All content in this area was uploaded by Leanne Hinton on Oct 21, 2014
Content may be subject to copyright.
... For endangered speech communities in particular, multimedia dictionaries are an increasingly popular medium to satisfy both documentation and educational needs (De Korne et al. 2009: 141). "The rich audio-visual-interactive input" is "far better than simple text, tape, or audio" and it attempts to approximate immersion education (De Korne et al. 2009: 143;Kroskrity 2002: 190;Hinton 2001) which is considered to be the best approach to language revitalization (Grenoble and Whaley 2006). ...
... Many projects which report on the use of multimedia tools in language revitalization (Hinton 2001;Manning, Jansz, and Indurkhya 2001;Kroskrity 2002;Canger 2002;De Korne et al. 2009;Rau et al. 2009; among others) emphasize their beneficial use. However, little is said about the usability and type of the multimedia data which is integrated into the various tools which are available at the present. ...
The expansion of globalization and the demand to establish one lingua franca for international communication has brought a significant impact on the decline of local languages around the globe. This issue calls for language revitalization programs so that all the Indigenous languages can be passed on to the younger generations. This small-sample-qualitative study describes the strategies used by Indigenous language schools in the Northwest area of the United States and further elaborating on the unique elements of those strategies. Five websites covering the information on Indigenous language school programs in Kalispell, Inchelium, Spokane, Browning, and Arlee were analyzed. In general, schools emphasize the relationality between elders, community, and educational institutions to preserve the language successfully. In addition, technology was utilized to help younger generations access materials more easily. This connection was built through creating listening materials by recording and transcribing the remaining fluent speakers, recording songs and lullabies, introducing Indigenous languages through storybooks, and launching mobile-friendly language apps.
Indigenous communities, linguists, teachers, and language activists have been developing methods to revitalise endangered languages over several decades. Not only are these methods diverse, they are usually implemented in various ways according to local needs and aspirations. Language revitalisation methods focus on proficiency, but there is also interest in strengthening identity, resilience, and wellbeing. Aside from a handful of successes, programs may not be achieving desired outcomes. One could try to evaluate specific programs. However, we believe that a necessary first step is to examine published literature of revitalisation efforts to develop initial understandings of how they work. In particular, we seek to understand how revitalisation efforts tap into the speech community, how local participation affects outcomes, and how this involvement is supported and sustained by external programs, with a focus on language revitalisation efforts in Australia. We conduct a realist synthesis, and through analysis of 125 pieces of literature, we identify 13 initial theories. In analysing these theories, we identify two major gaps in our understanding of language revitalisation: how revitalisation programs work to strengthen communities and promote commitment. We propose these as significant, under-theorised elements of successful revitalisation which can guide exploration at the level of individual programs.
All official initiatives of language revitalization in the Ryukyus so far have not gone much beyond a declaration of “willingness” to maintain the Ryukyuan languages (Okinawa-ken 2006; Shimakutuba Kento I’inkai 2009). No details, concrete steps or language policy have been delineated suggesting how the endangered languages of the Ryukyu Islands should be revitalized. This chapter aims to close this gap by drawing a roadmap for Ryukyuan language revitalization. In order to ensure that it also addresses non-specialists of language planning, I keep the necessary discussions that follow as brief and non-technical as possible1. I will discuss matters relating to why language revitalization should be striven for in the first place (Section 2); how language use and functions need to be expanded (Section 3); what this implies for the language systems in question (Section 4); and what role language education will play towards this end (Section 5). These discussions are summarized in the form of a roadmap in the conclusion.
This article investigates the strategies that were adopted for the revitalisation of Tonga, an endangered, marginalised language in Zimbabwe. Using Yamamoto's (1998) nine-factor model for language revitalisation, the article analyses the strategies adopted by the marginalised Tonga ethnic group in Zimbabwe to revitalise their language. It argues that the Tonga revitalisation initiative was a success as it adopted a holistic approach which identified and addressed the critical and complex sociological, political, economic, and cultural factors that caused language shift in the first place. These strategies focused primarily on raising awareness through promoting educational programmes about the endangered language and culture and developing a strong sense of ethnic identity within the community. The creation of a bilingual/bicultural school programme, the training of native speakers as teachers, and the amendment of the national language legislation were considered vital to the success of the initiative.
There is a considerable and growing interest in Australian languages, which are now widely used on ceremonial occasions in parliaments and other national institutions, as well as at sporting events. In the educational sector, the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) offers a framework for Indigenous languages, while New South Wales now has Australian languages syllabuses which cater for all levels of schooling. However the severe lack of trained teachers and resources often means that the actual teaching of these languages is limited. Universities have a role to play in breaking this cycle, not only through their traditional and ongoing research into the maintenance and revival of Indigenous languages, but also through the increased provision of specialized teaching resources. It is proposed that these aims can best be achieved through the creation of an Australian Indigenous Languages Institute (AILI). This will offer a means of developing university courses in languages that are accessible and supportive for Indigenous people and that will provide in-depth teaching of languages and related topics such as linguistics and revival and maintenance processes. By drawing on the resources of a number of universities, it can use different modes of course delivery, including summer and winter schools, online and regular semester courses, to award tertiary qualifications to prospective teachers. AILI is based upon the premise that universities are committed to Australian Indigenous languages and are prepared to play a far greater role in sustaining them.
This article explores the Tamil language revitalisation efforts undertaken by the Myanmar-Tamils living in Yangon post-2010. The data consists of informal and semi-structured interviews as well as participant observation. Following a historical overview, this article highlights some of the strategies that members of the Myanmar-Tamil community have employed to revitalise Tamil. This article argues that the long-term sustainability of these efforts remains uncertain. Firstly, the historical discrimination faced by the Myanmar-Tamils has left behind a legacy of fear. Secondly, due to a lack of what Fishman terms ‘ideological clarifications’ within the community, agents for language revitalisation have little understanding of the competing beliefs that members of the community hold about the language, making it challenging for language revitalisation to occur. This article highlights that in persecuted minority-language communities, the success of language revitalisation efforts hinges not only on external support but also on the community’s ability to garner internal support.
In this article, we describe teaching through experimental writing workshops designed to introduce students to a way of writing that expresses Indigenous methodologies in recognizing multiple epistemic authorities. We propose an alternative configuration of the “author in the text” who comes to life in analytic texts generated with and through Indigenous methodologies. In approaching writing through a differently configured author, we propose a form of participatory ethnographic writing that encourages writers to see themselves as partially participating in the collective workings of Indigenous knowledge communities. Based on experiences from the organization of two experimental writing workshops with Indigenous studies and visual cultural studies master students at UiT (the University of Tromsø–The Arctic University of Norway), we present a template with storytelling categories for transitioning fieldwork experience into text. How to “participate with care” thus fuels the possibility of such a transition as well as resistance within Indigenous scholarship and pedagogical approaches.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.