Article

Self-Complexity and Affective Extremity: Don't Put All of Your Eggs in One Cognitive Basket

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Abstract

This research develops and tests a model relating complexity of self-representation to affective and evaluative responses. The basic hypothesis is that the less complex a person's cognitive representation of the self, the more extreme will be the person's swings in affect and self-appraisal. Experiment 1 showed that those lower in self-complexity experienced greater swings in affect and self-appraisal following a failure or success experience. Experiment 2 showed that those lower in self-complexity experienced greater variability in affect over a 2-week period. The results are discussed, first, in terms of self-complexity as a buffer against the negative effects of stressful life events, particularly depression; and, second, in terms of the thought patterns of depressed persons. The results reported here suggest that level of self-complexity may provide a promising cognitive marker for vulnerability to depression.

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... Hoang and Gimeno (2010) propose a theory, that assigns effects to the construct of Self-Complexity in the process of developing actual entrepreneurial behavior. The concept of Self-Complexity was defined by (Linville, 1985) as "… a function of two things: the number of aspects that one uses to cognitively organize knowledge about the self, and the degree of relatedness of these aspects". Linville also offers (1985,1987) a concrete operationalization to measure Self-Complexity: The participants are asked to envisage themselves in as many roles as possible and to assign to every role the traits or characteristics that apply out of a given list of 33 traits. ...
... The Self-Complexity is then calculated with the H statistic of Scott (1962) in which the dimensionality of information is quantified: SC = H = log 2 n -(Σ ni log 2 ni)/n Since 1985 Self-Complexity has been frequently studied as an explanatory variable for well-being. Rafaeli-Mor and Steinberg (2002) published a review of 70 studies, all using the Self-Complexity metric put forward by Linville (1985), albeit with several variations in the measuring method. The studies use different trait list. ...
... They use a different number of traits, ranging from 12 to 80 traits with an average of 36 traits and they use a different fraction of traits with a negative connotation, ranging from 0% to 100%, with an average of 42%. We conclude that there is no reason to deviate from the original method to quantify Self-Complexity as proposed by Linville (1985). No evidence was presented that any of the variants is preferably different from the original one. ...
Conference Paper
This study is part of the research that investigates the development of entrepreneurial propensity among individuals with strong entrepreneurial capabilities. We researched quantitatively and empirically whether self-complexity can explain why entrepreneurial capability and entrepreneurial propensity do not seem to go together automatically. We test hypotheses about the relation between self-complexity, career decision difficulty, entrepreneurial propensity and entrepreneurial capability. Contrary to what was hypothesized, the data obtained from 584 respondents showed non-coherence between self-complexity on the one hand and all the other variables on the other hand. We claim the relevance of establishing and documenting these neutral results in view of the question why and how individuals develop the decisions to step into active entrepreneurship. In search for alternative explanations to understand the data we discuss the significant negative correlation in the data between entrepreneurial capability and career decision difficulty on the one hand and the positive correlation between entrepreneurial capability and entrepreneurial propensity on the other hand.
... Self-Complexity was operationalized as described by Linville (1985) using a card sorting technique. The H statistic was calculated to quantify Self-Complexity, which is explained in detail in Chapter 7 (see p. 167). ...
... Hoang and Gimeno (2010) propose a theory, that assigns effects to the construct of Self-Complexity in the process of developing actual entrepreneurial behavior. The concept of Self-Complexity was defined by (Linville, 1985) as "… a function of two things: the number of aspects that one uses to cognitively organize knowledge about the self, and the degree of relatedness of these aspects" (p. 97). ...
... Since 1985 Self-Complexity has been frequently studied as an explanatory variable for well-being. Rafaeli-Mor and Steinberg (2002) published a review of 70 studies, all using the Self-Complexity metric put forward by Linville (1985), albeit with several variations in the measuring method. The studies use different trait list. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The question “Why do some and not others become entrepreneurs?” has been broadly researched. Paradoxically, entrepreneurial propensity and entrepreneurial capability do not seem to go together automatically. This PhD research investigated the development of entrepreneurial propensity among individuals who possess strong entrepreneurial capabilities. The call for ambitious entrepreneurship justifies to research the activation of nonentrepreneurs who are positioned high on the entrepreneurial capability dimension. Qualitative research broadened our scope with insights given by the target group of entrepreneurially capable individuals. The results of the quantitative research allow us to present conclusions, that are concise and simple. The work also suggests how these answers can be further applied by individuals, career coaches and policymakers.
... Recent research has focused on the structure of the self-concept (SC) due to its ability to represent abstract parameters such as complexity and multiplicity of self (Linville, 1985;Rosenberg, 1997), which may have implications for mental health (Reich et al., 2010). For example, poor self-concept is widely reported to be associated with different forms of anxiety among school-age youths (Escortell et al., 2020;Orth et al., 2012). ...
... For example, poor self-concept is widely reported to be associated with different forms of anxiety among school-age youths (Escortell et al., 2020;Orth et al., 2012). Linville (1985) identified two components of self-complexity: the number of "self-aspect groups" and the overlap of traits between "self-aspect groups." It was proposed that high self-complexity (characterised by a large number of self-aspects with little overlap) promotes well-being by acting as a psychological buffer to limit the spread of stressful events and contain negative effects within the overall SC (Linville, 1987). ...
... HiCLAS provides an operationalisation of "differentiation" and "integration" in SC, which corresponds to Linville's (1985) concept of the number of "distinct self-aspect groups" and "overlap between self-aspect groups." Initially, high differentiation in SC was viewed as an adaptive mechanism (Gergen, 1971). ...
... Finally, we also tested the possibility that low gender centrality could be a sign of high self-complexity (Linville, 1985(Linville, , 1987)-having multiple distinct aspects in one's identity. Multiple social identities improve self-regulation, which might have a positive effect on well-being. ...
... Social identity complexity. Based on self-complexity theory (Linville, 1985), we created a measure to capture social identity complexity with two items. First, participants selected all the groups (e.g., religious group, political group, social class group) that were important to their identity out of nine possible options. ...
Article
Does strong gender identity help or harm one's well-being? Previous research suggests that acceptance of one's social group and feelings of belongingness to the group are positively related to well-being, regardless of the group's social status. However, there are inconsistent findings about the relation between well-being and how central the group is to one's identity (centrality), especially among disadvantaged groups (e.g., women). In Studies 1 to 10 (total N = 5,955), we clarified these relations by controlling for shared variance between distinct gender identity aspects. Acceptance and belongingness were positively related to a range of well-being variables. Centrality was negatively related to well-being. These results were consistent across genders. Studies 11 to 14 (total N = 2,380) found that the negative relation between gender centrality and well-being might be mediated by perceived pressure to conform to the masculine role among men and perceived gender inequality among women. These results uncover a burden of strong gender identity.
... Results of Experiment 2 indicated that individuals appeared equally like to seek out competence-specific opportunities after their competence need was threatened as they were to seek domain-irrelevant opportunities. Research indicates that individuals with complex self-concepts have better coping strategies in the face of failure than those who have less complex self-concepts primarily due to the fact that they have other domains they are able to access that can buffer against the domain that is being threatened (Linville 1985). Indeed, results from the present experiments suggest this coping strategy would be somewhat effective. ...
... That is, individuals may elect to bolster the self-concept through direct attempts at restoring the need that is felt to be lacking (i.e., in this case, with competence-success memories) or through fluid compensation, in which individuals may bolster the self-concept by affirming the self in a domain that is distinct from the one related to the current threat (Mandel et al. 2017). In fact, work on self-concept complexity indicates that having multiple domains of one's self-concept can buffer against a threat in any one self-relevant domain (Linville 1985). Moreover, research in the memory and self-affirmation literature has argued for the primacy of belongingness needs when confronted with a self-threat (Knowles et al. 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present investigation examined whether autobiographical memory can function to regulate competence need satisfaction. Across two experiments, we examined how autobiographical memories affected perceived competence after competence was threatened or satisfied in a previous task. Experiment 1 results from an undergraduate student sample (N = 150) indicated that reflecting on a competence-satisfying memory increased perceived competence for all participants, but this increase was particularly large for participants whose competence was previously threatened. Experiment 2 results using an undergraduate student sample (N = 245) indicated that participants were not more likely to select a competence-satisfying autobiographical memory over a relatedness-satisfying memory after experiencing a competence threat in a previous task; however, those who selected a competence-satisfying memory reported greater competence need satisfaction and more positive affect than those who selected a relatedness-satisfying memory. Moreover, degree of competence need satisfaction predicted positive affect which in turn predicted self-esteem and optimism. The present experiments highlight the powerful role of reflecting on important autobiographical experiences on need fulfillment and general psychological well-being.
... Sedikides characterizes the self as a hierarchical system composed of identity themes for which different self-views are relevant. Crucially, these elements can become interconnected, forming identity networks characterized by more or less of what previous researchers have called identity complexity (Linville, 1985). Identity complexity-reflected by a greater number of non-overlapping personal (Linville, 1987) or social identities (Brewer & Pierce, 2005;Roccas & Brewer, 2002)-is associated with higher individual wellbeing. ...
... Identity complexity-reflected by a greater number of non-overlapping personal (Linville, 1987) or social identities (Brewer & Pierce, 2005;Roccas & Brewer, 2002)-is associated with higher individual wellbeing. The core idea is that possessing multiple, independent identities helps buffer against attacks to any one of them (Dixon & Baumeister, 1991;Linville, 1985). Much as investors hedge against financial ruin by diversifying their portfolios, the self benefits from not putting all of itself in one basket. ...
... For products that contain multiple versions or categories, such as clothing and its respective sizes (e.g., XS-XL), consumers tend to reject simplifying themselves into single categories, believing they are represented as possessing multiple, contrasting traits and preferences (cf. selfcomplexity theory; Linville 1985). Instead of extending this reasoning to others, consumers tend to generalize others into single categories (Barasz, Kim, and John 2016). ...
Article
Consumers tend to see themselves in a positive light, yet we present evidence that they are pessimistic about whether they will receive a product’s benefits. In 15 studies (N = 6,547; including nine preregistered), we found that consumers believe that product efficacy is higher for others than it is for themselves. For example, consumers believe that consuming a sports drink (to satisfy thirst), medicine (to relieve pain), an online class (to learn something new), or an adult coloring book (to inspire creativity) will have a greater effect on others than on themselves. We show that this bias holds across many kinds of products and judgment-targets, and inversely correlates with factors such as product familiarity, product usefulness, and relationship closeness with judgment-targets. Moreover, we find this bias stems from consumers’ beliefs they are more unique and less malleable than others, and that it alters the choices people make for others. We conclude by discussing implications for research on gift-giving, advice-giving, usership, and interpersonal social, health, and financial choices.
... Los efectos del Covid-19 en su familia, esta hipótesis se comprueba parcialmente, ya que hubo una modificación entre el orden de mayor afectación, siendo este el cambio en la dinámica familiar el aspecto de mayor incidencia, ya que pasó de 39.32% a 73.06%, este dato en el cual un porcentaje elevado de docentes comenta que su familia se afectó a través del aislamiento, la reducción de ingreso y pérdida de empleo, así como la modificación de la dinámica familiar, misma que al vincularse con la Teoría de la Auto-complejidad (Linville, 1985) la cual establece que los individuos necesitan realizar diversos roles sociales como educación, ocio, y familia, en su propio contexto; queda a la deriva, ya que, debido a la pandemia estos procesos sociales se han llevado a cabo en un mismo espacio, el hogar. Haciendo eco de Díaz Barriga (2020, pág. ...
Article
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The purpose of this research was to compare the perception that teachers of the Autonomous University of Chihuahua of Mexico have on the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) during two periods in 2020. Analytical - synthetic and theoretical - deductive methods were used and was carried out from a case study. The techniques applied to select participants was probability sampling and to gather field information, surveys were conducted. The measuring instrument was validated with a Cronbach's Alpha greater than 0.8. It was concluded that the university teachers perceived that they increased their skills in general, and it was also observed that the use of the institutional platform significantly increased its use. The university must continue implementing strategies that allow professors to continue evolving during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to continue developing more user-friendly and intuitive learning environments for students, environment that will remain even after this crisis.
... Los efectos del Covid-19 en su familia, esta hipótesis se comprueba parcialmente, ya que hubo una modificación entre el orden de mayor afectación, siendo este el cambio en la dinámica familiar el aspecto de mayor incidencia, ya que pasó de 39.32% a 73.06%, este dato en el cual un porcentaje elevado de docentes comenta que su familia se afectó a través del aislamiento, la reducción de ingreso y pérdida de empleo, así como la modificación de la dinámica familiar, misma que al vincularse con la Teoría de la Auto-complejidad (Linville, 1985) la cual establece que los individuos necesitan realizar diversos roles sociales como educación, ocio, y familia, en su propio contexto; queda a la deriva, ya que, debido a la pandemia estos procesos sociales se han llevado a cabo en un mismo espacio, el hogar. Haciendo eco de Díaz Barriga (2020, pág. ...
Article
The main objective of this study is to assess whether employing the available human capital from the city of Chihuahua (Mexico) is possible to build a software development organization that can achieve quality levels similar to that of world-class organizations. A quantitative approach is applied to evaluate the number of defects generated in 15 administrative software projects developed by graduates of local universities. These are analyzed and compared against international benchmarks, including that of world-class organizations. All projects are developed at a local organization and used TSP (Team Software Process) and PSP (Personal Process Software) software process development frameworks. The results show that local software development teams are capable of achieving quality levels of excellence. Therefore, it is concluded that regardless of the origin of the human talent, it is possible to compete against world-class markets.
... In a study focusing on felt authenticity within self-aspects rather than situations (Ryan et al., 2005), participants generated and rated the authenticity of several self-aspects as part of a self-description task (Linville, 1985). Higher authenticity ratings across individuals' self-aspects were associated with stronger feelings of well-being and fewer negative life events. ...
Article
Special Issue description: Despite equal rights, minority groups such as ethnic minorities, LGBTQ + people, and people with mental or physical disabilities face discrimination on a day-to-day basis in subtle and hard-to-recognize forms. As discrimination slips beneath the surface, it becomes difficult to fight the stigma using collective social identity coping mechanisms. Instead, individual mobility responses such as distancing the self from the stigmatized identity (“self-group distancing”) become more viable as a way to improve one's individual standing. In this overview of the state of the art, we take a social identity lens to reflect on the current empirical knowledge base on self-group distancing as a coping mechanism and provide a framework on what self-group distancing is; when, where and why self-group distancing likely occurs; and what its consequences are at the individual and the collective level. The contributions in this special issue provide novel insights into how these processes unfold, and serve as a basis to set a future research agenda, for example on what can be done to prevent self-group distancing (i.e., interventions). Together, the insights highlight that while self-group distancing may seem effective to (strategically and temporarily) alleviate discomfort or to improve one's own position, on a broader collective level and over time self-group distancing tends to keep the current unequal social hierarchy in place.
... Compared to prior research that assumes low levels of selfcomplexity, focusing on the effects of a single identity rather than the additive or multiplicative effects of several identities (Creary, Caza, & Roberts, 2015;Ramarajan, 2014;Ramarajan, Rothbard, & Wilk, 2017), our study recognizes organizational identity in family firms as a multifaceted and dynamic construct. With our approach, we unveil how family firms vary in their level of subjective self-complexity based on the degree to which the family and firm identity overlaps (Linville, 1985;Roccas & Brewer, 2002). ...
Article
This study explores the role of external audiences in determining the importance of family firm brands and the relationship with firm performance. Drawing on text mining and social network analysis techniques, and considering the brand prevalence, diversity, and connectivity dimensions, we use the semantic brand score to measure the importance the media give to family firm brands. The analysis of a sample of 52,555 news articles published in 2017 about 63 Italian entrepreneurial families reveals that brand importance is positively associated with family firm revenues, and this relationship is stronger when there is identity match between the family and the firm. This study advances current literature by offering a rich and multifaceted perspective on how external audiences perceptions of the brand shape family firm performance.
... These findings not only suggest that daily stress derived from comparative interactions in social media can be mitigated by in-person interactions, but they also indicate that social interaction can help reduce anxiety and stress regarding the unknown future with respect to one's career. To note, an alternative explanation for this decreased career frustration through interactions with people in domains unrelated to one's career or work was also considered; as proposed by theories such as self-complexity (Linville, 1985(Linville, , 1987, possessing more distinct self-aspects may have reduced the negative impact of social comparison. However, in the present study, participants in Study 2 communicated more with colleagues in the workplace and professional contacts than with family and friends, who are usually distant from one's work and career. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social media has become a platform for the daily exchange of information. Although some studies have explored the role and influence of social media on career development, few have examined how daily social media use impacts individuals’ perceptions and emotions regarding their careers. The present study examined this issue using two surveys. We predicted that social comparison would mediate the link between social media usage and its psychological impact. Moreover, we hypothesized that the impact would be mitigated by social interactions (companionship). Study 1 (a self-reported survey that included 309 Japanese employees) demonstrated that viewing other users’ positive posts about their careers could lead to career frustration through social comparison. Concurrently, this study revealed that daily casual interaction with others reduced career frustration. Study 2 was based on an analysis of 1,254 responses obtained from a 7-day experience sampling method survey. It revealed that viewing other people’s career-related posts was associated with upward, downward, and non-directional social comparison. In turn, upward social comparison evoked career frustration at both between- and within-person levels, while downward comparison decreased career frustration at a between-person level. Similar to Study 1, the results of Study 2 indicated that career frustration was mitigated by casual communication with others. Both studies provide evidence that (1) daily social media use affects one’s perception and feelings about their career through social comparison, and (2) career frustration evoked through virtual interactions with others is mitigated by casual interactions in a face-to-face setting.
... Similarly, people who engage in denial in response to their infidelity may be tapping into the fundamental aspects of their self-image and self-concept content while claiming that their infidelity does not suggest anything about their character. People who are higher in self-complexity, for example, are able to organize their selfknowledge using a greater number of aspects, and with greater distinction among these aspects (Linville, 1985). Someone who has been having an affair may naturally feel guilty that they have not been a faithful spouse; however, someone with higher selfcomplexity is less likely to let any negative self-evaluations about themselves as a spouse carry over into other aspects of their identity. ...
Article
Full-text available
A longitudinal survey study was conducted to examine which strategies for reducing cognitive dissonance were used among men engaging in infidelity. Data were collected in two waves, 1 month apart ( n time1 = 1514, n time2 = 425), from a sample of male users of Ashley Madison, a “married dating” site targeting users who are seeking to engage in infidelity. Because perpetrators of infidelity may justify their behaviors differently depending on whether they cheated in an online environment, both online and offline infidelity behaviors were considered. Results indicated that attitude change and self-concept change were positively related to online infidelity, while only self-concept change was positively related to offline infidelity, suggesting their differential effectiveness for various communication media. Self-concept change, attitude change, and denial of responsibility were negatively related to psychological discomfort and perceived negative impact at time 2, indicating their relative success for reducing negative psychological outcomes compared to other strategies such as adding consonant cognitions.
... Ainda, avaliou-se os parâmetros dos itens, mediante a Teoria de Resposta ao Item (TRI), com o Modelo de Créditos Parciais e calibração a partir do método maximum likelihood, por meio do software Winsteps (Linacre, 2015). Com isso, obteve-se o nível de traço latente apresentado pelos sujeitos (theta), índices de dificuldade dos itens (b), os índices de ajustes dos itens (Infit e Outfit), correlação item-total e o Mapa de Itens da Escala. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this research was to adapt and validate the Spouse Specific Dependency Scale for Women (SSDS-W) for use in the Brazilian context, which consists of 30 items. In study 1, 347 women participated. It was obtained a three-dimensional structure: anxiety attachment (α = .88), emotional dependence (α = .80) and exclusive dependence (α = .72), with satisfactory internal consistencies. In the second study, 325 women participated, and three structural equation models were tested. The results indicated that the EDEC-M presented better index adjustment in the second-order hierarchical model: χ2 /df = 1.89; CFI = .95; TLI = .95; GFI = .95; RMSEA .05 and SRMR = .07. This model was supported by Item Response Theory (IRT), which analyzed a satisfactory variation of the item difficulty and allowed the construction of an Item Map for the measure. Therefore, the EDEC-M presented satisfactory psychometric properties evidence of construct validity for the Brazilian context in women.
... The impact of the current situation on our feelings and how video calls have made us more vulnerable can be understood from an interesting perspective, i. e. the concept of self-complexity: the less complex our cognitive representation of ourselves is, the more extreme will be our mood changes and selfappraisal. 5 In this case, since various aspects of our lives are being experienced in the virtual world, there is a possibility that we may become more prone to negative feelings. However, this hypothesis needs validation from studies on the use of videoconferencing apps in particular. ...
Article
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Under the circumstances of the current COVID-19 pandemic, videoconferencing applications (apps) have come into the mainstream across the world. Owing to their easy availability and cost-effectiveness, they are used in personal as well as professional lives to communicate. They have been very helpful for students and professionals to ensure that their routine work did not halt when various countries imposed lockdown rules restricting travel, social gatherings and other measures that resulted in reduced in-person meetings. However, they have their own set of disadvantages, aptly called ‘Zoom gloom/fatigue’, named after a popular videoconferencing platform. Users are also noted to have anxiety while using these apps. Therefore, immediate attention is warranted to ensure cautious usage and to reduce the distress associated with videoconferencing apps while maintaining the obvious advantages that these methods have rapidly spread all over the world.
... Compared to prior research that assumes low levels of selfcomplexity, focusing on the effects of a single identity rather than the additive or multiplicative effects of several identities (Creary, Caza, & Roberts, 2015;Ramarajan, 2014;Ramarajan, Rothbard, & Wilk, 2017), our study recognizes organizational identity in family firms as a multifaceted and dynamic construct. With our approach, we unveil how family firms vary in their level of subjective self-complexity based on the degree to which the family and firm identity overlaps (Linville, 1985;Roccas & Brewer, 2002). ...
... Compared to prior research that assumes low levels of selfcomplexity, focusing on the effects of a single identity rather than the additive or multiplicative effects of several identities (Creary, Caza, & Roberts, 2015;Ramarajan, 2014;Ramarajan, Rothbard, & Wilk, 2017), our study recognizes organizational identity in family firms as a multifaceted and dynamic construct. With our approach, we unveil how family firms vary in their level of subjective self-complexity based on the degree to which the family and firm identity overlaps (Linville, 1985;Roccas & Brewer, 2002). ...
... Compared to prior research that assumes low levels of selfcomplexity, focusing on the effects of a single identity rather than the additive or multiplicative effects of several identities (Creary, Caza, & Roberts, 2015;Ramarajan, 2014;Ramarajan, Rothbard, & Wilk, 2017), our study recognizes organizational identity in family firms as a multifaceted and dynamic construct. With our approach, we unveil how family firms vary in their level of subjective self-complexity based on the degree to which the family and firm identity overlaps (Linville, 1985;Roccas & Brewer, 2002). ...
... By helping us see clearly where misfit may come from, this model thus enables us to pursue P-E fit in the fast-changing environment. These discussions also suggest that individuals' self-complexity may be increased as a result of managing the wide range of identities, capabilities, and rewards in their fitting processes (Linville, 1985). The self-complexity approach seems particularly valuable for understanding career management in an increasingly boundaryless and ill-defined career world (e.g., Lord et al., 2011). ...
Article
This article is part of the 50th anniversary issue of the Journal of Vocational Behavior (JVB), with a focus on person-environment (P-E) fit. P-E fit has been a central research area in vocational and organizational psychology. With a focus on highly influential work in both fields, this article aims to synthesize P-E fit literature and develop theoretical models to guide future research. First, we summarize key perspectives and the state of the art in the general P-E fit literature. Second, based on a succinct review of P-E fit papers published in JVB, we take an interdisciplinary approach to critically discuss the conceptual and methodical ambiguities in this area. Third, we integrate identity and social exchange theories to present an Identity-Capability-Reward (ICR) model to conceptualize P-E fit across job roles and work entities at different levels. Fourth, we draw upon self-regulation and life-span development perspectives to propose a cybernetic development model that theorizes the self-regulated changes of fit experiences across time. We conclude with recommendations for an integrative, dynamic, and developmental approach to advance the P-E fit theories.
... Under such circumstances, EAs may provide a space for children to build relationships with adults and peers outside of family and school and to resume interest and engagement in learning. In addition, according to the selfcomplexity theory ( Linville, 1985 ), engaging in more social contexts helps facilitate more complex cognitive representations of the self, allowing individuals to accrue psychological benefits for positive development. "Individuals who invest their time and effort in a range of contexts are better able to cope with stressful events that occur in a particular activity than individuals who commit all their resources to 1 activity" ( Bohnert et al., 2010 , p. 581). ...
Article
Participation in organized extracurricular activities (EAs) is becoming increasingly prevalent among young children in China and worldwide. As an important microsystem of child development, EA involvement is likely to interact with other microsystems in relation to child outcomes. The current study focused on the interaction between EA participation and the quality of preschool education, specifically the quality of teacher-child interactions, in relation to children's academic readiness. This study included 443 Chinese preschoolers (M age = 5.08 years) from 49 preschool classrooms. Parents reported children's EA participation. Preschool teacher-child interactions were assessed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System. Children's academic readiness was measured using one-on-one tasks. The results showed that although EA participation was not related to child academic readiness, the quality of preschool teacher-child interactions (i.e., emotional support and instructional support) moderated the association between EA participation and children's academic readiness (the slope variance reduction was between 12.7% and 17.5%). Specifically, the significant associations found suggest that EA participation could have a small compensatory effect on academic readiness for children experiencing very low emotional support in preschool; however, EA participation had a small negative association with academic readiness when children were already exposed to high emotional or instructional support in preschool. The findings highlight that EA involvement may not always produce beneficial outcomes in young children and that exposing children to high-quality classroom interactions in preschool is a key to fostering positive development.
... Compared to prior research that assumes low levels of self-complexity, focusing on the effects of a single identity rather than the additive or multiplicative effects of several identities (Creary, Caza, & Roberts, 2015;Ramarajan, 2014;Ramarajan, Rothbard, & Wilk, 2017), our study recognizes organizational identity in family firms as a multifaceted and dynamic construct. With our approach, we unveil how family firms vary in their level of subjective self-complexity based on the degree to which the family and firm identity overlaps (Linville, 1985;Roccas & Brewer, 2002). ...
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This study explores the role of external audiences in determining the importance of family firm brands and the relationship with firm performance. Drawing on text mining and social network analysis techniques, and considering the brand prevalence, diversity, and connectivity dimensions, we use the semantic brand score to measure the importance the media give to family firm brands. The analysis of a sample of 52,555 news articles published in 2017 about 63 Italian entrepreneurial families reveals that brand importance is positively associated with family firm revenues, and this relationship is stronger when there is identity match between the family and the firm. This study advances current literature by offering a rich and multifaceted perspective on how external audiences perceptions of the brand shape family firm performance.
... This is important because there may be an advantage to relying on independent resources (and/or perceiving that independent resources can be drawn on). Seminal work on cognitive complexity has suggested that individuals who perceive aspects of their self-concept as both more numerous and more independent are protected against negative effects of stressful life events, particularly depression (Linville, 1985). This is because events that threaten a single self-aspect influence a smaller proportion of the self when self-aspects are more numerous and more independent. ...
Article
Stress can lead to depression, in part because of activation of inflammatory mechanisms. It is therefore critical to identify resilience factors that can buffer against these effects, but no research to date has evaluated whether psychosocial resilience mitigates the effects of stress on inflammation-associated depressive symptoms. We therefore examined psychosocial resources known to buffer against stress in a longitudinal study of women with breast cancer ( N = 187). Depressive symptoms and inflammation were measured over a 2-year period extending from after diagnosis into survivorship. Cancer-related stress and psychosocial resources—social support, optimism, positive affect, mastery, self-esteem, and mindfulness—were measured after diagnosis. As hypothesized, women who reported having more psychosocial resources showed weaker associations between stress and depressive symptoms and weaker associations between stress and inflammation-related depressive symptoms. Results highlight the importance of psychosocial resilience by demonstrating a relationship between psychosocial resources and sensitivity to inflammation-associated depressive symptoms.
... Reflection narratives are primarily marked by cognitive reappraisal, meaning-making, selfcomplexity (Linville, 1985), and resolution of self-discrepancies (Higgins, 1987). These narrations primarily evaluate the event as having a favorable impact at a personal level. ...
... Moreover, researchers found correlation between Identity Problems, according to DSM IV, and body image: for example, Vartanian [33] emphasizes that the body defines the self and having a problematic body image may lead to an equally disturbed sense of the self. As there may be multiple representations of the body [29], individuals may have multi-faceted self-definitions [34]. However, it is important that these facets are stable, coherent, and clear, since coherence is considered a protective factor with respect to bodily and identity disorders [33]. ...
Chapter
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The availability of wearable devices recently boosted the popularity of self-tracking technologies. Self-trackers are involved in a complex process of knowledge development, but this cannot be achieved without knowing the body. However, self-tracking devices seem to embrace an abstract and scattered conception of the body, based on unrelated numbers, graphs, and depictions, which may not be integrated into a coherent body image. This may turn into biases and distortions of how we look at our bodies, worsening, rather than improving, our self-knowledge. In this chapter we explore the ways through which the progressive “quantification” introduced by self-tracking technologies is affecting the body. We first explain a series of theoretical constructs concerning the body, which are essential to understand the impact of self-tracking on our bodies, like body schema, body image, and body awareness . Then, we illustrate how individuals’ body image and awareness are affected by the usage of self-tracking technologies in the sports domain. Finally, we point out some lines of future research aimed at providing people with more meaningful representations of their own body, improving their body awareness and even their body image.
... This simplified representation is associated with an increase in mood swings, whereas increasing self-complexity acts as a buffer against the adverse effects of stressful events. Before the pandemic of COVID-19, more than 35% of 5-year college students reported having been diagnosed with anxiety, mood, or substance use disorder (8). ...
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Introduction: The global COVID-19 pandemic has aggravated challenges involving college students’ mental health and well-being. Some literature suggested developing online programs to address the pandemic’s impact on college students’ mental health and well-being. Thus, this study assessed if significant improvement in well-being among college students can be observed after introducing an online well-being program.Methods: The study utilized a quantitative methodology, mainly using a two-group pretest-posttest design on 178 college students in a private college and state university. The experimental group received 3 months of the well-being program while the control resumed their activities of daily living (ADL). The modified positive emotion, engagement, relationship, meaning, and accomplishment (PERMA) profiler questionnaire was the primary evaluation instrument that measured the participants’ well-being. The first phase gathered the participants’ relevant profile and background, and the last phase concluded with the evaluation of the program. Data were analyzed using SPSS v.21.Results: Based on the post-evaluation PERMA scores, the experimental participants (M = 7.21, SD 1.70) did not differ much from the control (M = 7.07, SD = 1.55) according to a t-test t(176) = –1.07, p = 0.57 as computed using a two-sample independent t-test at a significance level of α = 0.05. The overall PERMA score description is normal functioning. The Pearson correlation of the experimental group’s pre-test and post-test scores (r(91) = 0.01, p = 0.904) and the control (r(83) = 0.04, p = 0.732) group did not indicate an evidence of a significant relationship.Conclusion: The results do not provide evidence of a significant difference and relationship between the experimental participants’ pre-test and post-test PERMA scores after the online well-being program.
... Here, we expect very good physical self perception and well expressed self-schemata relating to the body and other physical self components (Marcus H., 1980). According to Linville (1985), Spencer et al. (1993), Blatný and Osecká (1997) physical subdomains should therefore be more differentiated in content, they should contain more parts which should be more complex, and should be built on the more diversified foundations. This enabled us to obtain the "ideal" physical self perception content for the population in this country. ...
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The article offers basic knowledge about physical Self in psychosomatic, including diagnostic methods and pathology.
... Situational factors, such as narrow windows of opportunity (Shah, Hall, & Leander, 2009), or exposure to new information, may prompt an immediate jump or leap. A jump or leap could be preferred when they are multifinal: After goal failure in one domain, jumping domains could help to fulfill the need in a different way, while also shielding the self from negative self-evaluations in the failed domain (Linville, 1985;Tesser, 1988). Even if one is making sufficient progress at a focal goal, one could be pulled to jump or leap anyway when one discovers that another domain has fewer constraints or serves additional needs, such as autonomy. ...
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The shifts-jumps-leaps (SJL) perspective of means substitution, accepted for publication in an edited book by Arie Kruglanski and others on goal systems theory research.
... The notion that the self is a multifaceted cognitive structure [18][19][20], containing multiple self-aspects, has been subject to extensive empirical research that is mainly focused on determining the relationships between various indices of maladjustment, such as emotional distress [21,22] or identity [10,23,24], and a divided self-concept, which lacks integration (i.e., self-concept fragmentation). However, according to some theories of the self, the distinction among self-aspects is thought to have both adaptive and stress-buffering qualities [25,26], reflecting self-concept complexity and specialization. One of the most widely used models in this regard is SCD (i.e., lack of interrelatedness of roles), which expresses people's tendency to view themselves as having different personality characteristics across different social roles [23]. ...
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... Second, students may have trouble in balancing multiple activities and inadvertently compromise their academic performance (Fredricks, 2012). These findings are consistent with the Self-Complexity Theory (Linville, 1982), which posits that individuals who commit all their resources to a particular activity, in this case ECAs, are less capable of coping with stressful events. It should also be noted that although most studies showed a positive association between ECA involvement and academic performance, these were conducted among high school students (Fredricks & Eccles, 2006;Knifsend & Graham, 2012). ...
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Extracurricular activities (ECAs) performed outside the realm of a student's academic activities such as sports, drama, music, and dance play an integral part in their educational experience and positive youth development. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies exploring the interrelationship of ECA involvement on the compassion, academic competence, and commitment of collegiate students. Hence, this study determined the influence of ECA involvement on the compassion, academic competence, and commitment of collegiate students. Employing a covariance-based structural equation modeling, a descriptive-correlational design was conducted among 365 consenting collegiate students who completed standardized instruments to measure their ECAs profile, compassion, academic competence, and commitment. Results showed that the breadth of ECA involvement, which refers to the total number of organizations that a respondent is a member of, had an indirect, positive effect on compassion (β = 0.06, p < 0.05) and commitment (β = 0.06, p < 0.05) and a direct, negative influence on academic competence (β = −0.14, p < 0.05). Although social-and arts-related ECAs promoted compassion (β = 0.16, p < 0.01) and commitment (β = 0.26, p < 0.05), respectively, sports-related ECAs deterred academic competence (β = −0.12, p < 0.05). The model highlights that although ECA involvement may bring positive outcomes, participation in numerous organizations may hinder academic competence, an understanding that accentuates the need for institutional policies and guidelines on ECA involvement of collegiate students.
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Political extremism can be defined as a psychological state in which extremists identify their group as endowed with moral authority, threatened by opposing forces, and absolutely right. Defined in this way, there is a strong link between how members of social groups construct their understanding of themselves and their groups and the development of political extremism. Research on social identity and identity fusion supports the idea that one pathway to political extremism is through a belief that a social group provides some set of characteristics or attributes that the group members either already see in themselves or wish to see. This perspective provides one way of understanding the attractiveness of political extremism, and the difficulty of deradicalization. Drawing from the research on social identity and identity fusion, this chapter explores the increasing polarization in the United States and the development of ethnonationalist movements in Europe, the corrosive effects such movements have on perceived institutional legitimacy, and the risk of identity-based cycles of radicalization. This chapter also develops an argument of how deradicalization approaches can be established that meet the psychological needs of the group members.
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Am 25./26. August 2020 wurde diskutiert, wie die Germanistik die Umstellung auf digitale Lehre in der Pandemie bewältigt hat und welche Schlüsse für das Fach kurz-, mittel- und langfristig daraus gezogen werden können.
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Despite an estimated 582 million entrepreneurs globally, stereotypes plague the social cognitive concept of “the entrepreneur,” shaping assumptions of what entrepreneurship is while being far from representative of possible entrepreneurial identities. “Heroic” stereotypes of entrepreneurs (e.g., Steve Jobs or Elon Musk) stemming from the popular media shape the assumptions of students entering entrepreneurship classrooms. These stereotypes are strong and limiting, framing entrepreneurship as attainable only through exceptional skill and talent, and are often characterized by exclusively masculine qualities. Involving identity work in entrepreneurship education can expose the limitations that stereotypes impose on students aspiring to be entrepreneurs and introduce more heterogeneity. The use of narrative cases allows educators to facilitate a threefold approach: (1) raising awareness of stereotypes, (2) creating a structure for more realistic examples and socialization through narrative comparisons and (3) teaching students the basics of identity management for sustaining their entrepreneurial careers. The approach encourages direct conversations about what is—and who can become—an entrepreneur and reveals the limiting beliefs that students may bring with them into the classroom. Such discussion informs the educator on how to foster students’ entrepreneurial identity and empower their identity management.
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There is currently limited research examining self-structure in clinical groups and no current data on the extent to which self-structure is amendable to change following psychological therapy. We address this important gap by examining self-structure in individuals with persecutory delusions using the card sort task, an established paradigm measuring key self-structure indices, including the degree to which self-structure is compartmentalised (characterised by primarily positive or negative attributes, as opposed to a mix of both), and the proportion and importance of negative attributes In study 1, individuals with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis with current persecutory delusions (clinical group, n=27) and a healthy control group (n=47) were compared on self-structure indices. In study 2 (n = 27), the clinical group also completed the card sort task before and after randomisation to either a 12-week mindfulness-based psychological therapy or treatment as usual control.Self-structure differed significantly between the clinical and control groups. The clinical group had a greater proportion of negative attributes, assigned more importance to negative self-aspects and had more compartmentalised self-structures compared with controls. There were no associations between delusion severity and self-structure. Large effect sizes for reductions in compartmentalisation and proportion of negative attributes across self-aspects were found following mindfulness therapy. The findings highlight key differences in self-structure between individuals with persecutory delusions and healthy controls, and suggest that it might be possible to change self-structure following psychological therapy. These data support the central role of the self in theoretical models of paranoid thinking.
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Foreign language teachers’ recognition of their identity is essential to their professional development. Drawing on bicultural theories, this study investigated two American teachers who recounted their experiences of teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) at a university in China. This study leverages the Two-directional Extension Model as the theoretical framework for analysis. It employs interviews, reflective journals, and field observations to collect data to seek ways of improving foreign teachers’ bicultural communication competence by exploring how the two American EFL teachers construct their bicultural identity. One major finding highlights the EFL teachers’ bicultural identity construction as a dynamic and ongoing process upon which several have effects, affecting professional development in higher education in China.
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Theoretical and empirical controversies on the relationships between self-multiplicity and psychological adjustment have continued since J. Block (1961). Empirical investigations, thereafter, have been attempted, resulting in inconsistent and therefore inconclusive findings. This paper attempted (1) to overview their theoretical arguments and backgrounds and (2) to review empirical studies that supported each side of the two camps, as well as those with no support. Based upon the above analyses, we concluded that most of those empirical studies focused only on the differentiation of self and failed to take into consideration the organization factor, and, therefore, argued that including the organization factor into equations would solve the inconsistency problems more comprehensively. Finally, we discussed new directions and agenda for future research.
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The literature on how organizations respond to institutional pressure has shown that the individual decision-makers’ interpretation of institutional pressure played an important role in developing organizational responses. However, it has paid less attention to how this interpretation ultimately contributes to their range of organizational decisions when responding to the same institutional pressure. We address this gap by interviewing board members of U.S. and Dutch hospitals involved in adopting best practices regarding board evaluation. We found four qualitatively different cognitive frames that board members relied on to interpret institutional pressure, and which shaped their organizational response. We contribute to the literature on organizational response to institutional pressure by empirically investigating how decision-makers interpret institutional pressure, by suggesting prior experience and role definition as moderating factors of multidimensional cognitive frames, and by showing how these cognitive frames influence board members’ response to the same institutional pressure.
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Existing research and theory provides support for the assertion that the survival of organizations in the globalized world is contingent upon the match between their external complexity and the complexity of their internal systems, including their leadership processes. Global leaders high in self-complexity are equipped to lead the successful adaptation of their organizations to their global environments. Unfortunately, the absence of clear conceptualization and valid, reliable measures have prevented the advancement of our understanding of self-complexity in general, and global leader self-complexity in particular. To help close this research gap, I put forth a theory of global leader self-complexity, which I then operationalize with the Global Leader Self-Complexity Scale (GLSCS). I assess the factor structure, reliability, and validity in three studies. The Study 1 results suggest that global leader self-complexity is a two-dimensional construct comprised of global leader self-differentiation and self-integration. The Study 2 results provide evidence for the test-retest reliability and convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of the GLSCS. Obtained with a sample of hundreds of global leaders from around the world, the Study 3 results provide evidence for the generalization validity of the GLSCS. The theoretical implications for the nomological network of global leader self-differentiation are self-integration are discussed, as well as practical implications for the development and selection of effective global leaders. Finally, I suggest avenues for future researchers to advance the research of global leader self-complexity and leader self-complexity more broadly.
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Untersuchung des Human Design Systems: Eine Heuristic Self-Search Inquiry Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie besteht darin, ein Verständnis des subjektiven Erlebens der Anwendung des Human Design Systems (HDS) zu vermitteln. Da es an wissenschaftlicher Forschung zu diesem Thema mangelt, war eine vertiefende empirische Auseinandersetzung notwendig. Hierfür wurde anhand einer Heuristic Self-Search Inquiry (HSSI) das persönliche Erleben der Forschenden im Anschluss an zwei Human Design-Sitzungen innerhalb von zwei Phasen und einer Follow-up-Phase erhoben. Darauf folgten eine Auswertung der Daten anhand der Kategorien Entscheidungen, Identitätsgefühl und Emotionen mit jeweiligen Unterkategorien sowie eine kreative Verarbeitung des Erlebens im Rahmen der kreativen Synthese. Die Ergebnisse vermitteln u. a. anhand der Aspekte wahrgenommene Selbsterkenntnis, Lebenssinn, Selbstakzeptanz, erhöhtes Authentizitätserleben, Integration von Selbstaspekten sowie verstärkter emotionaler Ausdruck einen Überblick über das subjektive Erleben des HDS und geben Aufschluss über Entwicklungschancen sowie Herausforderungen, die mit der Anwendung des HDS einhergehen können. Hieraus kann ein erstes psychologisches Verständnis des HDS abgeleitet werden, das in zukünftigen Forschungen genutzt werden könnte, um die Anwendung des HDS noch engmaschiger zu untersuchen. Zudem sind weiterführende Studien mittels quantitativer Messinstrumente zur Untersuchung der subjektiven Effekte denkbar, die aus der Anwendung hervorgingen. The aim of the present study is to provide an understanding of the subjective experience of using the Human Design System (HDS). Since there is a lack of scientific research on this topic, an in-depth empirical investigation was necessary. For this purpose, a Heuristic Self-Search Inquiry (HSSI) was used to collect the personal experience of the researchers following two Human Design sessions within two phases and a follow-up phase. This was followed by an analysis of the data using the categories of decisions, sense of identity, and emotions with respective subcategories, as well as a creative processing of the experience within the creative synthesis. The results provide an overview of the subjective experience of the HDS on the basis of the aspects of perceived self-knowledge, meaning in life, self-acceptance, increased experience of authenticity, integration of self-aspects, and increased emotional expression, among others, and provide information about development opportunities as well as challenges that can accompany the application of the HDS. From this, an initial psychological understanding of the HDS can be derived, which could be used in future research to more closely examine the use of the HDS. In addition, further studies using quantitative measurement instruments to examine the subjective effects that emerged from its use are conceivable.
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Teacher identity has turned out to be of great importance in teacher pedagogical practice. A number of factors are implicated in shaping and reshaping teachers’ identities. Despite numerous studies on teacher identity, language teacher religious identity has remained under-researched. Therefore, the current study examined how Iranian religious English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers are identified. To do so, 30 religious teachers were selected through the purposive sampling method. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, developed based on Simon’s (2004) six components of identity, namely personal features, physical characteristics, special abilities, behavioral qualities, ideological attributes, and group membership. The results demonstrated that religious teachers tend to manifest certain Islamic-based personal attributes like fairness and kindness and also adhere to some Islamic rules of physical features like head covering for females and dignified clothes for males. In addition, religious teachers' behaviors and performances were profoundly affected by their religious background, realized in their attempts to control their anger, to avoid insulting and backbiting, and to disregard or replace the materials which seem to be against the Islamic thought. The findings of the study can have practical implications for teachers, institute administrators, and other stakeholders whose cognizance of religious teachers’ identity could help prevent possible identity tensions.
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Describes technological methods and tools for objective and quantitative assessment of quality of life (QoL) Appraises technology-enabled methods for incorporating QoL measurements in medicine Highlights the success factors for adoption and scaling of technology-enabled methods
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We develop a model of fragile self-esteem — self-esteem that is vulnerable to objectively unjustified swings — and study its implications for choices that depend on, or are aimed at enhancing or protecting, one's self-view. In our framework, a person's self-esteem is determined by sampling his memories of ego-relevant outcomes in a fashion that in turn depends on how he feels about himself, potentially creating multiple fragile “self-esteem personal equilibria. ” Self-esteem is especially likely to be fragile, as well as unrealistic in either the positive or the negative direction, if being successful is important to the agent. A person with a low self-view might exert less effort when success is more important. An individual with a high self-view, in contrast, might distort his choices to prevent a collapse in self-esteem, with the distortion being greater if his true ability is lower. We discuss the implications of our results for mental well-being, education, job search, workaholism, and aggression.
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Introduction The Self-Pluralism Scale (SPS) measures the declared degree of self-pluralism, visible already in William James’s works. Self-pluralism refers to the degree to which one perceives oneself as typically feeling, behaving, and being different, in different situations, and at different times. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the SPS. Material and methods A total of 1747 participants (67% were women) between the ages of 15 and 70 years completed the SPS along with measures of self-concept inconsistency, self-concept differentiation, dissociative experiences, internal dialogical activity, personality, and social desirability. Results Internal reliability and test-retest reliability were high. The full version has too low indices of fit whereas the brief, 10-item version fits the data well. As indicators of the convergent validity, a positive correlation of SPS with self-concept inconsistency, self-concept differentiation, dissociative experiences, internal dialogical activity and neuroticism and a negative correlation with agreeableness and social desirability were found. Conclusions The results suggest that the brief, 10-item version is more valid than the full, 30-item version. The tool may be used for scientific research concerning self-pluralism. After collecting data from a sample that would allow norms to be constructed, the tool may also be useful for individual diagnosis.
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No construct is more central to personality than the person’s self‐concept. Higher‐order domains of self‐assessment, including self‐perceived skills, traits, and values, are expressed in action and provide frames of reference for deciding whether to accept or reject personally relevant social feedback. To perform these functions in a consistent manner, the domains of self‐concept need to achieve coherence, with the components of each domain sufficiently integrated to provide an unequivocal platform for decision making and behavior. This depiction implies two functions of self‐reflection—one focused on forging coherence in self‐concept, the other focusing on the expression of domains that have achieved coherence. We refer to these two modes of self‐reflection, respectively, as integration and expression. Both modes can be understood in terms of a spotlight of attention that focuses on different regions of the self‐structure. In the integration mode, the spotlight converges on incoherent regions of self‐concept to eliminate inconsistencies among the lower‐level components. In the expression mode, the spotlight converges on coherent regions of self‐concept that can provide an unequivocal platform for decision making and effective action. Using agent‐based modeling, we illustrate the operation of both modes, discuss the conditions that differentially activate them, and develop their implications for personality dynamics.
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In Kap. 4 des Buches werden die in der Finanzwissenschaft gängigen Begründungen der Entwicklung der Staatsausgaben im Zeitverlauf ebenso wie die herkömmliche ökonomische Wirkungsanalyse der öffentlichen Ausgaben einer verhaltensökonomischen Betrachtung unterzogen. Dabei kann nicht nur dargelegt werden, dass bereits die bestehenden finanzwissenschaftlichen Erklärungsansätze zum Staatsanteilswachstum in vielfältiger Form auf psychologische Erkenntnisse zurückgreifen. Zudem wird gezeigt, wie perzipierte Vorteile, Dringlichkeitseinschätzungen und Fairnesserwägungen die subjektive Wahrnehmung der Staatsausgaben aus Sicht der Nutznießer öffentlicher Leistungen beeinflussen. Schließlich wird ebenso verdeutlicht, dass die gängige effizienz-, verteilungs- und stabilitätsbezogene Wirkungsanalyse der Ausgabentätigkeit ohne eine zusätzliche verhaltensökonomische Fundierung unvollständig bleibt. Letzteres gilt auch für die Analyse des (haushalts-)politischen Willensbildungsprozesses, der nur unzureichend durch bestehende politökonomische Ansätze erklärt werden kann und daher um eine Betrachtung der psychologischen Bestimmungsfaktoren politischen Verhaltens in der Demokratie – und hier insbesondere des Wählerverhaltens – ergänzt werden muss.
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Social isolation, as measured by living alone, is hypothesized to be a cause of mortality due to suicide and alcoholism. A detailed methodological argument is presented for using aggregate evidence to test this hypothesis. Analysis of data from 389 American cities demonstrates that living alone is strongly related to two types of mortality: suicide and alcoholism. Evidence is presented that the relationships found in these data are not due to social drift, and that there are solid grounds for concluding the relationships are causal.
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In shadowing one of two simultaneous messages presented dichotically, subjects are unable to report any of the content of the rejected message. Even if the rejected message consists of a short list of simple words repeated many times, a recognition test fails to reveal any trace of the list. If numbers are interpolated in prose passages presented for dichotic shadowing, no more are recalled from the rejected messages if the instructions are specifically to remember numbers than if the instructions are general: a specific set for numbers will not break through the attentional barrier set up in this task. The only stimulus so far found that will break through this barrier is the subject's own name. It is probably only material “important” to the subject that will break through the barrier.
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How does memory for an incident vary depending on whether, and how, the person relates the information to himself? Trait adjectives are better remembered if they were judged in reference to oneself rather than judged for meaning or sound. Our first experiment found a similar mnemonic advantage of referring a described episode or object to some event from one's life. Pleasant events were remembered better than unpleasant ones. A second experiment found incidental memory for trait adjectives was equally enhanced by judging each directly in reference to one's self-concept or indirectly by retrieving an episode either from one's life or from one's mother's life. Contrariwise, memory was poorer when traits were judged in reference to a less familiar person. Thus, good memory depends on relating the inputs to a well-differentiated memory structure.
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Describes experiments in which happy or sad moods were induced in Ss by hypnotic suggestion to investigate the influence of emotions on memory and thinking. Results show that (a) Ss exhibited mood-state-dependent memory in recall of word lists, personal experiences recorded in a daily diary, and childhood experiences; (b) Ss recalled a greater percentage of those experiences that were affectively congruent with the mood they were in during recall; (c) emotion powerfully influenced such cognitive processes as free associations, imaginative fantasies, social perceptions, and snap judgments about others' personalities; (d) when the feeling-tone of a narrative agreed with the reader's emotion, the salience and memorability of events in that narrative were increased. An associative network theory is proposed to account for these results. In this theory, an emotion serves as a memory unit that can enter into associations with coincident events. Activation of this emotion unit aids retrieval of events associated with it; it also primes emotional themata for use in free association, fantasies, and perceptual categorization.
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In a random sample of the general population (N = 142) a strong inverse relationship was found between social bonds and the presence of neurotic symptoms. This association was strongest in the case of close affectional ties. Together, measures of social bonds accounted for 47 per cent of the variance in neurotic symptoms. While there is likely to be contamination between the two sets of variables, and while the data do not indicate the direction of causality, these findings constitute an aetiological lead which should be pursued.
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This paper looks at the relationship between adult sex roles and mental illness.A fairly precise definition of mental illness is used limiting it to functional disorders characterized by anxiety (neurosis) and/or mental disorganization (psychosis). A number of characteristics of the woman's role in modern industrial societies that might promote the development of mental illness are discussed. The rates of mental illness for men and women following Wolrd War II are then compared by looking at community surveys, first admissions to mental hospitals, psychiatric treatment in general hospitals, psychiatric outpatient clinics, private outpatient psychiatric care, and the practices of general physicians. These data uniformly indicate that adult women have higher rates of mental illness than adult men. A survey of other disorders which appear to be a response to stress also shows women to have higher rates than men. Alternatives to the role explanation of the observed relationships are shown to be inadequate.
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This paper considers the association between social support, conceived and assessed from a social-psychological perspective, and psychological well-being. The magnitude and consistency of the relationship are evaluated across four studies involving very diverse populations. Evidence is also presented on causal ordering and the distinctiveness of the social support and psychological well-being dimensions, and on the question of whether social support has pervasive effects or functions only, or primarily, as a buffer in the face of unusual difficulty. Findings across the four studies suggest a modest, but reliable, association between the experience of social support and psychological well-being. Evidence is also presented consistent with the view that some part of the causation involved goes from social support to psychological well-being and vice versa, and indicating that the two variables have different major determinants. Evaluation of the effects of level of stress upon the support/well-being relationship suggests that social support has significant main effects, that it is most important in stressful circumstances, and that these relationships vary across social class groupings.
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Hypothesized that (a) people have a more complex cognitive representation of their own group than of other groups; (b) the less complex a person's representation of stimuli from a given domain, the more extreme will be the person's evaluations of stimuli from that domain; and (c) people will evaluate out-group members more extremely than in-group members. Using age as an in-group/out-group variable, Exp I supported the 1st hypothesis: Male undergraduates demonstrated greater complexity in their descriptions of their own age group than of an older age group. Results of Exps II and III support the 2nd hypothesis, with parallel findings for dispositional and manipulated complexity. Results from Exp II support the 3rd hypothesis in that younger males evaluated older male targets more extremely than they did younger ones. When the target was favorable, the older male was evaluated more positively than the younger one; when the target was unfavorable, the older male was evaluated more negatively. (52 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the hypothesis that, with age, individuals reveal an increasingly differentiated use of categories of personal characteristics when evaluating themselves. Self-evaluations from 24 7th graders, 24 12th graders, and 24 evening college students revealed a significant trend with age toward greater differentiation among 5 classes of personal characteristics. Across age groups, individuals who gave less differentiated evaluations also rated themselves more highly on the given characteristics than those giving more differentiated evaluations. Implications of such individual differences for further research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Developed and tested a model that assumes that people have a more complex schema regarding in-groups than out-groups and consequently, that appraisals of out-group members will be more extreme or polarized than appraisals of in-group members. Four experiments with 415 White male and female undergraduates tested this model, as well as predictions derived from attribution principles. In Exp I, Ss read and evaluated a law school application containing incidental information about the applicant's race and gender. A Black applicant with strong credentials was judged more favorably than an identical White applicant, supporting a prediction derived from the augmentation principle. In Exp II, an applicant with weak credentials was included in the design. Results support the prediction that out-group members would be evaluated more extremely: When the application credentials were positive, the out-group member (a Black or opposite-sex applicant) was evaluated more favorably than the in-group member (a White or same-sex applicant). When the application credentials were weak, the out-group member was evaluated more negatively. Exp III and IV provided support for the 2 assumptions underlying the complexity–extremity hypothesis: First, White Ss demonstrated greater complexity regarding Whites than Blacks. Second, greater complexity resulted in evaluative moderation. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A perceived availability of social support measure (the ISEL) was designed with independent subscales measuring four separate support functions. In a sample of college students, both perceived availability of social support and number of positive events moderated the relationship between negative life stress and depressive and physical symptomatology. In the case of depressive symptoms, the data fit a “buffering” hypothesis pattern, i.e., they suggest that both social support and positive events protect one from the pathogenic effects of high levels of life stress but are relatively unimportant for those with low levels of stress. In the case of physical symptoms, the data only partially support the buffering hypothesis. Particularly, the data suggest that both social support and positive events protect one from the pathogenic effects of high levels of stress but harm those (i.e., are associated with increased symptomatology) with low levels of stress. Further analyses suggest that self-esteem and appraisal support were primarily responsible for the reported interactions between negative life stress and social support. In contrast, frequency of past social support was not an effective life stress buffer in either the case of depressive or physical symptomatology. Moreover, past support frequency was positively related to physical symptoms and unrelated to depressive symptoms, while perceived availability of support was negatively related to depressive symptoms and unrelated to physical symptoms.
Article
Social support research has been hampered by a lack of clarity both in the definitions of social support and in the conceptualization of its effects on health outcomes. The present study compared social network size and three types of perceived social support—tangible, emotional, and informational —in relation to stressful life events, psychological symptoms and morale, and physical health status in a sample of 100 persons 45–64 years old. Social network size was empirically separable from, though correlated with, perceived social support and had a weaker overall relationship to outcomes than did support. Low tangible support and emotional support, in addition to certain life events, were independently related to depression and negative morale; informational support was associated with positive morale. Neither social support nor stressful life events were associated with physical health. It was concluded that social support research would benefit from attention to the multidimensionality of support and greater specificity in hypotheses about the relationship between types of support and adaptational outcomes.
Article
An empirical procedure for probing autobiographical memory was assessed. Words designating common objects, activities, and feelings were used as guides for recall of discrete experiences. Four properties of the recollections were assessed: latency, age of occurrence, temporal specificity of memory report, and type of experience. The three results of most general interest were: (1) consistent differences in properties of reports elicited by affect terms and those elicited by object and activity words; (2) a curvilinear relationship between latency and event age; and (3) reliable sex differences. Several proposals regarding the organization of autobiographical memory, and voluntary recall of personal experiences are discussed.
Article
Subjects performed a free recall task while seated in a square. One by one, alternate subjects exposed a word card and read the word out loud to the group. The remaining subjects simply listened. All subjects were tested for recall. Subjects who performed tended not to recall words read 9 sec before and after their performance (“scallop effect”), and this loss increased with performance difficulty. Incidental evidence suggested high recall for material performed by particular subjects (“peak effects”) and channel capacity. When subjects are next in line they may ignore cues not related to performing.
Article
This paper is concerned with the kind of work that is needed in order to provide a more solid scientific foundation for the belief that life stress causes illness. Although indirect evidence from controlled laboratory studies and from extreme situations provides strong indications of the general relationship between stress and illness, the evidence concerning the effects of naturally occurring and more ordinary stressful life events is less clear. Although we have a body of research indicating that life events are associated with a wide range of disorders and distress, it does not provide a clear picture of the nature and strength of this relationship. In order to clarify our understanding of how stressful life events affect health and illness, we will need to deal with methodological issues that have emerged from research to date and to tackle a major substantive problem that has been largely neglected. The methodological issues are three: a) definition of the populations of life events to be studied; b) measurement of the magnitudes of the life events; and c) use of a research design appropriate to the question to be answered. The substantive issue concerns factors that mediate the impact of life events. Each of these issues is examined in turn in this paper.
Article
The authors emphasized the importance of social support as protective of health. They have also begun to ascertain the key questions that should be addressed; initiated a new synthesis of the great variety of types of support; suggested some synthesizing criteria of social support, and finally, have commented on the policy implications of the social support hypothesis.
Article
Defined the following structural properties by reference to a simple model of cognition about a particular domain of events: dimensionality, attribute articulation, attribute centrality, evaluative centrality, centralization, image comparability, affective-evaluative consistency, affective balance, and image ambivalence. Multiple measures of most of these structural properties were developed for several cognitive domains by procedures that are applicable to other domains as well. Within each of 4 domains tested, affective balance and affective-evaluative consistency appeared to be compatible modes of integration; both tended to be incompatible with high dimensionality of the cognitive space and with an ambivalent view of objects in it. Information about a domain was associated with increased dimensionality. Personal maladjustment among undergraduates was associated with relatively nonevaluative but relatively ambivalent conceptions of self and others. Schizophrenic patients were more likely than surgical patients to display relatively nonevaluative, relatively ambivalent conceptions of others. (26 ref.)
Article
Drawing upon symbolic interactionist theory, this paper reconceptualizes social isolation as the possession of few social identities. Social identities (enacted in role relationships) give meaning and guidance to behavior, and thus should prevent anxiety, depression, and disordered conduct. The "identity accumulation hypothesis"--the more identities possessed by an actor, the less psychological distress he/she should exhibit--is tested and supported using panel data from the New Haven community survey (Myers et al., 1971). The interaction between identity accumulation and identity change is also examined, under differing assumptions regarding the structure of multiple identities. Results indicate that integrated individuals benefit more from identity gain and also suffer more from identity loss than isolated individuals. The implications of these results for social isolation theory and for previous conceptions of the effects of multiple roles are discussed.
Article
The buffering hypothesis suggests that social support can moderate the impacts of life events upon mental health. However, several problems have yet to be resolved in this literature. Social support has been inadequately conceptualized and operationalized; therefore, the specific dimensions of support that reduce event impacts cannot be identified. The direct effect of events upon support and the interactive (buffering) effect of events with support have been confounded in many studies, such that results may have been biased in favor of the hypothesis. The relationships between events, support, and psychological disturbance have not been clarified theoretically; thus, the possibility that support itself is an etiological factor has been overlooked. This article reviews empirical work on the buffering hypothesis, outlines alternate conceptualizations and operationalizations of support, presents a refined hypothesis and model for analysis, and suggests three theoretical approaches that may be used to explain the interrelationships between support, events, and disturbance.
Article
The present paper is concerned with the buffering hypothesis that social support ameliorates the impact of occupational stress on job-related strain and health. Previous studies of this hypothesis have yielded conflicting results. Our purpose, therefore, is twofold. First, we summarize the literature in this area and review several studies in detail, all of which found main effects of social support on perceived occupational stress and on some health outcome measures. Three of the studies were specificaly designed to examine the buffering effects of support. Of the three, two found little or not evidence for buffering (LaRocco and Jones, 1978a; Pinneau, 1975), whereas the third reported buffering effects (House and Wells, 1978). Second, we attempt to reconcile these different conclusions by reanalyzing one data set - first analyzed by Caplan et al. (1975) and then by Pinneau (1975) - using a moderated regresson technique identical to that used in the LaRocco and Jones (1978a) and House and Wells (1978) studies. The data used for this analysis consist of a randomly stratified sample of men from 23 occupations (N=636). Our review and findings support the buffering hypothesis for mental and physical health variables (anxiety, depression, irritation, and somatic symptoms), but, as in the previous three studies, fail to support the buffering hypothesis in regard to job-related strains (job dissatisfaction, boredom, dissatisfaction with work load).