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Organizational culture, person-culture fit, and turnover: A replication in the health care industry

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Abstract

This study replicates an earlier study of O'Reilly, Chatman and Caldwell (1991) demonstrating that the level of congruence between an organization's culture and its new employees' value preferences is a predictor of turnover. This replication research was conducted in the health care industry in Belgium. As expected, the congruence between the values of the hospital and nursing recruits' preferred values was predictive of nurses staying with their organization 1 year after congruence was measured. The significance of this replication is discussed. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... The current study employs a stronger statistical methodology, though, by triangulating the mediation analysis. Rather than rely on a single method, we used by Baron and Kenny's (1986) Additionally, prior work shows variation in organizational culture (Banaszak-Holl et al., 2013) and job satisfaction (De Gieter and Hofmans, 2015) based on employee characteristics, as well as interaction effects of organizational and employee characteristics on turnover (O'Reilly et al., 1991;Vandenberghe, 1999). This evidence of variation suggests that Park and Kim's (2009) model may not fully capture the complexity of relationship among these variables. ...
... This finding supports prior research showing substantial variability in the concept of organizational culture and its impact on turnover (e.g. O'Reilly et al., 1991;Vandenberghe, 1999). TSA operates according to a military-like culture, which may be enforced more strongly at the metro command, and these employees may face greater workplace stressors. ...
... In contrast to the significant moderating effect of work location on job satisfaction, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and rank did not significantly moderate the mediating relationship between organizational culture, job satisfaction, and intentions to turnover. These findings are contrary to the hypothesis, as well as prior research arguing for an interaction between individual characteristics and organizational culture; however, these studies relied on samples from US accounting firms (O'Reilly et al., 1991) and Belgian health care employees (Vandenberghe, 1999) employees. Our findings may be idiosyncratic to TSA. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to advance the knowledge base by testing the hypothesis that job satisfaction mediates the relationship between perceived organizational culture and intentions to turnover, and that employee characteristics moderate this relationship. Design/methodology/approach Data were drawn from a cross-sectional online survey of employees at one Area Command of The Salvation Army in the USA ( N =250, 66.8 percent female, 26.4 percent African American). The study implemented two different techniques to incorporate methodological triangulation to test the mediation model: a three-step regression analysis and a bootstrapping technique in which direct and indirect effects are tested at once. Also, a conditional process analysis was used to test the moderated mediation model. Findings Results supported the hypothesized mediation relationship and showed that lower mean organizational culture scores were significantly associated with lower job satisfaction, and thus, higher intentions to turnover. Additionally, office location moderated the indirect effect of organizational culture on intentions to turnover through job satisfaction. Practical implications Findings highlight the variability in how organizational culture affects employees across the work environment. Interventions, which are subtly tuned to the variation in workplaces, may be the most effective at building strong and positive organizational cultures. Originality/value The current study extends prior empirical work by testing the hypothesis that employee characteristics moderate the mediating effect of organizational culture and job satisfaction on intentions to turnover. Results showed that work location moderated the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction; organizational culture had a stronger effect on job satisfaction among employees working at the administrative office compared to those in community-based centers. Findings underscore the need for leadership to create a strong culture that permeates all work sectors in order for it to be effective.
... Initially, P-O fit was developed to predict an individual's general attitudes toward a particular organization, such as organizational commitment and job satisfaction (O'Reilly et al., 1991). Over the years, however, the applications of P-O fit have been extended to predict a limited number of work behaviors including task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and turnover (Cable and DeRue, 2002;Hoffman and Woehr, 2006;Vandenberghe, 1999). Generally speaking, it seems reasonable that values-both personal and cultural-should have a meaningful impact on workplace behaviors; however, articulating the nature of this influence has been a challenge. ...
... As a result, congruence between person and organization with respect to the dominant values of a firm suggests better P-O fit than agreement with respect to values that receive less emphasis within the firm. While this approach may seem intuitively appealing, most research on P-O fit has not employed that perspective (e.g., Cable and DeRue, 2002;Cable and Judge, 1996;Hoffman and Woehr, 2006;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Vandenberghe, 1999). The two-dimensional approach of promotion focus and prevention focus with their underlying values may render research on P-O fit more effective. ...
Article
The current study provides a second step in the development of an alternative, twodimensional conceptualization of person-organization fit. This conceptualization distinguishes between two motivations known to influence the way individuals define and pursue goals—promotion focus and prevention focus. Based on empirical support, we conclude that the Organizational Culture Profile’s original seven dimensions, when used to profile individual value preferences, reflect different underlying motivations that are likely to be important in predicting specific work behaviors such as speed, creativity, attention to detail, and safety performance. Our conclusion challenges the common practice within person-organization fit research of predicting generic effects across any and all combinations of shared values between an individual and the respective organization. We suggest that partitioning P-O fit into two dimensions supported by regulatory focus theory will result in improved predictive power on specific work behaviors
... O'Reilly and colleagues labeled the factors in a way that best corresponded to the descriptions found. The authors reported in their original study an average reliability coefficient for the OCP of 0.88, whereas Vandenberghe (1999) established an average reliability of 0.86. Since then, the OCP has been revised and reduced by Cable and Judge (1996) to measure the orientations of organizational culture, but questions about the generalization of these dimensions between organizations and particular samples remain (Cable, 1999;Howard, 2000;Vandenberghe, 1999;Windsor & Ashkanasy, 1996). ...
... The authors reported in their original study an average reliability coefficient for the OCP of 0.88, whereas Vandenberghe (1999) established an average reliability of 0.86. Since then, the OCP has been revised and reduced by Cable and Judge (1996) to measure the orientations of organizational culture, but questions about the generalization of these dimensions between organizations and particular samples remain (Cable, 1999;Howard, 2000;Vandenberghe, 1999;Windsor & Ashkanasy, 1996). ...
Chapter
We will critically review and discuss some broader trends in the literature regarding measurement in organizational behavior research. Our comments will center around three core interrelated points. First, the increasing use of wearable technology and big data is opening up new avenues for measuring organizational behavior constructs. Second, we will discuss network models as one of the conceptual and statistical innovations that arose out of the big data revolution and highlight their potential impact on organizational theory and measurement. Third, greater attention to cross-cultural issues is needed in a more global working environment. All these points are linked, and bringing these various points back together, we will engage with more conceptual questions about the nature and future of organizational behavior measures.
... As for P-O cultural fit, the method presented by Adkins and Caldwell [1] was applied to calculate the fit index through the correlation between the organizational culture regarded to be desirable in the future and the current one [22,66,67]. That is, the individual culture considered desirable by individuals was regarded as reflecting the value of individuals and assumed to be the "individual's value". ...
... P-T cultural fit was calculated in the same way as P-O cultural fit. After calculating the mean values of six items in six dimensions considered desirable in the future-by applying the methods of Adkins and Caldwell-the fit index was calculated through the correlation between the future team culture and the current one [1,22,66,67]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Organizational culture and individual employees’ fit with it have been found to be important factors affecting sustainable management. However, the effects of person–team cultural fit (P-T cultural fit) has not been much studied regarding its differential effects compared to other types of person–environment fit (P-E fit). The present study examined how person–organizational cultural fit (P-O cultural fit) and P-T cultural fit have a differential impact on work attitudes and task performance and investigated the moderating role of a team leader’s supportive leadership. Using longitudinal data collected from 1539 employees, the results show that P-O cultural fit and P-T cultural fit had a significant positive relationship with organizational commitment, while P-T cultural fit also showed a significant positive relationship with team commitment and task performance. In addition, supportive leadership had significant moderating and enhancing effects on the impact of P-T cultural fit on both organizational and team commitment. As the most proximal unit of individuals’ work environment, the congruence between individual and team values plays a crucial role in improving individuals’ attitudes and task performance. Our results thus yield practical implications on the importance of team cultural management in the context of sustainable management.
... 31 Ibidem. 32 W USA OCI zastosowano do oceny związku kultury organizacyjnej z satysfakcją z pracy, a także z satysfakcją pacjentów z opieki pielęgniarskiej 34 . ...
... Parami wartości przeciwstawnych na osiach odciętych i rzędnych są: elastyczność/swoboda działania (typowa dla kultury adhokracji) i stabilność/kontrola (kultura hierarchii), a także orientacja na sprawy wewnętrzne/integracja (kultura klanu) i orientacja na pozycję w otoczeniu/zróżnicowanie (kultura rynku) 39 . Kultura organizacyjna o typie hierarchii charakteryzuje się wysokim stopniem sformalizowania, natomiast wewnętrzne kontrole 34 Kangas S., McKee C., Waddle R.: Organizational factors, nurses job satisfaction and patient satisfactions with nursing care. "J. ...
... L'engagement calculé, quant-à lui n'est pas associé à des effets psychologiques. Duchesne, (Vandenberghe, 1999) et influence notamment l'engagement affectif (Finegan, 2000 ;Stinglhamber et al., 2004). Ceci nous permet d'avancer l'hypothèse suivante : organisationnelles. ...
... Ces liens de causalité se réfèrent à une forte adhésion du salarié dans les buts et les valeurs de l'organisation qui souhaite s'investir et lui rester fidèle (Fournier, 2015). Nos résultats n'ont pas permis de valider l'hypothèse selon laquelle la congruence des valeurs individuelles et organisationnelles modère positivement l'impact négatif de l'engagement affectif sur l'intention de quitter l'organisation, contrairement aux résultats des études antérieures (Stinglhamber et al., 2004 ;Vandenberghe, 1999 ;Finegan, 2000 (Lemire, 2005). Cela ne signifie pas que la dimension affective est absente, mais c'est l'engagement calculé qui prend le dessus. ...
Article
Full-text available
L’objectif de cette recherche est d’expliquer le lien causal entre les concepts d’engagement multiple, dans sa nature normative, affective et calculée et la rétention des employés en intégrant le rôle modérateur de la congruence des valeurs individuelles et organisationnelles. Les résultats issus d’une enquête réalisée auprès de 200 salariés, confirment la significativité du lien causal étudié et révèlent que l’engagement calculé à l’égard de l’organisation constitue une dimension importante dans la rétention des salariés. Les résultats de l’analyse statistique confirment également que la congruence des valeurs individuelles et organisationnelles modère négativement l’impact de l’engagement affectif et de l’engagement calculé sur l’intention de quitter. Cet impact est en revanche amplifié lorsqu’il s’agit de l’engagement normatif. À travers cet article, nous tentons de proposer des solutions aux managers afin de les aider à améliorer la qualité des recrutements
... L'engagement calculé, quant-à lui n'est pas associé à des effets psychologiques. Duchesne, (Vandenberghe, 1999) et influence notamment l'engagement affectif (Finegan, 2000 ;Stinglhamber et al., 2004). Ceci nous permet d'avancer l'hypothèse suivante : organisationnelles. ...
... Ces liens de causalité se réfèrent à une forte adhésion du salarié dans les buts et les valeurs de l'organisation qui souhaite s'investir et lui rester fidèle (Fournier, 2015). Nos résultats n'ont pas permis de valider l'hypothèse selon laquelle la congruence des valeurs individuelles et organisationnelles modère positivement l'impact négatif de l'engagement affectif sur l'intention de quitter l'organisation, contrairement aux résultats des études antérieures (Stinglhamber et al., 2004 ;Vandenberghe, 1999 ;Finegan, 2000 (Lemire, 2005). Cela ne signifie pas que la dimension affective est absente, mais c'est l'engagement calculé qui prend le dessus. ...
... For example, strong cultures may not be easily changed to maintain a strong fit with a dynamic external environment (Chatman et al., 2014). They may also not fit well with some organizational members (i.e., resistors of the strong homogenizing influence), leading to their reduced organizational commitment (Harris and Mossholder, 1996) and increased likelihood of leaving the organization (Vandenberghe, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
As many new ventures are started by founding teams, it is these founding teams that likely engage in creating their venture’s culture. We draw on theories of cultural dynamics and the literature on team cognitive diversity to investigate the creation of a new venture’s culture. Specifically, we theorize how a founding team’s cognitive diversity impacts the team’s production of cultural information and the transmission of that information throughout the venture. Cognitive diversity directly influences the founding team’s production of cultural information by shaping the diversity of the information set and the speed of its production. Moreover, cognitive diversity can give rise to faultlines within the venture, impacting how venture members interpret cultural information. Importantly, our model suggests a complex interplay between the production and interpretation of cultural information. Understanding culture creation in new ventures is important because a new venture’s culture shapes its legitimacy and thus its access to stakeholder resources for venture emergence.
... Out of those, 278 filled questionnaires were returned; few questionnaires were incomplete and therefore rejected. The effective sample for the study came out to 255 Pharma employees from different designations across India [33]. ...
Article
Purpose: This study aims to explore the influence of organizational culture and learning orientation on the organizational identification of the employee. Organizational culture is defined through various parameters in an organization depending on various internal and external factors. This relationship between culture, learning, and identification would help organizations enhance the employees’ performance and commitment toward the same. Proposed Design/Methodology/Approach: To assess organizational culture, including all four types Clan, Adhocracy, market, and hierarchy, an organizational culture evaluation instrument by Cameron and Quinn with a 7-point Likert scale would be used. For organizational learning styles, assessment is to be done through a modified instrument of Jashapara’s 38-question questionnaire. Organizational identification consisting of positive, ambivalent, neutral, and disidentification would be evaluated by the modified questionnaire developed by Kreiner and Ash forth. The sample has been collected from employees working in the pharmaceutical sector. Findings: Hierarchy and market culture show a direct positive impact on identification, while adhocracy and clan culture show a decent negative impact. SL and DL learning styles show a minimal effect on all identification types except for Positive. Almost all the culture types impact all the identification types through learning types as a mediator variable. Practical/theoretical implications: This study would help strengthen the theory that the factors responsible for culture can be influenced by other internal factors like learning and identifying the employee in an organization. The study can then be extrapolated for its validity across various sectors of the industry. Originality: This study is an original work; it has not been submitted anywhere for publication consideration.
... However, since introducing the OCP, further studies have been conducted in different contexts or countries. Vandenberghe (1999) identified different needs in more cross-cultural analyses of the OCP. However, Sarros et al.'s (2005) study with an Australian sample did not produce the same dimensions. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the perceptions of work values among different generational groups (Boomers, Generation 386, Generation X and Millennials) in the Korean Government sector. Design/methodology/approach Using a sample of 1,084 employees working in the Korean Government sector, this study compared generational differences in work values with seven dimensions: detail, aggressiveness, team orientation, outcome orientation, people orientation, innovation and organization orientation. Findings This study found that Millennials had the most significant differences in aggression, team-orientation, innovation and organization-focus, compared to Generation 386. Millennials were less aggressive and more team-oriented and innovative than Generation 386. Millennials also put less value on the organization compared to Generation X and Generation 386, indicating that Millennials are less willing than other generations to sacrifice their individual needs for the needs of the organization. Generation X had higher values in supportiveness, fairness and respect for individuals than Generation 386. Originality/value This study adds to the current literature by empirically examining how employees’ work values are influenced by the generational differences of the workers.
... There has been some marginal evidence that culture could have an impact on turnover (e.g. San Park Vandenberghe (1999) demonstrated that the level of congruence between an organization's culture and its new employees' value preferences is a predictor of turnover. Therefore, before the pandemic, culture was an important attribute for organizations, however, was not considered among top factors impacting turnover. ...
Conference Paper
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After the COVID-19 pandemic many employers have recognized increased voluntary turnover which became known globally as the great resignation. Some countries have been experiencing this trend more than the others. This paper explores the reasons behind the great resignation, and especially the role of toxic organizational culture in the occurrence of such events. After the analysis of the available literature on turnover, great resignation and toxic culture, this paper concludes that toxic culture alone can not be the reason behind the great resignation. Further empirical research is necessary to identify the true reasons behind the great resignation.
... Bu durumda sonuçlar örgüt kültürü rekabetçi değerler modeliyle büyük ölçüde uyumluluk göstermektedir. Güçlü kültürlerin hakim olduğu örgütlerin çalışanları amaç birliği içindedirler ve örgüt içinde çalışanlar yüksek düzeyde ittifak içindedir Vandenberghe, 1999;Schulte vd., 2009). Çalışmadaki kültürel çeşitlilik sektörde hakim kültürün var olmadığını destekler niteliktedir. ...
... First, the research team created the Organizational Culture Profile, a questionnaire comprised of 54 values across seven dimensions: aggressive, detail oriented, innovative, outcome oriented, respectful, stable, and team oriented. Next, the Profile was used to identify the cultures of organizations in the accounting, consulting, health care, postal service, and transportation industries (Chatman & Jehn, 1994;O'Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991;Vandenberghe, 1999). Once identified, organizations can create profiles on their websites. ...
Book
Full-text available
A clear and concise introduction to the different approaches to studying organizational culture Joann Keyton introduces the basic elements—assumptions, values, and artifacts—of organizational culture, draws on communication and management research findings, and integrates practical applications throughout the text. The book helps students to identify and read organizational culture through different lenses, create cultural interpretations, and ultimately make informed work and employment decisions. Key Features Offers a communication perspective: The focus on communication practices and processes helps students understand how they can influence the organization culture Synthesizes the research: By bringing together research sources from across many disciplines, Keyton provides a unique analysis of the organizational culture literature Provides a multi-perspective view of organizational culture: Perspectives covered include symbolic performance, narrative reproduction, textual reproduction, management, and power and politics Concludes with a practical "Culture Toolkit": The toolkit provides quantitative and qualitative techniques for conducting analyzes of organizational culture NEW! The Second Edition examines how organizational culture is shaped by communication technology and globalization, provides more international examples, and includes a new section on mergers and acquisitions This is an ideal text for upper-division undergraduates and graduate-level courses in Organizational Communication and related courses in departments of business and management, psychology, communication studies, and sociology.
... Birey ile örgüt arasında sağlanmış bir uyum bireyleri örgütte tutacak ve örgütten ayrılmalarını engelleyecektir (Elfenbein, Angerve O'Reilly, 2007). Vandenberghe (1999) Belçika'da yaptığı çalışmada örgütüyle uyum sağladığını düşünenlerin işten ayrılma eğilimlerinin azaldığı sonucuna ulaşmıştır. Diğer taraftan birey ile örgüt arasında bir fikir birliği ve ortak görüşün olmaması çalışanları örgütten uzaklaştırmada önemli bir rol oynayacaktır. ...
Article
Full-text available
İçsel pazarlama işletmelerde sürdürülebilir ve yüksek kalitede hizmet verebilmek için çalışanların tatminin sağlanması anlamına gelirken, birey örgüt uyumu; çalışan ile örgüt arasındaki uyuma, işten ayrılma niyeti ise çalışanların işten ayrılma eğilimlerine işaret etmektedir. Çalışmanın amacı otel çalışanlarının işten ayrılma eğilimlerinin üzerinde birey örgüt uyumu algıları ve içsel pazarlama uygulamalarının etkilerini incelemektir. Araştırma Kuşadası ve çevresinde yer alan ve uluslararası müşteri portföyüne sahip otellerde görev yapan 201 otel çalışanı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. İçsel pazarlama, birey örgüt uyumu ve işten ayrılma niyeti değişkenleri için açıklayıcı faktör analizleri ve güvenirlik analizleri uygulanmış, değişkenler arası ilişkiler korelasyon analizi ile incelenmiş ve hipotez testleri için regresyon analizleri yapılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen sonuçlara göre içsel pazarlamanın birey-örgüt uyumunu pozitif ve anlamlı olarak etkilediği; içsel pazarlama ve birey örgüt uyumunun işten ayrılma niyetini negatif ve anlamlı olarak etkilediği bulunmuştur. Diğer taraftan içsel pazarlamanın işten ayrılma niyeti üzerindeki etkisinde birey örgüt uyumunun aracılık rolünün olmadığı tespit edilmiştir. İçsel pazarlama, işten ayrılma niyeti ve birey örgüt uyumu değişkenleri arasındaki ilişki ve etkileşimin otel çalışanları üzerinde saha araştırması ile ilk kez araştırılması yönüyle çalışma literatüre katkıda bulunmaktadır. While internal marketing means providing employee satisfaction in order to provide sustainable and high quality services in enterprises, person-organization fit refers to harmony between employee and organization and intention to quit indicates employees' tendency to quit. Aim of the study is to examine the effects of perceptions of hotel employees’ person-organization fit and internal marketing practices on intention to quit. The research was carried out with 201 hotel employees working in the hotels with an international customer portfolio in and around Kuşadası. Exploratory factor analyzes and reliability analyzes were applied for internal marketing, person-organization fit and intention to quit, relationships between variables were examined by correlation analysis and all hypotheses were examined with regression analysis. According to the results, internal marketing positively and significantly affects person-organization fit; internal marketing and person-organization fit negatively and significantly affect intention to quit. On the other hand, it has been determined that person-organization fit does not have a mediating role in the relationship between internal marketing and intention to quit. The study contributes to the literature by investigating the relationship and interaction between variables of internal marketing, intention to quit and person organization fit for the first time through field research on hotel employees.
... When employees positively appraise the change, they tend to comply or even actively support its implementation (Oreg et al. 2018, Wanberg & Banas 2000. If the change is assessed negatively, undesirable outcomes such as negative emotions (Oreg et al. 2018), reduced commitment, and increased turnover (Vandenberghe 1999), may occur. ...
... Organizational culture has become one of the most actively studied areas within the fields of organizational behavior and human resources management since the early 1980s (Deshpande & Webster, 1989). Vandenberghe (1999) observed the relationship between organizational culture and turnover in nurses operating in Belgian health care organizations and concluded that the new hires whose preferred values fit with the organizational culture tended to stay with the organization. Silverthorne (2004) reported the strong influences of person-organization (P-O) fit on employee job satisfaction and on organizational commitment as well as the negative impacts of these factors on turnover rates. ...
Article
Full-text available
The recent increase in new hires by Thai pharmaceutical companies due to the unstable employment within the global pharmaceutical industry has led to a rise in human resources management expenditures. Organizational culture has become a central focus of many researchers with the aim to propose strategies for maintaining employees. The present study assessed the organisational culture of a pharmaceutical company in Thailand. In addition, the congruency between the organizational culture of new hires and existing employees was investigated. The participants were 68 employees (15 new hires and 58 existing employees) of one multinational pharmaceutical company in Thailand. The findings demonstrated that the current and preferred organizational cultures of the studied pharmaceutical company were dominated by a “Clan” culture characterized by a family-like workplace, a parent-like relationship between organizational leaders and subordinates, and teamwork-focused values. Both new hires and existing employees rated “Clan” as the dominant organizational culture, which indicated organizational culture congruence between them. The present study facilitated a better understanding of the organizational culture of the Thai pharmaceutical industry. The findings contributed to the useful resources of a Thai pharmaceutical company’s organizational culture, which are necessary for the development of proper orientation programs and activities to improve the retention of new hires.
... First, the OCP instrument is considered to be one of the most reliable instruments to measure organisational culture (Sarros et al., 2005), as it provides respondents with a wide variety of options to respond on organisational culture and allows them to reflect their perceptions of an organisation's actual cultural values (Baird et al., 2007). Secondly, researchers have called for research using this instrument in different cultural settings other than the USA, where the OCP originated, to examine its structure and reliability (Sarros et al., 2005;Vandenberghe, 1999;Howard, 1998) . Finally, the focus on these six dimensions of organisational culture will enable us to gain a detailed insight into the relationship between organisational culture and CSR practices. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study aims to investigate the influence of organisational culture, specifically O’Reilly et al. ’s (1991) six dimensions of the organisational culture profile (respect for people, outcome orientation, team orientation, innovation, attention to detail and stability) on corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices and the subsequent impact of CSR practices on organisational performance from the context of an emerging economy. Design/methodology/approach The study used a survey of middle- and higher-level managers in Bangladeshi organisations to develop a seven-dimensional model of CSR practices and used structural equation modelling to analyse the developed hypotheses. Findings The findings provide evidence of the influence of the six different dimensions of organisational culture on the different dimensions of CSR practices. The findings highlight the diverse impacts (i.e. positive and negative) of CSR practices on organisational performance. The study also highlights the direct influence of organisational culture on both financial and non-financial performance. In particular, the outcome and team orientation culture are positively associated with non-financial and financial performance, respectively, while an innovative culture is negatively associated with both non-financial and financial performance. Practical implications The findings of the study provide practitioners, internal (i.e. the managers and business owners of both the local and multinational organisations) and external policy-makers, and foreign investors in an emerging economy with new insights into the role of an intra-organisational factor (i.e. organisational culture) in influencing the adoption of CSR practices and the subsequent impact of CSR practices on organisational performance. Originality/value Using the 52 guidelines of CSR practices provided by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, this study provides a unique empirical insight into the influence of organisational culture on CSR practices and the impact of CSR practices on organisational performance. The findings contribute to the limited CSR literature examining the influence of organisational culture on the adoption of CSR practices and its subsequent impact on organisational performance in an emerging economy.
... In a study by Vandenberghe (1999), Belgian nurses who perceived a close P-O fit with their organizations were found to be more likely to leave their institutions after at least one year of work (Moynihan & Pandey, 2008). Beginning from joining the organization, individual and organizational socialization practices contribute to person-organization fit. ...
... Change readiness is a "cognitive precursor to the behaviors of either resistance to, or support for, a change effort" (Armenakis et al., 1993, p. 681), and it denotes one's willingness to consider the change (Huy, 2002). Doubts or negative assessments of the personal and organizational benefits of organizational changes can lead to negative consequences, such as negative emotions (Oreg et al., 2018), reduced commitment, and increased turnover (Vandenberghe, 1999). ...
Article
Leading change is a significant element of a management career, and therefore, discussions on change management are integral to leadership and organizational behavior courses in business programs. However, given their limited work experiences with organizational transitions, most business students fail to appreciate the challenge involved in getting others to accept and implement the change. This classroom activity serves to help students better understand the concerns of change recipients when a top-down change is mandated. The assignment involves students watching an organizational change video in class, discussing in groups, identifying the different change readiness sentiments, and responding to a brief questionnaire. Students find the activity both challenging and exciting, and it gives the students an opportunity to appreciate various concerns related to change implementation. This exercise can be used with a range of courses in management curricula, both undergraduate and graduate, and in other leadership training modules.
... Values encapsulate expected research culture, professional behaviour and productivity. With aligned values, individuals adapt more effectively to their new role (Bretz and Judge 1994;Vendenberghe 1999;Yamazaki and Kayes 2004). Therefore, we use evidence of difficulties in the transition to doctoral education as an indicator of divergence in student-doctoral culture fit. ...
Article
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Understanding factors that cause students problems throughout their doctoral education is of benefit to doctoral educators striving to improve doctoral completion rates. In this paper, Baker and Pifer’s (2015, “Antecedents and Outcomes: Theories of Fit and the Study of Doctoral Education.” Studies in Higher Education 40 (2): 296–310.) multidimensional framework of student-doctoral fit is extended to create a more nuanced framework comprising student-doctoral environment fit (including the sub-dimensions: student-organisation fit, student-private environment fit and student-people fit), student-vocation fit (including the sub-dimensions: student-motivation fit and student-learning environment fit) and student-doctoral culture fit (including the subdimensions: student-learning identity fit, student-(academic)writing fit and student-personal characteristics fit). We then operationalise the framework to create a doctoral student education fit analytical framework for providing insights on the association between fit and doctoral student performance. Our analytical model provides a springboard for fieldwork to examine student-doctoral education fit and doctoral student performance.
... Dosadašnji napori istraživača pokazuju da je kongruentnost radnih vrijednosti pojedinca i organizacije pozitivno povezana s brojnim poželjnim radnim ishodima kao što su dolasci na posao, radna učinkovitost (Elfenbein i O'Reilly, 2007;Oh i sur., 2013), profit organizacije, zadovoljstvo poslom (Verquer, Beehr i Wagner, 2003;Zovko Kordić, 2012), zadovoljstvo nadređenima, zadržavanje zaposlenika u organizaciji (O'Reilly, Chatman i Caldwell, 1991) te u negativnoj vezi s nepoželjnim ishodima kao što su namjere napuštanja organizacije (De Cooman, De Gieter, Peprmans i Hermans, 2009;O'Reilly i sur., 1991), odlazak iz organizacije (Cable i Parsons, 2001;Kristof-Brown, Jansen i Colbert, 2002;Oh i sur., 2013;Vandenberghe, 1999), doživljeni stres (Kristof-Brown i Guay, 2011;Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman i Johnson, 2005), fluktuacije (O'Reilly i sur., 1991) i cinizam prema organizaciji (Kristof-Brown i Guay, 2011). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to examine the effects of congruence between personal and organizational values focused on tasks and people on organizational commitment. The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 217 participants from several middle- and large-scale organisations who completed the Organisational commitment questionnaire and the Personal and organisational values scale. The data were analysed using polynomial regression analysis. The results obtained show that affective commitment was higher when personal and organizational values focused on tasks were in congruence on higher levels. Normative commitment was higher when personal and organizational values focused on tasks were incongruent in a way that organizational values were higher than personal. Additionally, greater incongruence between personal and organizational values focused on tasks was associated with a sharper increase of normative commitment. Overall commitment was higher when personal and organizational values focused on tasks were in congruence on higher levels, when these values were incongruent in a way that organizational values were higher than personal, and when this incongruence was more pronounced. Regarding the effects of congruence between personal and organizational values focused on people the results obtained show that normative and affective commitment were higher when these values were incongruent in a way that organizational values were higher than personal.
... A kutatási kérdés szempontjából fontos a személy-szervezet illeszkedés (Vandenberghe, 1999) jelensége, amely a vállalati és munkavállalói értékek egyezőségének mértéke. A definíció szerint tehát az illeszkedés egyik fő eleme a vállalati kultúra. ...
Article
A jelen, nemzetközi és hazai szakirodalom áttekintésére épülő tanulmány a munkavállalói márkázás folyamataira, azon belül is a potenciális munkavállalókra irányuló kommunikáció és a munkavállalók által tapasztalt valóság eltéréseinek hatását vizsgálja a munkavállalók munkaadóra irányuló ajánlásaira. A vizsgálat elsősorban arra koncentrál, hogy meghatározza az egyes munkaadói értékajánlatok fontosságát az adott kérdésben, illetve azok különbségeit elemezze és értelmezze különböző kultúrkörök esetén. A tanulmány kvantitatív adatelemzési módszerrel vizsgálja az adatsokaságot Németország, az Egyesült Államok és India mintáin. Mindennek alapján több olyan további kutatási irányt jelöl ki, amelyek hozzájárulhatnak a munkavállalói márkázás hatásmechanizmusainak és a szájreklám, mint kommunikációs fogalom mélyebb megértéséhez.
... In a study by Vandenberghe (1999), Belgian nurses who perceived a close P-O fit with their organizations were found to be more likely to leave their institutions after at least one year of work (Moynihan & Pandey, 2008). Beginning from joining the organization, individual and organizational socialization practices contribute to person-organization fit. ...
Chapter
In today’s work environment, person-job fit and person-organization fit is observed to be catalyst of many outputs in achieving targets of organizations. In this study, we have investigated the effects of person-job fit and person-organization fit on work alienation. Sampling universe consists of 398 personnel employed in provincial organizations of Department of Sports Services. Within the framework of this study, a meaningful relation has been identified between person-job fit and work alienation at -,362, person-organization fit and work alienation at -,324. Regression analysis displays that person-job fit and person-organization fit has effects on work alienation (R2 =0.147). Beta coefficient of person-job fit is calculated as -,282 and person-organization fit -,171.
... Fark puanlarına alternatif olarak, bireysel ve grup profilleri arasındaki korelasyon, Q puanı olarak bilinir (Cable & Judge, 1996;O'Reilly ve diğ. 1991;Vandenberghe, 1999). Q puanı yöntemi, aynı değer maddeleri için algılanan ve tercih edilen puanları çiftli yanıtlar arasında korelasyon hesaplayarak karşılaştırır (Karakum, 2005). ...
... Our rationale for comparing teachers' conceptualizations of career success with that of employees in other occupations is based on the well-supported premise that individuals choose work environments and occupations based on their individual interests and need to achieve a satisfactory extent of person-environment (P-E) fit (i.e., "the congruence, match, or similarity between the person Teachers' career success preferences 10 and environment"; Edwards, 2008: 198). A good P-E fit is thought to be essential for an individual to stay motivated and healthy in any occupation (Edwards, 2008) and it has been found to be predictive of turnover (e.g., Vandenberghe, 1999). Although P-E preferences are highly individual, it may well be possible to identify certain occupation-specific characteristics (Da Silva Añaña & Meucci Nique, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
Societies around the globe face significant challenges triggered by several major global trends that increase the importance of education: Within many countries socioeconomic inequality is growing, today’s societies are becoming more culturally diverse, and as many facets of life are rapidly changing due to scientific and technological progress, individuals need to quickly adapt and to be prepared for life-long learning. These trends increase the societal impact of the teaching profession, among others, as education is considered crucial for the reduction of social inequality, for the societal integration of migrants, and for helping young people to prepare for life-long learning. However, teacher shortages due to attrition are a major issue in many countries. Thus, to support teachers to respond to the described challenges, the teaching profession requires special consideration on multiple levels. In particular vocational counseling, selection, training, retention, and career management of teachers gain in importance. To support these processes, it is crucial to understand what teachers desire for their careers. We contribute to the career literature in the following ways: First, we build on the theory of vocational choice to develop and test hypotheses on teachers’ conceptualizations of what a successful career means. We link this concept with the multi-dimensional Subjective Career Success scale developed by the “Cross-Cultural Collaboration on Contemporary Careers” (www.5c.careers) that allows for a broader description of career orientations. Second, we carve out the distinctive motives for choosing a career in teaching to promote the current understanding of these professionals’ career-related needs working in the DACH area. Third, we discuss what these insights practically imply for the support and development of the teaching profession at the individual, organizational and sociopolitical level.
... Dosadašnji napori istraživača pokazuju da je kongruentnost radnih vrijednosti pojedinca i organizacije pozitivno povezana s brojnim poželjnim radnim ishodima kao što su dolasci na posao, radna učinkovitost (Elfenbein i O'Reilly, 2007;Oh i sur., 2013), profit organizacije, zadovoljstvo poslom (Verquer, Beehr i Wagner, 2003;Zovko Kordić, 2012), zadovoljstvo nadređenima, zadržavanje zaposlenika u organizaciji (O'Reilly, Chatman i Caldwell, 1991) te u negativnoj vezi s nepoželjnim ishodima kao što su namjere napuštanja organizacije (De Cooman, De Gieter, Peprmans i Hermans, 2009;O'Reilly i sur., 1991), odlazak iz organizacije (Cable i Parsons, 2001;Kristof-Brown, Jansen i Colbert, 2002;Oh i sur., 2013;Vandenberghe, 1999), doživljeni stres (Kristof-Brown i Guay, 2011;Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman i Johnson, 2005), fluktuacije (O'Reilly i sur., 1991) i cinizam prema organizaciji (Kristof-Brown i Guay, 2011). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to examine the effects of congruence between personal and organizational values focused on tasks and people on organizational commitment. The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 217 participants from several middle- and large-scale organisations who completed the Organisational commitment questionnaire and the Personal and organisational values scale. The data were analysed using polynomial regression analysis. The results obtained show that affective commitment was higher when personal and organizational values focused on tasks were in congruence on higher levels. Normative commitment was higher when personal and organizational values focused on tasks were incongruent in a way that organizational values were higher than personal. Additionally, greater incongruence between personal and organizational values focused on tasks was associated with a sharper increase of normative commitment. Overall commitment was higher when personal and organizational values focused on tasks were in congruence on higher levels, when these values were incongruent in a way that organizational values were higher than personal, and when this incongruence was more pronounced. Regarding the effects of congruence between personal and organizational values focused on people the results obtained show that normative and affective commitment were higher when these values were incongruent in a way that organizational values were higher than personal. © 2018, Faculty of Arts and Sciences in Rijeka. All rights reserved.
... Zheng, Kaurand Zhi(2010) state that P-J fit is directly related to the compatibility between a person and a specific job. A substantial body of research provides evidence that the compatibility between employee needs, values and goals, and those of the organisations they work for, result in desirable outcomes from employees (Kristof, 1996;Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman, & Johnson, 2005;O'Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991;Verquer, Beehr, & Wagner, 2003;Vancouver & Schmitt, 1991;Vandenberghe, 1999). www.iiste.org ...
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The seeming mis-match between the needs, goals and aspirations of employees and what the organizations have to offer necessitated this study. The broad objective of the study was to examine the type of relationship that exists between Person Job Fit (PJF) and Employee Performance in Selected Commercial Banks in Anambra State. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of the study was 1063 and sample size was 282 determined using Krejcie and Morgan (1970) formula. Data was collected using questionnaire and was analyzed with the aid Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The hypothesis was tested at 5% level of significance. The result revealed that there is a statistically significant positive correlation existing between Needs-Supplies Fit and employee commitment (r= .964, p-value < 0.05). It was therefore concluded that how aligned and fitted the employee's needs and aspirations are to what they obtain from the organization greatly influence the commitment level of the employees. It was thus recommended that the studied organizations should not just focus on what the employees have to offer while recruiting, that they should also be concerned with the interest of the employees and that the management of the focused firms should not only evaluate the performance of the employees but from time to time also evaluate the performance of the organization in terms of how they have met the needs of the employee so as to engender loyalty and engagement. INTRODUCTION Most, if not all business entities are in it to make profit through offering services that are of value to customers or manufacturing/selling of products that customers will be willing to pay for and at the end contribute to the economic activity of the country. To actualize this lofty goal, organizations go the extra mile in making sure that the right kinds of employees are recruited. Diamond Bank Plc, Fidelity Bank Plc, First Bank Plc, Heritage Bank Ltd and Stanbic IBTC Bank Ltd which are the organizations studied in Anambra State are not different from this norm of looking for the best hands in the labour market to help actualize the dream of offering quality services to the customers. To this end, the banks go through various rigorous recruitment processes to not only recruit but also select and place the employees in the presumably right positions in the firm. When there are openings in the banks for recruitment, applicants are encouraged to apply from all disciplines provided they have the requirement in grades and are of the required age. This, the banks do seemingly without minding the needs and requirement of the employees; what the prospective employees are looking for in an organization. This results to mis-match or incongruence (Person-Job Fit) between the need of the employees and what the organization has to offer. Supporting this claim, Parsa, Tesone and Templeton (2009) posit that high rates of voluntary turnover and poor performance in organizations could be attributed to shortcomings in the recruitment process of an organization. The importance of Person-Job Fit (P-J fit) in an organization is brought to the fore when considering the fact with enough literature evidence that a match between what an employee offers to an organization in terms of skills, knowledge and abilities and what the employee needs in terms of prospect for progression and advancement, salaries, job status and enrichment, involvement and sense of belonging makes for greater employee performance. The concept of P-J fit has over the years generated numerous and varying definitions, hence has no single widely accepted connotation. But the whole assertion revolves around congruency and compatibility. How the needs and ability of the employees match what the job has to offer. Zheng, Kaurand Zhi(2010) state that P-J fit is directly related to the compatibility between a person and a specific job. A substantial body of research provides evidence that the compatibility between employee needs, values and goals, and those of the organisations they work for, result in desirable outcomes from employees (
... This category of studies only showed consistent fit effects if the correlation between P and O profiles was used as a fit index. Profile similarity was related to affective outcomes (Chatman, 1991;Christiansen, Villanova, & Mikulay, 1997;Cooper-Thomas, van Vianen, & Anderson, in press;Ostroff, 1993;O"Reilly et al., 1991) performance and absenteeism (Ryan & Schmit, 1996), and actual turnover (Vandenberghe, 1999). P and O main effects rather than fit effects were found when interaction effects were examined or polynomial regression was applied (Nyambegera, Daniels & Sparrow, 2001;Parkes, Bochner & Schneider, 2001;Van Vianen, 2000). ...
Chapter
Person–environment (P–E) fit, or the match between individuals and their environment, has been the focus of much research in the past thirty years. Few researchers have addressed the possible role of P–E fit in personnel selection. Recruiters aim to select those applicants who occupy the capacities that are necessary for the job and who fit with the organization. The latter topic has received far less attention in the selection literature than the first one. To fill this void, I will discuss the outcomes of P–E fit research in the context of personnel selection. The aim of this chapter is to explore the possible utility of including P–E fit in selection procedures.
... The conceptual formula of Bourdieu reflects that practice is generated through the interaction of habitus and field in the pursuit of capital through a hermeneutic circle: the field is constructed through capital identification, capital is constructed through the specific logic of the field (Bourdieu and Wacquant, 1992). This, in effect, constructivist epistemological assumption is in agreement with the relational logic that permeates the whole work of Bourdieu (Vandenberghe, 1999). ...
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In this paper, we examine the way in which the concepts of Bourdieu"s social practice theory are employed in the strategy as practice literature. We conduct a review of theoretical and empirical publications which involve Bourdieu" s theory in order to assess the degree in which the concepts of habitus, field and capital are used in a manner that is consistent to the initial ontological and epistemological assumptions of his theory. Research findings indicate that, although habitus is the dominant concept, its combined use with the other Bourdieu"s theoretical constructs, as a system, offers a richer explanatory framework for understanding strategy formation in complex competitive organisational environments. This review extends strategy literature by providing novel insights about the so far unexploited contribution of Bourdieu, and proposes research directions to better incorporate Bourdieu"s concepts in the strategy as practice research agenda.
... These values, beliefs, norms, and interpretations are developed through socialization and education processes [12]. The presence and importance of professional culture has been recognized by a number of authors [11,13,14]. Importantly, these authors also acknowledge that professional cultures exist within larger organizational cultures [11,15]. ...
Article
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The integration of advanced pharmacy services into community pharmacy practice is not complete. According to implementation research understanding professional culture, as a part of context, may provide insights for accelerating this process. There are three objectives in this study. The first objective of this study was to validate an adapted version of an organizational culture measure in a sample of United States’ (US) community pharmacists. The second objective was to examine potential relationships between the cultural factors identified using the validated instrument and a number of socialization and education variables. The third objective was to examine any relationships between the scores on the identified cultural factors and the provision of MTM services. This study was a cross-sectional online survey for community pharmacists in the southeastern US. The survey contained questions on socialization/education, respondents’ self-reported provision of medication therapy management (MTM) services, and the organizational culture profile (OCP). Analyses included descriptive statistics, a principle components analysis (PCA), independent samples t-test, and multivariate ordinal regression. A total of 303 surveys were completed. The PCA revealed a six-factor structure: social responsibility, innovation, people orientation, competitiveness, attention to detail, and reward orientation. Further analysis revealed significant relationships between social responsibility and years in practice, and people orientation and attention to detail and pharmacists’ training and practice setting. Significant positive relationships were observed between social responsibility, innovation, and competitiveness and the increased provision of MTM services. The significant relationships identified between the OCP factors and community pharmacist respondents’ provision of MTM services provides an important starting point for developing interventions to improve the uptake of practice change opportunities.
... O' Reilly et al. (1991) Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) is a method of measuring the culture and values at the organization level and one of the ten instruments still being used to define organizational culture (Vandenberghe, 1999 Marmenout, 2007;Fidock, Talbot, 2008;Bellou, 2010;Sarros et al., 2011;Marchand et al., 2013, etc.). Denison's (2000) Denison Organization Culture Scale (DOCS) allow organizations to monitor and evaluate organizational culture. ...
Article
Organizational culture and social responsibility are still interesting research topics for researchers and practitioners. This research covered both research fields. Based on different authors’ assessment of organizational culture instruments, the criteria were chosen, and a diagnostic instrument for the organizational culture assessment in socially responsible organizations was developed and validated. Qualitative and quantitative research was carried out to detail the methodological framework of the research, the used criteria, and the consistency of the research. For qualitative research, 44 socially responsible organizations were chosen and all information provided in the websites of organizations was evaluated. For quantitative research, three socially responsible organizations were chosen. Research results show that strong organizational culture in socially responsible organizations help to become stronger and create additional value for both employees and customers.
... As suggested by Vandenberghe (1999), the number of dimensions in transformational and transactional leadership and their correlations were examined. Two exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were conducted using a promax (oblique) rotation, since all the factors in leadership were expected to be interrelated (Hatcher 1994). ...
Article
This article furthers the integration of leadership theory with quality management theory by testing the influence of both transformational and transactional leadership on a firm's quality improvement. A survey of quality managers in the United States was conducted to measure the leadership characteristics of the firm and the firm's quality improvement. This article examines the relationship of infrastructure and core quality management practices to the levels of transformational and transactional leadership in the firm. The authors found that transformational leadership significantly affects both infrastructure and core quality management practices, while transactional leadership does not significantly affect either set of practices. However, there were significantly higher levels of both transformational and transactional leadership behavior exhibited in the successful firms compared to the unsuccessful firms. The implications of these finding for quality management theory are discussed.
... First, Chatman reported a reliability coefficient of 0.88 for 171 entry-level auditors in eight us public accounting firms (Chatman 1991). Second, Vandenberghe reported a reliability coefficient of 0.86 for 565 individuals belonging to 19 hospitals in healthcare organizations (Vandenberghe 1999). However, the ocp lacks elements commonly found in other industries such as hospitality (Enz 1988;Woods 1989). ...
Article
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As corporate learning moves out of the classroom into the hands of learners, the responsibilities of those who provide guidance in this process are changing. The overall prevalence of learning tools creates a need for competent learning leaders who make decisions about the development of the workforce. With special focus on the least used gamified learning tool, the aim of the study was to investigate the enablement of gamified learning tools determined by certain attributes of this research. A questionnaire survey had been conducted on a selected sample of 100 high-level learning leaders from 28 countries to examine if there are significant correlations between the usage of gamified learning tools and corporate learning leaders’ minds, their competences and the organizational culture profiles of companies. Results had been analysed with the SPSS statistical software package and indicated that relationships between these variables cannot be categorically proven, so no predictions can be made about the future of gamified learning based on these attributes. It is the highest time to conduct an extensive research to examine relationships between the quality of informal learning and learning tools in the ICT domain.
... Thirdly, a small sample of 24 participants in one country cannot adequately uncover the influence of nationality, ethnicity, gender, age and other demographic factors. Organizational culture and leadership have been found to produce important differences in understanding organizational life, and change (e.g., Vandenberghe, 1999) and the concept of resistance -and talk about resistance -must be seen through these lenses too (e.g., Yukl, Fu, & McDonald, 2003). It was not the intention of the current study to link demographic factors to issues to resistance to change but these may reveal important perspectives in further research. ...
Article
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Resistance to organizational change has too often been portrayed in a limited way, usually as a negative behavioural response of first-level employees. While the academic literature has identified a number of dimensions of resistance, it has not assembled them in one study. Therefore, the aims of this article are firstly to explore resistance to change as a more complex multi-dimensional concept, secondly to examine how actors at various hierarchical levels react to organizational change and thirdly how they construct the meaning of the term resistance. The findings of a qualitative study shed considerable light on the range of ways in which change participants at different levels reacted to a change and how they interpreted their own responses and those of others. © 2011, Cambridge University Press and Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management. All rights reserved.
... Mor Barak ir kt., 2001) neigiamai susijęs su ketinimais išeiti iš darbo. Asmenys, kurie patiria asmeninių ir organizacinių vertybių konfliktą, labiau linkę palikti organizaciją, o kai vertybės ir poreikių patenkinimo galimybės sutampa, liekama ilgiau (Vandenberghe, 1999). Stipriausios sąsajos rastos, vertinant darbuotojų pasitenkinimą darbu -patenkinti darbuotojai mažiau linkę keisti darbą (Bigliardi ir kt., 2005;Lum ir kt., 1998). ...
Article
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There have been radical changes in the labour market of Lithuania. Among the challenges is that many specialists are emigrating to foreign countries. With competition among local companies intensifying, head-hunting has become aggressive and as a result employers are seeking for new ways to avoid the attrition of their employees. The voluntary turnover of new employees more often is related with better offer of other organization, not with bad person–organization fit. Thus loss of such employees brings not only additional financial costs but it lessens human resource potential as well. Those, who are looking for the other opportunities to realize their career plans, usually don’t talk aloud about their intentions. As a result, managers sometimes are surprised by the decision of their employees to leave the organization. Thus indirect indicators of turnover intentions may be very helpful in management practice. The aim of the paper is to analyze how new employees’ turnover intentions and real turnover behaviour are related with organizational socialization. 85 participants fill out the questionnaires at the end of the 1st month, 73 of them participated in the repeated study at the end of the 3rd month within the organization. They were asked to evaluate their knowledge about the organization, the amount of experienced of work related anxiety, their attitudes towards the organization they work and towards their job, and the position in newcomer – seniority continuum (feeling of being real member of organization). Additionally, they were asked about their plans how long they would want to stay in the current organization. The results showed high turnover intention rates among new employees: every seventh newcomer, who filled the questionnaires at the end of 1st month, intended to work less than one year in the current organization. Turnover intention is strong predictor of actual departure from the organization: 40 per cent of employees who intended to work less than year, left the organization till the end of probationary period (3rd month). Turnover intentions are changeable: every tenth employee, who during the first survey (end of the 1st month at work) planned to work in current organization more than one year, changed their mind and left the organization till the second survey at the end of the 3rd month. The data showed that new employee some socialization factors may serve as indicator of newcomers’ turnover intentions. Those, who intent to stay in organization less than one year feel stronger anxiety (Mann Whitney z = –2.104, p = 0.035 at the end of the 1st month, z = –2.193, p = 0.028 at the end of the 3rd month) and show more negative attitude towards their job (Mann Whitney z = –2.667, p = 0.008 at the end of 1st month, z = –2.056, p = 0.040 at the end of 3rd month) comparing with those who intended to work much longer. Stronger work related anxiety (Mann Whitney z = –2.270, p = 0.023) and more negative attitudes towards the job (Mann Whitney z = –3.249, p = 0.001) are the factors which differentiate leavers from the stayers. Additionally, those, who left the organization at the end of 1st month of their work, had more technical referent, social, normative, organizational and political information. In conclusion, monitoring of newcomers‘socialization may provide useful information about employee turnover intentions, but other indirect ways predicting employee turnover should also be considered.
... Seen as the shared beliefs and values guiding the thinking and behavioral styles of members (Cooke & Rousseau, 1988), culture dictates the norms and values of a group . A strong, developed organizational culture has been shown to aid in employee satisfaction (Lund, 2003), reduced turnover (Vandenberghe, 1999), financial performance, and an overall sustained, competitive advantage (Barney, 1986) . Because strong cultures tend to attract and retain those who agree with their sets of beliefs, an organization with an established culture may become less diverse, and in doing so may foster phenomena such as group think (Brown, 1998) . ...
... Since the early eighties, the concept of organizational culture has attracted much attention from both academics and practitioners. FollowingVandenberghe (1999), " evidence has been reported that culture dimensions vary significantly across organizations, be they captured by behavioral norms and expectations, perceived practices, or organizational values. He went further to state that a meaningful way to conceptualize how culture influences the behavior of employees can be found in the tenets of the congruence perspective. ...
Article
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The Culture of an organization starts with the leadership of the organization. The culture of an organization is seen as a DNA that is not visible to the eye, but a very powerful tool that shapes what happens in an organization. Therefore, organizational culture is the personality of the organization. The main thrust of this paper examines how an organization can create, change and strengthen culture as it affects her performance. Furthermore, it examines how organizational culture dynamically creates structures and frameworks for the operations of an organization. This paper further suggests that it is central to comprehend the environmental setting of an organization in order to delineate the cultural standards, values and beliefs to implement. Employees with beliefs and values that are compatible with the organizations' culture must be recruited from the inception of an organization operation and throughout her life span. Organizations must inspire socialization and incorporation of individual employees' goals with the organizations' goals and objectives to sustain her culture. An organization's Management should implement the development of interconnecting culture through the use of unambiguous statements of single-mindedness, core values and cultural standards. Actively, top management should appraise various cultural elements, as this will help to manage and take necessary actions in strengthening culture. 1. Introduction: Cultural factors appear in every aspect of an organization from the highest level management to lowest level of management. Culture in simple terms can be referred to the underlying values, beliefs and codes of practice that makes a community what it is. The customs of society, the self-image of the members of the society, the things that make it different from other societies, are the cultural values of the society. Culture is powerfully subjective and reflects the meanings and understandings that we attribute to circumstances we find ourselves. Organizations are just one member element of a society or community where it runs its operations. People as either customers or as employees enter organizations from the surrounding community and carry along with them their cultural values with them. It is still possible for an organization to have her cultures as they possess contradictory quality of being both part of and apart from the society or community. Since the early eighties, the concept of organizational culture has attracted much attention from both academics and practitioners. Following Vandenberghe (1999), " evidence has been reported that culture dimensions vary significantly across organizations, be they captured by behavioral norms and expectations, perceived practices, or organizational values. He went further to state that a meaningful way to conceptualize how culture influences the behavior of employees can be found in the tenets of the congruence perspective. That is to that this perspective is based on the notion that employees adapt and adjust better to their work environment when the organization's characteristics match their personal orientations. The perceptions and beliefs of people that make up an organization's culture are advanced and refined by communications and interactions among people inside and outside the organization. These perceptions and beliefs can effect and can be effected by people's behaviors on such things as ways to proffer solutions to problems, how to carry out a job and how to communicate. These, in turn, affect an individual's job performance and satisfaction, and then affect an organization's performance. It has been shown that organizational culture can have a positive effect on competitive advantage, increased productivity and a firm's performance Yeung et al (1991). On an individual's level, Zamanou et al (1994) found organizational culture could affect an employee's participation and involvement. If organizational culture impacts an organizational performance, it is because the culture of that organization has impacted the employees first, which in turn impacts on the overall performance, productivity or competitive advantage of the organization. Researchers and practitioners nowadays seem to have admitted that an organization's well founded culture can contribute to its organizational performance. Definitely, it is not the only cause of its organizational performance. A well planned strategy must be implemented along with a well-developed organizational culture. The locus of this paper examines the changing organizational culture as it affects organizational performance. Furthermore, it examines how organizational culture dynamically creates structures and frameworks for the operations of an organization. 2. Theoretical Framework: The question mostly asked is that; does organizational culture affect the performances of organizations? Organizational culture is so important in some companies; in the United States individuals occupy job posts as
... The outcomes for an individual such as satisfaction depend on the match between the individual's characteristics and the organization's culture (Wallach, 1983). This means that employees can better adapt to the work environment if the organization's characteristics match their individual orientation (Vandenberghe, 1999). Berson et al. (2008) state that the supportive culture is positively correlated to employee satisfaction. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of organizational culture and leadership style on employees’ job satisfaction, organizational commitment and work motivation in the educational sector in the state of Qatar. Design/methodology/approach The study was conducted using a questionnaire with a sample size of 364 employees in the educational sector in Qatar. Data were analyzed using factor analysis, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression, were employed to examine the relationships between the variables under investigation. Findings Significant positive relationships were observed between supportive culture and job satisfaction; supportive culture and organizational commitment; participative-supportive leadership and job satisfaction; directive leadership and job satisfaction; job satisfaction and work motivation; job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Practical implications This paper would help managers and policy-makers in the education sector to develop a better understanding of organizational culture and leadership styles and their influence on employee satisfaction, commitment and motivation. Originality/value The education sector is experiencing a fast growth in Qatar due to significant outlays by the government. This study is among the first in the country to understand the variables affecting employees’ performance in education sector.
... In addition to Hofstede's work there are many studies that discuss strong and weak cultures (O'Reilly et al., 1991;Vandenberghe, 1999;Christensen and Gordon, 1999;Sathe and Davidson, 2000;Ashforth, 1985;Cyert and March, 1963;Pfeffer, 1981). Sathe and Davidson (2000) found that large long-lived companies tend to have definite personas and by extension, differing strengths of culture. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the research carried out on a conceptual approach in business improvement termed as culture driven regeneration (CDR). The research positions CDR as business improvement tool that leverages organizational learning, organization culture and corporate knowledge in implementing changes. The CDR concept is positioned half way between business process re-engineering (BPR) that thrives on radical design and process changes, and total quality management (TQM) that takes the slow and incremental approach to improvement. CDR regenerates the processes in the journey to business improvement. Design/methodology/approach A structured and a comprehensive literature review were carried out on BPR and TQM in the context of leadership, organization learning, organizational learning and corporate knowledge. The review confirmed that TQM and BPR are connected to the four areas. This connection led to the conceptualization that organizations deploy culture and corporate knowledge to drive business improvement. Organization culture and knowledge was quantified based on previous research in this area and methods applied in other research studies relating to benchmarking. There are no empirical analyses included in this paper, however knowledge and culture were given scores in illustrating the CDR concept. Findings This conceptual paper has pointed out that organization culture, knowledge, organizational learning and leadership are important components of a business improvement tool such as BPR and TQM. The CDR concept leverages those components and draws on the organization’s corporate culture to enable change. Research limitations/implications Additional empirical studies are required on various types of industries, organization cultures, organization structures and professions to establish more robust scores for knowledge and culture applied in the CDR concept. The concept could be further expanded into a framework that could be applied across a number of industries. Originality/value The CDR concept is a business improvement tool that enables organizations to leverage their existing culture in driving change. The concept is built up on the existing relationship BPR and TQM has with organization learning, organization culture, corporate knowledge and the quantification of culture and knowledge.
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The concept of values is central to psychology. Values are abstract concepts representing desirable end states or attributes that transcend specific actions and situations. Typically measured at the individual or national cultural levels, we inquire if a single human value can be as relevant in the workplace as in any other environment. We then ask if we should consider organizational values, specifically, or human values, in general, when examining organizational phenomena. Are the specific measures for organizational values needed, or should we instead focus on basic human values of individuals within the workplace in order to predict and explain variables of interest? In this chapter, we reflect on these questions by delving into a prominent theory of values, Schwartz’s (Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 25:1–65, 1992) values theory and the later refined values theory (Schwartz et al., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 103:663–688, 2012), and by exploring different values measures. We begin with a brief historical review of the development of the human values concept. This historical review is followed by a discussion on the definition of values, levels of analyses, theory, and some evidence on the measurement of values. We then present a debate on organizational values and close the chapter with propositions on how to think about organizational values and their use in the organizational context.
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Understanding how businesses think and explaining their inner world is only possible by knowing the culture of the organization and how its elements emerge, can be kept alive and changed.. Organizational culture plays a more active role in the service sector, where human resources are used intensely in production, with its guiding behavior and attitudes. The hospitality industry has a unique culture as compared to other industries. Simultaneous production and consumption in hospitality industry, in other words, the frequency of guest–employee interaction and the fact that the employees interacting with the guests play a vital role in the distribution of services makes the culture important (Huertas-Valdivia, Gallego-Burín & Lloréns-Montes, 2019: 402). In addition, it is not possible for most of the employees in the hospitality establishments to have administrative control over the moment of service delivery to the customers. At this point, the only fact that makes it possible for the management to control the employees is to ensure that they act in line with the organizational values and beliefs adopted. Therefore, good planning and management of the human element in service organizations is only possible with an appropriate organizational culture.
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A study of 157 nursing subunits located in 24 hospitals suggested that technological and environmental characteristics combined in a complex manner to influence (1) role specificity, decentralization, and adaptive processes; (2) decentralization in decision making; and (3) the extent of formalization by role definition. Results indicate that the analytical framework of contingency models must be expanded to include strategic choice and other related concepts. (61 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that the relationship between congruent specialty choice within occupations on the one hand and satisfaction on the other exceeds the relationship between congruent occupational choice and satisfaction. Altogether 324 subjects (engineers, physicians, nurses, teachers, policemen, biologists, lawyers, and psychologists) responded to appropriate within-occupation interest inventories and to a satisfaction inventory (reliabilities .87 and .91, respectively). The study is an extension and standard cross-validation of several unreported earlier studies. The hypothesis was contirmed by correlations of .41 vs .30 (p < .05). The findings are in accord with findings in the earlier studies, all of which are incorporated in the present report. Several theoretical and practical implications are discussed, including data on the specific breakdown by specialty of the eight occupations investigated.
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This article presents the development of J. L. Holland's “congruence theory” (1985, Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall) in four layers: (1) vocational interests and occupational choices as a dichotomy of fit vs nonfit, (2) level of congruence between vocational interests and occupational choices—both along an occupational structure, (3) environmental congruence, and (4) within-occupation congruence. Each of these layers is accompanied by reference to appropriate empirical evidence. A mapping sentence elaborates the inherent idea of the congruence theory. An integrative interpretation is suggested for the variance found in the numerous studies following the congruence theory.
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Holland's (Making vocational choices: A theory of careers, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973) congruency, consistency, and differentiation terms were used as independent variables to predict job satisfaction (JS) within the scope of a single occupation, rather than on the comparison between occupations. Based on the responses of 126 registered nurses on the specially designed List of Courses in Nursing (LCN) Inventory the congruence hypothesis was confirmed, while the consistency and differentiation hypotheses were only partially supported. The hypothesis on the additive relationship among congruence, consistency, and differentiation with JS was confirmed. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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La gestión por competencias constituye un modelo de participación y estímulo adaptable a la carrera profesional del profesional sanitario. Es un modelo integral de gestión de los recursos humanos que contribuye a tal fin, detectando, adquiriendo, potenciando y desarrollando las competencias que dan valor añadido a la organización y que le diferencia en su sector. Propone un estilo de dirección donde prima el factor humano, en el que cada persona debe aportar sus mejores cualidades a la organización. Extender un nuevo modelo de dirección en la organización sanitaria, sensibilizar a los lectores sobre la importancia y la repercusión de la gestión por competencias y aportar una visión global e integral conociendo las herramientas específicas de la gestión de recursos humanos por competencias, son los objetivos que nos hemos planteado. El modelo que presentamos, se viene posicionando como uno de los más adecuados para los nuevos tiempos. Se trata de una manera de lidiar con lo cotidiano, de tal manera que posibilita la formación del capital intelectual de una institución u organización. La mayoría de las empresas en general y de las organizaciones sanitarias en particular, invierten de forma muy tímida en el desarrollo de sus equipos, por motivos que varían desde la inexistencia de estrategias sistematizadas de evaluación de desempeño, hasta el desconocimiento de la importancia de la formación de un capital intelectual como factor diferencial.
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Health Services Research has a growing need for reliable and valid measures of managerial practices and organizational processes. A national study of 42 intensive care units involving over 1,700 respondents provides evidence for the reliability and validity of a comprehensive set of measures related to leadership, organizational culture, communication, coordination, problem solving-conflict management and team cohesiveness. The data also support the appropriateness of aggregating individual respondent data to the unit level. Implications for further research are discussed.
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The relationships among input uncertainty, means of coordination, and criteria of the organizational effectiveness of hospital emergency units were explored using data from 30 emergency units in six midwestern states. Input uncertainty generally was not associated with the use of various means of coordination. However, input uncertainty affected relationships between the means of coordination and the effectiveness criteria. Specifically, programmed means of coordination made a greater contribution to organizational effectiveness under conditions of low uncertainty than under conditions of high uncertainty. Conversely, nonprogrammed means of coordination made a greater contribution to organizational effectiveness when uncertainty was high than when it was low. Findings were interpreted and suggestions were advanced as to how emergency units might best solve their coordination problems under varying conditions of uncertainty.
Commitment and motivation of professionals
  • A A Mercer
Mercer, A. A. (1988). `Commitment and motivation of professionals'. In: Fottler, M. D., Hernandez, S. R. and Joiner, C. L. (Eds) Strategic Management of Human Resources in Health Services Organizations, Delmar, Albany, NY.