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Society and the Adolescent Image Maker

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... In order to empirically test the CCM and to verify the above hypotheses, a new coping instrument was developed -the Coping Circumplex Inventory (CCI) and a series of empirical studies were conducted involving other measures of coping and variables related to mental health. CISS: Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Endler & Parker, 1990a); COPE (Carver et al., 1989); FTAS: Framingham Type A Scale (Haynes et al., 1978); GHQ-12: General Health Questionnaire -12 (Goldberg & Williams, 1988); HS: Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991); RSES: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). ...
... Study 3 was conducted on 284 participants (146 females, 121 males, 17 with no gender reported; M age = 21.27, SD = 2.52), of whom 279 completed an improved CCI measure consisting of 154 items, as well as the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) to examine associations between the CCI and self-esteem. ...
... Global self-esteem. In Study 3, self-esteem was assessed with the RSES (Rosenberg, 1965;Polish adaptation: Łaguna et al., 2007). This construct is represented by ten items with responses given on 4-point scale, from 1 (strongly agree) to 4 (strongly disagree). ...
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The aim of the book to present the Coping Circumplex Model (CCM) designed to integrate various coping constructs. The monograph begins with a review of stress theories and coping models. After that, current problems in stress psychology are described. In an attempt to address some of the above issues, the CCM and its development is described. Finally, the book presents an empirical verification of the CCM and provides a discussion of the results. The CCM offers a new way of thinking about coping with stress. It integrates various coping categories, but it may also elucidate some contradictory findings about relationships between coping (e.g., different forms of problem avoidance) and distress depending on situation controllability. It may provide a suitable space for the integration of coping with other constructs (e.g., personality dimensions, dark triad, emotion regulation processes) and adjustment after trauma. The CCM may also foster the generation of new hypotheses in stress psychology and emotion regulation, (e.g., concerning the relationship between the continuum of reinterpretation and experienced emotions). The Coping Circumplex Model: A Theoretical Synthesis of Coping Constructs and Its Empirical Verification can be useful for psychology academics interested in coping and stress research, emotion regulation, personality psychology, for researchers in fields close to psychology, such as medicine or sociology, as well as for undergraduate and postgraduate psychology students.
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One purpose of the present study was to examine how exposure to police stressors is associated with increased risk for physical, psychological, and interpersonal negative outcomes. Another purpose was to identify “healthy” or “unhealthy” coping mechanisms that medicate these associations between police stressors and negative outcomes. Participants included 201 law enforcement officers from small American police departments under 100 officers (96% male; mean age = 40.3 years; 91% Caucasian; 55% patrol officer rank; mean years of service = 15.0 years) who completed anonymous surveys that included the 25-item Law Enforcement Officer Stress Survey (LEOSS) and measures of health problems, self-esteem, and aggression to romantic partners and police partners. They also reported 12 “healthy” and “unhealthy” coping mechanisms as suggested by the Theory of Threat Appraisal and Coping (exercise, sleep, eating fruits and vegetables, family support, police support, religiosity, alcohol, tobacco, snacks, expressed anger, repressed anger). Higher exposure to police stressors was found to be associated with increased risk of health problems, low self-esteem, partner aggression, and police aggression. Repressed anger was the “unhealthy” coping mechanism most significantly associated with officers’ reports of police stressors. Mediation analysis revealed that only the removal of repressed anger dropped associations between police stressors and the four negative outcomes to non-significance. Present results demonstrate that the most prevalent coping mechanism used by stressed police officers may not always be associated with improvements in outcomes. Employee Assistance Programs for officers with high levels of police stressors should focus on anger-management and anger-expression skills.
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Child maltreatment is a pervasive public health problem. Evidence from numerous studies suggests that child maltreatment leads to both short-term and long-term detrimental effects. However, only few studies investigated the differential effects of specific child maltreatment types on mental health. In the current study, we aimed to detect the frequency of child maltreatment and determine specific associations of different types of child maltreatment with risk-taking behavior and self-esteem among college students. A total of 421 university students from Turkey aged between 18 and 26 years (Mage = 21.16, SD = 1.79) participated in the study. Among the participants, 323 (76.7%) were females. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, the Risk-taking Behavior Scale, and the Self-Esteem Scale were used to assess childhood maltreatment, risk-taking behavior, and self-esteem, respectively. In total, 58.7% (n = 247) of the participants reported experiencing at least one type of child maltreatment throughout their childhood. Moreover, a path analysis showed that emotional abuse (β = -0.23, p < .001) and emotional neglect (β = -0.28, p < .001) were negatively associated with self-esteem, whereas sexual abuse (β = 0.16, t = 3.37, p < .001) was positively linked with risk-taking behavior after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment and sociodemographic variables. The findings emphasize the importance of understanding the unique associations and effects of childhood maltreatment on self-esteem and risk-taking behavior. Prevention and intervention efforts should consider these potential impacts of specific childhood maltreatment types.
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This chapter first introduces the issue of style value and review-related studies. It then reports finding concerning the value issue before comparing style value between students with and without hearing impairment.
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Introduction Positive social comparative feedback indicates to the learner that they are performing better than others. While this type feedback supports motor skill learning in some tasks, the effect of social comparative feedback on implicit motor sequence learning remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of positive social comparative feedback on the learning of and expectancies for a motor sequence task. Methods Forty-eight individuals practiced a joystick-based sequence task and were divided into three feedback groups: CONTROL (no performance feedback), RT ONLY (response time only feedback), and RT+POS (response time plus positive social comparison). Participants attended sessions on two consecutive days: Day 1 for repetitive motor practice/skill acquisition and Day 2 for retention testing. Performance related expectancies, like perceived competence, were measured before and after motor practice on Day 1 and at retention on Day 2. Results While all groups improved with practice, the CONTROL group showed better overall performance/learning (faster response times) compared with the RT ONLY group. Despite similar response times, the RT+POS showed higher peak velocities than the RT ONLY group. Overall, the RT+POS and CONTROL demonstrated increases in perceived competence while the RT ONLY group did not. Discussion The results of this study suggest that feedback content is an important consideration during motor practice sessions since feedback without context (RT ONLY) may be detrimental to motor sequence learning. The results also suggest that, if providing performance related feedback during practice of a skill that relies on implicit sequence learning processes, comparative context may be necessary for enhancing expectancies and supporting.
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Prominent theories of aging emphasize the importance of resource allocation processes as a means to maintain functional ability, well-being and quality of life. Little is known about which activities and what activity patterns actually characterize the daily lives of healthy older adults in key domains of functioning, including the spatial, physical, social, and cognitive domains. This study aims to gain a comprehensive understanding of daily activities of community-dwelling older adults over an extended period of time and across a diverse range of activity domains, and to examine associations between daily activities, health and well-being at the within- and between-person levels. It also aims to examine contextual correlates of the relations between daily activities, health, and well-being. At its core, this ambulatory assessment (AA) study with a sample of 150 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 to 91 years measured spatial, physical, social, and cognitive activities across 30 days using a custom-built mobile sensor (“uTrail”), including GPS, accelerometer, and audio recording. In addition, during the first 15 days, self-reports of daily activities, psychological correlates, contexts, and cognitive performance in an ambulatory working memory task were assessed 7 times per day using smartphones. Surrounding the ambulatory assessment period, participants completed an initial baseline assessment including a telephone survey, web-based questionnaires, and a laboratory-based cognitive and physical testing session. They also participated in an intermediate laboratory session in the laboratory at half-time of the 30-day ambulatory assessment period, and finally returned to the laboratory for a posttest assessment. In sum, this is the first study which combines multi-domain activity sensing and self-report ambulatory assessment methods to observe daily life activities as indicators of functional ability in healthy older adults unfolding over an extended period (i.e., 1 month). It offers a unique opportunity to describe and understand the diverse individual real-life functional ability profiles characterizing later life.
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The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of a program for the development of social and emotional competences and self-esteem among a group of inmates at a penitentiary center, as well as to determine the possible correlation between the variables of the program (social skills, emotional competences, and self-esteem). The objective was to equip inmates with social competences in emotional regulation strategies that would be useful to them in the penitentiary center and, at the same time, facilitate their future social inclusion. In order to measure the pre- and post- treatment variables, the Social Skills Scale, the Perceived Emotional Intelligence Scale (TMMS-24), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were administered to a group of 51 inmates in a penitentiary center. The experimental group consisted of 29 inmates, with 21 forming the control group. The pretest-posttest ANOVAs showed that the program led to a significant ( p < 0.01) increase in: (1) positive social behaviors; (2) emotional competences; (3) self-esteem. Positive correlations were also observed between the three variables. The results suggest the importance of implementing programs for the promotion of the socio-emotional development of people incarcerated in penitentiary centers.
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Mental health research exists for student-athletes in the areas of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem prevalence. However, updated prevalence rates and assessment of risks across sports, academic status, and genders are needed. Filling the gaps in research assists in the creation of patient-centered mental health screening and interventions designed for student-athletes. Therefore, the purpose is to examine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem in collegiate student-athletes and differences between sex, academic status, and sport type, and identify associations for risks. Using a cross-sectional design, collegiate student-athletes were surveyed to assess for risks of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. With the use of SPSS, Chi-square analyses and multinomial logistic regressions were used. Student-athletes (22.3%) were at risk for depression, anxiety (12.5%), and low self-esteem (8%). No significant differences were found for sex, academic status, and sport type for depression or self-esteem; however, significant differences occurred for state and trait anxiety by sex. A significant association for depression and anxiety risk was found with females at risk. Depression and anxiety are present within student-athletes, regardless of sport type. Females are at a higher risk; however, all student-athletes would benefit from the creation of validated, patient-centered mental health screenings and psychotherapeutic interventions.
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Considerable developmental research has shown an association between peer victimization and subjective well-being among adolescents. However, the mediating processes and protective factors that constrain this association are less understood. To fill these gaps, we investigated whether self-esteem mediates the association between peer victimization and subjective well-being and whether forgiveness moderates the direct and indirect associations of peer victimization with adolescents' subjective well-being via self-esteem. A large sample of 2,758 adolescents (Mage = 13.53 years, SD = 1.06) from 10 middle schools in China participated in this study. Participants provided data on demographic variables, peer victimization, self-esteem, forgiveness, and subjective well-being by answering anonymous questionnaires. After controlling for demographic covariates, we found that self-esteem mediated the relationship between peer victimization and subjective well-being. Furthermore, as a protective factor, forgiveness moderated the relationship between peer victimization and self-esteem. Consistent with the protective-reactive model, when adolescents experienced more peer victimization, those with higher forgiveness levels exhibited a greater decline in self-esteem, and low self-esteem was then associated with decreased subjective well-being. These findings demonstrate the utility of examining both mediating and moderating factors in this relationship and highlight the negative impact of peer victimization on adolescent self-worth and the limited role of forgiveness as a protective factor.
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This study examines the generalizability of the latent structure of the Polish version of the Ego-Resiliency Scale (ER89-R12), a brief self-report scale that measures ego-resiliency. We investigated the measurement invariance, validity, and reliability of ER89-R12 among three groups of individuals who were facing various major, long-term, life-changing crises ( N = 512): parents of children with Down’s syndrome, women with breast cancer, and individuals after divorce. The analysis of the measurement invariance confirmed the two-factor structure of the questionnaire and the high reliability of this measure in those studied groups. A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence of configural, metric, scalar, and residual invariance across the three groups. Moreover, the correlation patterns were similar across the groups. Ego-resiliency was strongly and consistently positively correlated with mental health: psychological well-being, perceived social support, self-esteem, and post-traumatic growth, and negatively correlated with perceived stress. The presented results indicate the potential usefulness of the ER89-R12 tool in studies on people experiencing various crises in their lives.
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This study examines the relationship between perceived social support and self-esteem and between perceived social support and social integration among adolescents with visual impairments. Adolescents with visual impairments (Ntime1 = 311, Ntime2 = 170) from four special education schools in eastern China participated in this study within a 1-year interval. The Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Questionnaire, and Interpersonal Adaptation Scale were used to collect data. The results from cross-lagged panel modeling showed reciprocal positive relationships between parental support and self-esteem. Self-esteem at T1 positively predicted three other sources of perceived social support at T2: teacher support, classmate support, and close-friend support. Social integration at T1 positively predicted close-friend support at T2. This study extends understanding of the relationships among perceived social support, self-esteem, and social integration, and provides practical implications for parents, schools, and communities to improve psychosocial outcomes in adolescents with visual impairment.
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Fatherless is the absence of a father figure. Some impacts of fatherlessness are loneliness, openness, depression, self-control, and self-esteem. These factors can influence internet addiction and suicidal tendencies. It also can cause difficulty in the learning process for students. This study aims to determine the significant impacts caused by fatherlessness and the relation to internet addiction, suicidal tendencies, and learning difficulties. The method used is Partial Least Square. The results showed that the significant impacts caused by fatherlessness are loneliness, depression, and self-esteem. The impacts of fatherless that influence internet addiction are loneliness and depression. The impact of fatherlessness that influences suicidal tendencies is depression. Internet addiction and suicidal tendencies influence learning difficulties.
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