Article

Can Accountability Produce Independence? Goals as Determinants of the Impact of Accountability on Conformity

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

People routinely confront the social pressure of being accountable to audiences whose preferences are known. Prior research indicates that these conditions create conformity, which often leads to sub par decision making. The authors hypothesized that conformity is the usual consequence of accountability when people are motivated to get along with others, but independence can occur when accountable people are motivated to make accurate decisions. Participants went through a priming procedure to focus them on the goal of compatibility or accuracy and then worked on a business decision task. They learned that another member of their group advocated a specific (actually sub par) solution and expected to explain their own decision to this person or not (accountable vs. unaccountable condition). The predicted interaction revealed that those who were accountable and had an accuracy goal displayed independence and made higher quality decisions than those in the other conditions, who displayed a conformity effect.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Según Quinn y Schlenker (2002), "los individuos se centran en la forma en que otros perciben sus decisiones y explicaciones y adoptan comportamientos que en su opinión son aceptables para los demás". Como dije anteriormente, la rendición de cuentas crea expectativas en la mente del agente, y estas varían dependiendo de ante quién debe responder por sus acciones (Quinn y Schlenker, 2002). Las expectativas generadas por una audiencia en particular estarán determinadas a su vez por: a) el poder potencial que tiene cada audiencia en términos de premiar o sancionar sus actos ( Tetlock, 1992); b) el tipo de preferencias de cada audiencia, y c) el grado de libertad y poder de decisión (Caldwell y O' Reilly, 1982) que sienten los agentes con respecto a sus decisiones antes de ser juzgados o evaluados. ...
... Una de estas circunstancias particulares es aquella que se deriva de los atributos de la audiencia ( Tetlock, 1992). Así, la autoridad o un jefe pueden crear expectativas en el agente que lo lleven posiblemente a adecuar sus acciones y decisiones según los deseos de su superior (Quinn y Schlenker, 2002); las audiencias sociales, por otra parte, suscitan en los pensamientos y sentimientos del gerente, la idea de qué es bueno y justo para la sociedad, lo que a su vez podrá activar su mecanismo de autorregulación y aumentar consecuentemente su sentido de responsabilidad; por tanto, la rendición de cuentas influye en la mente del agente y en su sentido de responsabilidad mediante el mecanismo de la autorregulación (Schlenker, Weigold y Doherty, 1991). He afirmado que en el proceso de rendición de cuentas se generan expectativas en la mente de un gerente. ...
... Distintas investigaciones muestran que la rendición de cuentas puede producir sumisión y conformidad ante las autoridades (Quinn y Schlenker, 2002). Una autoridad (por ejemplo, el jefe), en su función de principal interno, puede conducir a un agente a asumir responsabilidades, a alcanzar metas y a demostrar su lealtad a la corporación a expensas, si es necesario, de sus valores y creencias personales y sociales ( Schwartz, 1991). ...
Book
Full-text available
Phd Dissertation Tulane University
... As a result, out-group norms also affect in-group behaviors, in that in-group norms are constructed in opposition to the out-group producing counter-conformity behaviors (Turner et al., 1989). In the presence of conflicting goals, external accountability may create a situation that motivates decisionmakers to embrace what they believe to be the best decision, even if it conflicts with what the organization wants (Quinn & Schlenker, 2002)-although externally imposed accountability can promote resistance behavior (Schlenker & Weigold, 1989a) and individuals who are held accountable may be more vigilant and more likely to challenge any attempts to influence their decisions (Skitka, Mosier, & Burdick, 2000). ...
... Self-accountable individuals seek to align their behaviors first with established standards (Dhiman et al., 2018). Thus, self-accountable individuals will strive to conform to what is desired by the organization, but without necessarily bothering to seek the optimal decision (Lerner & Tetlock, 1999;Quinn & Schlenker, 2002). This tendency is particularly noticeable in situations of uncertainty, when individuals respond favorably to signals that encourage them to conform to what is socially acceptable (Alquist, Ainsworth, & Baumeister, 2013;Brown, 1999). ...
... In the situation presented, the choice to sell initially appears easier as it meets the short-term marketing goal of increasing sales revenue. Without significant cognitive effort, participants may retreat behind this implicit objective, which they can easily guess (Lerner & Tetlock, 1999;Quinn & Schlenker, 2002). On the other hand, the alternative choice requires additional cognitive effort by calling into question the short-term marketing goal (to sell more). ...
Article
Marketers constantly face conflicting goals, as when long-term branding goals are inconsistent with short-term revenue goals. As accountability offers a potential instrument for resolving such goal conflicts, this research investigates the differential effects of external accountability versus internal accountability through two experimental studies. In Study 1, we find evidence that holding marketers externally accountable not only triggers self-categorization processes that strengthen the marketers’ marketing identity but also induces them to prioritize branding goals over short-term revenue goals. This prioritization creates a paradoxical situation: A firm interested in pursuing short-term revenue goals will find that holding marketing accountable leads to an increased focus on long-term branding goals. In Study 2, we find evidence that internal accountability has a reverse effect, causing marketers to prioritize short-term revenues goals over long-term branding goals.
... Two effects of accountability to an audience with known preferences have been identified (see, for example, Quinn and Schlenker 2002). Firstly, cognitive effort can be minimised by simply adopting the evaluator's viewpoint. ...
... Both effects are likely to be significant in an accounting setting where there is pressure to achieve particular outcomes for the management and or owners of the reporting entity. Both effects result in the consistent finding that individuals tend to conform to the preferences of the evaluator, particularly if it is difficult to justify resisting such pressure (Tetlock, Skitka, and Boettger 1989;Tetlock and Boettger 1994;Hoffman and Patton 1997;Quinn and Schlenker 2002). There are obvious implications here for the design of accounting standards. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This paper tests the interaction effects of education and accounting standard type (principles-or rules-based) for students who are exercising judgement in the face of accountability. Method: An experimental model is employed in which the type of accounting standard is manipulated. The effect of the type of accounting standard is then compared for students in introductory and final year accounting courses. Findings/Results: Our results indicate that the inclusion of indicative, but incomplete rules leads to increased conformance to pressure. Education improves the application of principles but incomplete rules continue to have a detrimental effect, even for students who have effectively completed their university studies. Implications: This research is important in providing guidance to the regulatory bodies as they determine the extent to which guidance rules should be included in new and revised accounting standards. It is also important to educators as they consider the effect of their teaching on the students' application of professional judgement.
... Situational factors, such as the presence of an authority figure, are those that can be predicted from characteristics of a given situation; whereas dispositional attributes are internal states which produce consistency across situations (Moos, 1969). Situational factors associated with higher conformity include reduced accountability for actions (Quinn & Schlenker, 2002), group size (Asch, 1955), and difficulty of task (Baron, Vandello & Brunsman, 1996). A variety of dispositional attributes have also been shown to be associated with high conformity including low self-esteem (Berkowitz & Lundy, 1957), high authoritarianism (Altemeyer, 1988;Feldman, 2003), low social class (Fontaine, 1991), and being female (Rudman & Fairchild, 2004). ...
... This study utilized a traditional behavioral situation in order to measure the relationship of self-monitoring and conformity. The extent to which situational circumstances influence levels of conformity have been well established (Quinn & Schlenker, 2002;Asch, 1955;Baron, Vandello & Brunsman, 1996). Dispositional factors influence conformity to a lesser extent than situational factors; but also play a role. ...
Article
This study investigated the role of self-monitoring in relation to self-reported and behavioral conformity. Ninety-three female undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory to psychology course were administered a questionnaire packet consisting of the Lennox and Wolfe Revised Self-Monitoring Scale (RSMS), a self-reported measure of conformity, and a series of vignettes, both designed by the authors. A tertiary split was performed to yield groups of high and low self- monitors, resulting in 31 participants for a behavioral measure of conformity. For the behavioral measure, which took place approximately six weeks after the initial questionnaire, each participant and three confederates were given six decision-making vignettes, three of which were included in the initial questionnaire. The confederates answered uniformly on the previously seen vignettes, opposite of what the participant had originally answered. Confederates split their answers on the "new" vignettes in order to disguise the purpose of the study. The behavioral conformity score was determined by the number of times the participant answered uniformly with the confederates despite their original answers. Findings suggest that there is a significant relationship between self-monitoring and behavioral conformity. No significant relationship exists between self- monitoring and self-reported conformity. Additional studies should be conducted using larger, gender balanced, and more ethnically diverse samples.
... Specifically, the study investigated accountability as a positive predictor of ethical leadership, and moral competence and demographic variables as moderators of the relationship between accountability and ethical leadership. The results support previous research on positive effects of accountability in ethical behavior (Bane, 2004;Beu, 2000;Beu & Buckley, 2001;Lagan & Moran, 2006;Quinn & Schlenker, 2002). Second, study results suggest moral competence moderates the effect that accountability has on ethical leadership. ...
... Increasing self-accountability may also occur by enhancing the concept of self-monitoring in organizational leaders. Self-monitoring is one of the best behavioral precursors to increasing high-quality decision-making and decreasing inappropriate behavior in accountable environments (Latham & Frayne, 1989;Quinn & Schlenker, 2002). Subsequently, when leaders make high-quality decisions in their organizations, positive effects are experienced throughout because leaders are making better ethical decisions, are communicating efficiently with their subordinates, co-workers and superiors, and are showing increased job attendance. ...
... Conformity can be defined as "changing one's behavior to match the responses of others" [12]. Individuals may conform to others for various reasons including a desire to be viewed favorably by others [13]. Numerous theories have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, such as Moscovici's theory of conversion behavior [14], Latane's dynamic social impact theory [15], and the "Chameleon Effect" described by Chartrand and Bargh [16]. ...
... Moreover, setting ambitious goals, which are accepted by the employee, can be a powerful driver of performance improvement (Latham and Locke, 2006). People's natural tendency to behave in conformity with the expectations of those they are accountable to, albeit without an explicit monetary incentive, has been documented by a large body of research (Cialdini et al., 1976;Tetlock, 1983;Tetlock et al., 1989;Klimoski and Inks, 1990;Quinn and Schlenker, 2002). The reason for such behavior may lie in a broader definition of motivation according to which both the anticipation of a possible reward or the avoidance of sanctions facilitate behavior (Taylor et al., 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we compare the effects of two prominent organizational control mechanisms—monetary incentive and social pressure—on cognitive control. Cognitive control underlies the human ability to regulate thoughts and actions in the pursuit of behavioral goals. Previous studies show that monetary incentives can contribute to goal-oriented behavior via the activation of proactive control. There is, however, much less evidence on the effect of social pressure on cognitive control and task performance. In a within-subject experimental design, we tested 47 subjects performing the AX-CPT task to compare the activation of cognitive control modes under monetary incentive and social pressure beyond mere instructions to perform better. We find that social pressure and monetary incentive have similar effects as mere instructions on cognitive control. All three lead to a significant shift from a reactive to a proactive control mode and a similar improvement in task performance. Our findings suggest that social control mechanisms and monetary incentives provide similar behavioral effects in stimulating a proactive cognitive control mode and performance.
... Zanna, 2002). We excluded studies that only used hypothetical monetary decisions (e.g., behavior in a hy- pothetical trust game in DeMarree et al., 2012) or hypo- thetical scenarios (e.g., what the participant would do in a business scenario inQuinn & Schlenker, 2002), attitude or confidence scales (e.g., confidence in Erb,Bioy, & ...
Article
A meta-analysis assessed the behavioral impact of and psychological processes associated with presenting words connected to an action or a goal representation. The average and distribution of 352 effect sizes (analyzed using fixed-effects and random-effects models) was obtained from 133 studies (84 reports) in which word primes were incidentally presented to participants, with a nonopposite control group, before measuring a behavioral dependent variable. Findings revealed a small behavioral priming effect ( dFE = 0.332, dRE = 0.352), which was robust across methodological procedures and only minimally biased by the publication of positive (vs. negative) results. Theory testing analyses indicated that more valued behavior or goal concepts (e.g., associated with important outcomes or values) were associated with stronger priming effects than were less valued behaviors. Furthermore, there was some evidence of persistence of goal effects over time. These results support the notion that goal activation contributes over and above perception-behavior in explaining priming effects. In summary, theorizing about the role of value and satisfaction in goal activation pointed to stronger effects of a behavior or goal concept on overt action. There was no evidence that expectancy (ease of achieving the goal) moderated priming effects. (PsycINFO Database Record
... This has been demonstrated in experiments where participants were asked to make distributive decisions (Adelberg and Batson 1978), rating decisions (Mero and Motowidlo 1995) and in a 'natural experiment' with two different accountability regimes for inspections in Brazil (Pires 2011). In a similar vein, Quinn and Schlenker (2002) have, for instance, shown, in an experiment where participants needed to make a business decision task, that accountability for accuracy goals made participants behave more independent from others and reach more accurate decisions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Accountability mechanisms are among the most important means with which governments guard and improve the performance of public sector organizations. However, research documents a plethora of accountability-failures. A key issue is: how can public sector accountability become more effective? This paper seeks to answer this question by connecting two largely separated strands of research: public administration research on real-world organizations and experimental research on the effects of different forms of accountability on decision-making. The paper develops the Calibrated Public Accountability-model (CPA-model) from experimental research findings which can be used to investigate how accountability can be calibrated to task requirements of organizations.
... Royle, Hall, Hochwarter, Perrewé, and Ferris (2005) also found job self-efficacy was related to higher levels of organizational citizenship behaviors and lower political behaviors under accountability. Quinn and Schlenker (2002) reported that motivational orientations were related to higher-quality decisions in accountable conditions. Self-monitoring was found to be related to higher levels of contributions under accountability (De Cremer, Snyder, & Dewitte, 2001). ...
Article
Accountability is a fundamental element of all societies and the organizations that operate within them. This paper focuses on the individual-level accountability concept of felt accountability (also referred to in the literature as simply accountability), which can be described as the perceptions of one's personal accountability. We describe key theories that have formed the theoretical groundwork for the body of felt accountability literature, and discuss the empirical research published since the last major review of the accountability literature in the late 1990s. Empirical research has revealed that accountability has both constructive and deleterious consequences. Moreover, research examining accountability and key outcomes has produced mixed results, suggesting that consideration of moderators and nonlinear relationships are important when examining accountability. Although accountability is an important construct, there are many issues that have yet to be investigated by scholars. We identify limitations and gaps in the current body of the empirical research and conclude the paper with suggestions for scholars striving to make contributions to this line of research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Presence of a behavior measure: Studies were required to measure a behavioral outcome in the form of (a) performance on a scoreable task (e.g., anagrams completed, Wisconsin Card Sort Task performance, GRE score; see Bargh et al., 2001; Hart & Gable, 2013; Hassin, Bargh, & Zimerman, 2009), (b) a motor behavior (e.g., holding a weight in Sambolec, Kerr, & Messe, 2007; guiding a ring along a wire, Legal, Meyer, & Delouvee, 2007), (c) a choice participants expected to enact (e.g., selecting a watch type that could be won in a lottery,), (d) actual helping or donation behavior (e.g., actual dictator game giving in Harrell, 2012), (e) time spent working on a task as a reflection of either speed or persistence (e.g., Shah & Kruglanski, 2003), or (f) actual consumption (e.g., of food or drink in Strahan, Spencer, & Zanna, 2002). We excluded studies that only used hypothetical monetary decisions (e.g., behavior in a hypothetical trust game in DeMarree et al., 2012) or hypothetical scenarios (e.g., what the participant would do in a business scenario in Quinn & Schlenker, 2002), attitude or confidence scales (e.g., confidence in Erb, Bioy, & Hilton, 2002), neurophysiological or physiological measures (e.g., heart rate, ERP; see Williams, Bargh, Nocera, & Gray, 2009; Hepler & Albarracin, 2013), self-predictions or intentions (e.g., of choices in Kawada, Oettingen, Gollwitzer, & Bargh, 2004), and evaluations of other people (e.g., attractiveness in Huang & Bargh, 2008). If studies contained multiple behaviors (e.g., persistence and performance in Shah & Kruglanski, 2003) or codings of the same task (e.g., Chartrand & Bargh, 1996), we calculated effect sizes for each of those measures and incorporated them into a repeated-measures analysis. ...
Article
Full-text available
A meta-analysis assessed the behavioral impact of and psychological processes associated with presenting words connected to an action or a goal representation. The average and distribution of 352 effect sizes (analyzed using fixed-effects and random-effects models) was obtained from 133 studies (84 reports) in which word primes were incidentally presented to participants, with a non-opposite control group, prior to measuring a behavioral dependent variable. Findings revealed a small behavioral priming effect (𝑑𝐹𝐸 = 0.332, 𝑑𝑅𝐸 = 0.352), which was robust across methodological procedures and only minimally biased by the publication of positive (vs. negative) results. Theory testing analyses indicated that more valued behavior or goal concepts (e.g., associated with important outcomes or values) were associated with stronger priming effects than were less valued behaviors. Furthermore, there was some evidence of persistence of goal effects over time. These results support the notion that goal activation contributes over and above perception-behavior in explaining priming effects. In sum, theorizing about the role of value and satisfaction in goal activation pointed to stronger effects of a behavior or goal concept on overt action. There was no evidence that expectancy (ease of achieving the goal) moderated priming effects.
... Some independent variables studied experimentally include group size (see Bond, 2005 for a meta-analysis), cultural membership (see Bond & Smith, 1996 for a meta-analysis), unanimity (e.g. Asch, 1956), accountability for accuracy (Quinn & Schlenker, 2002), priming of conformity-related terms (Epley & Gilovich, 1999;Pendry&Carrick, 2001), group identity (see Postmes & Spears, 1998 for a meta-analysis) and task importance (Baron, Vandello & Brunsman, 1996). ...
... Thus, when one reviewer challenges another's score, this is associated with the target of that challenge changing their score; however, merely accounting for or justifying one's own scoring behaviors does not have the same effect. Our data suggest being held accountable by another person may exert pressure toward conformity, even if it is only one other individual making this accountability salient (Quinn and Schlenker 2002). ...
Article
In scientific grant peer review, groups of expert scientists meet to engage in the collaborative decision-making task of evaluating and scoring grant applications. Prior research on grant peer review has established that inter-reviewer reliability is typically poor. In the current study, experienced reviewers for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were recruited to participate in one of four constructed peer review panel meetings. Each panel discussed and scored the same pool of recently reviewed NIH grant applications. We examined the degree of intra-panel variability in panels' scores of the applications before versus after collaborative discussion, and the degree of inter-panel variability. We also analyzed videotapes of reviewers’ interactions for instances of one particular form of discourse—Score Calibration Talk—as one factor influencing the variability we observe. Results suggest that although reviewers within a single panel agree more following collaborative discussion, different panels agree less after discussion, and Score Calibration Talk plays a pivotal role in scoring variability during peer review. We discuss implications of this variability for the scientific peer review process.
... In general, people who are highly motivated to be accurate, preferentially use the information integration strategy, whilst people with low motivation to attend to the given target person's information more likely rely on the stereotype-based strategy (Gollwitzer & Moskowitz, 1996;Kunda & Spencer, 2003;Quinn & Schlenker, 2002). Thus, the motivation moderates the activated information processing strategy. ...
Chapter
Pit-ten Cate, Krolak-Schwerdt, Glock, and Markova focus on the change of cognitive processes in order to overcome expectation biases and to improve teachers’ judgment accuracy. Frequently, the use of stereotypical knowledge about students is discussed as a potential source of judgment biases. However, the use of stereotypical knowledge in judgments is not inevitable, as there are techniques to overcome stereotypical biases such as the training of stereotype suppression. Furthermore, the motivation of the person making a judgment also plays a pivotal role in preventing teachers from reliance on stereotypical knowledge. It is demonstrated that one possible mechanism to increase accuracy motivations among teachers is to make them highly accountable for their judgment. A third aspect to increase teachers’ judgment accuracy consists of using of statistical prediction rules for judgment formation. These are formal decision rules on how information which has proven to be diagnostic for the judgment task should be weighted and integrated into a judgment.
... In an eyewitness situation, witnesses may strive for accuracy in providing their witness reports, provided that the goal of accuracy outweighs normative social pressures (cf. Quinn & Schlenker, 2002). In contrast, normative influence is based on the goal of gaining social approval in order to avoid alienation from others in the group (see Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004, for a review). ...
Article
We explored conformity and co‐witness confidence in eyewitness memory. Confederates provided misleading information and confidence ratings during a cued recall test, and participants publicly provided answers to this test in turn. Participants performed memory tests with a confederate, then completed individual memory tests. Results indicated that confederates who answered questions prior to participants impacted their public and private memory reports for accurate information but only impacted public reports for misleading information. Participants' confidence in their performance in the presence of a confederate mirrored the confederate's confidence levels, suggesting a confidence conformity effect. Results are explained in terms of differential effects of informational and normative influence for accuracy and confidence in co‐witness memory reports. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... 43 At various times accountability has been said to mean a number of things, including any or all of the following: answerability, responsibility, responsiveness, and obligation. 44 Certainly being answerable, 45 and providing an account of what has been done, 46 are key elements and are referred to in much of the literature. ...
Article
At the heart of the UK’s corporate governance framework for listed companies is the UK Corporate Governance Code, which is a voluntary code. The Code has developed over many years and its genesis can be found in the legendary Cadbury Report that was published in 1992. The Code very much depends on the comply or explain principle, namely a company must comply with the Code or explain why it does not do so. Arguably it was the need for the accountability of boards of directors that was a major factor that contributed to the development of the whole code movement in the UK. It is clear that generally speaking the accountability of boards has become an increasingly critical element in any assessment of corporate governance. But it has been asserted that one of the features of self-regulatory structures such as the Code is that they are low on accountability. This paper seeks to ascertain whether this is in fact correct as far as the code system in the UK is concerned, and particularly in the way that it has developed over the years. Allied to this the paper also seeks to assess whether the system has adequately provided for accountability of boards in the UK. To this end the paper examines the reports of the corporate governance committees of the 1990s and 2000s, the various iterations of the Combined Code, and the UK Corporate Governance Code concerning what provision is in fact made for accountability of boards.The paper concludes that while the various reports and codes that have been published in the UK from 1992 onwards say the right things and this appears to enhance accountability, the Codes have been relatively weak on accountability. Further, even though the comply or explain principle purports to foster accountability, it can prevent accountability as the decision whether to comply or how to explain is completely within the discretion of the board of directors. Hence, the board that is to be accountable is in fact the arbiter of what is accounted for and how.
... Conformity can be defined as behavior change to match the actions or responses of others (Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004). Although the prototypical conformity scenario involves succumbing to majority influence (as in the classic Asch studies), the definition also applies to dyadic interactions between a single target and source of influence (for recent examples, see Castelli, Vanzetto, Sherman, & Arcuri, 2001;Quinn & Schlenker, 2002). Behavior mimicry may be defined as conformity to nonverbal behaviors and typically occurs below the level of conscious awareness (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
Although a great deal of research has investigated the goals served by being influenced by others, virtually none has examined the goals served by having influence over others. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to this understudied research area. Drawing on related research and theory, we suggest that having influence over others serves five needs and/or goals—for accuracy, belongingness, self‐esteem, control, and meaningful existence. Different types of social influence are compared and contrasted in the context of relevant dimensions of influence. We also make a number of suggestions for research to test this model.
... A second gap in the accountability literature emerges in the design of studies. Much of the research on accountability has relied on experimental studies with undergraduates in which accountability is an objective manipulation (Quinn & Schlenker, 2002;Schlenker, Britt, Pennington, Murphy, & Doherty, 1994;Tetlock, 1985Tetlock, , 1992. Using the social contingency model of accountability (Tetlock, 1985(Tetlock, , 1992, researchers have examined how the conditions surrounding accountability influence individuals' coping choices to resolve the accompanying social pressure (Tetlock, Skitka, & Boettger, 1989). ...
Article
Full-text available
This two-sample investigation examined the influence of perceived resources on the form and magnitude of the relationships between accountability for others (AFO) and job tension and job satisfaction. Employing resource theory, we hypothesized that the non-linear relationship between AFO and job tension would surface only for individuals high in perceived resources, whereas the association between these constructs would be positive and linear for individuals low in perceived resources. A similar relationship was hypothesized for AFO and job satisfaction in which the non-linear effect would arise for individuals high in perceived resources, and negative linear effects would emerge for those low in perceived resources. Data from two samples (N= 201; N= 182) provided support and replication for the hypotheses. Implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed.
... Because the paradox of the planning fallacy is that people continue to exhibit it despite being aware that they do, we can assume that people are not privy to the mechanism causing them to make overly optimistic predictions (Nisbett & Wilson, 1977). Additionally, our hypothesis is consistent with Quinn and Schlenker's (2002) Wndings of "reverse accountability," in which people who are motivated to get along with others conform to others' preferences when accountable, even if it results in a poor judgment. ...
Article
Full-text available
The planning fallacy, or tendency to underestimate how long a task will take to complete, is a robust phenomenon. Although sev-eral explanations have been oVered (e.g., ignoring underestimations made in the past), we hypothesized that self-presentation con-cerns may also contribute to the bias, and that this eVect may be exacerbated by a previous failure to complete a task on time. Half of our sample (n D 85) were led to believe that they failed to complete an initial task on time, and half were not. Predictions were then made for time to complete a second task either verbally to a familiar experimenter (high self-presentation) or anonymously (low self-presentation). Although verbal predictions exhibited the typical planning fallacy, anonymous predictions did not. Additionally, ver-bal predictions were less accurate, that is, less correlated with actual completion times, than were anonymous predictions. There was no signiWcant diVerence in the bias as a result of the failure manipulation, nor was there an interaction between the self-presentation and failure conditions.
... Attitudes can be changed by social influence, and people tend to change their attitudes to match others' (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004;Duhachek et al., 2007). People accept information from others due to desire to believe it as evidence about reality or to gain the social approval by fitting appropriately into the social environment (Huh et al., 2014;Pennington and Schlenker, 1999;Quinn and Schlenker 2002). ...
... 43 At various times accountability has been said to mean a number of things, including any or all of the following: answerability, responsibility, responsiveness, and obligation. 44 Certainly being answerable, 45 and providing an account of what has been done, 46 are key elements and are referred to in much of the literature. ...
... First, in an investment setting, consumers' adoption decisions have important long-term wealth effects (He et al., 2008), thus increasing the significance of making accurate decisions. Higher salience of accuracy goals intensifies consumers' resistance to conformity pressures (Quinn & Schlenker, 2002). Second, investment products possess many credence attributes and involve high risk, thereby amplifying the relative weight of experts as compared to the recommendations of friends and family (Lafferty, Goldsmith, & Flynn, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper integrates findings from marketing and finance literature to increase our understanding of consumers’ decisions to purchase innovative investment products. Two surveys of individual investors examine the psychological and sociological drivers of dispositional innovativeness and its effects on adoption timing and range for five new investment products. Study 1 shows that consumer psychographics (e.g., market mavenism, product-category involvement, ambiguity intolerance) rather than socio-demographics (e.g., age, education, risk profile) explain dispositional innovativeness, and that dispositional innovativeness strongly impacts time of adoption and ownership of new investment products. Study 2 cross-validates the results of Study 1 and investigates the indirect effects of dispositional innovativeness on adoption timing through consumers’ perceptions of new investment products’ complexity, riskiness and visibility (exposure to and engagement in word-of-mouth). Individuals who score high on dispositional innovativeness adopt new investment products more quickly because they perceive lower complexity and greater visibility, not because they perceive lower risk. The combined results of Study 1 and 2 show that individual investors’ psychological and sociological roots systematically explain their innovative adoption behavior, and indicate that – counter to standard finance predictions – they incorporate more than just risk-return trade-offs in their investment choices.
... Accountability is prevalent in the ethics literature because it makes people attend to the relevant prescriptions for conduct and provides a mechanism for the social control of behavior in accord with those prescriptions (Quinn & Schlenker, 2002). Practitioners and academics alike treat accountability as a means of directing and correcting individual and organizational efforts and performance and encouraging socially responsible behaviors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Accountability is of universal interest to the business ethics community, but the emphasis to date has been primarily at the level of the industry, organization, or key individuals. This paper unites concepts from relational and felt accountability and team dynamics to provide an initial explanatory framework that emphasizes the importance of social interactions to team accountability. We develop a measure of team accountability using participants in the USA and Europe and then use it to study a cohort of 65 teams of Irish business students over three months as they complete a complex simulation. Our hypotheses test the origins of team accountability and its effects on subsequent team performance and attitudinal states. Results indicate that initial team accountability is strongly related to team trust, commitment, efficacy, and identifying with the team emotionally. In established teams, accountability increases effort and willingness to continue to collaborate but did not significantly improve task performance in this investigation.
... Even when group accountability is the target of enquiry, it is often operationalized at a different level, for example, through individual reports with individual accountability as the scale referent (for exceptions, see White, Currie, & Lockett, 2014). Among the relatively few studies that have targeted group accountability specifically, most have been designed to manipulate individual rather than collective accountability expectations (e.g., Brtek & Motowidlo, 2002;De Cremer, 2003;De Dreu & van Knippenberg, 2005;de Langhe, van Osselaer, & Wieranga, 2011;Mero, Guidice, & Brownlee, 2007;Pinter et al., 2007;Pitesa & Thau, 2013;Quinn & Schlenker, 2002;Sedikides, Herbst, Hardin, & Dardis, 2002). However, even in an apparently simple situation where an individual is held accountable by a group, the relationship between individual contributions and accountability responses depends on the individual's perception of the other group members' expectations. ...
Article
The group accountability literature over the past two decades is reviewed in this article. Results are organized according to the theoretical accountability framework proposed by London, Smither, and Adsit (1997). The reviewed literature suggests that group accountability is more dynamic than current conceptualizations allow, and that the priority of accountability demands shifts over time. Building on these insights, the authors extend London et al.’s model to accommodate group accountability as a dynamic interpersonal process. Specifically, they propose that group accountability is an emergent state that derives from group interactions as well as from external sources of accountability expectations. In this extended model, both the person within the group who is held accountable as well as other group members play key roles in transforming individual accountability up to the group level. Based on the combined results of the empirical review and expanded conceptual model, the authors identify directions for studies of group accountability.
... A second gap in the accountability literature emerges in the design of studies. Much of the research on accountability has relied on experimental studies with undergraduates in which accountability is an objective manipulation (Quinn & Schlenker, 2002;Schlenker, Britt, Pennington, Murphy, & Doherty, 1994;Tetlock, 1985Tetlock, , 1992. Using the social contingency model of accountability (Tetlock, 1985(Tetlock, , 1992, researchers have examined how the conditions surrounding accountability influence individuals' coping choices to resolve the accompanying social pressure (Tetlock, Skitka, & Boettger, 1989). ...
... Tetlock (2002) suggests that increasing accountability fosters a concern for justifying one's views, which encourages increased self-criticism and increased sensitivity to others' views. Others (e.g., Quinn & Schlenker, 2002) have argued there are conditions where accountability reduces susceptibility to misleading sources. ...
Chapter
Humans have a natural affinity for conformity and coordination that is essential to culture, to groups, and to dialogical relationships. It is equally true that the dynamics of relationships, groups, and culture depend on tendencies to diverge, to differentiate, and to dissent. Evidence from anthropology, as well as social, developmental, and cognitive psychology, reveals remarkably convergent accounts of the complex interplay of divergence and convergence in an array of contexts. Conversational alignment, synchrony, mimicry, imitation, majority- minority dynamics, dissent, trust, intra- and cross- cultural diversity, social learning, and the formation and development of cultures all reveal complex patterns of selectivity and fidelity that continue to surprise researchers. The general pattern is one illustrated by young children: They are most willing to be guided by those who tell the truth and those who care about others. Issues of convergence and divergence are fundamental social phenomena, and they deserve fresh attention.
... Lerner believed that responsibility is a dominant or implicit psychological expectation related to his or her own cognition, emotion, and behaviors which is generated when individuals evaluate others' behavior [4]. Andrew et al. believe that responsibility is a state in which individuals are responsible for their own decisions and behaviors [5]. Later researchers believed that sense of responsibility is the individual's tendency to fulfill or comply with social norms and is a psychological and behavioral process affected by situations or events and triggered by the internalized behavioral norm or self-regulation [6]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
How to cultivate the sense of responsibility of the students is an important issue for educators. This paper reviewed the literatures and researches on sense of responsibility and analyzed the current study domestic and abroad from three aspects: the connotation of sense of responsibility, the structure of sense of responsibility, and the measurement of sense of responsibility. The study analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the relevant theories concerned with the connotation and the structure of sense of responsibility and sorted out the methods of sense of responsibility measurement. This study provides a clear theoretical method and guide for the study on sense of responsibility.
... Mere presence (bystander effect) Geen 1991;Guerin 1989;Innes and Young 1975;Stone et al. 2002;Zajonc and Sales 1966;Seta et al. 1989a Klimoski and Inks 1990;Mackey et al. 2016;Mero and Motowidlo 1995;Quinn and Schlenker 2002;Schlenker et al. 1994;Scholten et al. 2007;Sedikides et al. 2002;Zellars et al. 2011 Making no excuse Justification of evaluation/feedback Vicarious defending for others Multiple account-giving Consequentiality Sanctions/punishment Bordia, Irmer, and Abusah 2006;De Langhe, van Osselaer, and Wierenga 2011;Gelfand and Realo 1999;Hall et al. 2003;Roch 2005;Schlenker et al. 1994;Wang et al. 2014 External incentive Reward based on predetermined expectations ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The external control of public organizations and their members for holding accountable, is an enduring theme in public administration. This article shifts attention from a traditional focus on accountability as a macro-institutional matter to integration with the psychology of accountability, that is, how public employees internalize accountability systems. The subjective experience of being accountable varies by individual, which, in turn, affects significant accountability outcomes to employees. We specify five micro-foundations of employee accountability – attributability, observability, evaluability, answerability, and consequentiality: they are conceptually distinct but inter-related, reflecting a common psychological construct of employee accountability. Then, we develop a theoretical framework of middle-range propositions of how macro and micro accountabilities are related in the public sector in terms of conflicting institutional accountability pressures, multiple accountability, status of accountability forum, and accountability salience. We conclude with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications.
... Studies of conformity have identified a number of situational factors that influence the strength of normative pressures. Individuals are, for example, less likely to conform to a group's norms when they know they will be held accountable for their actions (Quinn & Schlenker, 2002). Anonymity also increases levels of nonconformity (Tsikerdekis, 2013), as do situational primes that instantiate elevated levels of autonomy and independence (Epley & Gilovich, 1999) and physically separating individuals from others (Gardete, 2015). ...
Article
The President and his high-level advisors routinely deny requests for information on the ground that disclosures of their deliberations would have a chilling effect on full and frank communications. It is understandable that they do so. As a political matter, the claim is intuitively appealing. As a legal matter, the Supreme Court validated the reasoning in first recognizing executive privilege, and relied on it again recently in Cheney v. United States District Court, involving a dispute over information concerning the President's national energy policy task force. This Article scrutinizes this pervasive and enduring - but largely unexamined - rationale for maintaining the President's secrets. The Article argues that, from a constitutional perspective, this commonsense assumption is significantly incomplete, and, as a result, overstates the strength of the President's confidentiality interest. It fails to take into account the qualified and contingent nature of the President's need for confidentiality. It also overstates the likelihood that confidentiality-induced candor will lead to better decisions. It stresses one potentially salutary effect of confidentiality - reducing speaker inhibitions - while ignoring other, more troubling consequences. Based on this assessment, the Article rejects the constitutional analysis, exemplified most recently in Cheney, that assumes the substantiality of the President's generalized or undifferentiated confidentiality interest in information disputes concerning his high-level deliberations. It argues instead for an approach - akin to the analysis suggested in the two Nixon cases of the Watergate era, but largely overlooked by subsequent lower court and Department of Justice opinions - that acknowledges the varying force of the President's confidentiality interest and requires a searching review of the extent of that interest in each case. In order to differentiate among presidential confidentiality claims, this approach, like the Nixon cases', assesses the likelihood that the proposed disclosure would chill candid deliberations. Moving beyond the Nixon cases, the differentiation approach also considers the other ways, distinct from chilling, that the sought-after disclosure would affect the quality of presidential decisions.
Article
This Article considers the dominant claim in corporate law literature that extra-legal mechanisms such as markets and social norms provide adequate safeguards against corporate mismanagement and opportunism. After noting recognized deficiencies in the arguments from market discipline, the Article draws on psychological insights to show that certain behavioral phenomena prevent social norms from appropriately constraining corporate conduct. It then argues that because neither markets nor social norms can sufficiently discipline corporate officials, a credible accountability mechanism is necessary to prevent director conduct standards from deteriorating. Unfortunately, an inveterate tradition of judicial deference in corporate law has undermined the role of fiduciary duty litigation as a mechanism for accountability. To promote greater accountability in corporate governance, the Article recommends reforms to the director liability regime. It argues that litigation and settlement practices should require negligent directors to make personal payments toward settlements and damage awards, and that such payments should be calibrated based on a director's ability to pay. This proposal addresses two main weaknesses in the current director liability regime: (1) judicial nullification and (2) legitimacy concerns regarding the scope of directors' liability risks.
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to validate the effect of online review and application of virtual reality on attitudes towards destinations and canceling intentions to visit destinations. The research approach uses quantitative data and data with survey methods. The sampling technique in this study used purposive sampling which is part of nonprobability sampling. The research sample is a consumer who is active in online activities and can use a website, with a minimum age of 19 years as many as 160 samples. The analysis technique used is anova analysis and regression. The results showed that online reviews and the application of virtual reality had a positive effect on attitudes towards destinations and intention to visit destinations. Then online positive and negative reviews have a significant effect on attitudes towards destinations and intention to visit destinations. Meanwhile, the application of virtual reality also has a significant effect on attitudes towards destinations and intention to visit destinations. This research also shows that the level attitude towards the purpose of visiting tourism can review and weaken the intention to visit the destination. With these results, the perceived attitude of tourist destinations towards tourism can assess or weaken the intention to visit tourist destinations
Article
Full-text available
In this study, it is aimed to investigate the moderation roles of perceived organizational support and tightness in the relationships between felt accountability and its consequences. For this purpose, 863 data were obtained in Adana City Hospital via survey method. The results show that felt accountability was positively associated with job-related tension, the dimensions of emotional labor and contextual performance, but negatively correlated with job satisfaction. Moreover, perceived organizational support had a moderation role between felt accountability and some consequences (job satisfaction, contextual performance, histrionics), whereas it did no moderation role between felt accountability and the other consequences (work-related tension, deep action, hidden emotions). Similarly, there was no moderation effects of the tightness in the relationships between felt accountability and its all consequences.
Article
I examine the Aristotelean conception of virtuous character as firm and unchangeable, a normative ideal endorsed in the currently influential, broadly Aristotelean school of thought known as 'virtue ethics'. Drawing on central concepts of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, I offer an account of how this ideal is supposed to be realized psychologically. I then consider present-day empirical findings about relevant psychological processes, with special attention to interpersonal processes. The empirical evidence suggests that over time, the same interpersonal processes that sometimes help to sustain character may also disrupt it, even among agents who have the right values in principle. Fortunately, the evidence also suggests some remedial measures. An important philosophical measure, I conclude, is for advocates of virtue ethics to address agents' psychological need for a systematic decision procedure that will focus attention primarily on substantive ethical considerations, rather than characterological assessment.
Article
Purpose – The unavailability of practitioners is one of the disturbing realities that often prevent the use of experimental methods in accounting research. The availability of pragmatic alternatives to accounting practitioners demands that researchers explore such alternatives fully before conducting expensive experiments with practitioners. However, the use of students as surrogates for non-students has been a controversial issue and this has led to an under-utilization of the experimental method in management accounting research. Recent research has warned that relying solely on practitioners as subjects in experimental methods may result in “negative externalities”. The purpose of this paper is to inquire in to the feasibility of using student subjects in behavioral accounting research so that better judgments can be made about the benefits and dangers of using students in experiments. Design/methodology/approach – The paper relies on a review and synthesis of the literature on the student surrogate debate. Findings – The paper shows that accounting students may be adequate surrogates for practitioners in many decision-making experiments. Research limitations/implications – The paper demonstrates that maintaining the experimental realism of a study and replications are more important than the type of subject when generalizing results. Originality/value – The paper provides an analysis and synthesis of literature that will enable researchers to make sound judgments about the selection of subjects for experiments.
Accountability is ubiquitous in social systems, and its necessity is magnified in formal organizations, whose purpose has been argued to predict and control behavior. The very notion of organizing necessitates answering to others, and this feature implies an interface of work and social enterprises, the individuals comprising them, and subunits from dyads to divisions. Because the nature of workplace accountability is multi-level as well as interactive, single-level conceptualizations of the phenomenon are incomplete and inherently misleading. In response, this chapter sets forth a meso-level conceptualization of accountability, which develops a more comprehensive understanding of this pervasive and imperative phenomenon. The meso model presented integrates contemporary theory and research, and extends our perspectives beyond individual, group, unit, or organizational perspectives toward a unitary whole. Following this is a description of challenges and opportunities facing scholars conducting accountability research (e.g., data collection and analysis and non-traditional conceptualizations of workplace phenomenon). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, as are directions for future research.
Article
Past research on socially responsible investing has provided insight into the demographic makeup of socially responsible investors, what distinguishes them from non-socially responsible investors, and what are their motives. However, our understanding of the decision process behind socially responsible investing (SRI) is still limited, since only a few studies have tested hypotheses about investor behavior in the context of SRI. This paper reports on two empirical studies that examine the role mental frames play in the decision-making process behind SRI. Study 1 focuses on the impact of mental frames on the percentage of SRI in an investor’s portfolio and the interaction between mental frames and investor expectations about corporate social responsibility. Study 2 examines individual and environmental factors that influence the type of mental investment frame individuals hold.
Article
Several studies presented in this paper explored the motivational process driving mortality silence (MS) effect on conformity. Study 1 demonstrated that people are more likely to conform with other’s opinions when self-uncertainty rather than certainty is activated. Study 2 revealed that self-uncertainty mediates the effect of MS on conformity: people become uncertain of themselves and more likely to conform to other’s opinions when they think about death. Study 3 investigated the mediation effect from the perspective of relatively stable traits, revealing that dispositional death anxiety positively predicted trait conformity and that increased trait self-uncertainty accounted for this relationship (full mediation). In summary, substantial and robust evidence indicated that self-uncertainty plays a critical role in MS effect on conformity.
Article
Full-text available
The external control of public organizations and their members, commonly referred to as accountability , is an enduring theme in public administration. This article shifts attention from a traditional focus on accountability as a macro-institutional matter to the psychology of accountability, that is, whether and how employees internalize accountability systems. The internalization of rules and expectations varies by individual, which, in turn, has significant consequences for accountability outcomes. We theorize that the micro-foundations of employee accountability are affected by five factors: attributability, observability, evaluability, answerability, and consequentiality. These five dimensions are conceptually distinct but interrelated, representing a deeper common psychological construct of employee accountability. Incorporating the psychological approach of accountability advances the potential of public accountability research. We conclude with a discussion of future research and practical implications.
Article
We explored the influence of co-witness confidence and misinformation on the accuracy of collaborative and individual memory reports. Participants viewed a robbery video and discussed the event with a co-witness who was scripted to provide accurate or misleading details and to exhibit either high or low memory confidence. In a demonstration of memory conformity in co-witness discussions, highly confident co-witnesses who provided misleading or correct details led participants to report more misleading or correct information in both collaborative and individual reports. Furthermore, participants exhibited a confidence conformity effect, in which participants' confidence in their own memories mimicked the confidence of their co-witnesses.Copyright
Article
Full-text available
This work investigates authentic leadership models in the organizational culture of a school. The aim of this quantitative research is to define the factors of authentic leadership in educational institutions in order to provide answers to the questions related to the existence of specific authentic leadership in a school. The sample included 227 randomly selected directors of secondary and primary schools in the former Yugoslav republics: Serbia, Montenegro, and the Republic Srpska. The research included the use of an ALQ questionnaire for the estimation of leadership behavior. The components of authentic leadership are defined using factor analysis and other statistics techniques. The findings developed in this research indicated the fact that directors in educational institutions have a specific authentic leadership style. We suggest the concept of authentic leadership based on the four following factors: Communication-conformist, self-consciousness, self-discovery, and self-concept. Supporting these factors provides the directors with the possibility of obtaining a high level of authentic leadership.
Chapter
We propose an information model that describes which data should be available, together with their relationships, in order to identify accountabilities in a group of interacting parties. The model is intended for use in multi-agent systems, and is expressed by means of Object-Role Modeling, due to the relational nature of the concepts involved.
Article
A long history of research in psychology has studied the consequences of when individuals face a group that unanimously disagrees with them. However, relatively little research has attempted to understand individuals' internal reactions to such disagreement while it is experienced. Psychophysiological measures are particularly well suited for this purpose. We used the perspective of the biopsychosocial model of challenge/threat to test whether and under what circumstances expressing one's political opinion to a disagreeing group led to a cardiovascular threat response (high total peripheral resistance, low cardiac output). We hypothesized that, when participants were provided with a goal to fit in with the group, a disagreeing group would elicit cardiovascular responses consistent with greater threat than an agreeing group, but that this effect would disappear if not reverse when participants were provided with a goal to express their individuality. Results supported hypotheses and further revealed a divergence between cardiovascular responses and conformity behavior, such that a disagreeing group fostered conformity regardless of goal condition. These findings suggest that (a) facing the prospect of a disagreeing group need not necessarily result in the negative experience of threat (reflecting evaluating low resources/high demands), and (b) conformity behavior can mask a range of internal states.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the impact of process accountability on two biases causing myopic or short-sighted decision making. These biases are strong preferences for immediate and certain outcomes known as delay and risk aversion . We hypothesize that accountability alone is insufficient to undo the biases, but if coupled with a cue on subjective discount rates, it will attenuate biases. To analyze our research question, we used a within- and between-subjects experimental design (two accountability conditions compared with a non-accountability condition and with each other) with delay and probability discounting choice tasks involving 118 students of accounting, finance and management in an online experiment. In line with our hypotheses, we find that process accountability successfully reduces excessive delay and risk aversion only if it provides a cue about the subjective discount rate. We discuss the implications of our findings for management control.
Chapter
The intellectually interesting debate on whether the company is a public or private entity may serve as a deflection device, keeping bright academic minds occupied with discussing the nature of the company. Going into the debate risks exacerbating unnecessarily entrenched positions on the nature, purpose and responsibility of the company. It also risks enforcing an impression of a more hard-lined dichotomy between public and private, shareholders and other stakeholders, social responsibility and corporate governance, than there actually is a basis for. Accordingly, it may not help, but rather make more difficult, the discussion of the more important question: How do we regulate for corporate sustainability? A fundamental barrier for businesses shifting voluntarily away from business as usual and onto a path of corporate sustainability is the social norm of shareholder primacy, as has been argued by several commentators and substantiated further through the comparative company law research of the Sustainable Companies Project. This provides the basis for the conclusion that legal reform is necessary. The company law debate we need to have is what such a legal reform should look like and how we can show businesses, policy-makers and legislators that such reform needs to be adopted. This chapter briefly summarizes the comparative company law research on barriers to sustainability and the basis for the argument that company law reform is necessary. Thereafter, a tentative reform proposal for a first step towards corporate sustainability on EU level is presented. The chapter closes with some reflections on what future research should look into and on the hope for achieving sustainable policies.
Chapter
The most fundamental comparative corporate governance debates have often focused on two issues. The first one concerns ownership structure: Why are large corporations in some corporate governance system owned by a multitude of disempowered shareholders, thus effectively giving management free rein? Why are corporations typically governed by a controlling shareholder or a coalition of controlling shareholders in other systems? The second issue is the role of other ‘constituencies’ of the corporation besides shareholders, of which labor is most central to the debate. Some jurisdictions explicitly give labor an influential voice in corporate affairs, whereas in others its influence is developed through factual power or unintended consequences of legislation. This chapter explores the interactions between firm ownership and labor, focusing on the United States on the one hand and Continental Europe, particularly Germany, on the other. It distinguishes between ‘old’ and ‘new’ comparative corporate governance, the former referring to the dichotomy studied by scholars of comparative corporate law up to the early 2000s. Recent changes, heralded by intermediated, but widespread share ownership are leading us to a new equilibrium whose contours have only begun to emerge. Over the past decades, outside investors have gained power both in the United States and in Continental Europe. However, neither in the US nor in Continental Europe has the traditional corporate governance system been completely superseded by a new one. The US remains to a large extent manager-centric. Continental Europe retains powerful large shareholders, and labor as an independent force has remained more important than in the United States. Outside institutional investors – sometimes from the US – have become a player to be reckoned with, thus adding an additional layer of complexity to the system.
Article
Full-text available
College students believed that they were judges in a real cheating case (in actuality, it was fictitious) under adjudication by a student honor court. Participants recommended harsher punishment after being led to believe that they would explain their decisions in a face-to-face meeting with (a) an official from the honor court, as compared to a meeting with the student or no anticipated meeting (Experiment 1), or (b) the professor who brought the charge of cheating, as compared to a meeting with the student (Experiment 2). These effects occurred even when participants wrote their decisions after learning that the anticipated meeting was canceled. The salient audience thus seemed to induce shifts in perspective or evaluative orientation during decision making, and not simply reporting shifts designed to please the audience.
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the case for a general threat-rigidity effect in individual, group, and organizational behavior. Evidence from multiple levels of analysis is summarized, showing a restriction in information processing and constriction of control under threat conditions. Possible mechanisms underlying such a multiple-level effect are explored, as are its possible functional and dysfunctional consequences.
Article
Full-text available
AIthough intraclass correlation coefficients (lCCs) are commonIy used in behavioral measurement, pychometrics, and behavioral genetics, procodures available for forming inferences about ICC are not widely known. Following a review of the distinction between various forms of the ICC, this article presents procedures available for calculating confidence intervals and conducting tests on ICCs developed using data from one-way and two-way random and mixed-efFect analysis of variance models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Examined the effects of differential outcome contingencies on the operation of anticipatory position shifts in 2 studies with 81 female high school seniors and 125 undergraduates. Ss were found to shift their positions on an issue while they were expecting to engage an opponent in a discussion of that issue. As predicted, it was possible to influence the size and direction of such anticipatory shifts by manipulating the personal relevance of the discussion topic and the timing of the discussion onset. Shifts could also be nullified by canceling the expectation of discussion. Results are taken to support a general formulation of anticipatory shifts as strategic responses to immediate situational pressures rather than genuine changes in attitude. It was also found that the durability of anticipatory change was associated with the tendency to engage in cognitive activity supportive of the change. The possibility is discussed that most attitude-change studies have not involved attitude shifts but rather the elastic shifts obtained in the present experiments. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Privately self-conscious people may resist social pressures because (a) they tune out the social matrix and express their beliefs irrespective of how they make them appear to an audience (the social obliviousness hypothesis) or (b) they prefer to create an identity of being autonomous and will monitor and control their self-presentations to construct this image for audiences (the autonomous identity hypothesis). The results of three studies supported the latter. The self-identifications of privately self-conscious subjects emphasized autonomy and personal identity, whereas those of publicly self-conscious subjects emphasized conformity, social identity, and social trepidations. An experiment found that privately self-conscious subjects publicly changed their attitudes if by so doing they protected the appearance of autonomy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Previous research suggests that decision makers have a tendency to become locked into courses of action, to throw good money after bad in dealing with losing projects. The present study directly compared the effectiveness of several deescalation strategies designed to make decision makers more responsive to the available evidence. Three deescalation procedures were found to be most effective: (1) making negative outcomes less threatening; (2) setting minimum target levels that, if not achieved, would lead to a change in policy; and (3) evaluating decision makers on the basis of their decision process rather than outcome. The theoretical and practical implications of each of these strategies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
This research investigates whether conformity can be elicited or suppressed by nonconscious priming. In Experiment 1, participants were primed for either conformity or nonconformity using a scrambled sentences task and later placed into a conformity situation. As predicted, participants primed with conformity expressed views that were more similar to those of experimental confederates than did participants primed with nonconformity. To investigate whether the influence of the primes was symmetric, Experiment 2 included a neutral prime condition. Participants primed with conformity again tended to conform more than those in the other two groups, but the nonconformity primes did not induce participants to rebel against the group norm. Discussion focuses on the asymmetry in the effectiveness of the conformity and nonconformity primes.
Article
Full-text available
This experiment tested predictions derived from a social contingency model of judgment and choice that identifies 3 distinctive strategies that people rely on in dealing with demands for accountability from important interpersonal or institutional audiences. The model predicts that (a) when people know the views of the audience and are unconstrained by past commitments, they will rely on the low-effort acceptability heuristic and simply shift their views toward those of the prospective audience, (b) when people do not know the views of the audience and are unconstrained by past commitments, they will be motivated to think in relatively flexible, multidimensional ways (preemptive self-criticism), and (c) when people are accountable for positions to which they feel committed, they will devote the majority of their mental effort to justifying those positions (defensive bolstering). The experiment yielded results supportive of these 3 predictions. The study also revealed some evidence of individual differences in social and cognitive strategies for coping with accountability.
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews the now extensive research literature addressing the impact of accountability on a wide range of social judgments and choices. It focuses on 4 issues: (a) What impact do various accountability ground rules have on thoughts, feelings, and action? (b) Under what conditions will accountability attenuate, have no effect on, or amplify cognitive biases? (c) Does accountability alter how people think or merely what people say they think? and (d) What goals do accountable decision makers seek to achieve? In addition, this review explores the broader implications of accountability research. It highlights the utility of treating thought as a process of internalized dialogue; the importance of documenting social and institutional boundary conditions on putative cognitive biases; and the potential to craft empirical answers to such applied problems as how to structure accountability relationships in organizations.
Article
Examined the effects of differential outcome contingencies on the operation of anticipatory position shifts in 2 studies with 81 female high school seniors and 125 undergraduates. Ss were found to shift their positions on an issue while they were expecting to engage an opponent in a discussion of that issue. As predicted, it was possible to influence the size and direction of such anticipatory shifts by manipulating the personal relevance of the discussion topic and the timing of the discussion onset. Shifts could also be nullified by canceling the expectation of discussion. Results are taken to support a general formulation of anticipatory shifts as strategic responses to immediate situational pressures rather than genuine changes in attitude. It was also found that the durability of anticipatory change was associated with the tendency to engage in cognitive activity supportive of the change. The possibility is discussed that most attitude-change studies have not involved attitude shifts but rather the elastic shifts obtained in the present experiments. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Previous research indicates that our initial impressions of events frequently influence how we interpret later information. This experiment explored whether accountability-pressures to justify one's impressions to others-leads people to process information more vigilantly and, as a result, reduces the undue influence of early-formed impressions on final judgments. Subjects viewed evidence from a criminal case and then assessed the guilt of the defendant. The study varied (1) the order of presentation of pro-vs. anti-defendant information, (2) whether subjects expected to justify their decisions and, if so, whether subjects realized that they were accountable prior to or only after viewing the evidence. The results indicated that subjects given the anti/pro-defendant order of information were more likely to perceive the defendant as guilty than subjects given the pro/anti-defendant order of information, but only when subjects did not expect to justify their decisions or expected to justify their decisions only after viewing the evidence. Order of presentation of evidence had no impact when subjects expected to justify their decisions before viewing the evidence. Accountability prior to the evidence evidence also substantially improved free recall of the case material. The results suggest that accountability reduces primacy effects by affecting how people initially encode and process stimulus information.
Article
This study operationalizes and tests Campbell's trapped administrator effect. In an experimental simulation, job insecurity and policy resistance were manipulated and their effects were measured upon commitment to a course of action. Results showed that as job insecurity and policy resistance increased, so did commitment to a previously chosen course of action. These results support the idea that the trapped administrator is one who is most likely to become committed to a policy position and remain inflexible to change in the face of negative consequences.
Article
An experiment examined whether accountability causes people to prefer more cautious, less risky choice alternatives. Self described high and low risk takers chose between pairs of lotteries varying in riskiness under conditions where they either would (accountable condition) or would not (unaccountable condition) have to explain and justify their decisions to others. When accountable, low risk takers became extremely risk averse, whereas high risk takers became slightly but not significantly riskier in their decisions. A second study found that high but not low risk takers admired and thought other people admired risk takers more than risk avoiders, which may explain the former's preference for risk when they are accountable. When low risk takers are accountable, caution provides relative security as well as the satisfaction that their actions are at least as admirable as if they had taken risks.
Article
This chapter advances to a testable middle-range theory predicated on the politician metaphor: the social contingency model of judgment and choice. This model does not map neatly in any of the traditional levels of analysis: the individual, the small group, the organization, and political system. The unit of study is the individual in relation to these social milieux. The model borrows, qualifies, and elaborates on the cognitive miser image of the thinker that has been so influential in experimental work on social cognition. The model adopts the approval and status-seeker image of human nature that has been so influential in role theory, symbolic interactionism, and impression management theory. The model draws on sociological and anthropological theory concerning the necessary conditions for social order in positing accountability to be a universal feature of natural decision environments. The social contingency model is not tightly linked to any particular methodology. The theoretical eclecticism of the model demands a corresponding commitment to methodological eclecticism. The social contingency model poses problems that cross disciplinary boundaries, and that require a plurality of methodologies. The chapter ends with considering the potential problem of proliferating metaphors in social psychological theory.
Article
Reports 3 errors in the original article by K. O. McGraw and S. P. Wong (Psychological Methods, 1996, 1[1], 30–46). On page 39, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and r values given in Table 6 should be changed to r = .714 for each data set, ICC(C,1) = .714 for each data set, and ICC(A,1) = .720, .620, and .485 for the data in Columns 1, 2, and 3 of the table, respectively. In Table 7 (p. 41), which is used to determine confidence intervals on population values of the ICC, the procedures for obtaining the confidence intervals on ICC(A,k) need to be amended slightly. Corrected formulas are given. On pages 44–46, references to Equations A3, A,4, and so forth in the Appendix should be to Sections A3, A4, and so forth. (The following abstract of this article originally appeared in record 1996-03170-003.). Although intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) are commonly used in behavioral measurement, psychometrics, and behavioral genetics, procedures available for forming inferences about ICC are not widely known. Following a review of the distinction between various forms of the ICC, this article presents procedures available for calculating confidence intervals and conducting tests on ICCs developed using data from one-way and two-way random and mixed-effect analysis of variance models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Derived 2 hypotheses from the theories of psychological reactance and fear of emotional alienation: (a) given the presence of a group norm threatening personal freedom in a social influence influence situation, occurrence of a reactance effect will decrease; and (b) with high feelings of inadequacy of the responding individual, occurrence of a reactance effect will decrease. In a before-after design, reactance behavior of 60 male and female undergraduates was examined as a function of social influence with vs. Without norm, and feelings of inadequacy, low vs. High. Additionally, 2 control conditions with respect to the social influence variable with 30 ss each were run. Reactance was measured as pre- and postdifference of attractiveness ratings regarding a painting which had been eliminated from the original set of 4 choice alternatives. Results strongly support the 1st, and marginally the 2nd, hypothesis. It is concluded that specifications of the concept of psychological reactance are necessary with respect to the social situation and personality factors. Some problems about measure of reactance are discussed. (16 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tested the impression management interpretation of psychological reactance. Contrary to the traditional effectance motivation interpretation, the impression management interpretation asserts that people are less concerned with the actual loss of a specific behavioral freedom than they are with maintaining the outward appearance of being free. 122 undergraduates read a communication that threatened their freedom to hold a particular attitude. Prior to the threat, some Ss were able either publicly or privately to exercise their freedom. Other Ss were not given the opportunity to exercise their freedom prior to its being threatened. Ss expressed their postcommunication attitude in a public or private manner. Consistent with the impression management hypothesis, attitude change did not occur when postcommunication attitudes were private. Further, public postcommunication attitudes were primarily used to convey the impression that the participant was autonomous; reactancelike attitude change occurred only when participants had not publicly exercised their freedom before it was threatened. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Explored the impact of accountability (the need to justify one's views to others) on the complexity of people's thinking on controversial social issues. 48 undergraduates reported their thoughts on 3 issues and then responded to a series of attitude scales relevant to each topic. Ss provided this information under 1 of 4 conditions: expecting their attitudes to be anonymous or expecting to justify their attitudes to an individual with liberal, conservative, or unknown views. Consistent with previous work on strategic attitude shifts, Ss reported more liberal attitudes when they expected to justify their views to a conservative. Accountability also increased the integrative complexity and evaluative inconsistency of the thoughts reported on each issue but only when Ss expected to justify their attitudes to an individual with unknown views. Findings suggest that accountability leads to more complex information processing only when people do not have the cognitively lazy option of simply expressing views similar to those of the individual to whom they feel accountable. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted an experiment with 65 undergraduates to test whether the anticipation of discussion on a topic would bring about a moderation of position (i.e., movement toward the neutral point) on that topic prior to the discussion. Half of the Ss expected to engage in a face-to-face discussion with a peer on an issue. The other Ss expected only to listen to a peer state his opinion on an issue. It was found that (a) only those expecting to discuss exhibited moderation shifts, on the 7-point opinion scale, (b) when the expectation of discussion was cancelled, the Ss returned to their initial issue positions, and (c) the mechanism for the obtained moderation shifts appeared to involve movement toward the center of the opinion scale rather than movement toward the position of the discussion opponent. The implications of these results are discussed for previous studies of anticipatory "attitude change," especially those concerning forewarning. A general formulation of anticipatory shifts as instrumental responses to situational demands is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Entrapping conflicts are those in which individuals have made substantial, unrealized investments in pursuit of some goal and feel compelled to justify these expenditures with continued investments, even if the likelihood of goal attainment is low. Two experiments tested the notion that entrapment (i.e., amount invested) would be more pronounced when costs were rendered less important (and/or rewards were made more important). In Exp I, half the Ss were instructed beforehand of the virtues of investing conservatively (cautious condition), and half were informed of the advantages of investing a considerable amount (risk condition). Investments by the risky group were more than twice as great as those by the cautious group. Consistent with a face-saving analysis, the instructions had a greater effect on Ss with high rather than low social anxiety; and individuals with high social anxiety who participated in front of a large audience were more influenced by the instructions than were individuals with low social anxiety who participated in front of a small audience. In Exp II, the importance of costs and rewards was varied in a 2 × 2 design. As predicted, Ss invested significantly more when cost importance was low than when it was high. Contrary to expectation, reward importance had no effect. The data also suggest that entrapment was at least partially mediated by the participants' concern over the way they thought they would be evaluated. (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
According to the auto-motive model (J. A. Bargh, 1990), intentions and goals are represented mentally and, as representations, should be capable of nonconscious activation by the environmental context (i.e., "priming"). To test this hypothesis, the authors replicated 2 well-known experiments that had demonstrated differential effects of varying the information-processing goal (impression formation or memorization) on processing the identical behavioral information. However, instead of giving participants the goals via explicit instructions, as had been done in the original studies. the authors primed the impression formation or memorization goal. In both cases, the original pattern of results was reproduced. The findings thus support the hypothesis that the effect of activated goals is the same whether the activation is nonconscious or through an act of will. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
What was noted by E. J. Langer (1978) remains true today: that much of contemporary psychological research is based on the assumption that people are consciously and systematically processing incoming information in order to construe and interpret their world and to plan and engage in courses of action. As did Langer, the authors question this assumption. First, they review evidence that the ability to exercise such conscious, intentional control is actually quite limited, so that most of moment-to-moment psychological life must occur through nonconscious means if it is to occur at all. The authors then describe the different possible mechanisms that produce automatic, environmental control over these various phenomena and review evidence establishing both the existence of these mechanisms as well as their consequences for judgments, emotions, and behavior. Three major forms of automatic self-regulation are identified: an automatic effect of perception on action, automatic goal pursuit, and a continual automatic evaluation of one's experience. From the accumulating evidence, the authors conclude that these various nonconscious mental systems perform the lion's share of the self-regulatory burden, beneficently keeping the individual grounded in his or her current environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Previous research has shown yielders to persuasive communications to be negatively evaluated by observers of the persuasion but positively evaluated by the persuaders. Resisters of persuasion, on the other hand, are evaluated positively by observers but negatively by the initiators of the persuasive effort. Two studies were conducted to determine (a) whether individuals are aware of the differing evaluations of yielders and resisters by persuaders and observers and (b) the extent to which targets of influence attempts strategically employ this information to enhance their images in the eyes of others. Experiment 1, a role-playing study, demonstrated that targets of persuasive appeals are cognizant of the pattern of evaluations provided to yielders and resisters by persuaders and observers. Experiment 2 indicated that targets' public reports of attitude change were shaped so as to produce the most positive evaluations from the audience to those reports. The greatest stated influence occurred in the sole presence of the persuasive agent, an intermediate amount of stated change occurred when both persuader and observer were present, and still less occurred in the sole presence of an observer to the influence attempt. The results of anonymous, private measures of change paralleled in pattern those of the publicly admitted change, but were not significant.
Article
Two studies examined the effects of dispositional self-consciousness on reactance. In Experiment 1, men who were high in private self-consciousness displayed greater reactance responses to a coercive communication attempt (as reflected by attitude reversal) than did men lower in private self-consciousness. In contrast, the effect of public self-consciousness in this context was to inhibit the expression of reactance. In Experiment 2, women high in private self-consciousness exhibited greater reactance responses to a self-imposed threat to their freedom of choice (as reflected by equivocation over two choice alternatives) than did women lower in private self-consciousness. The effect of public self-consciousness in this context was negligible. These findings replicate and extend a previous self-awareness and reactance finding; they provide additional evidence that manipulated self-awareness and dispositional self-consciousness converge on the same psychological entity; and they provide additional evidence that there are important differences between the dimensions of private and public self-consciousness.
Article
In the present paper, automaticity in habitual travel mode choice behaviour was investigated. Expanding on the idea that habits are mentally represented, it was proposed that when travel behaviour is habitual, activation of a travel goal automatically activates a travel mode in memory. In an experiment, participants were presented with travel goals (e.g. having to go to the university) and asked to mention a transport mode. The typical travel mode choice for those destinations was either permitted, or not permitted under conditions of cognitive load or not. Results showed that suppressing habitual responses is difficult, and often not successful under conditions of cognitive load, indicating that a transport mode choice can become automatically associated with travel goals.
It is commonly expected that individuals will reverse decisions or change behaviors which result in negative consequences. Yet, within investment decision contexts, negative consequences may actually cause decision makers to increase the commitment of resources and undergo the risk of further negative consequences. The research presented here examined this process of escalating commitment through the simulation of a business investment decision. Specifically, 240 business school students participated in a role-playing exercise in which personal responsibility and decision consequences were the manipulated independent variables. Results showed that persons committed the greatest amount of resources to a previously chosen course of action when they were personally responsible for negative consequences.
Article
Several of our studies indicate that persuasive-arguments theory by itself is an adequate explanation of polarization. Sanders and Baron (Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 1977, 13, 303–314) criticize this research. More generally, they contend that both argumentation and comparison are involved, “with persuasive arguments facilitating the shifts motivated by social comparison.” We feel that their critique is unconvincing. Relevant portions of the standard literature are reviewed to demonstrate that social comparison is neither a necessary nor sufficient condition for polarization. Finally, we speculate about how persuasive-arguments theory could be extended to argument-poor settings (e.g., Asch's line comparison situation).
Article
Several modifications of the Asch experiment in which the S judges the length of lines in the company of a group of "stooges" who carry out the experimenter's instructions are described. These include a face-to-face situation, an anonymous situation, and a group situation, with self-commitment, public commitment and Magic Pad commitment variations. The results indicate that, even when normative social influence in the direction of an incorrect judgment is largely removed (as in the anonymous situation), more errors are made by Ss in experimental groups than by Ss making their judgments when alone.