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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of different types of instruction and texts on high schools students' learning of (a) history content and (b) a set of heuristics that historians use to think critically about texts. Participants for the study were 128 male and 118 female students, ages 16 and 17 years, from 2 high schools in the western United States. Eight history classrooms were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 interventions: (a) traditional textbooks and content instruction, (b) traditional textbooks and heuristic instruction, (c) multiple texts and content instruction, or (d) multiple texts and heuristic instruction. The heuristic instruction explicitly taught sourcing, corroboration, and contextualization. Students were administered pretests on their content knowledge and their use of heuristics. After an intervention of 3 weeks, students were readministered the content knowledge and heuristics posttests. A mixed-model analysis of covariance indicated that across all conditions, students who read multiple texts scored higher on history content and used sourcing and corroboration more often than students who read traditional textbook material. Findings highlight the importance of reading multiple texts to deepen content knowledge and facilitate the use of heuristics that historians typically use.
... The main points of reference for these studies are publications by Wineburg (2001), Seixas and Morton (2013), VanSledright (2008 and Lee (2005). On the left side of the figure, the red cluster interconnects the studies (mainly The intellectual structure of the field of knowledge from the United States) on cognitive skills and historical literacy (Wineburg, 1991;Monte-Sano, 2011;De la Paz, 2005;Nokes, 2007). In this cluster, these studies are interconnected with the early research by Shemilt (1980Shemilt ( , 1983 and Seixas (2006). ...
... Furthermore, such disciplinary thinking remains difficult for students (Bertram et al., 2017;Jay, 2021). While intervention studies are less prevalent in history education than in other disciplines, empirical evidence indicates students and teachers can think and reason historically with support (e.g., De La Paz, 2005;Nokes et al., 2007;Reisman, 2012. For example, in a study specifically leveraging the affordances of digital tools and learning experiences, students working within the Sourcer's Apprentice, a computer-based tutorial and practice environment, improved some of their historical thinking skills on a transfer test (Britt & Aglinskas, 2002). ...
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Building on the education community’s longstanding interest in videogames for learning, and in response to continued calls for more engaging pedagogy in history classrooms, some developers have introduced history-oriented videogames designed specifically to fit within the institutional and resource constraints of traditional classrooms. Nevertheless, little empirical evidence exists concerning such made-for-school history-oriented videogames. Leveraging a view of game mechanics as a form of language, and guided by the assumption from discourse analysis that language operates as a tool offering affordances and constraints for doing work in the world, we conducted a content analysis to identify opportunities to practice historical thinking and reasoning in the made-for-school history-oriented videogame Mission US. We found several in-game moments that invited the use of disciplinary skills, though few that required them. Confirming previous research on videogames for learning, our findings suggest the game may be more appropriately leveraged not on its own but as one part of a broader teaching and learning ecology. We highlight two mechanics, those pertaining to in-game, map-based navigation, and in-game, historically relevant trading, as holding promise for the design of future made-for-school history-oriented videogames. We suggest these findings are valuable to teachers, teacher educators, developers, and researchers.
... Historians interpret traces of the past within the context of their creation ("contextualization"), paying close attention to the author's intents and assumptions ("sourcing"), and compare multiple sources of evidence ("corroboration"). Students typically engage in these practices far less often than historians do (Shemilt, 1987;Wineburg, 1991), but with teacher modeling and guided practice, they can learn to employ them, sometimes quite adeptly (De La Paz et al., 2017;Freedman, 2015;Nokes, Dole, & Hacker, 2007;Reisman, 2012b). Some evidence suggests that discussion can contribute to that end (Goldberg, Schwarz, & Porat, 2011;Wissinger & De La Paz, 2016). ...
... Reading a textbook to extract and remember historical information through engaging projects Nokes, Dole & Hacker, 2007;Paxton, 1997;Wiley & Voss, 1999 Yolanda Yolanda finds interesting texts with historical content to help her students develop their skills for reading nonfiction/informational texts, such as articles from Scholastic News or Cobblestone. Before reading, Yolanda guides her students in previewing the text structures and text features (i.e. ...
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The purpose of this study was to complete a systematic review of the adolescent comprehension intervention research published between 2000 and 2020 to examine the presence of instructional practices to promote student engagement. Ninety-five studies were coded and indicated that 93% of the studies included at least one instructional practice and only 15% of studies actually measured engagement. Few studies (6%) examined the relationship between engagement and outcomes; studies that incorporated instructional practices to promote engagement demonstrated a statistically significant relation to engagement. Although student engagement is accepted as important in reading, it is rarely assessed within intervention efforts.
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Klassengespräche haben ein großes Lernpotenzial hinsichtlich der Förderung von fachlichen und überfachlichen Kompetenzen im Geschichtsunterricht. Zentrale Qualitätskriterien sind dabei eine dialogische Gesprächsleitung und ein diskussionsanregender Gesprächsanlass. Diese Studie untersucht, wie sich die Gesprächsleitungskompetenz von drei Geschichtsleher*innen im Lauf einer einjährigen Fortbildung zu dialogischer Gesprächsführung veränderte. Es wird dabei aufgezeigt, wie gelingende dialogische Klassengespräche im Geschichtsunterricht gestaltet werden können und wie sich die Qualität der Lernendenaussagen dadurch verändert. Anhand der Untersuchung können Merkmale zur Gestaltung zukünftiger Fortbildungen für Lehrpersonen abgeleitet werden.
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The aim of this chapter is to provide history teachers with digital historical resources and alternative teaching tools that they can use in history education in order to help students gain high-level thinking skills in addition to knowledge in history courses. To achieve this, a needs analysis for Turkish history teachers was performed to determine which subjects should be focused on in history courses, and what kind of digital historical resources and alternative teaching tools are required. The findings have shown that history teachers face difficulties in teaching ancient civilizations. Teachers have expressed that they remain abstract and incomprehensible to the students due to the inefficacy of materials and teaching tools. It has been determined that they need proper digital historical sources and alternatives most fitting for the subject at hand.
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Extensive training in history results in generalized knowledge of the methods and information sources typical of history problems, that is, discipline expertise. We investigated the influence of discipline expertise on students' reading, evaluation, and use of multiple documents about a historical controversy. Eleven graduate students in psychology (history novices) and 8 graduate students in history (history specialists) studied 2 controversies about the history of the Panama Canal. For each controversy, the students studied a set of documents, wrote an opinion essay, and evaluated the documents for usefulness and trustworthiness. Study strategies did not differ significantly across groups. However, the evaluation of usefulness varied as a function of document type and students' expertise. Furthermore, novice and expert students differed in the way they expressed and supported an opinion in their essay. We suggest that discipline expertise helps history students connect information sources and interpretations to their representation of the situation or problem.
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THIS STUDY describes changes in literacy engagement during 1 year of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI), a new approach to teaching reading, writing, and science. Literacy engagement was defined as the integration of intrinsic motivations, cognitive strategies, and conceptual learning from text. To promote literacy engagement in classrooms, our team designed and implemented CORI in two third- and two fifth-grade classrooms in two schools. One hundred and forty students participated in an integrated reading/language arts-science program, which emphasized real-world science observations, student self-direction, strategy instruction, collaborative learning, self-expression, and coherence of literacy learning experiences. Trade books replaced basals and science textbooks. According to 1-week performance assessments in the fall and spring, students gained in the following higher order strategies: searching multiple texts, representing knowledge, transferring concepts, comprehending informational text, and interpreting narrative. Children's intrinsic motivations for literacy correlated with cognitive strategies at .8 for Grade 5 and .7 for Grade 3. All students who increased in intrinsic motivation also increased in their use of higher order strategies. A sizeable proportion (50%) of students who were stable or decreased in intrinsic motivation failed to progress in higher order strategies. These findings were discussed in terms of a conceptual framework that embraces motivational, strategic, and conceptual aspects of literacy engagement.
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To foster critical thinking, middle school and high school teachers should use multiple texts rather than rely solely on a single textbook. Here are some suggestions for teachers to consider.
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In this article I explore what it means to read a historical text. In doing so, I draw on my research with historians and high school students, who thought aloud as they reviewed a set of texts about the American Revolution. I begin by providing an overview of what I learned from historians, sketching in broad strokes an image of the skilled reader of history. Next, I compare this image to what emerged from an analysis of high school students' responses to these same documents. I then speculate about the source of differences between these two groups, arguing that each group brings to these texts a distinctive epistemological stance, one that shapes and guides the meanings that are derived from text. I end by outlining the implications of this work for how we define reading comprehension and how we define the place of history in the school curriculum.
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This paper shows that the common recommendation to use group means when there may be nonindependence among observational units is unnecessary, unduly restrictive, impoverishes the analysis, and limits the questions that can be addressed in a study. When random factors are properly identified and included in the analysis, the results (Fs and critical Fs) are identical in balanced ANOVA designs, irrespective of whether group means or individual observations are employed. The use of individual observations also allows the exploration of other interesting questions pertaining to interaction and generalizability. In addition, the pooling strategy can be considered. Thus, the question of the proper experimental unit or unit of analysis for treatment effects is answered directly, correctly, and implicitly when the proper statistical model is employed.
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