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Reliability and Validity of Self-Efficacy for Learning Form (SELF) Scores of College Students

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Abstract

We studied psychometric properties of the SELF with 223 college students. The SELF assesses students' self-efficacy beliefs regarding their use of specific self-regulatory processes in various areas of academic functioning. To determine the validity of SELF scores, the following outcome measures were studied: perceived responsibility, homework quantity, and homework quality. In addition, students' grades, standardized test scores (SAT), and instructor ratings of students' self-regulated skills were investigated. Students' scores on both the original SELF and an abridged form of the scale (SELF-A) were found to have a unitary factor structure and high level of internal reliability. Interestingly, the SELF-A was superior in its prediction of all validity measures except the SAT, which was comparable for the two forms.

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... Self-efficacy is associated with interest, motivation, and effort to engage in an activity, which ultimately has an impact on writing achievement (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007). Writing is a crucial skill in college (Kroll, 2003). ...
... Other than the SEESA-AW scale that was developed and validated in this study, the questionnaire comprised of the Writing Self-Efficacy Scale (WSESA; and the Self-Efficacy for Learning Form (SELF; Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007) for convergent validity evidence, and students' self-reported writing grades and GPA. ...
... Self-Efficacy for Learning Form (SELF).The SELF by Zimmerman and Kitsantas (2007) was included to provide evidence for convergent validity evidence since it assessed college students' self-efficacy regarding the use of self-regulatory strategies in academic learning. The 19-item instrument assessed students' self-efficacy in reading, note taking, test-taking, writing, and studying on a 1-100 scale. ...
Article
Self-assessment, or students’ evaluation of their own learning or performance in academic tasks, is a self-regulatory process that is intertwined with learners’ cognitive, behavioral, and motivational processes. Among the motivational beliefs that have been studied in relation to self-assessment is self-efficacy, which refers to beliefs about one's capability to learn or perform a specified task successfully. The current study describes the development and validation of the Self-Efficacy for Self-Assessment in Argumentative Writing (SEESA-AW) scale to measure college students’ self-efficacy beliefs for self-assessment in the domain of argumentative writing with two samples of undergraduate college students (N=335 and N=662). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed three factors (grammar & mechanics, cohesiveness/flow, the presentation of arguments) that explained 65.4% of the variance. Evidence is also provided for convergent validity of the scale with regard to other writing self-efficacy scales. Educational implications are discussed.
... Within each of the three phases there are processes that further explain how the selfregulated learning cycle works (Zimmerman 2008). A list of processes can be found in Fig. 2. The processes among the three phases can be viewed as metacognitive and behavioral constructs, which work reciprocally ( Cho and MacArthur 2011;Greene and Azevedo 2007 The metacognitive constructs consist of the ways learners set and plan goals (Locke and Latham 1990), monitor progress on goals (Zimmerman and Kitsantas 2007), and evaluate their learning processes (Zimmerman and Kitsantas 1997). Learners establish internal motivational factors related to their learning environment (self-efficacy, task interest, goal orientation; Bandura 2002;Deci 1975;Ames 1992), focus their attention (Corno 1993;Schunk 1982), and react to feedback on their performance (Zimmerman and Kitsantas 2007). ...
... A list of processes can be found in Fig. 2. The processes among the three phases can be viewed as metacognitive and behavioral constructs, which work reciprocally ( Cho and MacArthur 2011;Greene and Azevedo 2007 The metacognitive constructs consist of the ways learners set and plan goals (Locke and Latham 1990), monitor progress on goals (Zimmerman and Kitsantas 2007), and evaluate their learning processes (Zimmerman and Kitsantas 1997). Learners establish internal motivational factors related to their learning environment (self-efficacy, task interest, goal orientation; Bandura 2002;Deci 1975;Ames 1992), focus their attention (Corno 1993;Schunk 1982), and react to feedback on their performance (Zimmerman and Kitsantas 2007). Breaking down the three phases of SRL into subprocesses provides a finer grain of analysis, and could lead to new information about why elementary teachers have difficulty learning about inquiry and implementing inquiry-based instruction in science. ...
... Zimmerman and Kitsantas (1997) found that learners who began with process goals and then shifted to outcome goals when those process goals are mastered were more effective learners. In a later study, Zimmerman and Kitsantas (2007) also found that learners who had only outcome goals struggled with self-reactions, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interest, which was partially corroborated in this study. In the first attempt to create inquiry lesson plans in this professional development experience, the teachers self-monitored and self-instructed their learning using the standards of learning from the state, which served as an outcome goal. ...
... Careful consideration to each student"s abilities can strengthen a positive approach to learning. It was found that students will develop a "Can Do" attitude toward their education [8]. The relationship between self-efficacy and learning has been the topic of interest for researchers. ...
... It has been revealed that the problem-based learning (PBL) is a very significant method that challenges the classical views of teaching and learning as the learner can determine with the support of a skilful instructor, on topics that to be identified, to the depth and the processes that are used. The impact of PBL was studied with the variation of group size for instance small groups, and larger groups [8,11]. As compared to PBL, in Lecture Based Learning (LBL) method, students focus on memorising and capturing the concepts depending upon reception of information that exclusively delivered by their teachers [12]. ...
... Internal consistency of the scale was found α= .97 [8]. Grade point average (GPA) was considered as a course performance indicator. ...
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Teaching and learning strategies have a strong impact upon the self-efficacy, motivation and performance of the students. Teaching methods can enhance the basic cognitive abilities and achievement of students. Thus, it was found essential to study the impact of problem based learning and traditional teaching methods in relation to self-efficacy and performance. The main objective of this study was to provide evidence of the effectiveness of various teaching strategies by comparing them in terms of self-efficacy and academic performance among students. This study compared two teaching methods (PBL vs. Traditional teaching style) and its impacts on self-efficacy and academic performance of College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences. A study was conducted during the first semester of academic year (1437-1438H / Sep 2016-Jan 2017). A study was carried out in two stages, having pre/post testing (two-time point intervention) of the students. The sample of this study comprised of (n=143) students enrolled in college of health and rehabilitation sciences within 13 departments. Standardized scale of Academic Self-efficacy scale was used as a measurement tool. Moreover, the grade of the students served to measure the performance. Results showed strong positive correlation of self-efficacy and performance. There was no difference on self-efficacy for both groups of PBL and LBL. GPA was significantly higher among LBL group. The study was limited to one college only. Further studies at the Health Campus of other universities will provide chance to generalization for effective teaching strategies.
... 248). Many empirical studies have revealed the close connections between self-efficacy and motivation beliefs, goal orientation, anxiety, and SRL strategies as well as academic performance in diverse academic areas (e.g., Bernacki et al., 2015;Kim, Wang, Ahn, & Bong, 2015;Usher & Pajares, 2008;Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007). ...
... It should be noted that the measurement of self-efficacy for SRL has been restrained to students' confidence in using SRL strategies (e.g., Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994;Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007). Less attention has been given to evaluating students' confidence in their metacognitive control in a specific learning environment. ...
... They further maintained that findings elicited from these instruments might not be directly linked to "models of writing or to potentially writing-relevant psychological and language-related processes" (Bruning et al., 2013, p. 26). With this conviction, Bruning and his colleagues conceptualized their study based on idea translation (Hayes, 2012) and self-regulation theory (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007) to develop the Self-Efficacy for Writing Scale (SEWS). They examined the underlying dimensions of self-efficacy in L1 writing contexts with data collected from middle school students who were enrolled in eighth grade English/language arts classes. ...
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This study was designed to validate a multidimensional structure of writing self-efficacy in English as a foreign language contexts, conceptualized in self-regulated learning theory and social cognitive theory. The Second Language Writer Self-Efficacy Scale was developed and evaluated through a series of rigorous validation procedures. The researchers collected data from 609 university students in China. Confirmatory factory analyses through structural equation modeling validated the proposed three-dimensional structure of writing self-efficacy, including linguistic self-efficacy, self-regulatory efficacy, and performance self-efficacy. Model comparisons confirmed the hypothesis that writing self-efficacy is a multidimensional construct, in which the three factors are conceptually related. Internal and composite reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity were examined, suggesting satisfactory psychometric properties of the scale. The concurrent validity and predictive validity were checked by examining correlations of writing self-efficacy with motivational beliefs and writing performance. Findings revealed that the three dimensions of self-efficacy had small to moderate correlations with writing performance. Significant correlations were also found between writing self-efficacy and motivational beliefs (e.g., task value, intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation). The findings support a social cognitive view of self-efficacy that acknowledges the interplay of behaviors, personal factors, and environmental conditions. Theoretical and pedagogical implications are discussed.
... The internal consistency of the scale, measured by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.97 in a study conducted with 223 undergraduate students (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007). In a Brazilian study carried out with a sample of 884 undergraduate students , the alpha value was high (α = 0.99) and was (α = 0.910) in another study based on a sample of 109 university students (Ganda & Boruchovitch, 2018). ...
... The reliability of the self-efficacy for learning beliefs form was also estimated for the present sample. It was also high (α = 0.910) and similar to that obtained by the original authors (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007) and to the previous Brazilian studies Boruchovitch et al., 2019). Temporal stability was also measured (Balsas & Boruchovitch, 2015). ...
... The findings from this study help to expand research on strategic and self-regulated learning to Brazilian higher education. More specifically, the results help to show that theoretical constructs described in Weinstein's (1994) Model of Strategic Learning and measured through the ten scales of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (Weinstein et al., 2016) are measurable for and applicable to Brazilian students The study also examined self-efficacy for learning, which is an important aspect of self-regulated learning (Zimmerman, 2000;Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007). Like the findings for learning and study strategies, Legend: M Mean, Mdn Median, AE self-efficacy, ANX Anxiety, ATT Attitudes, CON Concentration, INP Information processing, MOT Motivation, SMI Selection of main ideas, SFT Self-testing, TST Test strategies, TMT Time management, UAR Using academic resources students' self-efficacy for learning scores were moderate and showed room for improvement. ...
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Teacher education programs should have as one of their purposes the promotion of self-regulatory skills for learning among students who aspire to be teachers so that they can take a leading role in their learning and foster these skills in their future students. Considering the importance of knowing what students in teacher education programs do to study and learn, as well as how efficacious they feel to deal with academic demands, this study is part of a larger research and aims to investigate the learning and study strategies and self-efficacy for learning beliefs of 220 students enrolled in teacher education programs in Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics of a Higher Education Institution in the state of Piauí, and examine them in relation to age, gender, licentiate area, and course semester. Brazilian translations of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI - Third Edition) and the Self-efficacy for Learning Form were used for data collection. Scales were administered in the classrooms both through online platforms and in paper and pencil. Nonparametric inferential statistical approaches were used to test hypotheses regarding group differences. Statistically significant differences were found in LASSI in relation to gender, licentiate area, and course semester. Overall, students in Physics dealt better with anxiety; in Mathematics showed more favorable attitudes towards learning; in Chemistry reported managing their time better; in Biological Science showed significantly lower scores on many scales than did other students. Findings from this study could help inform curricular design decisions regarding teacher education programs and inform the design of interventions to strengthen the learning and study strategies and the self-efficacy for learning beliefs of future teachers.
... The Self-Efficacy for Learning Form -Abridged (SELF-A) [40] assesses academic self-efficacy when carrying out common educational tasks such as note-taking, test preparation and studying. It is a unidimensional measure consisting of 19 items. ...
... Higher scores indicate greater confidence in learning. The SELF-A has demonstrated good reliability and validity [40]. ...
Article
Purpose: Increasing numbers of students with disabilities are accessing higher education each year, yet little is known about their assistive technology (AT) needs and its influence on relevant outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine met/unmet AT needs on educational engagement, academic self-efficacy and well-being and the impact of AT use in the areas of competence, adaptability and self-esteem for students with disabilities in higher education in Ireland. Methods: One hundred and eleven students with disabilities completed a cross-sectional online survey comprising the College Learning Effectiveness Inventory, the Student Course Engagement Questionnaire, the Self-Efficacy for Learning Form Abridged, the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale, and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale. Results: AT use was found to have a positive psychosocial impact in the areas of competence, adaptability and self-esteem. Those whose AT needs were fully met scored significantly higher on academic self-efficacy, well-being, and on 4 of the 10 educational engagement subscales compared to those who had unmet AT needs. Met/unmet AT needs were not predictive of educational engagement. Conclusion: These findings highlight the importance of AT from both educational engagement and psychosocial perspectives for students with a wide variety of disability diagnoses. The wide-reaching benefits of AT must be considered by governmental departments when making funding allocations to disability services within higher education institutions.
... Additionally, it can impact individual coping strategies, vulnerability to negative emotions, and overall wellbeing (Bandura, 1997;Bandura & Locke, 2003). In the present study we focus on selfefficacy for self-regulated learning, which refers to students' self-efficacy beliefs regarding their capability to use of specific self-regulatory processes to improve their academic functioning (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007). Generally, research evidence shows that students' self-efficacy beliefs predict academic success (Bembenutty, 2011;Kitsantas & Zimmerman, 2009), life satisfaction and happiness (Lent et al., 2017(Lent et al., , 2018Ojeda et al., 2011), sense of belonging (Freeman, Anderman, & Jensen, 2007), and overall wellbeing (Boekaerts & Niemivirta, 2000;Hofer, Busch, & Kärtner, 2011). ...
... Self-Efficacy for Learning Form (SELF) (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007) The purpose of this 19-item measure was to assess students' self-efficacy for learning beliefs related to academic work. After conducting a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), one item was removed because it loaded less than .4. ...
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The number of immigrant undergraduate students with diverse ethnicities and native languages has been continuously increasing. As a result, Immigrant Language-Minority (ILM) college student wellbeing and retention is the focus of many higher education institutions. The purpose of the present exploratory study was to examine relationships among personal (e.g., self-efficacy for learning, self-regulation), contextual (e.g., stereotype threat, sense of belonging), and wellbeing (e.g., negative affect, positive affect, academic satisfaction and life satisfaction) variables with 502 ILM undergraduate students. Grounded in the social-cognitive perspective, a model was proposed where contextual variables influence personal beliefs and in turn student wellbeing perceptions. Using structural equation modeling, data showed that sense of belonging directly predicted student self-regulation, self-efficacy, positive affect, negative affect, and academic and life satisfaction, whereas stereotype threat directly predicted self-efficacy and negative affect. Moreover, findings also showed that self-efficacy mediated the relationship between sense of belonging, stereotype threat, and academic satisfaction. Overall, the proposed model predicted 54% of variance in life satisfaction. Implications for ILM undergraduate student wellbeing and retention are discussed.
... Dėl akivaizdžių priežasčių savęs vertinimas paprastai yra kaip formalaus vertinimo dalis, o ne apibendrinimo procesas (Self-assessment 2009). Teoretikai ir praktikai (Ballantine et al. 2007;Zimmerman, Kitsantas 2007;Austin et al. 2008;Sundström 2008ir Sung et al. 2009) atliko savęs vertinimo bandymus švietimo srityje su įvairiomis amžiaus grupėmis (paaugliais, kolegijos studentais, suaugusiaisiais ir pan.) įvairiose įstaigose (mokyklose, universitetuose, darbo vietose). ...
... Tyrimų pradžioje buvo išanalizuoti visame pasaulyje atliekami šios srities tyrimai (didysis penketas ir didžiojo penketo modelis (Noftle, Robins 2007;Komarraju et al. 2009), IQ testai (Intelligence Quotient 2009; Intelligence 2009), savęs vertinimo (Ballantine et al. 2007;Zimmerman, Kitsantas 2007;Austin et al. 2008;Sundström 2008;Self-Assessment 2009;Sung et al. 2009 ir kt.)), prognozuojant studentų žinių lygį. Specialus dėmesys skirtas savęs vertinimui (naudojama kriterijų sistema, tokių kriterijų integracija į bendrąjį vertinimą, sumavimo metodų taikymas, rezultatų patikimumo lygis, gautos rezultatų tendencijos) ir šis vertinimas bus palyginamas su faktiniais (e. testo) egzaminų rezultatais. ...
... To assess respondents' degree of self-directed learning, the study utilized the 10-item Self-Directed Learning Inventory (SDLI) developed by Lounsbury and Gibson [22], which measures self-directed learning as a personality trait in adolescents and adults [18]. It is a five-level rating scale with the following descriptions and interpretations based on the literature [22,27]: To assess respondents' degree of self-efficacy in learning, the 57-item Self-Efficacy for Learning Form (SELF) developed by Zimmerman and Kitsantas [55] was utilized. SELF measures students' belief in themselves, that they can cope in adversity, remain composed, and stay focused on the academic goal or task in various phases of learning processes such as reading, studying, test-taking, notetaking, and writing [56]. ...
... Therefore, there are eleven (11) alternatives, that is 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100. Using the literature [23,24,55], the following descriptions and interpretations were used in the study: ...
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Aims: The absence of data complementing independent learning, which is vital in the pandemic-induced distance learning, propelled the conduct of study. The study aimed to assess Self-Directed Learning, Self-Efficacy in Learning, and Academic Motivation of Public Senior High School Students, and investigated what demographic variable may influence each. It also sought to determine the correlation between the constructs. Methodology: The study utilized descriptive and correlational design. Respondents were the 332 Grade-12 students from the Schools Division of Cadiz City, School Year 2020-2021, determined using multi-stage random sampling. Data were generated using the Self-Directed Learning Inventory, Self-Efficacy in Learning Form, and Academic Motivation Scale-High School Version. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, chi-square test of association, and Spearman rho rank correlation.
... Consistent with Pratt's (2014) characterisation of effective co-teaching as complex is whether co-teachers' instructional approaches are mastery or performance oriented (Midgley et al. 2000) such that SWD or SWOD feel they belong in the class and school (Goodenow 1993) and have a high sense of self-efficacy for learning (Zimmerman and Kitsantas 2007), factors examined in this exploratory study. Examining beneath the appearance of the supportive co-teaching model may uncover ways in which the special educators' roles are valued and valuable for SWD and SWOD. ...
... Three questionnaires were completed by the students to answer research question 1: the Co-Teaching Student Questionnaire (CTSQ)(King-Sears et al. 2014), Psychological Sense of School Membership Scale (PSSM)(Goodenow 1993), and Self-Efficacy for Learning Form-Abridged (SELF-A)(Zimmerman and Kitsantas 2007). Refer toFigure 1.Co-Teaching Student QuestionnaireThe Co-Teaching Student Questionnaire was designed based on research and literature about co-teaching(King-Sears et al. 2014). ...
Article
In this exploratory study, self-rated measures from two co-teachers who taught mathematics to a group of students with and without disabilities were gathered to determine perspectives about their co-teaching experiences. Students also completed three measures. Students and co-teachers agreed that the one-teach, one observe or drift co-teaching model was used most frequently. Although students noted the general educator was the instructional lead, they also believed the special educator provided a valid and valuable role in providing help to all students. All students reported high levels of school belongingness and self-efficacy. Some results matched other researchers’ findings that special educators are less frequently the lead teacher, yet our results indicated students appreciated the support received from both co-teachers. Students’ reports may have been influenced by their co-teachers’ mastery approach to instruction, which emphasised students’ individual progress versus a competitive approach. Implications for researchers and co-teachers include examining how supportive co-teaching can be transformed to maximise instructional experiences for students, and how positive co-teacher relationships translate to students’ sense of belonging and increased self-efficacy.
... The internal consistency of the scale, measured by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.97 in a study conducted with 223 undergraduate students (Zimmerman and Kitsantas, 2007). In a Brazilian study carried out with a sample of 884 undergraduate students , the alpha value was high (α = 0.99) and similar to that obtained by the original authors. ...
... As the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the LASSI are still under study, no item was removed yet to raise reliability. The reliability of the Self-efficacy for Learning Form was high as in its original studies (Zimmerman and Kitsantas, 2007) and in other Brazilian studies (Boruchovitch and Ganda, 2013;Ganda and Boruchovitch, 2018). ...
Article
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Research on teacher education has shown that self-regulated learning (SRL) is relevant for improving learning skills of future teachers. Evidence also suggests that teacher education programs would benefit from fostering SRL in their students and teaching them to use SRL as a teaching practice. This dual focus could help students become more successful students and teachers, better prepared to foster SRL in their future classrooms. The objective of the present research was to investigate learning and study strategies and self-efficacy for learning beliefs among undergraduate students enrolled in teacher education programs at a public university in Brazil. Another aim was to design an SRL intervention, in two formats, and examine the effectiveness of each format at strengthening participants' self-regulatory skills. To achieve these goals, the study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, 220 participants completed this Learning and Study Strategies Inventory and the Self-efficacy for Learning form. Findings suggested a need for improving future teacher students' self-regulatory skills and provided a basis for the second phase, whose goal was to examine an intervention program using a quasi-experimental research design with three stages: pretest, intervention, and posttest. Three classes were randomly assigned to three different treatment conditions: Experimental Group I (EGI) received theoretical content about SRL and self-reflective questions (format 1), Experimental Group II (EGII) received theoretical content about SRL only (format 2), and the Control Group (CG) only completed the assessments. Data from the first phase were used as pretest measures for the second phase. The sample for phase 2 of this study was composed of 53 students. EGI had 22 students, EGII 12, and CG 19. Results comparing EG I with EG II showed no statistically significant group × time interactions. However, when compared with CG, EGI showed statistically significant gains over the control group on five outcome measures, whereas EG II showed statistically significant gains over the control group on three of the outcome measures. This suggested benefits to receiving the interventions and that EG I may yield additional benefits over EG II. Theoretical and practical implications for pre-service teachers and teacher education programs are discussed.
... In this study, tools were provided to learners, to enhance their goal setting, time management, and strategy planning in the online learning environment. This is shown in Figures 3 and 4. Zimmerman and Kitsantas (2007) suggested that self-monitoring generally was a major strategy that learners used during the execution phase. In this phase, learners needed to perform learning strategies, compare performance to their goals, and decide progress. ...
... Various information connected with each learner's learning status was provided by the dashboard. In line with Zimmerman and Kitsantas's (2007) idea of self-regulated learning ability including selfevaluation and self-reactions, in the self-assessment stage, a dual-test was included. Learners needed to not only choose the correct answer to the question, but also answer the reason for choosing the answer, to demonstrate their understanding. ...
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Given the importance of student engagement for educational success, it is essential to explore how teachers can stimulate student engagement in online learning environment. However, relatively little research drawing from self-determination theory has examined the links between teaching motivations and student engagement. To this end, this study was conducted to survey 414 Chinese college students’ perceptions of teaching motivations, their own intrinsic and extrinsic motivations during the learning process, as well as their engagement with online learning. The findings indicated that the survey had satisfactory validity and internal consistency. Structural equation model revealed the interrelationships between autonomy-supportive teaching motivations, controlling teaching motivations, student intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, and student engagement. The results showed that in online learning environments, autonomy-supportive teaching motivations and student intrinsic motivation were positively related to student engagement. Unexpectedly, controlling teaching motivations and student extrinsic motivation had no significant effect on student engagement. Moreover, the mediating effects of student intrinsic motivation including perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness offered a deeper understanding of the association between autonomy-supportive teaching motivations and student engagement. The main findings and practical implications together are discussed in depth. Implications for practice or policy: Teachers could adopt autonomy-supportive teaching strategies and stimulate students’ intrinsic motivation as they have shown to be positive factors for student engagement. Developers and educators could enhance student engagement through nurturing inner motivational resources in online learning environment. Researchers could verify more factors that influence student engagement and clarify how they could be manipulated in future studies.
... por ejemplo). El SELF (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2005) presentó un valor α = .96, y demostró utilidad predictiva para la variable rendimiento académico (r =.68; p<0.01). ...
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Introducción. Los test informatizados se han transformado en uno de los métodos de evaluación educativa de mayor uso y eficiencia. En el ámbito de la evaluación psicoeducativa, cabe destacar los esfuerzos para generar sistemas de evaluación informatizados que permitan identificar alumnos en riesgo de abandonar sus estudios. Atendiendo a la importancia de la satisfacción académica en la permanencia académica, el presente trabajo tuvo por objetivo des-arrollar un Sistema de Evaluación Informatizado de la Satisfacción Académica (SESA).Método. El SESA evalúa diferentes variables implicadas en el modelo social cognitivo de satisfacción académica, tales como autoeficacia académica, expectativas de resultados, progreso en metas académicas y satisfacción académica. Se describe el proceso de informatización del SESA atendiendo a las directrices propuestas por la Comisión Internacional de Test y resultados psicométricos sobre la estructura factorial y consistencia interna del mismo (N=377).Resultados. En términos generales los resultados obtenidos fueron satisfactorios y no se observaron dificultades o limitaciones que pudieran obstaculizar el futuro desarrollo del sistema. En relación al proceso de informatización del SESA-U se cumplimentaron de manera adecuada los estándares de tecnología, calidad, control y seguridad propuestos por la ITC. La estructura interna de todas las escalas fue teóricamente interpretable y semejante a la reportada en los trabajos originales.Discusión y Conclusiones. Restan por desarrollar nuevos estudios tendientes a aportar mayores evidencias de validez. El SESA-U constituye un sistema adecuado para detectar de manera temprana estudiantes de primer año en riesgo de abandonar sus estudios.
... The internal consistency of the scale, measured by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.97 in a study conducted with 223 undergraduate students (Zimmerman and Kitsantas, 2007). In Brazilian study carried out with a sample of 884 undergraduate students (Boruchovitch, 2015), the alpha value was high (α = 0.99) and similar to that obtained by the original authors. ...
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Self-regulation is the process by which individuals monitor, control, and reflect on their learning. Self-regulated students have motivational, metacognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that enhance their learning. As the importance of self-regulated learning is well acknowledged by research nowadays, the aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an innovative course designed to promote self-regulated learning among Brazilian preservice student teachers. The innovative approach was developed in the format of a program of intervention based heavily on self-reflection. The content involved student exposure to self-reflexive activities, lectures on the self-regulated learning framework, and theoretical tasks aimed at fostering self-regulation of students in a double perspective: as a student and as a future teacher. The efficacy of the approach was tested by comparison with both the results of students who had taken a course with theoretical content only and those who had not taken any course at all. The sample consisted of 109 students in 4 different freshman classes in a Teacher Education Program in a Brazilian public university in an inner city in the state of São Paulo. The research was conducted using a quasi-experimental design with three stages: pretest, intervention, and posttest. The classes were randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions as follows: an experimental group involving intervention, an experimental group exposed to theory, and two control groups not taking the course. Before and after the intervention program, all the participants responded to the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory and the Self-efficacy for Self-regulated Learning scales. Overall, the results showed that the intervention program format had a positive impact in enhancing student self-regulation. Moreover, students in both the experimental groups reported both higher gains in self-efficacy for self-regulated learning scores and an increase in employment of learning strategies when compared to the control groups.
... Based on the guidelines provided above the statements, the answers ranged from 0% (Definitely cannot do it) to 100% (Definitely can do it). In the study of Zimmerman and Kitsantas (2007) with the purpose of determining the validity of SELF scores, students' scores were reported to have a unitary factor structure and was highly reliable (Both SELF and SELF-A, even with the superiority of SELF-A in prediction of most validity measures). In the present study the value of Cronbach's Alpha was also computed (α = .777). ...
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The present study sought to examine the relationship between classroom environment and English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' academic self-efficacy. To this end, a sample of 200 advanced EFL learners (146 females and 54 males) completed the What is Happening In This Class? (WIHIC) which consists of seven scales including Student Cohesiveness, Teacher Support, Involvement, Investigation, Task Orientation, Cooperation, and Equity that help to measure classroom learning environment. The Self-Efficacy for Learning Form (SELF-A) was also administered to gauge the participants’ academic self-efficacy. In order to analyze the data, Spearman rank-order correlation was run. The results revealed that there was a significant relationship between EFL learners’ classroom environment and their self-efficacy (rho = .438). The findings reflected that the highest relationship was between task orientation and self-efficacy (rho = .433) followed by the relationship between student cohesiveness and self-efficacy (rho = .353). However, the lowest relationship was found for the relationship between cooperation and self-efficacy (rho = .199). Overall, the results highlight the relationship between classroom environment and academic self-efficacy.
... al, 2015). Some of the most established SRL questionnaires are the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991), the Academic Self-Regulated Learning Scale (ASRLS) (Magno, 2011), and the Self-Efficacy for Learning Form (SELF) (Zimmerman, B., & Kitsantas, 2007). Subsequent studies developed novel instruments with items adapted from these established questionnaires (Roth et al., 2015). ...
Article
Big data in education offers unprecedented opportunities to support learners and advance research in the learning sciences. Analysis of observed behaviour using computational methods can uncover patterns that reflect theoretically established processes, such as those involved in self-regulated learning (SRL). This research addresses the question of how to integrate this bottom-up approach of mining behavioural patterns with the traditional top-down approach of using validated self-reporting instruments. Using process mining, we extracted interaction sequences from fine-grained behavioural traces for 3458 learners across three Massive Open Online Courses. We identified six distinct interaction sequence patterns. We matched each interaction sequence pattern with one or more theory-based SRL strategies and identified three clusters of learners. First, Comprehensive Learners, who follow the sequential structure of the course materials, which sets them up for gaining a deeper understanding of the content. Second, Targeting Learners, who strategically engage with specific course content that will help them pass the assessments. Third, Sampling Learners, who exhibit more erratic and less goal-oriented behaviour, report lower SRL, and underperform relative to both Comprehensive and Targeting Learners. Challenges that arise in the process of extracting theory-based patterns from observed behaviour are discussed, including analytic issues and limitations of available trace data from learning platforms. Link: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1W59V2f~UW0yDj
... Self-Efficacy for Learning Scale (SELF-A), (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007). This self-reporting instrument is made up of ten items that evaluate students' perceived ability to autonomously commit to learning processes such as planning, organization and memorization (for example, "When you are trying to learn details related to a concept, are you able to find a way to relate them in order to remember them?"). ...
Article
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In Argentina, when enrolling in higher education students are confronted with a series of challenges that can affect both their academic performance and psychological well-being. In addition to this, it has been shown that the highest academic dropout rate in Argentine public universities occurs during the first year of study. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the Academic Satisfaction model in a first-year university student population in Argentina, since said construct has proven to be a key contribution with regards to academic behavior (Özgüngör, 2010). 682 first-year university students participated in this study, mainly women (55.1%) and first-year students under the age of 20 (M=20.91; SD=5.39). The results supported what the original Academic Satisfaction model (Lent, 2004) proposed, demonstrating significant contributions on all paths. However, the relationship between perceived support for goal progress and outcome expectations were not replicated. In general terms, the model presented an optimal fit, showing that the proposed model adequately explains the process for forming opinions about Academic Satisfaction in the first-year university student population in Argentina.
... The large pre-to postcourse changes in self-efficacy are noteworthy because of the increasing evidence that self-efficacy beliefs are associated with achievement. Self-beliefs regarding one's writing skills have been found to play an important role in the skills of formulating and expressing ideas; this occurs in part through changes to self-regulation skills and, more specifically, setting higher standards for self-evaluation (Zimmerman and Kitsantas, 2007). From those studies reviewed by Bartimote-Aufflick and colleagues (2016) that employed causal modeling (e.g., structural equation modeling or path analysis), self-efficacy was found to have a positive indirect effect on The differences shown here are marginally significant (χ 2 = 5.97, p = 0.05). ...
Article
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Various personal dimensions of students—particularly motivation, self-efficacy beliefs, and epistemic beliefs—can change in response to teaching, affect student learning, and be conceptualized as learning dispositions. We propose that these learning dispositions serve as learning outcomes in their own right; that patterns of interrelationships among these specific learning dispositions are likely; and that differing constellations (or learning disposition profiles) may have meaningful implications for instructional practices. In this observational study, we examine changes in these learning dispositions in the context of six courses at four institutions designed to scaffold undergraduate thesis writing and promote students’ scientific reasoning in writing in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. We explore the utility of cluster analysis for generating meaningful learning disposition profiles and building a more sophisticated understanding of students as complex, multidimensional learners. For example, while students’ self-efficacy beliefs about writing and science increased across capstone writing courses on average, there was considerable variability at the level of individual students. When responses on all of the personal dimensions were analyzed jointly using cluster analysis, several distinct and meaningful learning disposition profiles emerged. We explore these profiles in this work and discuss the implications of this framework for describing developmental trajectories of students’ scientific identities.
... In the last 3 decades several questionnaires have been developed to measure the SRL strategies of students and have been used in different contexts. On the one hand, for faceto-face traditional contexts, questionnaires have been developed such as the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire-MSLQ designed to measure learning strategies and motivation (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991), the Self-Efficacy for Learning Form-SELF designed to measure learners' perceived self-effectiveness regarding the implementation of specific learning strategies (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007), the Self-Regulated Learning Scale-ASRLS designed to measure self-regulation of college students that is within the context of their learning in higher education (Magno, 2011). However, these questionnaires are not suitable for the use in online contexts to measure SRL. ...
... One of the effects or phenomena that occurs when self-regulated learning is not good is academic procreation, procrastinating behavior to do something related to academic work (Rivanda, 2019). The ability of self-regulated learning is useful in encouraging students to be more effective in the learning process (Zimmerman, 2007). Students with low ability will have difficulty in accepting subject matter so that learning outcomes are not optimal (Ambarsari, 2017). ...
... In the last 3 decades several questionnaires have been developed to measure the SRL strategies of students and have been used in different contexts. On the one hand, for faceto-face traditional contexts, questionnaires have been developed such as the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire-MSLQ designed to measure learning strategies and motivation (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991), the Self-Efficacy for Learning Form-SELF designed to measure learners' perceived self-effectiveness regarding the implementation of specific learning strategies (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007), the Self-Regulated Learning Scale-ASRLS designed to measure self-regulation of college students that is within the context of their learning in higher education (Magno, 2011). However, these questionnaires are not suitable for the use in online contexts to measure SRL. ...
Thesis
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Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have become a source of digital content anytime and anywhere. MOOCs offer quality content to millions of learners around the world, providing new opportunities for learning. However, only a fraction of those who initiate a MOOC complete it, leaving thousands of committed students without achieving their goals. Recent research suggests that one of the reasons why students find it difficult to complete a MOOC is that they have problems planning, executing, and monitoring their learning process autonomously; that is, they do not effectively self-regulate their learning (SRL). In this thesis, we will explore the possibilities that Learning Analytics (LA) offers to investigate the learning strategies that students use when self-regulate their learning in online environments such as MOOCs. Particularly, the main objective of this research is to develop instruments and methods for measuring students’ SRL strategies (cognitive, metacognitive and resource management) in MOOCs, and to analyze their relationship with students’ learning outcomes. As a methodological approach, this thesis uses mixed methods as a baseline for organizing and planning the research, combining trace-data with self-reported data to better understand SRL in MOOCs. The main contribution of the thesis is threefold. First, it proposes an instrument to measure learners’ SRL profiles in MOOCs. This instrument was validated with an exploratory and confirmatory factorial analysis with 4,627 responses collected in three MOOCs. Second, it presents a methodology based on data mining and process mining techniques to extract learners’ SRL patterns in MOOCs. The methodology was applied in three self-paced Coursera MOOCs with data from 3,458 learners where six patterns of interaction were identified. Then, this methodology was adapted and applied in an effort of replication for analyzing a synchronous edX MOOC with data from 50,776 learners where twelve patterns of interaction we identified. The third contribution is a set of empirical studies that show the relationship between SRL strategies and academic performance, using data from six self-paced MOOCs in Coursera and two synchronous MOOCs in Open edX. These empirical studies led us to identify selfreported learners’ variables (i.e., gender, prior knowledge and occupation) and selfreported SRL strategies (i.e., goal setting, strategic planning) that were identified as the most relevant to predict academic
... As a result, the teacher's task is to help them to improve their self-regulatory skills (Zimmerman, Bonner, & Kovach, 1996). Specifically, self-regulation can facilitate learners to improve their writing techniques (Zimmerman& Kitsantas, 2007). According to Graham and Harris (2005), one way to increase writers' self-regulatory skills is to provide "a writing environment or writing situations that increase the likelihood of self-regulation" (p.109). ...
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The current study aims at investigating the possible interaction of EFL teenage learners’ postcard writing performance (according to A2 level) and their self-regulated learning strategies at an English center. The research also helps to determine the level of interaction between EFL teenagers’ self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies and their postcard writing performance. Thus, it also examined the frequency of use of SRL strategies in writing among those learners. A total of 74 learners completed 32 items in the self-regulated learning strategies questionnaire including six dimensions of three categories namely environmental processes, behavioral processes, and personal processes. Then, three successful writers and three less successful writers were invited into the semi-structured interview. The findings indicated that SRL strategies had a positive impact on EFL teenage learners' postcard writing. The more SRL strategies used in writing, the higher the learners' score. Among these strategies, environmental factors may have a stronger influence than behavioral or personal factors. Specifically, environmental structuring and help-seeking strategies are most frequently used. The findings also showed that EFL teenage learners use SRL strategies to a moderate degree when given writing tasks. Besides, the results of the interview reveal that successful learners self-regulated better than less successful ones. They also self-evaluated their writing more frequently than those who are less successful. Based on the findings of this study, pedagogical implications and recommendations for further study are presented. Article visualizations: </p
... Formal research could address a number of weaknesses in the current pilot, namely the lack of control group, sample size and the disparity between the program length and post-program measurement of possible gains. More so, outcome variables could include a measures of both self-regulation (e.g., Self-Efficacy for Learning Form-A, Zimmerman and Kitsantas, 2007) and self-control (e.g., Brief Self-Control Scale, Tangney et al., 2004). Beyond this, an assessment of academic performance in relation to program adoption is necessary to provide a clear evidence base for program efficacy. ...
Article
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The impact of stressors on student wellbeing and academic performance is widely documented within the Higher Education (HE) sector, with student drop-out rates linked to poor wellbeing. Identified connections between attrition rates and the levels of support offered to students has led to concerted efforts to better support student wellbeing–particularly for those in the first year of study. The COVID-19 pandemic and the rapid and abrupt shift toward online learning has complicated how students manage stress by reducing students’ access to the very resources that might otherwise buffer them (e.g., social connection) exposing them to risk factors (e.g., isolation and greater uncertainty). Accordingly, empowering students to better self-regulate during stressful times is, more than ever, essential to supporting the transition to the adult learning environment. The development of students’ self-awareness and self-knowledge of the influences of being stressed on their engagement in study is an important adjunct to self-regulated learning. This nexus between psychology and education is a point for an interventive program that meets a gap in current support efforts, and that recognises the need for such endeavours that situate within the digital landscape of HE. In this paper we describe the groundwork of a single cohort case study that outlines a novel approach to student wellbeing. We discuss the design and development process of the SETTLE DOWN program; an evidence-based and clinically informed series of self-regulation workshops for undergraduate students, which aimed to foster student self-awareness about personal stress responses, facilitate a guided self-discovery of self-regulation techniques, and embed self-knowledge through reflection and practice. Preliminary pilot data is presented with respect to the intended purpose of assessing the suitability of the program material to achieve desired outcomes. The translation of these workshops into an online format to maximise accessibility for students and teachers is extrapolated in discussion of future-directions and next steps for the SETTLE DOWN program. The case study offers an example of the development of an evidence-based approach to ultimately support students with online availability of the necessary knowledge and skills to foster self-awareness and self-knowledge in the context of engaging in study under stress.
... Self-efficacy is a well-documented predictor of behavior. Self-efficacy is defined as the expression of personal beliefs related to their capability to succeed in a specific behavior or to learn or perform a particular task [19] effectively. Self-efficacy plays a predicting and mediating role concerning individuals' achievement, motivation, and teaching [20]. ...
Article
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Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) continues to rise at an astonishing rate. As many schools attempt to create an inclusive environment conducive for students with autism to support academic success, we must recognize the teacher's role in creating an inclusive classroom. Using a student-specific teaching self-efficacy measure might provide more useful information for supporting teachers' beliefs for teaching students with ASD. Teachers with high self-efficacy have a positive impact on student achievement. The purpose of this investigation was to develop an instrument that can be used to measure teachers’ self-efficacy for effectively working with students with ASD. The original version of the scale was translated and back-translated into Persian, followed by a pilot study. A sample (n=633) of university students was recruited. Results indicated that the scale represented a unidimensional construct with acceptable internal consistency. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated the unidimensionality of the TSE-ASD. The maximum likelihood confirmatory for the 12-item TSE-ASD model indicated excellent model fit indices (χ2/df=2.60, CFI=0.956, SRMR=0.049, PCLOSE >0.05, RMSEA=0.062, 90% CI [0.052, 0.082]). As for criterion-related validity, The Pearson correlation coefficients between (TSE-ASD score) and self-regulation (r= 0.72, p<0.01) revealed a large correlation and linear regression indicating that TSE-ASD significantly predicted self-regulation, b = 0.69, p < 0.001. Using a student-specific teaching self-efficacy measure might provide more useful information for supporting teachers' beliefs for teaching students with ASD. The findings provide evidence that TSE-ASD is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing teacher self-efficacy for teaching students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in educational settings among Persian speaking individuals.
... Selfefficacy is a well-documented predictor of behavior (Bandura, 1977). Self-efficacy is defined as the expression of personal beliefs related to their capability to succeed in a specific behavior or to learn or perform a particular task (Zimmerman and Kitsantas, 2007) effectively. Efficacy beliefs are directly associated with motivation (Bandura, 1977(Bandura, , 2015, intrinsic motivation (Ryan and Deci, 2018), and professional commitment. ...
Article
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A major challenge in educational technology integration is to engage students with different affective characteristics. Also, how technology shapes attitude and learning behavior is still lacking. Findings from educational psychology and learning sciences have gained less traction in research. The present study was conducted to examine the efficacy of a group format of an Artificial Intelligence (AI) powered writing tool for English second postgraduate students in the English academic writing context. In the present study, (N = 120) students were randomly allocated to either the equipped AI (n = 60) or non-equipped AI (NEAI). The results of the parametric test of analyzing of covariance revealed that at post-intervention, students who participated in the AI intervention group demonstrated statistically significant improvement in the scores, of the behavioral engagement (Cohen's d = .75, 95% CI [0.38, 1.12]), of the emotional engagement Cohen's d = .82, 95% CI [0.45, 1.25], of the cognitive engagement, Cohen's d = .39,95% CI [0.04, .76], of the self-efficacy for writing, Cohen's d = .54, 95% CI [0.18, 0.91], of the positive emotions Cohen's d = . 44, 95% CI [0.08, 0.80], and of the negative emotions, Cohen's d = −.98, 95% CI [−1.36, −0.60], compared with NEAI. The results suggest that AI-powered writing tools could be an efficient tool to promote learning behavior and attitudinal technology acceptance through formative feedback and assessment for non-native postgraduate students in English academic writing.
... High scores on the scale show a tendency towards more positive beliefs of self-efficacy in learning. In terms of construct validity, it is a one-dimensional scale, as indicated by its authors (Zimmerman and Kitsantas, 2007), assessed with a confirmatory factor analysis and a high index of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89) in a previous study (Casiraghi, Almeida and Boruchovitch, in press). ...
Article
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Studies emphasize the role of psychological variables as favoring knowledge acquisition and transversal competencies in Higher Education, as well as students’ performance and academic success. Among the psychological variables, self-efficacy perception, motivation to learn and learning strategies stand out. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between these variables and their impact on academic success, as assessed by the performance coefficient. The study enrolled 521 students of both sexes, of different year of study, in the three areas of knowledge. Data indicate a correlation between the studied psychological variables, which explained about 11% of the variation in academic performance, with fluctuations in this percentage explained according to the scientific area of the courses. Strong correlations were observed between self-efficacy and extrinsic motivation with academic performance, highlighting the need for new investigations about learning strategies.
... In the first stage, the literature review on self-efficacy concept and the related studies were examined. In line with this information, various national and international articles and thesis studies on the self-efficacy, self-efficacy belief and self-efficacy belief in English writing, were examined and a detailed literature review was made on the subject (McCarthy et al., 1985;Shell et al., 1989;Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994;Huang & Chang, 1996;Zimmerman, 2000;Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007;Pajares, 2003;Bandura, 2006;Tılfarlıoğlu & Cinkara, 2009;Zheng et al., 2009;Erkan & Saban, 2011;Yanar & Bümen, 2012;Bruing et al., 2013;Büyükikiz et al., 2013;Erkan, 2013;Honeck, 2013;Ho, 2016;Holmes, 2016;Setyowati, 2016;Chea & Shumow, 2017;Khosravi et al., 2017;Teng et al., 2018). In this way, a general framework was formed about the belief in English writing self-efficacy. ...
... · la Escala de Valoración del Aprendizaje Autorregulado del Estudiante -Rating Student Self-Regulated Learning: A Teacher Scale, RSSRL- (Zimmerman y Martínez, 1988): escala conformada por 12 ítems para evaluar, a partir de la conducta observable, la autorregulación de la persona alumna en el aula. · el Inventario de Autoeficacia para el Aprendizaje -Self-Efficacy for Learning Form, SELF- (Zimmerman y Kitsantas, 2007), que posee un diseño de escala tipo Likert, contiene 57 ítems y evalúa dos tipos de creencias en el alumnado, las referidas a los conocimientos sobre tres destrezas académicas (lectura, toma de apuntes y realización de exámenes) y la autoeficacia para emplear las destrezas mencionadas ante situaciones de aprendizaje desafiantes (Zimmerman et al., 2005). ...
Article
El estudio del aprendizaje autorregulado ha sido ampliamente abordado en el contexto internacional, aun así, resta profundizarlo en el entorno en el que se efectuó el presente trabajo. Efectivamente, en la República Argentina cuenta con 10 años de antigüedad aproximadamente y aún existe una laguna de conocimiento en el nivel primario y medio del sistema educativo, en los que no abundan las experiencias e investigaciones al respecto. En el presente trabajo se describe un estudio novedoso para el entorno en el que se realizó con los siguientes objetivos: describir las diferencias existentes en la autorregulación del aprendizaje en función de la pertenencia institucional y del género en alumnado de 6to año de nivel medio que asisten a 4 escuelas ubicadas en la zona norte de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina) y analizar si los perfiles de autorregulación del aprendizaje que posee el alumnado se ve afectado por las horas dedicadas al estudio. Para efectuar el trabajo de carácter cuantitativo, descriptivo, exploratorio y correlacional, se empleó una muestra integrada por 203 estudiantes, que completaron un cuestionario sociodemográfico y el Cuestionario sobre Estrategias Motivacionales y Cognitivas. A partir de los datos recolectados, se efectuaron análisis descriptivos, MANOVA, de Cluster y ANOVA que permitieron cumplir los objetivos señalados y sugerir orientaciones pedagógicas.
... Self-Efficacy Scale for Learning (SELF-L, Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007). This self-report is composed of ten items that assess students' perceived ability to engage autonomously in learning processes such as planning, organizing, and memorizing (e.g. ...
Article
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The urgent imperative to “move online”, caused by the recent Covid-19 pandemic, has led to an in-depth study of the psychological factors involved in designing successful online learning experiences. The social-cognitive model of academic satisfaction has been widely researched in conventional educational contexts in different countries. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the adequacy of this model in e-learning education contexts. The method used was path analysis, including as independent variables: social support, informational support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations and progress in goals. The results indicated that the model adjusted satisfactorily, explaining 45% of the variance in academic satisfaction. As a specific finding of this study, in an e-learning context, it can be mentioned that a greater contribution of socio-emotional support was demonstrated with respect to informational support. On the other hand, a weak contribution of outcome expectations on academic satisfaction was verified, aspect that requires furthers research and the development of specific measures for e-learning education context. In summary, the results of this research together provide preliminary evidence favorable to the social-cognitive model of academic satisfaction in virtual environments of university education.
... Regarding self-efficacy, we created items using Bandura's (2006) guidelines to assess overall confidence in solving problems correctly. Other measures of selfefficacy could have been chosen, such as the Self-Efficacy for Learning and Performance subscale of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich et al., 1991) or the Self-Efficacy for Learning Form scale (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007). Future studies could include implementing multiple measures of self-efficacy to determine which might function best in capturing differences in self-efficacy across similar tasks of different difficulty levels. ...
Article
Self-regulated learning (SRL) promotes both current and future academic achievement and must be adapted based on task demands. To develop SRL, gifted students must have opportunities to experience optimally challenging tasks. Gifted students’ past experiences (or lack thereof) with challenging tasks affects how they approach current tasks, which affects how they will approach challenges in the future. The current study used a two-stage approach to examine the extent to which Honors College students are able to adjust their SRL approaches based on task demands. Stage 1 provided baseline data on which types of Graduate Record Examination data analysis problems each student found to be difficult or easy. Then, in Stage 2, students were provided individually designed, easy and difficult problems. The students reported their SRL processes while engaging with the problems. When students were solving difficult problems, they demonstrated lower self-efficacy, lower performance evaluations, and lower effort. Furthermore, students reported using more surface level strategies when solving a difficult task, compared with their deeper strategic approach employed when engaging with the easy task. These findings suggest that, although gifted students may be aware of deeper, more effective strategies, they may not transfer these skills to difficult learning tasks. Thus, one recommendation would be to provide gifted students with more opportunities to practice building and transferring adaptive SRL processes when faced with a challenging task.
... Since then its relationship with various writing related variables like standard and level of apprehension has indicated the likelihood of selfefficacy having different forms. Most written work on self-efficacy measures, in any case, have extensively examined writing related aptitudes and skills, making them not as much as perfect for yielding information about self-efficacy for specific aspects of writing, except Zimmerman's work on self-efficacy on writing self-regulation which recognized various activities that are linked with self-regulatory capability in writing (Zimmerman and Bandura, 1994;Zimmerman and Kitsantas, 2007), hitherto, no models or measures have been produced that give unfettered information as regards self-efficacy for measuring cognitive and linguistic aspects of writing, and in addition its self-regulatory requirements. Self-efficacy is a construct that is specific in terms of domain, which implies that there can be no general purpose measurement of self-efficacy. ...
Article
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Considering the rate of graduate lack of employability skill due to lack of self-confidence, particularly in writing, and the observation that numerous Nigerian tertiary institution graduates are diminishing in writing self-efficacy, a survey of 452 Mass Communication final year undergraduates writing confidence was carried out in Lagos, SouthWestern Nigeria. The study sample was drawn from Lagos State University (LASU), University of Lagos (Unilag), Lagos State Polytechnic (LASPOTECH) and Yaba College of Technology (YABATECH) using mean and standard deviation as measurement. A total of 452 questionnaires were administered but only 405 were usable. The methodology adopted for the study is quantitative, hence. the measurement was based on a ratio scale ranging from 0-100 using a writing self-efficacy questionnaire. The respondents' self-efficacy was determined by requiring them to rate themselves from 0 (" very unconfident ") to 100 (very confident). The mean scores for their level of confidence in Local and global writing process knowledge, physical reaction and time/effort in writing are (64.07) (61.3) and (66.31) respectively with Time/Effort having the highest score. This study is unique in the sense that most previous studies were focused on undergraduates of disciplines other than mass communication perhaps because mass communication undergraduates are perceived has having no challenges in writing to their area of specialisation. However, this study has provided information and data concerning their situation as regards writing self-efficacy. The findings re-established the importance of self-efficacy in writing as a vital aspect of employability. The practical implication is that tertiary institution curriculum should be made to emphasize writing self-efficacy as well as other forms of employability skills, and there should be a paradigm shift from teacher centred learning approach to students' centred method in order to further help students develop in their writing self-efficacy and thereby get them prepared for the employment market.
... The scores on the scale were found to have a high level of internally consistent reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.96). This scale was then modified by Zimmerman and Kitsantas (2007) and applied to university students. They developed an abridged form of the scale entitled SELF-A. ...
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Background Self-confidence and self-efficacy are vital psychological constructs that can affect a student’s performance. Aims To measure the level of confidence in nursing students in managing challenging situations in clinical practice settings. Methods In order to develop the scale three focus groups were conducted: with registered nurses, third year student nurses and service users. Focus group frameworks included: challenging behaviours, managing challenging situations and preparing students to manage challenging situations. Themes in relation to challenging situations that emerged from the focus groups, in conjunction with Nursing and Midwifery Council standards and expert discussions were used to create the confidence scale. The Confidence in Managing Challenging Situations Scale consists of two parts with 21 items in total. Both parts were measured by way of a five-point Likert scale. The scale was utilised to determine the level of confidence of students both pre and post a teaching intervention. Results The confidence in managing challenging situations scale had good internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient reported of 0.86. Exploratory factor analysis was used to support the scale validation process. Conclusions The Confidence in Managing Challenging Situations Scale is a successful measure of confidence for nursing students in healthcare settings. It can be applied in alternative healthcare settings for the identification of confidence levels in those student nurses learning in care settings.
... Zimmerman and Kitsantas have demonstrated that when people are learning to cope with a new task, focusing on the process helps them obtain the means essential to achieving the goal [26]. In contrast, concentrating on the outcome diverts their attention from acquiring and practising the use of the means that are necessary to reach the objective, thus hindering the successful pursuit of the goal. ...
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Background: Most of the world’s population lives in countries in which overweight and obesity kill more people than does underweight. The weight loss process can be supported by mental simulations, which are used to help individuals to effectively strive towards various goals. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of different types of mental simulations on perseverance, resistance to distractors and the ability to inhibit irrelevant thoughts or memories in people with different body mass indexes (BMI). Methods: The study included 252 participants. They performed process simulations and outcome simulations, using instructions presented to them during the experiment. Perseverance and resistance to distractors were determined using a computer maze-solving task. Two indicators of perseverance were analysed: number of maze tasks solved and total time spent on solving the test. Mean time spent on a single task was used as a measure of resistance to distractors and the ability to inhibit irrelevant thoughts and memories. Results: The results of the analyses showed that the type of mental simulation used had an effect on the indicators of perseverance. Process simulation subjects completed more tasks and spent more time solving the test than outcome simulation subjects. A relationship was found between the subjects’ BMI and the investigated indicators. Individuals who were underweight, overweight or obese scored lower on all three indicators compared to subjects with normal BMI. In people with a BMI above normal, mental simulations increased resistance to distractors and the ability to inhibit thoughts sidetracking them from the task at hand. It is possible that increasing the resistance to distractors is responsible for the effectiveness of mental simulations in the weight loss process. Conclusion: Our results can be applied in developing interventions for people who suffer from overweight and obesity. Psychological interventions based on mental simulations can be used to assist individuals in physical activity, leading to an improvement in health, but it has to be underlined that the mechanism of their action may vary from person to person. Keywords: Mental imagery, Mental simulations, Perseverance, BMI, Obesity, Overweight, Resistance to distractors
... An online set of questionnaires was provided to gather the information of the students' perceptions and comments on SLR with ODL for the Foundation of Applied Mathematics course. The questionnaire contained a set of queries combination and modified version with reference to [42] and [43]. The questionnaire for students was generally divided into two sections. ...
Article
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Foundation of Applied Mathematics is one of the mathematics servicing courses for Diploma of Applied Science programme in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia. This course was previously taught in a physical classroom using direct confrontation. A few negative factors were found to contribute to the course’s failure rate: i) inadequate exercises, ii) poor study habit and iii) reluctance to consult the lecturer or opting to study with peers only. Due to the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, the students are forced to do independent learning at home. Ascribable to this issue, the lecturers were inspired to investigate their students’ motivation and participation in this course, which associate to their self-regulated learning (SRL). This paper presents the implementation of open and distance learning (ODL) in teaching the subject of Foundation of Applied Mathematics. The ODL was intended to promote SRL for student, thereby increasing their motivation and participation in learning activities. At present, no literature has been found study on SRL in current ODL method, mainly for this course. Online questionnaires were collected at the end of March - July 2020 academic semester to investigate students’ perceptions on ODL and its effects to Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). Descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings indicated that the level of agreement for ODL has positive contributions to the students’ SRL.
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A review of investigations published in the open national and international literature on self-efficacy associated with the performance of academic writing. Especial consideration is given to those in which standardized measuring instruments are used, for analyzing the main characteristics of such instruments and the conclusions of the corresponding studies. A theoretical-bibliographic research, whose sample consisted of 16 articles that met the inclusion criteria, was developed. The main results show that the English language predominates in the instruments, and that the studies are mainly conducted in the United States. In Latin America practically there is no research published on the subject. In addition, 62.5% of the investigations does not meet the current standards for instrument validation. In conclusion, it is required to conduct more rigorous research on the relationship between self-efficacy for the production of academic texts and the performance of students in this area, especially considering texts of highly specialized disciplines.
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Thesis
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