
radiograph.
Description.-Body
proportions
as
per-
centage
of
standard
length
for
the
holo-
type:
body
depth
33.9,
head
length
42.3,
eye
diameter
9.8,
snout
length
6.1,
inter-
orbital
width
7.4,
upper
jaw
19.1,
caudal
peduncle
depth
18.6,
caudal
peduncle
length
17.2,
pectoral
fin
length
22.8,
pelvic fin
length,
25.1, first
dorsal
spine
3.3,
second
dorsal
spine 10.2,
third
dorsal
VOLUME
123,
NUMBER
2 155
Table
1.-Supraneural
and
pterygiophore
insertion
formulae
for
Neamia.
Species
and
vertebrae
Pterygiophore
Insertion
formulae
articycla
dorsal
/00/0-1/2/1/1/l/l/l/l/2/3/2/l
/-
l-!-!-/-!-l-!-!-!c
p 10+14
anal
114/3/1
/1
/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/c
notula
dorsal
/OO/O-l/2/1/1/1/1/1/1/2/4/1/1
/-
!-!-!-/-!-!-!-1-!c
H
lo+l4
anal
114/2/2
/1
/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/c
octospina
dorsal
O/O/O-l/2/1/l/1/1/1/1/2/2/2/1
/1
/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/c
H
lo+l4
anal
3/2/2/2
/1
/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/c
xenica
dorsal
/OO/O-l/2/1/1/1/1/1/1/2/3/2/1
/-
1-!-!-!-!-!-!-!-!c
H
lo+l4
anal
l/4/3/?2/?1/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/c
0 =
supraneural,
/ =
vertebral
spines, 1,2,3,4 =
number
of
pterygiophores
between spines,
no
pterygiophore,
c =
caudal
vertebral
complex, H =
holotype,
P =
paratype.
spine 17.7,
fourth
dorsal
spine 16.3, spine
in
second
dorsal
fin
broken,
first
anal
spine 2.8,
second
anal
spine 10.2.
Dorsal
fin VIl(l)-1,9
(eighth
spine
tiny
hidden
nubbin,
third
spine strongest);
anal
fin 11,8;
pectoral
fin 14; pelvic fin
1,5;
principal
caudal
rays
9+8,
upper
and
lower
rays
unbranched,
soft
procurrent
rays;
pored
lateral-line scales 22; single
transverse scale
row
above
lateral
line
with
small
oblong
cycloid scales
between
large scales
at
base
of
first
dorsal
fin;
transverse scale
rows
below
lateral
line
6;
some
median
predorsal
scales missing;
circumpeduncular
scale
rows
12 (5+2+5);
first gill
arch
with
13
rudiments
and
rakers,
well-developed
rakers
8,
upper
arch
2+
1,
lower
arch
6+4,
second
arch
all
rudiments.
Vertebrae
lo+l4;
fused
hypurals
1+2
forming
a
lower
plate, fused
hypurals
3+4+urostyle
forming
the
upper
plate,
hypural
5 free;
one
pair
of
long, slender
uroneurals;
three
epurals,
first
two
ex-
panded;
free
parhypural;
three
thin
su-
praneurals,
no
procumbent
spines (spurs),
second
supraneural
slightly
curved
in
near
contact
with
second
neural
spine;
two
supernumerary
spines
on
first-dorsal
pter-
ygiophore,
no
procumbent
spines (spurs);
basisphenoid
condition
unknown;
scleral
ossicles
unknown;
supramaxilla
unknown;
posttemporal
smooth
on
posterior
margin;
preopercle
smooth
on
vertical
and
hori-
zontal
edges, ridge
smooth;
infraorbitals
smooth;
infraorbital
shelf
unknown;
inter-
hamal
gap
1 +4
(Table
1 ); villiform
teeth
in
band
on
premaxilla
and
on
dentary;
one
row
on
vomer;
no
teeth
on
palatine;
not
determined
on
ectopterygoid
or
endopter-
ygoid;
no
teeth
on
basihyal.
Scales cycloid
on
cheek, subopercle,
opercle,
isthmus,
predorsal,
base
of
pec-
toral
fin,
behind
pectoral
fin;
nape
scales
with
lower
posterior
margin
with
single
row
of
ctenii;
posterior
scale
margin
with
complete
single
row
of
ctenii
on
lateral-
line scales
and
rest
of
body
scales; scales
missing
on
base
of
pelvic fin;
no
rudi-
mentary
or
developed
axillary scale;
fourth
pored
lateral-line scale
with
one
pore
above
and
one
below
main
canal.
Anterior
end
of
supra-orbital
canal
with
broad
slit
pore
posterior
to
margin
adjacent
to
upper
lip; lachrymal
with
large
rounded
anterior
pore
near
flat
posterior
narial
opening,
two
large
pores
near
edge
of
lachrymal;
anterior
portion
of
dentary
with
dentary
(anterior)
and
mental
(ventral)
pores; mini-pore
patterns
of
the
supraor-
bital, infraorbital, preopercle
and
dentary
not
available
(damage
to skin areas).
Anterior
nare
tubular,
posterior
nare
flat.
Caudal
fin
truncate
or
slightly
rounded;
second
dorsal
and
anal
fin
rounded.
Postmortem
color
patiern.~From
a
digital
photograph
by
Richard
Pyle
of
the
fresh specimen
on
black
background:
head
and
anterior
body
with
a reddish
156 PROCEEDINGS
OF
THE
BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OF
WASHINGTON
Fig
.
1.
Holotype
of
Neamia
xenica
,
BPBM
40237, 21.5
mm
SL
, Kiribati,
Kiritimati
Atoll.
cast
associated
with
small
reddish
spots
on
a
pale
background,
posterior
portion
of
caudal
peduncle
intensely
brownish
red;
head
with
anterior
portion
of
lips,
snout
and
interorbit
brownish-red;
jaws,
cheek,
post
orbit,
preopercle
to
edge
of
branchiostegals
with
numerous
small
reddish
spots,
no
cheek
or
post-orbit
darkish
marks;
opercle
with
a
concentra-
tion
of
melanophores
at
and
behind
preopercle
edge,
about
size
of
pupil,
interspersed
with
larger
reddish
spots,
without
pale/uniform
area
around
mela-
nophores
and
without
any
darkish
marks
above
or
endosing
the
melanophore
duster;
iris
uniformly
orangish
red;
nape,
predorsal
and
dorsum
more
reddish
than
side
below
lateral-line
scales;
dorsal,
pectoral,
pelvic,
anal
and
caudal
fins
appear
pale.
Preserved color pattern.-
None
remain-
ing
on
head
and
body,
except
for
duster
of
melanophores
on
operde
(Fig. 1)
and
just
under
edge
of
preoperde,
a few
melanophores
along
lower
part
of
caudal
pedunde
and
scattered
melanophores
on
jaws
and
snout.
Etymology.
-Xenica
from
the
Greek
adjective
xe
nikos
meaning
strange,
refer-
ring
to
the
depth
of
capture
more
than
twice
as
deep
as
any
other
species
of
Ne
amia
.
Remarks.
-
The
21.5
mm
spec1men
of
Ne
amia
xenica
has
a lateral-line scale
architecture
with
developed
pores
from
the
posttemporal
to
the
caudal
base.
Specimens
of
Neamia
articycla
have
the
same
pored
lateral-line scale
architecture
at
greater
than
26
mm
(Fraser
&
Allen
2006).
Smaller
specimens
always
had
lateral-line
scales
that
varied
in
number
of
pitted
scales
with
size (all
were
misidentified
as
Fowleria).
There
is a
prominent
single
row
of
scales
above
the
lateral-line
scales
reaching
the
base
of
the
first
dorsal
fin. A
much
smaller
oblong
scale is
present
between
scales
next
to
the
dorsal
fin
in
Neamia
xenica
(two
scale
rows
of
nearly
similar
size in N. articycla,
N. notula,
and
N.
octospina).
There
is a
duster
of
melanophores
on
the
operde
of
Ne
amia
xenica
(an
oc
ellated
opercular
spot,
round
or
oval
with
darkish
outer
markings
respectively
in
N.
articycla
and
N.
notula
,
and
no
opercular
spot
N.
octospina).
Neamia
oc
to
spina
has
an
eighth
visible first
dorsal
spine
and
17-
21
pectoral-fin
rays
unlike
N.
xe
ni
ca.
Springer
&
Smith-Vaniz
(2008,
App.
2)
reported
on
some
configurations
of
the
number
of
anal
pterygiophores
inserting
anterior
to
and
in
the
first
interhaemal
spine
space
for
six species
in
six
genera
of
apogonids.
In
Table
1
the
dorsal
and
anal
insertion
patterns
are
re
ported
for
all
species
of
Neamia.
Some
vari
a
tions
among
the
species
are
present
for
supra-
neural
locations
and
for
pterygiophores
VOLUME
123,
NUMBER
2
(dorsal
and
anal
fins)
between
vertebral
spines
(dorsal
and
haemal)
associated
with
vertebrae
10
thoughl4.
Neamia
octospina differed
from
the
other
species.
Neamia
xenica
and
N. articycla likely
have
the
same
formula.
All species
had
a
curved
second
supraneural
that
was
closely
associated
with
the
second
neural
spme.
Bergman
(2004)
described
the
cephalic
lateralis
pore
system
of
Neamia
octospina
as
did
Fraser
&
Allen
(2006)
for
N.
articycla.
Neamia
xenica
shares
the
rela-
tively simple
larger
pore
characteristics
of
the
other
species.
Skin
damage
limited
the
ability
to
identify
mini-pore
distribution.
The
specimen
may
be
a female.
Orang-
ish,
globular
tissue is
present
in
the
body
cavity
and
shows
through
as
a
darker
region
(Fig. 1 ).
Species
of
Apogonichthys
may
be
con-
fused
with
species
of
Neamia
with
14
pectoral-fin
rays
but
have
five
hypurals
without
fusion,
instead
of
three,
and
lack
the
opercular
spot.
Most
species
of
Fowleria
have
a
dark
opercular
spot
and
a
shortened
pored
lateral
line; all
have
five
hypurals
without
fusion
and
lack
palatine
teeth. All species
of
Foa
have
a
shortened
pored
lateral
line,
palatine
teeth,
four
(some
with
hypurals
1 +2)
or
five
hypurals
and
lack
the
opercular
spot.
Acknowledgments
Arnold
Suzumoto,
Bishop
Museum
assisted
the
author
while
visiting
the
museum
and
provided
a
loan
of
apogo-
nids.
Ernest
Estevez
of
Mote
Marine
Laboratory
coordinated
receiving
loan
materials.
David
Smith,
Jeffrey Williams,
and
Sandra
Raredon,
National
Museum
of
Natural
History,
helped
during
a visit
to
the
Division
of
Fishes.
Sandra
provid-
ed
critical
digital
radiographs
of
this
specimen
and
several species
of
Apogo-
nichthys, Foa,
and
Fowleria. A visiting
research
fellowship
from
the
Australian
Museum,
Sydney,
provided
partial
sup-
157
port
for
research
on
species
and
genera
of
cardinalfishes
while
in
Honolulu
and
Australia.
Gerald
Allen,
Western
Austra-
lian
Museum,
Richard
Pyle,
Bishop
Museum,
and
an
anonymous
reviewer
provide
useful
comments.
Richard
Pyle
provided
a
post-martern
digital
color
photograph
of
the
holotype.
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Article
Full-text available
Fraser T.H. and Allen G.R. 2006. A new species of Neamia (Perciformes: Apogonidae) from the West Pacifi c Ocean. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 63(1): 1-5. A new species of apogonid fi sh, Neamia articycla, is described from Australia, Indonesia, Philippines and Fiji, bringing the total number of described Neamia spp to three. It is distinguished from Neamia notula in preservation by: a circular, ocellated dark spot rather than one that is oval-shaped and fl attened along its anterior margin, with an outer, narrow darkish edge clockwise dorsally from abutting edge of preopercle around to meeting ventral abutting edge of preopercle, a faint, narrow, horizontal line of melanophores below the eye reaching the preopercle ridge; in life no darkish marks behind the eyes, a circular spot with pale outer band without dark edging instead of an oval spot fl attened along preopercle edge with a darkish edge; fi ve predorsal scales instead of four; usually 22 pored, lateral-line scales instead of 23 and a longer pectoral fi n. Neamia articycla can be distinguished from Neamia octospina by having 14 pectoral rays instead of 17-21 and by having seven visible fi rst-dorsal spines instead of eight.
Article
Full-text available
Nine nominal, Indo-West Pacfic species are treated: Apogon fasciatus (White, 1790), Apogon quadrifasciatus Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1828, Apogon monogramma Günther, 1880, Apogon septemstriatus Günther, 1880, Apogon evanidus Fowler 1904, Apogon elizabethae (Jordan & Seale, 1905), Apogon quinquestriatus Regan, 1908, Apogon kiensis Jordan & Snyder, 1901 and Apogon bryx Fraser, 1998. Four species treated as valid have VII first-dorsal spines: Apogon fascia- tus with two brownish stripes on each side of the head and body to caudal peduncle and a faint, variable stripe along a portion of the lateral-line, 16 (15) pectoral-fin rays, and 14-17 (12, 13 or 18) gill rakers, Apogon quinquestriatus with four brownish stripes on each side of head and body, two reaching the caudal peduncle, 15 pectoral-fin rays, and 15 gill rakers, Apogon septemstriatus with three brownish stripes on each side of head and body, three reaching the caudal peduncle, 14 (13) pectoral-fin rays, and 14-16 gill rakers, Apogon pleuron, new species, with two brownish stripes on each side of head and body reaching the caudal peduncle, ventral edge of midlateral stripe with ver- tical bars, 15 (14 or16) pectoral-fin rays, and 17-20 (15, 16 or 21) gill rakers. Two species treated as valid have VI first-dorsal spines: Apogon bryx with three brownish stripes on each side of head and body, two reaching the caudal peduncle, 14-15 pectoral-fin rays, and 22-23 (21 or 24) gill rakers, Apogon kiensis, with two brownish stripes on each side of head and body reaching the caudal peduncle, 14-15 pectoral-fin rays, and 16-18 (15 or 19-20) gill rakers. The long recognized name, Apogon quadrifasciatus, is synonymous with Apogon fasciatus.
Article
The complete supraneural and dorsal and anal pterygiophore insertion patterns of over 900 specimens representing all 145 extant taxa of the Carangidae are reported, as well as those of several specimens comprising seven taxa among the other four carangoid families: Rachycentridae, Coryphaenidae, Echeneidae, Nematistiidae. The patterns of the carangids were variously partitioned and the resulting groups analyzed for the sequential arrangement of supraneurals and dorsal and anal pterygiophores and for total numbers of pterygiophores. Both procedures generate characters bearing on the intrarelationships and differentiation of the various taxa. The composition of the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore in carangoids and other perciform fishes is discussed briefly. Depending on the taxon, there is evidence that supports findings that this element originates from one or two separate cartilages. Evidence is presented that the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore of the carangid Parastromateus niger variously comprises one simple pterygiophore or a fusion of two pterygiophores. We elected to treat either condition as a single pterygiophore. A preliminary survey of the number of pterygiophores inserting anterior to the first hemal spine and those in the first interhemal spine space of acanthomorphs is provided. In addition to the five carangoid families, the survey includes data on selected taxa in 176 families. The carangine, Parastromateus, has 9 to 11 (modally 9) pterygiophores inserting in the first interhemal spine space (a post-flexion larva exceptionally has only 7), which is more than any other extant taxon studied. A great majority of acanthomorphs have 0, 1, or 2 pterygiophores inserting in that space; a relatively few have as many as 5 or 6, and only one or two have 7 or 8. The appropriate tribal position of the Eocene fossil carangid, †Paratrachinotus tenuiceps (Agassiz), which has been assigned only to the family Trachinotidae (= tribe Trachinotini in present classifications), was examined. Based on supra-neural and pterygiophore insertion characters, but supported by other osteological characters, it was possible to exclude the fossil from any of the four extant carangid tribes. A new tribe, †Paratrachinotini, to accommodate the fossil, is described. Although additional, non-pterygiophore characters and a broadly based cladistic analysis are required to imply the closest relationship of the †Paratrachinotini, there are suggestions that it is closely related to the Carangini.
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2004. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 349-373). Also available by subscription via World Wide Web x, 373 leaves, bound ill. 29 cm
Descriptions of fifteen new fishes of the family Cheilodipteridae, from the Philippine Islands and contiguous waters
  • L Radcliffe
Radcliffe, L. 1912. Descriptions of fifteen new fishes of the family Cheilodipteridae, from the Philippine Islands and contiguous waters.-Proceedings of the United States National Museum 4l(No. 1868):431-446.