Article

Sugar Consumption Increases Susceptibility to Allergic Airway Inflammation and Activates the Innate Immune System in the Lung

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... Surfactant protein D (SP-D), a molecule in charge of the innate immune system of the lungs, limits the sensitivity of airway inflammatory disease by interacting with cellular components [27]. Sugar damages the immune defense system of SP-D and increases the susceptibility of airway inflammation [28]. In an animal experiment, sugar-fed mice had twice as much airway inflammation as water-fed mice [28]. ...
... Sugar damages the immune defense system of SP-D and increases the susceptibility of airway inflammation [28]. In an animal experiment, sugar-fed mice had twice as much airway inflammation as water-fed mice [28]. Cigarette smoke contains high concentrations of oxidants that can cause an inflammatory response in the lung and airway [9]. ...
Article
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Some beverages and smoking cause an inflammatory response in the lungs and airways in a similar way, ultimately affecting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) occurrence. Using a nationally representative health survey database, this study investigates the individual and joint effects of consumption of different beverages and smoking on COPD. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 15,961 Korean adults in the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey of 2008–2015. COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC) <0.70. We used multiple linear and logistic regression models to examine the association of beverage consumption and smoking with an FEV1/FVC ratio and odds ratio (OR) for COPD. The mean FEV1/FVC ratio decreased with increasing soda intake (p = 0.016), coffee intake (p = 0.031), and smoking status; however, the mean FEV1/FVC ratio increased with increasing green tea intake frequency (p = 0.029). When soda intake increased to 10 times/month, the OR of having COPD increased to 1.04 times (95% CI: 1.01, 1.07). The positive joint effect of soda intake and smoking on COPD was marginally significant (p = 0.058). We found that soda intake, coffee intake, and smoking increased airflow limitation while green tea intake decreased it. In addition, soda intake and smoking had a positive joint effect on COPD in the Korean population.
... Consumption of certain foods promote inflammation and oxidative stress that over time could precipitate the development of asthma. The large amount of added sugar in SSBs may particularly induce this chain of events, as sugar consumption increases susceptibility to allergic airway inflammation and triggers the innate immune response in the lung (28) . One study revealed that mice fed a sugar-rich diet had twice as much airway inflammation as mice that consumed a control diet (28) . ...
... The large amount of added sugar in SSBs may particularly induce this chain of events, as sugar consumption increases susceptibility to allergic airway inflammation and triggers the innate immune response in the lung (28) . One study revealed that mice fed a sugar-rich diet had twice as much airway inflammation as mice that consumed a control diet (28) . It is also possible that the link between SSB consumption and asthma is moderated by excess adiposity, as SSB intake increases the risk of obesity (15) and obesity is highly correlated with asthma (29) . ...
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Objective: The prevalence of asthma is rising, presenting serious public health challenges. Recent data suggest that sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption plays a role in asthma aetiology. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether SSB consumption is linked to post-exercise airway narrowing (predictor of asthma development) across puberty. Design: Participants completed pulmonary function tests, physical activity and dietary habit questionnaires, and an exercise test to exhaustion. Setting: Community in Manhattan, Kansas, USA. Subjects: We recruited ten boys and ten girls from an original cohort of forty participants tested in our laboratory approximately 5 years prior. Participants were aged 9·7 (sd 0·9) years at baseline and 14·7 (sd 0·9) years at follow-up. Results: Pre-puberty, boys consumed 6·8 (sd 4·8) servings/week and girls consumed 6·9 (sd 3·7) servings/week, while post-puberty boys consumed 11·5 (sd 5·3) servings/week and girls consumed 7·7 (sd 4·3) servings/week. Using Pearson correlation, SSB consumption was not significantly related to post-exercise airway narrowing at pre-puberty (r=-0·35, P=0·130). In linear regression analyses, SSB consumption was significantly related to post-exercise airway narrowing post-puberty before (standardized β=-0·60, P=0·005) but not after (standardized β=-0·33, P=0·211) adjustment for confounders. Change in SSB consumption from pre- to post-puberty was significantly associated with post-exercise airway narrowing post-puberty (r=-0·61, P=0·010) and change in post-exercise airway narrowing from pre- to post-puberty (r=-0·45, P=0·048) when assessed via Pearson correlations. Conclusions: These findings suggest a possible link between SSB consumption and asthma development during maturation. Reduced SSB intake may be a possible public health avenue for blunting rising asthma prevalence.
... It was reported that "high sucrose diet weakens the immune-protective action of carbohydrate recognition molecule, surfactant protein-D (SP-D), as molecular and cellular components of the pulmonary innate immune system", and increases susceptibility to airway inflammation. [46] Moreover, beneficial effects of complex carbohydrates such as prebiotic were reported on the pulmonary immune system. [47] Prebiotics are low digestible complex carbohydrates which can have beneficial health effects on the host by affecting the composition and activity of gut microbiome. ...
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Recently emerged coronavirus, known as SARS-CoV-2 or Covid-19 is considered as a serious threat for human health. Due to unavailable specific drugs for this virus, there is an urgent need for supportive cares. Epigenetic immune boosting approaches and developing anti-inflammatory agents by gut-associated bioactive macronutrients can be plausible protective cares for COVID-19. Suitable intake of bioactive macronutrients including prebiotics, fatty acids, proteins and branched-chain amino acids may result in anti-viral responses through modulating macrophages and dendritic cells via Toll-like receptors, decreasing viral load, inactivating the enveloped viruses, increasing the anti-inflammatory metabolites and inhibiting the proliferation of microbial organisms. Bioactive macronutrients may help in promotion of immunological responses and recovery acceleration against Covid-19. This review focuses on the mechanisms of bioactive macronutrients and related clinical trials on enveloped viruses with emphasis on gut-microbiome-immune axis. Macronutrients and this axis may be conducive strategies to protect host against the viral infection.
... The higher carbohydrate intake might suggest that subjects with food insecurity or low incomes chose energy-dense foods containing large amounts of sugar and refined grains to reduce cost [40]. A high consumption of sugar is associated with allergic inflammation of the airways in mice [41]. A higher dietary n-6-to-n-3 ratio has been suggested to contribute to asthma by increasing inflammatory cells and the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 [42]. ...
Article
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Household food insecurity has been associated with noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between household food insecurity and asthma in Korean adults. Household food security statuses were classified into three groups: Food-secure household, food-insecure household without hunger, and food-insecure household with hunger. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the presence of asthma according to household food security status were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding factors. A total of 14,770 participants were included in the analysis. The prevalence of asthma was 2.6% in those with a secure food status, 3.2% in those with an insecure food status without hunger, and 7.6% in those with an insecure food status with hunger (p < 0.001). Compared with that in participants with a household food secure status, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for asthma were 1.12 (0.73–1.73) in those with a food-insecure household without hunger status and 2.44 (1.33–4.46) in those with a food-insecure household with hunger status after additionally adjusting for confounding factors. We found that household food insecurity with hunger was significantly associated with asthma prevalence in Korean adults. Implementation of household food security screening and public health intervention could be helpful to prevent and reduce asthma in adults.
... It can cause symptoms such as: coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath (Martinez et al. 2013). In 2008 a study suggested that a diet high in sugar sets the stage for inflammation in the respiratory tract which lead to the symptoms associated with asthma (Kierstein et al. 2008). ...
... It can cause symptoms such as: coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath (Martinez et al. 2013). In 2008 a study suggested that a diet high in sugar sets the stage for inflammation in the respiratory tract which lead to the symptoms associated with asthma (Kierstein et al. 2008). ...
Article
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Instructors struggle with the amount of information they are expected to teach in the limited number of hours that are available in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology laboratories and students struggle with how to learn the terminology. When a snowstorm closed our campus, labs were cancelled for five of our fourteen lab sections. The graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) decided to make an online video using our models, presenting the terms for the week. Students who missed labs due to campus closure would be able to watch it in lieu of attending lab and keep up with those whose labs had not been canceled. The video received such positive feedback from students that the next semester, the GTAs produced the “Vanessa Videos” every week and posted them online for every lab section to utilize. The videos provide additional instruction outside of regular laboratory hours so that students can practice anatomy terms whenever it is convenient for them.
... Although added sugars and certain food preservatives (e.g., sulphites, sodium benzoate) found in some SSBs have been proposed (Freedman, 1977;Steinman and Weinberg, 1986), this association remains undetermined. An animal study reported that high sugar intake was associated with allergic inflammation of airways in mice (Kierstein et al., 2008). Other studies suggested that certain food preservatives may be associated with increased asthma symptoms in humans or asthmatic individuals might be more sensitive to certain food preservatives (Freedman, 1980;Genton et al., 1985;Steinman and Weinberg, 1986;Vally et al., 2009). ...
Article
Objectives: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among U.S. adults is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. An association between SSB intake and asthma has been shown among U.S. children and Australian adults, but scant published information exists for U.S. adults. We examined associations between SSB intake and current asthma among U.S. adults, and the role of obesity in this association. Methods: We analyzed 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 146,990 adults (≥18years) from 23 states and the District of Columbia. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate associations between current asthma and frequency (none, <1 time/day, once/day, ≥2 times/day) of SSB intake (soda, fruit drink, sweet tea, and sports/energy drink). SSB intake was measured using two questions. Covariates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and smoking. Obesity, based on self-reported height and weight, was assessed as an effect modifier. Results: Overall, 9.1% of adults reported current asthma: 8.5% of adults who did not consume SSBs had current asthma vs 12.1% of adults who consumed SSBs ≥2 times/day. There was no difference in asthma prevalence with SSB intake <1 time/day (8.7%) or once/day (8.7%). Among non-obese adults, the odds of having current asthma were higher among those who consumed SSBs ≥2 times/day (aOR=1.66, 95%CI=1.39, 1.99) than non-SSB consumers. However, SSB intake frequency was not associated with asthma among obese adults. Conclusions: Frequent SSB consumption was associated with asthma among non-obese adults. Research on asthma prevention should further consider the potential adverse effects of high SSB intake among U.S. adults.
... Although added sugars and certain food preservatives (e.g., sulphites, sodium benzoate) found in some SSBs have been proposed (Freedman, 1977;Steinman and Weinberg, 1986), this association remains undetermined. An animal study reported that high sugar intake was associated with allergic inflammation of airways in mice (Kierstein et al., 2008). Other studies suggested that certain food preservatives may be associated with increased asthma symptoms in humans or asthmatic individuals might be more sensitive to certain food preservatives (Freedman, 1980;Genton et al., 1985;Steinman and Weinberg, 1986;Vally et al., 2009). ...
... after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. The association may be linked to large amounts of sugar, which increases susceptibility to allergic airway inflammation and activates the innate immune system in the lung [30]. The current study documents significantly higher consumption of nuts and dry fruits in asthma patients, which is in accordance with the results of ISAAC phase III study [11]. ...
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Introduction: The study aimed to evaluate the association between food consumption pattern and asthma in Indian population. Material and methods: 125 asthma and corresponding age and sex matched healthy controls were recruited for the purpose of a study. A self- reported food-frequency questionnaire (NNR-Dietary Pattern in Asthma Questionnaire) comprising of 80 food and drink items, belonging to 15 groups, was developed based on routine dietary habits and ISAAC phase two and phase three questionnaires. Results: There was no significant difference of gender, height, weight, BMI and socioeconomic status between asthma and control groups (p > 0.05). The consumption of fast food, salted snacks, fried snacks; nuts and dry fruits were significantly higher in asthmatics (p < 0.05). Similarly, there was a tendency to higher consumption of fats and oil, sugar and carbonated drink in asthmatics (p > 0.05). On the contrary, consumption of cereals, milk and milk products, non-vegetarian food, fruits and fruit juice tends to be higher in healthy controls, though neither of them could reach a statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Consumption of fast food, salted snacks, fried snacks, fats and oils nuts, dry fruits, carbonated drinks may be associated with asthma in India. Hence, it is imperative to reduce consumption and increase awareness of influence of fast food on asthma through public health policies.
... Many components of soft drink are likely to be involved in this pathway including sugar. In an animal study, it is found that sugar-fed mice had more than twice as much airway inflammation as the waterfed mice [26]. Studies have also shown that chemicals like phthalates from plastic bottles could be linked to obesity [27]. ...
Article
Background and aims: We aimed to examine the association between soft drink consumption and multimorbidity among adults in South Australia. Methods: Data were collected using a risk factor surveillance system between 2008 and 2013. Each month a representative random sample of South Australians are selected from the Electronic White Pages with interviews conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). We define multimorbidity as currently having two or more of nine chronic conditions: asthma, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), mental health problems, osteoporosis, and arthritis. Results: Among 36,663 participants aged over 16 years old, 10.5% reported daily soft drink consumption of more than half a litre and 28.5% had multimorbidity. Soft drink consumption was positively associated with all nine chronic diseases except osteoporosis. High levels of soft drink consumption were positively associated with multimorbidity and increased with the number of chronic diseases. In the multivariable analysis, after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, comparing those who consumed more than half a litre of soft drink per day with those not consuming soft drink, the relative risk ratios (RRRs) for multimorbidity were 1.87 (95% CI 1.61-2.17) and higher for women 2.18 (95% CI 1.78-2.66). Multimorbidity prevalence increased with age but its association with soft drink consumption was stronger in those under 60 years old. In 2008, close to one out of three participants with multimorbidity had a high level of soft drink consumption. The prevalence of high levels of soft drink consumption decreased over the five years. Conclusion: There is a positive association between consumption of soft drink and multimorbidity among adults in South Australia and this relationship is stronger in younger people. This has implications for population level strategies to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases and multimorbidity.
Article
Studies on the exposure of children to sugar sweetened beverages–SSB at an early age may contribute to better understand the common causes and the temporal order of the relationships between obesity and asthma in early childhood. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between SSB and Child Asthma Traits in the 2nd year of life, modelling direct and indirect pathways mediated by the highest BMI‐z of the child and allergic inflammation. Data from the BRISA Cohort, São Luís‐MA, Brazil (n=1,140) were obtained from the baseline and from the follow‐up performed at the 2nd year of life. The main explanatory variable was the calories from added sugars in SSBs as a percentage of the total daily energy intake. The outcome Child Asthma Traits was a latent variable deduced from four indicators: medical diagnosis of asthma, wheezing, emergency visit due to intense wheezing and medical diagnosis of rhinitis. A high percentage of daily calories from sugars added to SSBs was directly associated with higher values of Child Asthma Traits (Standardized coefficient (SC = 0.073; p = 0.030). High levels of eosinophils were also directly associated with Child Asthma Traits (SC = 0.118; p = 0.049). No mediation pathways were observed via greater BMI‐z or eosinophil counts. Therefore, early exposure of children to SSB may contribute to increased risk of childhood asthma, preceding the link between sugar consumption and overweight/obesity, not yet evident in children in the first two years of life.
Article
Rationale: Cross-sectional studies have linked intake of high fructose corn syrup sweetened beverages with asthma in school children. Objective: To examine associations of maternal prenatal and early childhood intake of sugar sweetened beverages and fructose with current asthma in mid-childhood (median 7.7years). Methods: We assessed maternal pregnancy (1st and 2nd trimester average) and child (median 3.3years) intake of sugar sweetened beverages and total fructose using food frequency questionnaires in 1068 mother-child pairs from Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort. In a multivariable analysis, we examined associations of quartiles of maternal and child sugar sweetened beverage, juice, and total fructose intake with child current asthma in mid-childhood, assessed by questionnaire as ever doctor-diagnosed asthma plus taking asthma medications or reporting wheezing in the past 12months. Results: Higher maternal pregnancy sugar sweetened beverage consumption (mean 0.6 servings/day; range 0-5) was associated with younger maternal age, non-white race/ethnicity, lower education and income, and higher pre-pregnancy BMI. Adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI and other covariates, comparing quartile 4 v. quartile 1, higher maternal pregnancy intake of sugar sweetened beverages (OR 1.70; 95%CI 1.08, 2.67) and total fructose (OR 1.58; 0.98, 2.53) were associated with greater odds of mid-childhood current asthma (prevalence=19%). Higher early childhood fructose intake (quartile 4 v. quartile 1) was also associated with mid-childhood current asthma in models adjusted for maternal sugar sweetened beverages (OR 1.79; 1.07, 2.97) and after additional adjustment for mid-childhood BMI z-score (OR 1.77; 1.06, 2.95). Conclusion: Higher sugar sweetened beverage and fructose intake during pregnancy and in early childhood may influence childhood asthma development, in part through mechanisms apart from adiposity.
Article
Research question: Can the distribution of fast food outlets be obtained and effectively used to identify if there is a relationship between the placement of these and the prevalence and severity of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema (ARE) in children and adolescents? Method: Fast food restaurant location data was obtained for seven countries. Data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was used from 53 centres in the same seven countries. Each ISAAC centre provided a detailed map of the study area. The location of restaurants and ISAAC centres were overlaid using the ArcMap software, and the number of restaurants within each ISAAC centre counted. Bivariate regression analysis was used to compare outlet density with ARE prevalence and severity. Results: The results from the analyses showed a positive (non-significant) trend on a regression plot between outlet density and ARE severity. This project has shown that it is practical to systematically obtain and map fast food outlets and compare their distribution worldwide with the prevalence and severity of diseases, in this case ARE. The devised methodology has proven to be an efficient way to obtain restaurant distribution data in a form that is manageable and suitable to compare with area based disease prevalences. This project has shown that a larger scale investigation is both feasible and warranted.
Technical Report
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L’objectif de cette revue de littérature systématique était d’identifier et d’évaluer le niveau de preuve scientifique des effets de la consommation de boissons sucrées sur la santé (obésité, diabète et mala- dies cardiovasculaires) des enfants et adolescents. L’exploration systématique de la littérature scientifique publiée a été effectuée via les plateformes PubMed/Medline, Web of Knowledge et Cinahl, complétée par une recherche manuelle des bibliographies. Les études originales d’observation (cohorte, cas-témoin) et d’intervention, qui examinaient l’effet des boissons contenant tous les types de sucres ajoutés sur la prise de poids, le surpoids et l’obésité, le diabète ainsi que les maladies cardiovasculaires, ont été recherchées. La qualité de chaque étude analysée a été évaluée au moyen du système d’évaluation en trois catégories (positive, neutre ou négative) développé par l’Academy of Nutrition and Dietetic. Trente études répondant aux critères d’inclusion ont été sélectionnées pour l’analyse: 25 études de cohortes, deux études cas-témoins et trois essais cliniques randomisés. Aucune étude traitant des boissons sucrées (exposition) en lien avec le diabète et/ou des maladies cardiovasculaires (outcome) chez les enfants et adolescents ne répondait aux critères d’inclusion. La suite de l’analyse porte donc uniquement sur l’outcome «poids». Sur les 30 études identifiées pour répondre à notre question de recherche, moins du tiers (N = 8) étaient jugées de qualité positive. La majorité des études analysées souffraient de lacunes méthodologiques importantes pouvant avoir un impact, dans un sens comme dans l’autre, sur leur conclusion. Huit études à la méthodologie robuste et au design approprié pour évaluer l’impact de la consommation de boissons sucrées sur la corpulence ont été analy- sées. Trois études ont testé directement l’effet d’une intervention visant à modifier l’exposition aux boissons sucrées et ont démontré des effets significatifs sur le BMI et la composition corporelle. Parmi les cinq études de cohortes analysées, trois ont trouvé une association significative et deux études ont obtenu des résultats significatifs dans certains sous-groupes. Parmi les études de qualité neutre ou négative, quatre problèmes méthodologiques principaux ont été relevés: 1) problème de définition des boissons sucrées, 2) problème de mesure d’exposition (mesure de l’alimentation sur une journée seulement, questionnaires imprécis, manque de précision sur la taille des por- tions), 3) choix des outcomes, 4) biais de sélection dans les études rétrospectives. A l’heure actuelle, il manque des études analysant l’effet de la consommation de boissons sucrées sur le diabète ou les maladies cardiovasculaires chez les enfants et les adolescents. Plus d’études existent sur l’impact des boissons sucrées sur la corpulence, mais la grande variabilité des designs et méthodes utilisés rend difficile l’interprétation de résultats souvent discordants. La classification des études en fonction de leur niveau de qualité méthodologique et de leur de- sign pour répondre à la question de recherche spéci- fique de ce rapport permet de mettre en évidence plus clairement l’impact négatif de la consommation de boissons sucrées sur le poids. Les causes de l’obésité sont complexes et multifactorielles. Les actions de prévention doivent évidemment intégrer cette diversité mais il est désormais clair que la consommation de boissons sucrées doit en faire partie, d’autant plus que les boissons sucrées n’apportent aucun micro ou macro nutriment essentiel au fonctionnement de l’organisme. De ce fait, une réduction ou une suppression de leur consommation n’induit aucun risque de carence alimentaire.
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the association between soft drink consumption and self-reported doctor-diagnosed asthma and COPD among adults living in South Australia. Data were collected using a risk factor surveillance system. Each month a representative random sample of South Australians were selected from the electronic White Pages and interviews were conducted using computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). Among 16 907 participants aged 16 years and older, 11.4% reported daily soft drink consumption of more than half a litre. High levels of soft drink consumption were positively associated with asthma and COPD. Overall, 13.3% of participants with asthma and 15.6% of those with COPD reported consuming more than half a litre of soft drink per day. By multivariate analysis, after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, the odds ratio (OR) for asthma was 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.58) and the OR for COPD was 1.79 (95% CI: 1.32-2.43), comparing those who consumed more than half a litre of soft drink per day with those who did not consume soft drinks. There was a positive association between consumption of soft drinks and asthma/COPD among adults living in South Australia.
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